Acholeplasma vituli sp. nov., from bovine serum and cell cultures. (1/91)Organisms isolated from commercial foetal bovine serum and from cell culture lines containing such serum supplements were found to consist of non-helical, non-motile, pleomorphic coccoid forms. One strain (FC 097-2T) cultivated directly from foetal bovine serum was selected for characterization. In ultrastructural examination, individual round cells lacked cell wall structures and cells varied in size, with a mean diameter of about 700 nm. However, variable numbers of cells were filterable through membranes of 300 nm. Optimum growth occurred between 30 and 37 degrees C. The organism fermented glucose, fructose and mannose, but did not hydrolyse arginine. The strain was insensitive to 500 U penicillin ml(-1) and was capable of growing in the absence of serum or cholesterol. The organism was serologically distinct from all 13 currently described species in the genus Acholeplasma and from other sterol-requiring species in the genus Mycoplasma, using growth inhibition, immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence tests. Strain FC 097-2T was found to have a DNA G+C composition between 37.6 +/- 1 mol% and 38.3 +/- 1 mol%. The genome size was determined to be 2095 kbp. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain FC 097-2T was compared to 16S rDNA sequences of other mollicutes in nucleotide databases. No deposited sequence was found to be identical; the closest relatives were several members of the genus Acholeplasma. On the basis of these findings and other similarities to acholeplasmas in morphology and growth, the absence of a sterol requirement for growth, and similar genomic characteristics, the organism was assigned to the genus Acholeplasma. Strain FC 097-2T is designated the type strain (ATCC 700667T) of a new species, Acholeplasma vituli. (+info)
A method for determining the utilisation of glucose by mycoplasmas. (2/91)A technique for measuring glucose utilisation by mycoplasmas, in which the disappearance of glucose is monitored by the glucose-oxidase method, is proposed as an alternative to the pH method. For maximum reliability the number of organisms in the test suspension must exceed a critical minimum value. Differences in efficiency of glucose utilisation were demonstrated between species of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. (+info)
X-ray studies on the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S with microbial lipid extracts: evidence for cubic phase formation. (3/91)We have investigated the effect of the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) on the thermotropic phase behavior of model lipid bilayer membranes generated from the total membrane lipids of Acholeplasma laidlawii B and Escherichia coli. The A. laidlawii B membrane lipids consist primarily of neutral glycolipids and anionic phospholipids, while the E. coli inner membrane lipids consist exclusively of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipids. We show that the addition of GS at a lipid-to-peptide molar ratio of 25 strongly promotes the formation of bicontinuous inverted cubic phases in both of these lipid model membranes, predominantly of space group Pn3m. In addition, the presence of GS causes a thinning of the liquid-crystalline bilayer and a reduction in the lattice spacing of the inverted cubic phase which can form in the GS-free membrane lipid extracts at sufficiently high temperatures. This latter finding implies that GS potentiates the formation of an inverted cubic phase by increasing the negative curvature stress in the host lipid bilayer. This effect may be an important aspect of the permeabilization and eventual disruption of the lipid bilayer phase of biological membranes, which appears to be the mechanism by which GS kills bacterial cells and lysis erythrocytes. (+info)
alpha-methylene ordering of acyl chains differs in glucolipids and phosphatidylglycerol from Acholeplasma laidlawii membranes: (2)H-NMR quadrupole splittings from individual lipids in mixed bilayers. (4/91)A Acholeplasma laidlawii strain A-EF22 was grown in a medium supplemented with alpha-deuterated oleic acid. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the glucolipids monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDAG), diglucosyldiacylglycerol (DGlcDAG) and monoacyldiglucosyldiacylglycerol, and the phosphoglucolipid glycerophosphoryldiglucosyldiacylglycerol (GPDGlcDAG) were purified, and the phase behaviour and molecular ordering for the individual lipids, as well as for mixtures of the lipids, were studied by (2)H-, (31)P-NMR and X-ray scattering methods. The chemical structure of all the A. laidlawii lipids, except PG, has been determined and verified previously; here also the chemical structure of PG was verified, utilising mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C high resolution NMR spectroscopy. For the first time, lipid dimers were found in the mass spectrometry measurements. The major findings in this work are: (1) addition of 50 mol% of PG to the non-lamellar-forming lipid MGlcDAG does not significantly alter the transition temperature between lamellar and non-lamellar phases; (2) the (2)H-NMR quadrupole splitting patterns obtained from the lamellar liquid crystalline phase are markedly different for PG on one hand, and DGlcDAG and GPDGlcDAG on the other hand; and (3) mixtures of PG and DGlcDAG or MGlcDAG give rise to (2)H-NMR spectra consisting of a superposition of splitting patterns of the individual lipids. These remarkable features show that the local ordering of the alpha-carbon of the acyl chains is different for PG than for MGlcDAG and DGlcDAG, and that this difference is preserved when PG is mixed with the glucolipids. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of differences in molecular shape and hydrophilicity of the different polar headgroups. (+info)
Microcalorimetric detection of growth of Mycoplasmatales. (5/91)A static ampoule microcalorimeter was used to study the growth of mycoplasmas, acholeplasmas and ureaplasmas. Growth as indicated by thermograms was compared with the results of conventional methods, namely, terminal dilution counts, plate counts, turbidimetric measurements, glucose consumption and pH changes. Removal of oxygen had little effect on mycoplasma growth. The microcalorimetric method is potentially useful for identifying and enumerating the members of the Mycoplasmatales. (+info)
The recovery of Mycoplasmas from the genital tracts of bulls in artificial breeding units in Ontario. (6/91)One hundred and thirty-two penial-preputial swabbings, 140 raw and 42 processed semen samples were cultured for mycoplasmas. Mycoplasma or acholeplasma were recovered from 87, 32 and one respectively, while ureaplasmas were recovered from 46, 34 and six respectively. (+info)
Nisin resistance distinguishes Mycoplasma spp. from Acholeplasma spp. and provides a basis for selective growth media. (7/91)The sensitivity of 11 Mycoplasma and 5 Acholeplasma species to the bacteriocin nisin was determined. When applied on filter paper discs to lawns of acholeplasma cells, nisin (20 nmol per disc) gave 3.5- to 7.0-mm zones of growth inhibition. The inclusion of 0.2 mM nisin in agar medium reduced the number of Acholeplasma laidlawii colonies by a factor of more than 10(6), and in a salts solution, 75 microM nisin killed more than 99.9% of cells within 1 min. Under similar conditions, nisin had no significant effect upon the growth or survival of Mycoplasma species. At low concentrations (1 to 3 microM), nisin stimulated glucose oxidation by A. laidlawii and Acholeplasma oculi. However, in comparison with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a recognized protonophore and uncoupler of respiration, the maximum extent of stimulation was low, < or = 20%, compared with up to 180% for CCCP. Also, in contrast to results obtained with CCCP, at concentrations only slightly above those causing stimulation of acholeplasma oxygen uptake, nisin strongly inhibited respiration. Inhibition of oxygen uptake was greater for A. laidlawii cells grown in the absence of cholesterol, and on agar medium, growth inhibition by nisin decreased with increasing concentrations of cholesterol. Nisin resistance may be a valuable characteristic in the selection and identification of Mycoplasma spp. (+info)
Distribution and composition of lipopolysaccharides from mycoplasmas. (8/91)Polymeric carbohydrates containing glycerol and fatty acids were isolated from whole cells and membranes of mycoplasmas by hot aqueous phenol extraction and gel filtration. Lipopolysaccharides were found to occur in four species of Acholeplasma, two of Anaeroplasma, and in Mycoplasma neurolyticum. None were detected in Spiroplasma citri or in five species of Mycoplasma. All lipopolysaccharides contained both neutral and N-acylated amino sugars in ratios varying from 1:1 to 3:1. The neutral sugars found in varying distribution were glucose, galactose, and mannose. The amino sugars included fucosamine, an unidentified deoxyhexosamine, galactosamine, and glucosamine. Fucosamine and glucose were the only sugars common to all lipopolysaccharides. The fatty acids were similar to those found in the lipids of each organism. (+info)
Acholeplasma is a genus of bacteria that are characterized by their lack of a cell wall and their ability to grow in the absence of cholesterol, which is required for the growth of related genera such as Mycoplasma. These organisms are commonly found in various environments, including water, soil, and animals, and can cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals.
Acholeplasma species are small, pleomorphic bacteria that lack a cell wall and therefore do not stain with Gram's stain. They are typically spherical or coccoid in shape, but can also appear as rods or filaments. These organisms are resistant to many antibiotics due to their lack of a cell wall and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer.
In humans, Acholeplasma species have been associated with respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, these organisms are often considered to be commensals or colonizers rather than true pathogens, as they can also be found in healthy individuals without causing any symptoms.
Overall, Acholeplasma species are important bacteria that can cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals, but their role in health and disease is still not fully understood.
*Acholeplasma laidlawii* is a species of bacteria that belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is a wall-less, pleomorphic organism that can exist in various shapes such as coccoid, rod-like, or filamentous. This bacterium is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and plants, and can also be part of the normal microbiota of animals, including humans.
*Acholeplasma laidlawii* is an obligate parasite, meaning it requires a host to survive and reproduce. It is typically associated with causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals or as a contaminant in laboratory settings. This bacterium can be difficult to culture and identify due to its small size and lack of a cell wall.
It's worth noting that *Acholeplasma laidlawii* is not considered a significant human pathogen, and infections caused by this organism are rare and usually mild. However, it has been used as a model organism in various research studies, including those investigating the mechanisms of bacterial cell division, membrane composition, and interactions with host cells.
Mycoplasma: A type of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest organisms capable of self-replication. They can cause various infections in humans, animals, and plants. In humans, they are associated with respiratory tract infections (such as pneumonia), urogenital infections (like pelvic inflammatory disease), and some sexually transmitted diseases. Mycoplasma species are also known to contaminate cell cultures and can interfere with research experiments. Due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, they are resistant to many common antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.
Mycoplasmatales is an order of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size and simple genome. They are commonly found in various environments, including the human body, where they can be part of the normal flora or associated with diseases. The order Mycoplasmatales contains several genera, including Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Acholeplasma, among others. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, they can be resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases.
Tenericutes is a taxonomic class of bacteria that lack a cell wall and have a reduced genome. They were previously classified as a subphylum within the phylum Firmicutes but are now considered a separate phylum. The most well-known member of this group is the genus Mycoplasma, which includes several species that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.
Mycoplasmas are known for their small size, simple structure, and ability to exist as parasites or commensals in various host organisms. They lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to many antibiotics that target the cell wall synthesis of other bacteria. Mycoplasma species can cause a variety of diseases, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted infections in humans. In animals, they can cause pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis, among other conditions.
It's worth noting that the classification of Tenericutes has been debated, as some researchers argue that they should be considered a group of wall-less bacteria rather than a distinct phylum. Nonetheless, Tenericutes remains a widely recognized and studied taxonomic class in bacteriology.
Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, helical-shaped bacteria belonging to the class Mollicutes. These microorganisms lack a cell wall and have a unique method of movement through a characteristic corkscrew-like motion. Spiroplasmas are primarily known as insect symbionts, often living within the cells of their hosts without causing apparent disease. However, some species can be pathogenic to insects, plants, and even animals, including humans. They are transmitted through insect vectors or via plant sap.
In medical contexts, Spiroplasma spp. have been associated with certain animal diseases, such as citrus stubborn disease in plants and bruscellosis-like syndrome in sheep and goats. In humans, there is some evidence suggesting that Spiroplasma may be involved in the development of arthritis, although more research is needed to establish a definitive link.
To diagnose Spiroplasma infections, specific molecular techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or serological methods like ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) are typically employed. Treatment options for Spiroplasma infections are limited due to their atypical cell structure and resistance to many antibiotics, but tetracyclines have shown some efficacy in treating these infections.
Entomoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria that are part of the order Entomobacterales. These bacteria are characterized by their small size, lack of a cell wall, and unique method of reproduction called budding. They are often associated with insects and other arthropods, and some species can cause diseases in these animals. However, they are not typically harmful to humans.
Members of Entomoplasmataceae are gram-negative, meaning that they do not retain the crystal violet stain used in Gram staining, which is a method used to distinguish between different types of bacteria based on their cell wall composition. They are also facultatively anaerobic, which means that they can grow with or without oxygen.
Some notable genera within Entomoplasmataceae include Entomoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Spiroplasma. These bacteria have been found to inhabit a variety of insects, including bees, flies, and ticks, as well as other arthropods such as crustaceans and mites. Some species are able to manipulate the reproductive systems of their hosts, causing phenomena such as parthenogenesis (the development of offspring from unfertilized eggs) and feminization of males.
While Entomoplasmataceae members are not typically pathogenic in humans, they have been found to cause diseases in animals. For example, some species of Entomoplasma can cause parasitic infections in insects, while others can cause respiratory or reproductive diseases in livestock such as sheep and goats. Spiroplasma species have been associated with diseases in bees, including the devastating phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder (CCD), which has caused significant declines in honeybee populations worldwide.
Overall, Entomoplasmataceae is a fascinating family of bacteria that play important roles in the ecology and evolution of insects and other arthropods. While they are not typically harmful to humans, their unique biology and association with disease-causing species make them an important area of study for both medical and veterinary researchers.
Ureaplasma is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the lower reproductive tract of humans. They belong to the family Mycoplasmataceae and are characterized by their small size and lack of a cell wall. Ureaplasmas are unique because they have the ability to metabolize urea, which they use as a source of energy for growth.
There are several species of Ureaplasma that can infect humans, including Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. These bacteria can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying respiratory or genitourinary tract disorders.
Infections caused by Ureaplasma are often asymptomatic but can lead to complications such as urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and pneumonia. In newborns, Ureaplasma infections have been associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disorder that can lead to long-term respiratory problems.
Diagnosis of Ureaplasma infections typically involves the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics such as macrolides or fluoroquinolones, which are effective against these bacteria.
Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.
There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.
Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.
Membrane lipids are the main component of biological membranes, forming a lipid bilayer in which various cellular processes take place. These lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type, consisting of a hydrophilic head (containing a phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (composed of fatty acid chains). Glycolipids contain a sugar group attached to the lipid molecule. Cholesterol helps regulate membrane fluidity and permeability. Together, these lipids create a selectively permeable barrier that separates cells from their environment and organelles within cells.
Methyl Green is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in various medical and laboratory contexts. Here's the general definition:
Methyl Green is a basic dye, which is a type of organic compound with positively charged ions (cations). It is commonly used as a biological stain to selectively color certain structures in cells or tissues, such as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), during microscopic examination.
In the medical field, Methyl Green has been used as a component of some topical ointments for treating superficial bacterial infections. However, its use is not widespread due to the availability of more effective antibiotics.
It's important to note that Methyl Green should not be confused with Methylene Blue, another basic dye that has broader medical applications, such as treating methemoglobinemia and used as a marker in some diagnostic tests.
Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.
Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.
Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.
"Mycoplasma mycoides" is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size. They are part of the class Mollicutes and are known to cause various diseases in animals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, goats, and sheep. The most well-known disease caused by M. mycoides is contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe and highly contagious respiratory disease in cattle that can lead to pneumonia, pleurisy, and death.
M. mycoides has been the subject of scientific research due to its small genome size and minimal genetic requirements for growth and survival. In fact, it was the first species of Mycoplasma to have its genome fully sequenced, and it has been used as a model organism in synthetic biology studies.
It's important to note that M. mycoides is not known to cause disease in humans. However, other species of Mycoplasma can cause respiratory and urogenital infections in humans.
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- Acholeplasma laidlawii is a common contaminant of cell culture media products, and has also been used in extensive studies of lipid polymorphism because this organism alters its ratio of MGlcDG (monoglucosyl diacylglycerol) to DGlcDG (diglucosyl diacylglycerol) in response to growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Acholeplasma laidlawii. (lookformedical.com)
- Furthermore, production of intracellular membrane vesicles in Escherichia coli can be triggered by expression of Acholeplasma laidlawii lipid glycosyltransferases [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Presence of protein constituents of the gram-positive bacterial phosphotransferase regulatory system in Acholeplasma laidlawii. (ucsd.edu)
- The Acholeplasma Laidlawii Na 2 +Mg 2 -ATPase (R.N. McElhaney). (elsevier.com)
- Extracellular membrane vesicles secreted by mycoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8 are enriched in virulence proteins. (appmicro.org)
- We produced the mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and rabbit antibodies against Mycoplasma arginini, M. hyorhinis, M. orale and Acholeplasma laidlawii. (jejunu.ac.kr)
- ACET Acetohalobium arabaticum Aara Acetohalobium arabaticum DSM 5501 Aara_A Acetonema longum Alon Acholeplasma laidlawii Alai Acholeplasma laidlawii PG-8A Alai_A Acholeplasma modicum Amod Acholeplasma oculi Aocu Acholeplasma vituli Avit1 Achromatium minus Amin Achromatium oxaliferum Aoxa Achromobacter piechaudii Apie Achromobacter piechaudii ATCC 43553 Apie_A Achromobacter ruhlandii Aruh Achromobacter sp. (uni-freiburg.de)
- Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma are genera that comprise more than 100 recognized species in the class Mollicutes, which are bacteria that lack a cell wall. (invivogen.com)
- MycoStrip™ has been specifically designed to detect the Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species that most commonly contaminate cell culture. (invivogen.com)
- skin) in order Mycoplasmatales, only Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Acholeplasma kinds can be isolated in humans. (medical-actu.com)
- Environmental contaminant organisms in the Acholeplasma genus will also form red colonies on this media and are likely to be indistinguishable from pathogenic Mycoplasma . (udderhealth.com)
- The XpressMyco qPCR Mycoplasma Detection Kit is designed for the direct detection of Mollicutes, such as Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Sprioplasma in cell culture media and other biological matrices. (xpressbioeurope.com)
- Acholeplasma are wall-less bacteria in the Mollicutes class. (wikipedia.org)
- The family Acholeplasmataceae was originally established to accommodate the genus Acholeplasma, comprising the mollicutes that could be cultivated without the supplement of cholesterol and that use UGA as a stop codon instead of coding for tryptophan. (usda.gov)
- It was later shown that the phytoplasmas, a large group of uncultivable, wall less, non helical mollicutes that are associated with plants and insects, shared taxonomically relevant properties with members of the genus Acholeplasma. (usda.gov)
- Although phytoplasmas are associated with habitats and ecology different from acholepalsmas, the two genera Acholeplasma and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' are phylogenetically related and form a distinct clade within the Mollicutes. (usda.gov)
- Accession numbers are specified within the tree and Acholeplasma oculi was used as outgroup. (bookrackpublishers.com)
- nov., a novel anaerobic marine mollicute, and proposal of three novel genera to reclassify members of Acholeplasma clusters II-IV. (akita-pu.ac.jp)
- The genomes of Acholeplasma species range in size from 1.5 to 1.65 Mbp. (wikipedia.org)
- In this book chapter we described 36 proposed phytoplasma species and 14 acholeplasma species and the diseases they cause. (usda.gov)
- The genus Acholeplasma comprises 14 species predominantly associated with animals and isolated from mammalian fluids but regarded as not normally pathogenic. (usda.gov)
- The other important classes of ATPase in eukaryotic systems are the vacuolar H+ -ATPases and the F0F1 ATP synthase, and, in bacteria, the anion-translocating ATPases, responsible for resistance to arsenicals and antimonials, and the (Na+ -Mg2+) -ATPase of Acholeplasma. (elsevier.com)
- Duplex Mycoplasma qPCR Kit is a ready-to-use system for thequantitative detection of Mollicutes (Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Ureaplasma) DNA in cell cultures, animal tissue samples and other biological matrices. (eurx.com.pl)
- MycoStrip™ has been specifically designed to detect the Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species that most commonly contaminate cell culture. (nbsbioscience.cn)
- All Mollicutes ( Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma ) species so far described as contaminants of cell cultures and media components are specifically detected by amplifying a highly conserved rRNA operon, or more specifically, the 16S rRNA coding region in the mycoplasma genome. (minervabiolabs.us)
- Applicable in research and industry for the direct detection of Mollicutes ( Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma ) contaminations in cell cultures and biopharmaceuticals. (minervabiolabs.us)
- Acholeplasma brassicae Tully et al. (uibk.ac.at)
- Analysis of the completely determined genomes of the plant-derived Acholeplasma brassicae strain O502 and A. palmae strain J233 revealed that the circular chromosomes are 1,877,792 and 1,554,229 bp in size, have a G + C content of 36 and 29%, and encode 1,690 and 1,439 proteins, respectively. (inrae.fr)
- The acholeplasma genomes are characterized by a low number of rearrangements, duplication and integration events. (inrae.fr)
- In contrast to phytoplasmas, the acholeplasma genomes differ by encoding the cell division protein FtsZ, a wide variety of ABC transporters, the F0F1 ATP synthase, the Rnf-complex, SecG of the Sec-dependent secretion system, a richly equipped repertoire for carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid, isoprenoid and partial amino acid metabolism. (inrae.fr)