A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.

A retrospective study of the usefulness of acid secretory testing. (1/79)

BACKGROUND: Gastric analysis is useful for diagnosing and monitoring the control of hypersecretory conditions and to distinguish appropriate from inappropriate causes of hypergastrinaemia. Pentagastrin, used to measure maximal acid output (MAO), is no longer available in the USA. METHODS: We examined the University of Pennsylvania Health System gastric analysis database, which includes demographic data, study indications, gastric analysis, and serum gastrin and secretin testing results according to referral indications, paying specific attention to discordant basal acid output (BAO) and MAO measurements. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four gastric analyses were performed in 103 patients (42 males, mean age 47.5 years, 14 with prior acid-decreasing surgery). Recurrent ulceration or pain unresponsive to antisecretory therapy was the indication in 42 patients. Twelve were hypersecretory, including three each with isolated elevations of BAO or MAO. Hypergastrinaemia was the indication in 35 patients. Five were hypersecretory (four with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), three had isolated MAO elevations and 16 were hypo- or achlorhydric, indicating appropriate hypergastrinaemia. Of the seven patients with isolated MAO elevations, two had clear benefit from the stimulated portion of the study (four additional patients had equivocal benefit). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrin concentrations cannot be interpreted without knowledge of acid secretory capacity. MAO measurement has a small but significant benefit over measuring BAO alone.  (+info)

Stomachs of mice lacking the gastric H,K-ATPase alpha -subunit have achlorhydria, abnormal parietal cells, and ciliated metaplasia. (2/79)

The H,K-ATPase of the gastric parietal cell is the most critical component of the ion transport system mediating acid secretion in the stomach. To study the requirement of this enzyme in the development, maintenance, and function of the gastric mucosa, we used gene targeting to prepare mice lacking the alpha-subunit. Homozygous mutant (Atp4a(-/-)) mice appeared healthy and exhibited normal systemic electrolyte and acid-base status but were achlorhydric and hypergastrinemic. Immunocytochemical, histological, and ultrastructural analyses of Atp4a(-/-) stomachs revealed the presence of chief cells, demonstrating that the lack of acid secretion does not interfere with their differentiation. Parietal cells were also present in normal numbers, and despite the absence of alpha-subunit mRNA and protein, the beta-subunit was expressed. However, Atp4a(-/-) parietal cells had dilated canaliculi and lacked typical canalicular microvilli and tubulovesicles, and subsets of these cells contained abnormal mitochondria and/or massive glycogen stores. Stomachs of adult Atp4a(-/-) mice exhibited metaplasia, which included the presence of ciliated cells. We conclude that ablation of the H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit causes achlorhydria and hypergastrinemia, severe perturbations in the secretory membranes of the parietal cell, and metaplasia of the gastric mucosa; however, the absence of the pump appears not to perturb parietal cell viability or chief cell differentiation.  (+info)

Acute gastritis with hypochlorhydria: report of 35 cases with long term follow up. (3/79)

BACKGROUND: Between 1976 and 1987, 35 cases of acute gastritis with hypochlorhydria (AGH) were seen in our research laboratory. The aims of this study were to determine the natural history of AGH and the role of Helicobacter pylori in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Archived serum and gastric biopsy samples obtained from AGH subjects were examined for evidence of H pylori colonisation. Twenty eight of 33 (85%) surviving AGH subjects returned a mean of 12 years after AGH for follow up studies, including determination of H pylori antibodies, basal and peak acid output, endoscopy, and gastric biopsies. A matched control group underwent the same studies. RESULTS: Archived material provided strong evidence of new H pylori acquisition in a total of 14 subjects within two months, in 18 within four months, and in 22 within 12 months of recognition of AGH. Prevalence of H pylori colonisation at follow up was 82% (23 of 28) in AGH subjects, significantly (p<0.05) higher than in matched controls (29%). Basal and peak acid output returned to pre-AGH levels in all but two subjects. CONCLUSIONS: One of several possible initial manifestations of H pylori acquisition in adults may be AGH. While H pylori colonisation usually persists, hypochlorhydria resolves in most subjects.  (+info)

Heterogeneity of gastric histology and function in food cobalamin malabsorption: absence of atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria in some patients with severe malabsorption. (4/79)

BACKGROUND: The common but incompletely understood entity of malabsorption of food bound cobalamin is generally presumed to arise from gastritis and/or achlorhydria. AIM: To conduct a systematic comparative examination of gastric histology and function. SUBJECTS: Nineteen volunteers, either healthy or with low cobalamin levels, were prospectively studied without prior knowledge of their absorption or gastric status. METHODS: All subjects underwent prospective assessment of food cobalamin absorption by the egg yolk cobalamin absorption test, endoscopy, histological grading of biopsies from six gastric sites, measurement of gastric secretory function, assay for serum gastrin and antiparietal cell antibodies, and direct tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. RESULTS: The six subjects with severe malabsorption (group I) had worse histological scores overall and lower acid and pepsin secretion than the eight subjects with normal absorption (group III) or the five subjects with mild malabsorption (group II). However, histological findings, and acid and pepsin secretion overlapped considerably between individual subjects in group I and group III. Two distinct subgroups of three subjects each emerged within group I. One subgroup (IA) had severe gastric atrophy and achlorhydria. The other subgroup (IB) had little atrophy and only mild hypochlorhydria; the gastric findings were indistinguishable from those in many subjects with normal absorption. Absorption improved in the two subjects in subgroup IB and in one subject in group II who received antibiotics, along with evidence of clearing of H pylori. None of the subjects in group IA responded to antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Food cobalamin malabsorption arises in at least two different gastric settings, one of which involves neither gastric atrophy nor achlorhydria. Malabsorption can respond to antibiotics, but only in some patients. Food cobalamin malabsorption is not always synonymous with atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria does not always guarantee food cobalamin malabsorption.  (+info)

Hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor leads to intragastric microbial production of acetaldehyde from ethanol. (5/79)

BACKGROUND: Acetaldehyde, produced locally in the digestive tract, has recently been shown to be carcinogenic in humans. AIM: To examine the effect of iatrogenic hypochlorhydria on intragastric acetaldehyde production from ethanol after a moderate dose of alcohol, and to relate the findings to the changes in gastric flora. METHODS: Eight male volunteers ingested ethanol 0.6 g/kg b.w. The pH, acetaldehyde level and microbial counts of the gastric juice were then determined. The experiment was repeated after 7 days of lansoprazole 30 mg b.d. RESULTS: The mean (+/- S.E.M.) pH of the gastric juice was 1.3 +/- 0.06 and 6.1 +/- 0.5 (P < 0.001) before and after lansoprazole, respectively. This was associated with a marked overgrowth of gastric aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (P < 0. 001), by a 2.5-fold (P=0.003) increase in gastric juice acetaldehyde level after ethanol ingestion, and with a positive correlation (r=0. 90, P < 0.001) between gastric juice acetaldehyde concentration and the count of aerobic bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with proton pump inhibitors leads to hypochlorhydria, which associates with intragastric overgrowth of aerobic bacteria and microbially-mediated acetaldehyde production from ethanol. Since acetaldehyde is a local carcinogen in the concentrations found in this study, long-term use of gastric acid secretory inhibitors is a potential risk-factor for gastric and cardiac cancers.  (+info)

Assessment of gastric acidity of Japanese subjects over the last 15 years. (6/79)

The gastric acidity of young to elderly Japanese subjects from 1989 to 1999 was assessed and compared with that obtained in 1984, using GA-Test capsules containing acid-dissolving granules of riboflavin. The percentage of achlorhydric subjects increased with age as observed before, however, an over all decrease in all age categories year by year was noted. The percentage of achlorhydric subjects aged 50 years in 1995-1999 was about 40%, which was lower than that (60%) in 1984. However, such a chronological change was not observed when the percentage of achlorhydric subjects was determined according to birth year, indicating that it is related to the birth year of subjects. The percentage of achlorhydric subjects correlated with infection by Helicobacter pylori. Considering the high percentage of achlorhydric elderly, bioavailability and bioequivalence studies should be performed taking into consideration the effects of gastric acidity on the in vivo performance of drug products.  (+info)

Marginal ulcer in achlorhydric patients. (7/79)

Recurrent gastrojejunal ulceration is reported in three patients with histamine-fast achlorhydria. In none of these patients was extruding suture material responsible for the ulceration. However, all three patients had a history of alcohol abuse, and one abused aspirin as well. These cases demonstrate that achlorhydria does not protect against anastomotic ulceration. It is suggested that surgical manipulation produces an increased susceptibility to mucosal damage, and that it is erroneous to consider all anastomotic ulceration as a continuation or recurrence of acid peptic disease.  (+info)

Vagal impairment of gastric secretion in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (8/79)

Gastric acid output in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and pentagastrin was measured in 18 diabetic patients with symptoms of autonomic neuropathy. Two patients had achlorhydria but the rest responded normally to pentagastrin. The acid output evoked by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was low in 10 of the 16 patients who secreted acid in response to pentagastrin. These changes suggest that vagal impairment is common in diabetics with autonomic symptoms, which might explain the infrequency of duodenal ulcer in diabetics.  (+info)

Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive fluid that helps to break down food, particularly proteins, and also creates an acidic environment that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the stomach.

Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, autoimmune disorders, aging, or surgical removal of the stomach. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, and malabsorption of nutrients. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and increased risk of gastrointestinal infections.

It is important to note that achlorhydria can be diagnosed through various tests, including a gastric acid analysis or a pH test. Treatment for achlorhydria may involve supplementing with hydrochloric acid or other digestive enzymes, modifying the diet, and addressing any underlying conditions.

Pernicious anemia is a specific type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia that is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein made in the stomach that is needed to absorb vitamin B12. The absence of intrinsic factor leads to poor absorption of vitamin B12 from food and results in its deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Without enough vitamin B12, the body cannot produce enough red blood cells, leading to anemia. Pernicious anemia typically develops slowly over several years and can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and a decreased appetite.

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the stomach lining, leading to a loss of intrinsic factor production. It is more common in older adults, particularly those over 60 years old, and can also be associated with other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Addison's disease.

Treatment for pernicious anemia typically involves vitamin B12 replacement therapy, either through oral supplements or injections of the vitamin. In some cases, dietary changes may also be recommended to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B12-rich foods such as meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products.

A vipoma, also known as a verner morrison syndrome or a non-insulin-secreting pancreatic tumor, is a rare medical condition characterized by the excessive production and secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP) from a functional neuroendocrine tumor in the pancreas. This leads to a series of symptoms known as watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and acidosis (WDHA) syndrome due to the effects of VIP on the gastrointestinal system. Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and low blood pressure. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and correct electrolyte abnormalities.

Parietal cells, also known as oxyntic cells, are a type of cell found in the gastric glands of the stomach lining. They play a crucial role in digestion by releasing hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor into the stomach lumen. Hydrochloric acid is essential for breaking down food particles and creating an acidic environment that kills most bacteria, while intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. Parietal cells are stimulated by histamine, acetylcholine, and gastrin to release their secretory products.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a rare digestive disorder that is characterized by the development of one or more gastrin-secreting tumors, also known as gastrinomas. These tumors are usually found in the pancreas and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Gastrinomas produce excessive amounts of the hormone gastrin, which leads to the overproduction of stomach acid.

The increased stomach acid can cause severe peptic ulcers, often multiple or refractory to treatment, in the duodenum and jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). ZES may also result in diarrhea due to the excess acid irritating the intestines. In some cases, gastrinomas can be malignant and metastasize to other organs such as the liver and lymph nodes.

The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome typically involves measuring serum gastrin levels and performing a secretin stimulation test. Imaging tests like CT scans, MRI, or endoscopic ultrasounds may be used to locate the tumors. Treatment usually includes medications to reduce stomach acid production (such as proton pump inhibitors) and surgery to remove the gastrinomas when possible.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Mucolipidoses are a group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of complex carbohydrates (muco-) and fatty substances (lipids) in various tissues and cells (-oses). This is due to deficiency in enzymes that help break down these substances within lysosomes, which are organelles responsible for recycling and breaking down waste materials inside the cell.

There are four main types of mucolipidoses (I, II, III, and IV), each resulting from specific genetic mutations affecting different enzymes or proteins involved in the lysosomal degradation pathway. The symptoms, severity, and age of onset can vary widely among these types, ranging from mild to severe and including developmental delays, bone abnormalities, vision and hearing loss, heart problems, and coarse facial features.

Mucolipidoses are typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. However, mucolipidosis II is caused by X-linked inheritance, where a single copy of the mutated gene on the X chromosome is enough to cause the disorder.

Early diagnosis and management of mucolipidoses can help improve quality of life and slow disease progression. Treatment options include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications for symptom management, and in some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

However, treatment of these disorders has no known effect in the treatment of achlorhydria. Achlorhydria associated with ... Achlorhydria may also be documented by measurements of extremely low levels of pepsinogen A (PgA) (< 17 µg/L) in blood serum. ... Achlorhydria resulting from long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use may be treated by dose reduction or withdrawal of the PPI ... "Achlorhydria." Medscape. Ed. B S. Anand. N.p., 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 25 May 2015. Kines, Kasia, and Tina Krupczak. "Nutritional ...
Achlorhydria is also a feature. During attacks of diarrhea, flushing similar to the carcinoid syndrome occur rarely. Besides ... This syndrome is called Verner-Morrison syndrome (VMS), WDHA syndrome (from watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria), or ... achlorhydria, acidosis, flushing and hypotension (from vasodilation), hypercalcemia, and hyperglycemia. ...
Eventually, all the parietal cells are lost and achlorhydria results leading to a loss of negative feedback on gastrin ... "Constitutive achlorhydria in mucolipidosis type IV". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... secondary to a constitutive achlorhydria. This finding facilitates the diagnosis of patients with this neurogenetic disorder. ...
Achlorhydria is another autoimmune disease of the parietal cells. The damaged parietal cells are unable to produce the required ...
Reacidification time is vitally important in determining hypochlorhydria, hyperchlorhydria and achlorhydria. The second method ... achlorhydria, and for suspected bile reflux. When performing the Heidelberg test, the patient swallows a small electronic ... Achlorhydria (no acid production), Pyloric Insufficiency, Heavy Stomach Mucus (from infection or ulceration), Acute and Sub- ...
... achlorhydria. Achlorhydria in these patients results in an increase in blood gastrin levels. These symptoms typically manifest ... achlorhydria, and failure in the maintenance of retinal tissue. Diagnosis includes genetic testing and Gastrin blood test to ...
AMAG is typically confined to the gastric body and fundus.[citation needed] Achlorhydria induces G cell (gastrin-producing) ... The autoimmune response subsequently leads to the destruction of parietal cells, which leads to profound Achlorhydria (and ... and achlorhydria. Type A gastritis primarily affects the fundus (body) of the stomach and is more common with pernicious anemia ...
... has also been associated with achlorhydria, dysmotility, fistulae, and strictures. Chronic or high dose ...
Patients who suffer from achlorhydria have deficient secretion of hydrochloric acid in their stomach. In such cases, acidifiers ...
The incidence of gastric carcinoids is increased in achlorhydria, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pernicious anemia. Surgery, if ...
... -/- mice exhibit achlorhydria, gastric hyperplasia, and mis-trafficking of KCNQ1 to the parietal cell basal membrane. The ...
Many patients then experience a condition known as achlorhydria, where there is not enough acid in the stomach. As a result of ...
Achlorhydria Hypochlorhydria "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary". Elsevier. Retrieved 9 July 2018. "Medical Dictionary ...
He was surprised when, only three days later, he developed vague nausea and halitosis, due to the achlorhydria. There was no ...
Twenty-four-hour pH monitoring reveals hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria, and a chromium-labelled albumin test reveals increased ...
A second major cause is age-related decline in stomach acid production (achlorhydria), because acid exposure frees protein- ... a condition known as achlorhydria, thereby increasing their probability of B12 deficiency due to reduced absorption. The U.S. ...
Having too little or no gastric acid is known as hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria respectively and are conditions which can have ...
found that a mutation of the pump's α-subunit led to achlorhydria, resulting in problems with iron absorption, leading to iron ...
... achlorhydria). It is known that transport of physiological amounts of vitamin B12 depends on the combined actions of gastric, ...
... and can occur even in people who have achlorhydria. Ulceration risk increases with therapy duration, and with higher doses. To ...
In hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria, there is low or no gastric acid in the stomach, potentially leading to problems as the ...
Calcium citrate can be taken without food and is the supplement of choice for individuals with achlorhydria or who are taking ...
... as the patients did not have achlorhydria, an inability to produce gastric acid. Furthermore, while patients responded to crude ...
This process is thought to be the most common cause of low B12 in the elderly, who often have some degree of achlorhydria ... Forms of achlorhydria (including that artificially induced by drugs such as proton pump inhibitors and histamine 2 receptor ...
This complex, referred to as the watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome (VIPoma) has been ascribed to ...
... a nerve trunk that often leads to nerve compression Perlman syndrome a rare overgrowth disorder present at birth Achlorhydria ...
... and achlorhydria (due to inhibition of gastrin release). Somatostatinomas are commonly found in the head of pancreas. Only ten ...
... achlorhydria, stomach discomfort, nausea, vomiting, and halitosis. The results were published in 1985 in the Medical Journal of ...
... achlorhydria MeSH C06.405.748.142 - diverticulosis, stomach MeSH C06.405.748.240 - duodenogastric reflux MeSH C06.405.748.240. ...
Achlorhydria-induced malabsorption Deficient intake Deficient intrinsic factor, a molecule produced by cells in the stomach ...
However, treatment of these disorders has no known effect in the treatment of achlorhydria. Achlorhydria associated with ... Achlorhydria may also be documented by measurements of extremely low levels of pepsinogen A (PgA) (< 17 µg/L) in blood serum. ... Achlorhydria resulting from long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use may be treated by dose reduction or withdrawal of the PPI ... "Achlorhydria." Medscape. Ed. B S. Anand. N.p., 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 25 May 2015. Kines, Kasia, and Tina Krupczak. "Nutritional ...
First, achlorhydria has been defined by a peak acid output in response to a maximally effective stimulus that results in an ... Achlorhydria, in simple terms, means the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions and has been defined by multiple ... encoded search term (Achlorhydria) and Achlorhydria What to Read Next on Medscape ... Several conditions associated with achlorhydria lead to increased mortality and morbidity. Specifically, achlorhydria has been ...
First, achlorhydria has been defined by a peak acid output in response to a maximally effective stimulus that results in an ... Achlorhydria, in simple terms, means the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions and has been defined by multiple ... encoded search term (Achlorhydria) and Achlorhydria What to Read Next on Medscape ... Achlorhydria Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Apr 29, 2015 * Author: Divyanshoo Rai Kohli, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD more ...
Persons at increased risk for infection or more severe disease include infants; the elderly; persons with achlorhydria; those ...
1. Achlorhydria This is the fancy term for low stomach acid, something which sometimes occurs in the setting of low thyroid ...
Iron deficiency (low ferritin level; nutritional, blood loss, achlorhydria, small bowel disease, increased demand). ...
... in patients who have achlorhydria (119), ileus, or upper gastrointestinal disease; and in patients receiving enteral feeding, ...
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (achlorhydria; iron deficiency anemia; and mucosal atrophy of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus) has ...
tell your doctor if you have or have ever had achlorhydria (condition in which stomach has little or no acid) or liver or ... tell you to take delavirdine tablets with orange or cranberry juice if you have certain medical conditions such as achlorhydria ...
Achlorhydria. stomach cancer p. 386. Diffuse stomach cancer p. 386. Gastric cancer p. 386. carcinogens causing p. 221 ...
Screening asymptomatic persons for elevated gastrin levels merely turns up lots of older people with achlorhydria (Br. J. Surg ... "; "Verner-Morrison syndrome"): pancreatic cholera (horrible diarrhea), loss of potassium, achlorhydria -- excellent response ...
Stomachs of mice lacking the gastric H,K-ATPase alpha -subunit have achlorhydria, abnormal parietal cells, and ciliated ... Gastric achlorhydria in H/K-ATPase-deficient (Atp4a(-/-)) mice causes severe hyperplasia, mucocystic metaplasia and ...
... achlorhydria) is reported to occur in 19% of adults in the fifth decade of life and 69% in the eighth decade of life. About 35 ...
Conditions associated with calcium deficiency include hypoparathyroidism, achlorhydria, chronic diarrhea, vitamin D deficiency ...
People with achlorhydria (no stomach acid) or hypochlorhydria may not metabolize B vitamins properly, putting them at risk of ... People with achlorhydria (no stomach acid) or hypochlorhydria may therefore be at risk of developing various nutritional ... In one such study, 31% were diagnosed as having achlorhydria (no gastric acid output), and 53% were shown to be hypochlorhydric ...
... caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been ...
ACHLORHYDRIA or HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. March 27, 2013. Dr Deepan 1 Comment WHAT IS ACHLORHYDRIA OR HPOCHLORHDRIA?. Achlorhydria or ... So its a vicious cycle where pre-existing condition causes achlorhydria and achlorhydria further aggravates that primary cause. ... DIAGNOSIS OF ACHLORHYDRIA OR HYPOCHLORHDRIA. *Oesophageal pH monitoring giving 24-hour profile of gastric acid Secretion ... CAUSES OF HYPOCHLORHYDRIA / ACHLORHYDRIA. It usually is secondary to a primary condition like bacterial overgrowth like ...
Achlorhydria. Gastrin Level Test: Main Highlights. *Instructions: Fasting for 12 hours is recommended, as avoiding alcohol, ...
Achlorhydria. Type B. Type B. Most Common Type. Helicobacter pylori. Antrum. Increased Risk of MALT Lymphoma. Associations. HIV ...
Achlorhydria/ Hypochlorhydria. Acne bulgaris. Acne rosacea. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/HIV infection). Acute ...
13. K3183 Achlorhydria =КЛАСС XI. (K00-K93) Болезни органов пищеваренияБлок (K20-K31) Болезни пищевода, желудка и ...
Somatostatin is a polypeptide that is released in the gastrointestinal tract by delta cells and the hypothalamus. It functions as a key regulatory peptide that has many physiologic effects as an inhibitor for many other hormones, including gastrin, cholecystokinin, glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, vasoactiv...
Drugs, achlorhydria, positively aborted astigmatic absorbed. in Graveyard. ugeuninn. 0. 1. Wed Apr 24, 2024 9:49 am ...
Itraconazole and ketoconazole absorption in achlorhydria. In return for this, we expect full commitment from our staff to rise ...
Reduced gastric acidity (e.g., achlorhydria). *Immediate life-threatening systemic fungal infections, cystic fibrosis, or ...
... hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria are predisposing factors. ...
As one study on achlorhydria concluded, "Although the incidence of achlorhydria in the O and A blood groups was approximately ... A condition known as "Achlorhydria" (low stomach acid) leads to a 7-fold increase in stomach ... cancer (gastric carcinoma) as compared to those without achlorhydria. Interestingly, blood type can also affect this. ...
  • Achlorhydria and hypochlorhydria refer to states where the production of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions of the stomach and other digestive organs is absent or low, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Christiansen PM. The incidence of achlorhydria and hypochlorhydria in healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Susceptibility to infection varies and is greater for people with blood type O. Because vibrios are sensitive to gastric acid, hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria are predisposing factors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A patient with achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria will leach less metal from the coins and so is at reduced risk. (medicalalgorithms.com)
  • Achlorhydria, in simple terms, means the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions and has been defined by multiple separate systems in reference to gastric acid secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Achlorhydria is associated with intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, which may lead to dysplasia, and is hence considered a premalignant condition. (medscape.com)
  • Two major gastric surgeries also lead to achlorhydria. (medscape.com)
  • First, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery involves formation of a 15- to 30-mL fundal pouch. (medscape.com)
  • Gastric resection, leading to surgically induced achlorhydria, has been associated with severe postoperative infections. (medscape.com)
  • Gastric cancer--increased frequency in patients with achlorhydria. (medscape.com)
  • cancer (gastric carcinoma) as compared to those without achlorhydria. (drlynnlafferty.com)
  • The more extensive surgeries, such as biliary-pancreatic diversion surgery or more extended Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, may result in more protein malabsorption . (medscape.com)
  • After bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y), patients become vulnerable to decreased secretion of gastric acid, achlorhydria and malabsorption of proteins, iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid 2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • We analysed the cases of two patients, submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass bariatric surgery (BS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with pernicious anemia and achlorhydria may demonstrate impaired absorption of iron and may be screened for iron deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • In the Kcne2 potassium channel ancillary subunit knockout model, disruption of this gene induces achlorhydria and is related to reduced parietal cell protein secretion and abnormal parietal cell morphology. (medscape.com)
  • Irrespective of the cause, achlorhydria can result as known complications of bacterial overgrowth and intestinal metaplasia and symptoms are often consistent with those diseases: gastroesophageal reflux disease abdominal discomfort early satiety weight loss diarrhea constipation abdominal bloating anemia stomach infection malabsorption of food carcinoma of stomach Since acidic pH facilitates the absorption of iron, achlorhydric patients often develop iron deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-induced achlorhydria is a particularly important condition in elderly patients, in whom it may be associated with secondary bacterial overgrowth. (medscape.com)
  • Once achlorhydria is confirmed a hydrogen breath test should be conducted to exclude bacterial overgrowth. (atomictherapy.org)
  • Third, achlorhydria has been defined as a ratio of serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II of less than 2.9. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence of achlorhydria in a normal population and its relation to serum gastrin. (medscape.com)
  • Your doctor may tell you to take delavirdine tablets with orange or cranberry juice if you have certain medical conditions such as achlorhydria (a condition in which stomach has little or no acid). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among the origins of achlorhydria that are related to medical care, medications like proton pump inhibitors that block H + /K + -ATPase activity can induce achlorhydria. (medscape.com)
  • So its a vicious cycle where pre-existing condition causes achlorhydria and achlorhydria further aggravates that primary cause. (atomictherapy.org)
  • Prevalence Achlorhydria is present in about 2.5% of the population under 60 years old and about 5% of the population over 60 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a gastrin knockout model, achlorhydria is present because of the inactivation of enterochromaffinlike (ECL) cells and parietal cells. (medscape.com)
  • Achlorhydria leads to treatment and because the foot to just above the equivalent of 40 with either absorbable sutures. (umbc.edu)
  • Hypothyroidism is associated with a greater risk of developing achlorhydria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among men and women, 27% experience a varying degree of achlorhydria. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, achlorhydria has been defined by a peak acid output in response to a maximally effective stimulus that results in an intragastric pH greater than 5.09 in men and greater than 6.81 in women. (medscape.com)
  • Second, achlorhydria has been defined by a maximal acid output of less than 6.9 m/mole/h in men and less than 5.0 m/mole/h in women. (medscape.com)
  • Sustained achlorhydria has been observed after PPI treatment in a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), starting soon after treatment began and becoming complete within 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • Gastric resection, leading to surgically induced achlorhydria, has been associated with severe postoperative infections. (medscape.com)
  • Achlorhydria, in simple terms, means the absence of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions and has been defined by multiple separate systems in reference to gastric acid secretion. (medscape.com)
  • Achlorhydria is associated with intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, which may lead to dysplasia, and is hence considered a premalignant condition. (medscape.com)
  • Two major gastric surgeries also lead to achlorhydria. (medscape.com)
  • First, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery involves formation of a 15- to 30-mL fundal pouch. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence of achlorhydria in a normal population and its relation to serum gastrin. (medscape.com)
  • In a gastrin knockout model, achlorhydria is present because of the inactivation of enterochromaffinlike (ECL) cells and parietal cells. (medscape.com)
  • Achlorhydria does not cause any symptoms in these individuals, but it does result in unusually high levels of gastrin in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Effect of gastrin receptor blockade on endocrine cells in rats during achlorhydria. (nih.gov)
  • The absence of the H + /K + -ATPase is chronically associated with achlorhydria and mucosal hyperplasia but with no histological evidence for neoplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Sustained achlorhydria has been observed after PPI treatment in a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), starting soon after treatment began and becoming complete within 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis due to watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria (WDHA) syndrome caused by vipoma. (nih.gov)
  • 5. [WDHA syndrome (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria) with high VIP contents in the blood and tumor tissue--a case study]. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome due to an adrenal pheochromocytoma. (nih.gov)
  • 10. [WDHA (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria) syndrome]. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Clinical and hormonal aspects of the watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria (WDHA) syndrome due to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-producing tumor. (nih.gov)
  • 17. A case of the watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria syndrome: successful preoperative treatment of watery diarrhea with a somatostatin analogue. (nih.gov)
  • Drug-induced achlorhydria is a particularly important condition in elderly patients, in whom it may be associated with secondary bacterial overgrowth. (medscape.com)
  • Among the origins of achlorhydria that are related to medical care, medications like proton pump inhibitors that block H + /K + -ATPase activity can induce achlorhydria. (medscape.com)
  • Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe psychomotor delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorhydria. (nih.gov)
  • About 5% of individuals have atypical MLIV, manifesting with less severe psychomotor impairment, but still exhibiting progressive retinal degeneration and achlorhydria. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with pernicious anemia and achlorhydria may demonstrate impaired absorption of iron and may be screened for iron deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • As described previously, there is an association with hip fractures in patients with achlorhydria on PPI therapy. (medscape.com)
  • According to a study from the Netherlands by Janssen et al, patients with achlorhydria who take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) develop upper gastrointestinal ulcers during NSAID use in a similar fashion as patients who produce acid normally. (medscape.com)
  • Une anémie a été diagnostiquée chez 75 patients (37,5 %) en tout : 45 avaient une anémie hypochrome microcytaire, 18 une anémie normochrome normocytaire et 12 une anémie hyperchrome macrocytaire. (who.int)
  • Sur les 75 patients, 41 (54,7 %) avaient une carence en fer, 14 (18,7 %) avaient une carence en folates et 14 (18,7 %) avaient une thalassémie mineure. (who.int)