A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Plantar declination of the foot.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.
A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)

Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans. (1/488)

1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations of glycerol, glucose, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) as well as to calculate tissue substrate balance in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon. Recovery of 48-62 % (range) at rest and 70-77 % during exercise were obtained for glycerol, glucose and PGE2. 3. Six young healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same area, and blood sampling from the radial artery. 4. With exercise, the net release of lactate as well as of glycerol from the peritendinous space of the Achilles tendon increased 2-fold (P < 0.05). Furthermore a 100 % increase in interstitial concentration of PGE2 and TXB2 was found, but it was only significant for TXB2(P < 0.05). As peritendinous blood flow increased 2- to 3-fold during intermittent static contractions, this indicates also that the output of these substances from the tissue increased during exercise. 5. This study indicates that both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammatory activity is accelerated in the peritendinous region of the human Achilles tendon with dynamic loading.  (+info)

Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis. (2/488)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture.  (+info)

Safe relief of rest pain that eases with activity in achillodynia by intrabursal or peritendinous steroid injection: the rupture rate was not increased by these steroid injections. (3/488)

A history of morning and rest pain that eases with activity was found to improve after anti-inflammatory injections around the paratenon or within the Achilles bursae. The reduction in pain morbidity was significant, and the peritendinous steroid injections did not increase the rupture rate.  (+info)

Negative interstitial pressure in the peritendinous region during exercise. (4/488)

In the present study, tissue pressure in the peritendinous area ventral to the human Achilles tendon was determined. The pressure was measured during rest and intermittent isometric calf muscle exercise at three torques (56, 112, and 168 Nm) 20, 40 and 50 mm proximal to the insertion of the tendon in 11 healthy, young individuals. In all experiments a linear significant decrease in pressure was obtained with increasing torque [e.g., at 40 mm: -0.4 +/- 0.3 mmHg (rest) to -135 +/- 12 mmHg (168 Nm)]. No significant differences were obtained among the three areas measured. On the basis of these observations, microdialysis was performed in the peritendinous region with a colloid osmotic active substance (Dextran 70, 0.1 g/ml) added to the perfusate with the aim of counteracting the negative tissue pressure. Dialysate volume was found to be fully restored (100 +/- 4%) during exercise. It is concluded that a marked negative tissue pressure is generated in the peritendinous space around the Achilles tendon during exercise in humans. Negative tissue pressure could lead to fluid shift and could be involved in the increase in blood flow previously noted in the peritendinous tissue during exercise (H. Langberg, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer. Acta Physiol. Scand. 163: 149-153, 1998; H. Langberg, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer. Clin. Physiol. 19: 89-93, 1999).  (+info)

Atraumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture: an association of systemic steroid treatment. (5/488)

A case of bilateral Achilles tendon rupture associated with steroid use is reported. This case illustrates the importance of taking a thorough drug history in cases of tendon rupture. In lower limb tendon rupture all patients, especially those on steroids, should be warned of the increased risk of contralateral injury.  (+info)

Achilles tendinitis associated with fluoroquinolones. (6/488)

AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between use of fluoroquinolones and tendinitis in a large population under everyday circumstances. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a dynamic population. Data came from the IPCI-database which consists of all data on consultations, morbidity, prescriptions and other interventions, as registered by GPs in a source population of approximately 250 000 persons. For this study data were collected from 41 general practices in the period from January 1st, 1995 through December 31st, 1996. All persons treated with either fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin were followed from the first day of treatment until the outcome of interest, death, transfer to another practice, or end of the study period, whichever came first. The risk window was defined as the legend duration +1 month. Potential cases were defined as a registration of a tendinitis or tendon rupture. Patients with a history of tendinitis or tendon rupture, preceding trauma or inadequate diagnoses were excluded on the basis of a review of the patient profiles and additional clinical data, blinded as to the exposure status. Results were adjusted for age, gender, concurrent corticosteroid exposure and number of GP visits. RESULTS: There were 1841 users of fluoroquinolones and 9406 users of the other antibacterial drugs with an average duration of 9 and 7 days, respectively. Tendinitis or tendon rupture was registered in 97 profiles, but after review only 22 complied with the case definition. The adjusted relative risk of tendinitis to fluoroquinolones was 3. 7 (95%CI: 0.9-15.1) for Achilles tendinitis and 1.3 (95%CI: 0.4-4.7) for other types of tendinitis. Achilles tendinitis to ofloxacin had a relative risk of 10.1 (95%CI: 2.2-46.0) and an excess risk of 15 cases per 100 000 exposure days. CONCLUSIONS: Although the numbers in our study are small, our results suggest that some fluoroquinolones may increase the risk of Achilles tendinitis, and that this risk increase is highest for ofloxacin.  (+info)

Percutaneous repair of the ruptured tendo Achillis. (7/488)

Percutaneous repair of the ruptured tendo Achillis has a low rate of failure and negligible complications with the wound, but the sural nerve may be damaged. We describe a new technique which minimises the risk of injury to this nerve. The repair is carried out using three midline stab incisions over the posterior aspect of the tendon. A No. 1 nylon suture on a 90 mm cutting needle approximates the tendon with two box stitches. The procedure can be carried out under local anaesthesia. We reviewed 27 patients who had a percutaneous repair at a median interval of 35 months after the injury. They returned to work at four weeks and to sport at 16. One developed a minor wound infection and another complex regional pain syndrome type II. There were no injuries to the sural nerve or late reruptures. This technique is simple to undertake and has a low rate of complications.  (+info)

Teasing out the truth about collagen. (8/488)

Of all of the non-mineral constituents of the mammalian body there is more collagen than anything else except water and possibly fat. Nevertheless our understanding of the physiology of collagen is rudimentary. All cells and tissues are supported by a network of collagen fibres, the arrangement of which appears to be specifically site adaptive. We know a lot about the biochemistry of collagen, and its many subtypes: for example, all collagen molecules are made within fibroblasts (or modifications of them such as osteocytes), then the oversized collagen molecule is secreted in a soluble form, with hydrophilic ends which are enzymatically cleaved to leave the insoluble core collagen (tropocollagen) beached in the extracellular space. We know that collagen is made relatively immortal by being cross-linked and rather impervious to proteolysis. However, we do not know much about what governs collagen synthesis or its breakdown in the human body. It is important to know, not simply because like Everest, collagen presents a large unignorable mass. We need to understand collagen metabolism in order to understand how we grow, adapt to the environment, maintain our adult shapes and then wrinkle and crumble as we age. Collagen diseases are relatively common and almost certainly if we knew more about how, for example, the collagen framework of bone is laid down and turned over we would understand much more about osteopenia of old age. The problem in finding out has been that collagen is so difficult to study. It turns over relatively slowly, and that part of it that is cross-linked and forms mature collagen is, it seems, with us for life come hell, high-water or famine. The body reduces to mainly skin and bone-collagen in extremis. Because the system as a whole is so sluggish, it is difficult to see changes in indices of collagen metabolism. However, not all the body collagen seems to be as fixed, and indeed collagen in some tissues must turn over, enabling remodelling and adaptation, rather quickly. Think about the stiffness and discomfort that accompanies un-accustomed exercise, which not only abates with time but ceases to occur once the exercise has become customary. What is happening to collagen protein turnover in these circumstances? One obvious way to study protein turnover, even of collagen, is to follow the incorporation of stable isotope markers such as proline into the tissue (although the breakdown is harder to quantify), but this is technically difficult and requires biopsy of the tissue in question. Another way is to follow the appearance in biological fluids of markers of collagen turnover. Since the propeptides which make collagen soluble are cleaved as collagen is deposited extracellularly, their concentration is an index of the rate of collagen synthesis; similarly when tropocollagen is degraded by extracellular proteases, specific N- and C-terminal fragments are released, the amount of which scales with the rate of collagen breakdown. These bits of collagen find their way into the blood. However, assaying them there introduces non-specificity and dilution, rendering interpretation difficult. The ideal would be to measure them in the extracellular fluid at the site of production. This of course is not easy in vivo. One of the delights of the paper by Langberg and colleagues in this issue of The Journal of Physiology (Langberg et al. 1999) is the sheer cheek with which the authors decided to use the microdialysis technique to do this. Microdialysis is a technique whereby a slowly perfused, thin-walled membranous tube is introduced into the extracellular space and the collected fluid assayed for molecules which have diffused into it. Until now the idea of using microdialysis to measure concentrations of molecules much bigger than 300 Da would be regarded as ludicrous. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)  (+info)

The Achilles tendon, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus). It plays a crucial role in enabling activities such as walking, running, and jumping by facilitating the movement of the foot downward, which is called plantar flexion. Injuries to the Achilles tendon, such as tendinitis or ruptures, can be quite painful and impact mobility.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

Tendinopathy is a general term referring to the degeneration or dysrepair of a tendon, which can result in pain and impaired function. It was previously referred to as tendinitis or tendinosis, but tendinopathy is now preferred because it describes various pathological conditions within the tendon, rather than a specific diagnosis.

Tendinopathy often develops due to overuse, repetitive strain, or age-related wear and tear. The condition typically involves collagen breakdown in the tendon, along with an increase in disorganized tenocytes (tendon cells) and vascular changes. This process can lead to thickening of the tendon, loss of elasticity, and the formation of calcium deposits or nodules.

Commonly affected tendons include the Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff tendons in the shoulder, and the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in the elbow (also known as tennis elbow). Treatment for tendinopathy often includes rest, physical therapy, exercise, pain management, and occasionally, surgical intervention.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

Tenotomy is a surgical procedure where a tight or contracted tendon is cut to help relieve tension, improve mobility, and treat various musculoskeletal conditions. Tendons are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. In some cases, tendons can become shortened, thickened, or stiff due to injury, disease, or overuse, leading to limited movement, pain, or deformity.

During a tenotomy, the surgeon locates the affected tendon and carefully incises it, allowing the attached muscle to lengthen gradually. This procedure can be performed on different tendons throughout the body, depending on the specific condition being addressed. Tenotomy is often used in conjunction with other treatments, such as physical therapy or casting, to ensure optimal recovery and functional improvement.

Common indications for tenotomy include:

1. Contractures in children with cerebral palsy or other neurological disorders
2. Shortening of the Achilles tendon (equinus deformity) in adults with foot drop or spasticity
3. Dupuytren's contracture, a thickening and shortening of the palmar fascia in the hand
4. Trigger finger, a condition where the flexor tendon in the finger becomes stuck due to nodule formation
5. Certain types of tendon injuries or tears that do not respond to non-surgical treatment.

The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone in the human foot, and it is commonly known as the heel bone. It articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly, the talus bone superiorly, and several tendons and ligaments that help to form the posterior portion of the foot's skeletal structure. The calcaneus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement, as it forms the lower part of the leg's ankle joint and helps to absorb shock during walking or running.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

A stretch reflex, also known as myotatic reflex, is a rapid muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle itself. It is a type of reflex that helps to maintain muscle tone, protect muscles and tendons from injury, and assists in coordinating movements.

The stretch reflex is mediated by the stretch (or length) receptors called muscle spindles, which are located within the muscle fibers. When a muscle is stretched suddenly or rapidly, the muscle spindles detect the change in muscle length and activate a rapid motor neuron response, leading to muscle contraction. This reflex helps to stabilize the joint and prevent further stretching or injury.

The most common example of a stretch reflex is the knee-jerk reflex (also known as the patellar reflex), which is elicited by tapping the patellar tendon just below the knee, causing the quadriceps muscle to stretch and contract. This results in a quick extension of the lower leg. Other examples of stretch reflexes include the ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) and the biceps reflex.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and other moving parts, such as muscles, tendons, or skin. A synovial bursa is a type of bursa that contains synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane that lines the inside of the bursa. Synovial bursae are found in various locations throughout the body, particularly near joints that experience a lot of movement or friction. They help to reduce wear and tear on the bones and other tissues, and can become inflamed or irritated due to overuse, injury, or infection, leading to a condition called bursitis.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

The Elastic Modulus, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to strain (partial deformation or change in length per unit length) in the elastic range of deformation of a material. In other words, it measures how much a material will deform (change in length or size) when subjected to a given amount of force. A higher elastic modulus indicates that a material is stiffer and less likely to deform, while a lower elastic modulus indicates that a material is more flexible and will deform more easily. The elastic modulus is typically expressed in units of Pascals (Pa) or Gigapascals (GPa).

Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa, a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and muscles, tendons, or skin around a joint. The bursae help to reduce friction and provide smooth movement of the joints. Bursitis can occur in any joint but is most common in the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and heel.

The inflammation of the bursa can result from various factors, including repetitive motions, injury or trauma to the joint, bacterial infection, or underlying health conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. The symptoms of bursitis include pain and tenderness in the affected area, swelling, warmth, and redness. Treatment for bursitis typically involves resting and immobilizing the affected joint, applying ice to reduce swelling, taking anti-inflammatory medications, and undergoing physical therapy exercises to improve strength and flexibility. In severe cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

In medical terms, "heel" generally refers to the posterior and largest part of the foot, specifically the calcaneus bone. The heel is the first part of the foot to make contact with the ground during walking or running, and it plays a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and absorbing shock during movement.

The term "heel" can also be used to describe a structure or device that is attached to the back of a shoe or boot to provide additional height, support, or protection to the wearer's heel. These types of heels are often worn for fashion purposes or to compensate for differences in leg length.

The patellar ligament, also known as the patellar tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the bottom part of the kneecap (patella) to the top part of the shinbone (tibia). This ligament plays a crucial role in enabling the extension and straightening of the leg during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. Injuries to the patellar ligament, such as tendonitis or tears, can cause pain and difficulty with mobility.

A muscle strength dynamometer is a medical device used to measure the force or strength of a muscle or group of muscles. It typically consists of a handheld handle connected to a spring scale or digital force gauge, which measures the amount of force applied by the individual being tested. The person being tested pushes or pulls against the handle with as much force as possible, and the dynamometer provides an objective measurement of their muscle strength in units such as pounds or kilograms.

Muscle strength dynamometers are commonly used in clinical settings to assess muscle weakness or dysfunction, monitor changes in muscle strength over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. They can be used to test various muscle groups, including the handgrip, quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps, triceps, and shoulder muscles.

When using a muscle strength dynamometer, it is important to follow standardized testing protocols to ensure accurate and reliable measurements. This may include positioning the individual in a specific way, providing standardized instructions, and averaging multiple trials to obtain an accurate measure of their muscle strength.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "running" as an exercise or physical activity. However, in a medical or clinical context, running usually refers to the act of moving at a steady speed by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, allowing for a faster motion than walking. It is often used as a form of exercise, recreation, or transportation.

Running can be described medically in terms of its biomechanics, physiological effects, and potential health benefits or risks. For instance, running involves the repetitive movement of the lower extremities, which can lead to increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolic demand, ultimately improving cardiovascular fitness and burning calories. However, it is also associated with potential injuries such as runner's knee, shin splints, or plantar fasciitis, especially if proper precautions are not taken.

It is important to note that before starting any new exercise regimen, including running, individuals should consult their healthcare provider, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or concerns about their ability to engage in physical activity safely.

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus, is a congenital foot deformity where the foot is twisted inward and downward. The affected foot appears to be turned inward and downward, resembling a club or a bowling pin. This condition usually affects one foot but can occur in both feet as well.

The cause of clubfoot is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Clubfoot is often diagnosed at birth or during routine prenatal ultrasound exams. Treatment for clubfoot typically involves nonsurgical methods such as stretching, casting, and bracing to gradually correct the position of the foot over time. In some cases, surgery may be required to release tight tendons and realign the bones in the foot and ankle.

If left untreated, clubfoot can lead to significant mobility issues and difficulty walking or participating in activities. However, with early intervention and consistent treatment, most children with clubfoot are able to lead active and normal lives.

Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) are a group of conditions that result from repeated exposure to biomechanical stressors, often related to work activities. These disorders can affect the muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and reduced range of motion.

CTDs are also known as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) or overuse injuries. They occur when there is a mismatch between the demands placed on the body and its ability to recover from those demands. Over time, this imbalance can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, resulting in chronic pain and functional limitations.

Examples of CTDs include carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, epicondylitis (tennis elbow), rotator cuff injuries, and trigger finger. Prevention strategies for CTDs include proper ergonomics, workstation design, body mechanics, taking regular breaks to stretch and rest, and performing exercises to strengthen and condition the affected muscles and joints.

"Torque" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical concept used in the fields of physics and engineering, referring to a twisting force that causes rotation around an axis. However, in certain medical contexts, such as in discussions of spinal or joint biomechanics, the term "torque" may be used to describe a rotational force applied to a body part. But generally speaking, "torque" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology.

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Xeroradiography is not a commonly used medical imaging modality today, but it was once widely used in the past. It's a form of diagnostic radiography that uses x-rays to produce images on a special type of electrically charged, light-sensitive paper, similar to a photocopier or xerographic machine.

The xeroradiography process involves several steps:

1. The patient is positioned between the x-ray source and an imaging plate, which is coated with a layer of selenium.
2. X-rays pass through the patient and strike the selenium layer, causing it to release electrons that are attracted to and collected by a positively charged wire grid on the backside of the plate.
3. The charged areas of the plate are then dusted with a fine powder called "toner," which adheres to the charged areas.
4. A high-voltage electrical charge is applied to the plate, causing the toner to become electrically attracted to and fused to a sheet of paper that is pressed against the plate.
5. The resulting image on the paper shows areas of increased x-ray absorption (such as bones) as white or light gray, while areas of lower x-ray absorption (such as soft tissues) appear darker.

Xeroradiography was known for its high-resolution images and ability to detect subtle differences in tissue density. However, it has largely been replaced by digital radiography and other imaging modalities that offer similar or better image quality with lower radiation doses and greater convenience.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

A suture anchor is a medical device used in surgical procedures, particularly in orthopedic and cardiovascular surgeries. It is typically made of biocompatible materials such as metal (titanium or absorbable steel) or polymer (absorbable or non-absorbable). The suture anchor serves to attach a suture to bone securely, providing a stable fixation point for soft tissue reattachment or repair.

Suture anchors come in various shapes and sizes, including screws, hooks, or buttons, designed to fit specific surgical needs. Surgeons insert the anchor into a predrilled hole in the bone, and then pass the suture through the eyelet or loop of the anchor. Once the anchor is securely in place, the surgeon can tie the suture to attach tendons, ligaments, or other soft tissues to the bone.

The use of suture anchors has revolutionized many surgical procedures by providing a more reliable and less invasive method for reattaching soft tissues to bones compared to traditional methods such as drill holes and staples.

Fibril-Associated Collagens (also known as FACIT collagens) are a group of collagen proteins that are characterized by their association with the surface of collagen fibrils. They play a role in the organization, stability, and diameter regulation of collagen fibrils. These collagens include types XII, XIV, XVI, XIX, XXI, and XXII.

Type XII collagen is found in various tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and cornea. It has a triple-helical domain that interacts with the surface of collagen fibrils and a non-collagenous domain that can bind to other extracellular matrix proteins.

Type XIV collagen is also found in various tissues and has a similar structure to type XII collagen, but it has a larger non-collagenous domain. It plays a role in regulating the diameter of collagen fibrils.

Type XVI collagen is primarily found in cartilage and has a unique structure with multiple interruptions in its triple-helical domain. It is involved in the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis and may also have roles in cell adhesion and signaling.

Types XIX and XXI collagens are similar to each other and are found in various tissues, including skin, tendons, and blood vessels. They have a short triple-helical domain and large non-collagenous domains that contain multiple binding sites for other extracellular matrix proteins.

Type XXII collagen is primarily found in the cornea and has a similar structure to type XIX collagen. It plays a role in regulating the diameter of collagen fibrils and may also have roles in cell adhesion and signaling.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The ankle, also known as the talocrural region, is the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements. The ankle is composed of three bones: the tibia and fibula of the lower leg, and the talus of the foot. The bottom portion of the tibia and fibula, called the malleoli, form a mortise that surrounds and articulates with the talus.

The ankle joint is strengthened by several ligaments, including the medial (deltoid) ligament and lateral ligament complex. The ankle also contains important nerves and blood vessels that provide sensation and circulation to the foot.

Damage to the ankle joint, such as sprains or fractures, can result in pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. Proper care and rehabilitation are essential for maintaining the health and function of the ankle joint.

Exostoses are benign (noncancerous) bone growths that develop on the surface of a bone, usually in response to repeated stress or friction. They are often small and smooth, but can become larger and more irregular over time. In some cases, they may cause pain or discomfort, especially if they continue to grow and put pressure on nearby nerves, muscles, or other bones.

Exostoses can occur in various parts of the body, but they are most commonly found in the long bones of the arms and legs, as well as in the small bones of the feet. They may also develop in response to chronic irritation or injury, such as from jogging or playing sports that involve a lot of running or jumping.

In some cases, exostoses may be surgically removed if they cause persistent pain or other symptoms. However, in many cases, they do not require treatment and can be left alone. If you are concerned about any bone growths or other unusual symptoms, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Fibrocartilage is a type of tough, dense connective tissue that contains both collagen fibers and cartilaginous matrix. It is composed of fibroblasts embedded in a extracellular matrix rich in collagen types I and II, proteoglycans and elastin. Fibrocartilage is found in areas of the body where strong, flexible support is required, such as intervertebral discs, menisci (knee cartilage), labrum (shoulder and hip cartilage) and pubic symphysis. It has both the elasticity and flexibility of cartilage and the strength and durability of fibrous tissue. Fibrocartilage can withstand high compressive loads and provides cushioning, shock absorption and stability to the joints and spine.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

Muscle stretching exercises are physical movements that aim to gradually lengthen the muscle to its full capacity, beyond its regular resting length, in order to improve flexibility and overall joint mobility. These exercises often involve slowly moving parts of the body into a position that will stretch certain muscles and then maintaining that position for a period of time, typically between 15-30 seconds.

There are various techniques for muscle stretching, including static stretching, dynamic stretching, ballistic stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretches. Regular practice of these exercises can help enhance athletic performance, reduce the risk of injury, alleviate muscle tension, improve posture, and promote relaxation. However, it's important to perform muscle stretching exercises correctly and consistently, under the guidance of a fitness professional or healthcare provider, to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

The H-reflex, or Hoffmann reflex, is a monosynaptic reflex that tests the integrity of the Ia afferent nerve fibers and the corresponding alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. It's often used in clinical and research settings to assess the function of the lower motor neuron and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex.

The H-reflex is elicited by applying an electrical stimulus to a sensory nerve, typically the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa or the median nerve at the wrist. This stimulation activates Ia afferent fibers, which then synapse directly onto alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, causing a muscle contraction in the corresponding agonist muscle (e.g., soleus or flexor carpi radialis). The latency of the H-reflex provides information about the conduction velocity of Ia afferent fibers and the excitability of alpha motor neurons.

It's important to note that the H-reflex is influenced by various factors, such as muscle length, contraction state, and the overall excitability of the nervous system. Therefore, interpreting H-reflex results requires a thorough understanding of these influencing factors and careful consideration of the clinical context.

Orthopedic manipulation is a hands-on technique that is used by healthcare professionals, such as orthopedic doctors, chiropractors, and physical therapists, to diagnose and treat muscle and joint disorders. This manual procedure involves moving the joints or soft tissues in a specific direction and amplitude with the aim of improving joint mobility, reducing pain, relieving muscle tension, and enhancing overall function.

Orthopedic manipulation can be performed on various parts of the body, including the spine, extremities, and cranial structures. It is often used as a complementary treatment alongside other therapeutic interventions, such as exercise, medication, or surgery, to manage a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions, including but not limited to:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Neck pain and stiffness
* Joint pain and inflammation
* Muscle spasms and tension
* Headaches and migraines
* Disc disorders
* Sprains and strains
* Postural dysfunctions

It is important to note that orthopedic manipulation should only be performed by trained and licensed healthcare professionals, as improper techniques can lead to injury or further damage. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider to determine if orthopedic manipulation is an appropriate treatment option for their specific condition.

Achilles tendinosis is a known risk factor for calf muscle tears. Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon breaks. ... The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon at the back of the lower leg, and is the ... The Achilles tendon connects muscle to bone, like other tendons, and is located at the back of the lower leg. The Achilles ... The Achilles tendon is often tested as part of a neurological examination. In this examination, the tendon is hit with a tendon ...
Of all the large tendon ruptures, 1 in 5 will be an Achilles tendon rupture. An Achilles tendon rupture is estimated to occur ... Other ways the Achilles tendon can be torn involve sudden direct trauma or damage to the tendon, or sudden use of the Achilles ... Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon, at the back of the ankle, breaks. Symptoms include the sudden onset of ... In complete ruptures, the tendon of another muscle is used and wrapped around the Achilles tendon. Commonly, the tendon of the ...
"Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare". National Institutes of Health. 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2012-11-25. "Lisfranc (Midfoot) ...
2011: torn Achilles tendon. 2012: Ruptured right biceps muscle in a (11 February 2012) pre-season trial against the Warriors: ...
"Jerry Porter tears achilles tendon; out for year". The Canadian Press. June 9, 2011. Archived from the original on September 22 ... However, Porter tore his Achilles tendon in training camp, requiring season-ending surgery. He was subsequently released. ...
Bertens was sidelined for the start of the 2021 season, following surgery on her Achilles tendon at the end of 2020. Her first ... "Bertens undergoes Achilles tendon surgery". Tennis.com. Retrieved 26 July 2021. Livaudais, Stephanie (27 October 2020). " ... Trevisan in the fourth round and announced the following month that she would undergo surgery to treat an Achilles tendon ... "Bertens to miss Australian Open after Achilles surgery". wtatennis.com. Retrieved 18 June 2021. Kane, David (1 March 2021). " ...
"Blanka Had Achilles Tendon Surgery". Blanka Vlasic official page. 26 February 2016. Archived from the original on 16 February ... Vlašić decided to have an operation on her left Achilles tendon in January 2012. Although the operation in itself seemed to ... Still due to her Achilles problem, Vlašić only made one appearance in the 2016 season in Split on January 29 where she took the ... "Blanka Vlasic opérée du tendon d'Achille". L'Equipe.fr (in French). 14 February 2016. Archived from the original on 19 February ...
"Spencer Re-Injures Achilles Tendon". Deseret News. March 28, 1995. Retrieved January 14, 2022. "Malone Gives Jazz Victory Ride ... but only played just 34 games due to an Achilles tendon injury. In the Western Conference First Round of the playoffs, the Jazz ...
Jackson suffered a right Achilles tendon rupture in a mini-camp practice on June 1. He was placed on the injured reserve list ... Spadaro, Dave (June 1, 2010). "Ruptured Achilles Tendon For Jackson". PhiladelphiaEagles.com. Archived from the original on ...
Prior to his second year with the Bruins on August 22, 2010, it was announced that Whitfield had torn his Achilles tendon and ... "Bruins' Whitfield tears Achilles tendon; likely out for year". The Sports Network. August 22, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2010 ...
Achilles'-tendon xanthoma in familial hypercholesterolemia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 338 (22): 1591. doi:10.1056/ ... also tendon xanthoma or tendinous xanthoma) is clinically characterized by papules and nodules found in the tendons of the ... They are associated with hyperlipidemias, both primary and secondary types.[citation needed] Tendon xanthomas are associated ...
On December 13 while working out, Smith suffered a ruptured left Achilles tendon. He underwent surgery for it on December 20. ... Footer, Alyson (December 20, 2018). "Astros reliever Smith ruptures Achilles tendon". MLB.com. Retrieved December 20, 2018. " ...
She cuts the pagan's Achilles tendon. Saint Ladislaus beheads the pagan with the help of the girl. In the last scene the girl ...
During the final Ferrari tore her Achilles tendon while performing a whip to full twisting double back. Ferrari was one of many ... In September, she had surgery on her Achilles' tendons, but said she plans to continue training for more competition after a ... In June Ferrari underwent a bursectomy to remove excess fluid from behind her Achilles tendon and would likely miss the 2009 ... Turner, Amanda (23 September 2016). "Ferrari Undergoes Double Achilles Tendon Surgery". International Gymnast. Retrieved 23 ...
Osseous debridement from the Achilles tendon. Retrocalcaneal enthesophyte resection with functional Achilles tendon lengthening ... The etiology is not well known, but some probable causes like a tight Achilles tendon, a high arch of the foot, and heredity ... An enlargement of the bony section of the heel (where the Achilles tendon is inserted) triggers this condition. The soft tissue ... "Retrocalcaneal Enthesophyte Resection With Functional Lengthening of the Achilles Tendon and Buried Knot Technique: A Case ...
Saville missed the Australian Open due to recovering from an achilles tendon injury and plantar fasciitis. She returned to ... After the championship, Saville announced that she was going to get surgery on her achilles tendon. In November, Saville ... Walton, Darren (18 February 2021). "Gavrilova to have achilles tendon surgery". thewest.com.au. Retrieved 19 June 2021. " ...
because of an Achilles tendon injury. He played 307 official games for the club, 209 of them being league games, and has also ...
Rosenthal, Gregg (July 29, 2014). "Seahawks' Anthony McCoy tears Achilles tendon". NFL.com. Retrieved September 7, 2015. ... On July 29, 2014, McCoy suffered another torn Achilles' during training camp, his second in just over a year. The injury ... On May 21, 2013, McCoy suffered a torn Achilles' during organized team activities, and underwent surgery three days later. His ...
However, with a 22-20 record as of January 28, Dominique Wilkins ruptured his Achilles tendon and was out for the remainder of ... "PRO BASKETBALL; Achilles' Tendon Injury Ends Wilkins's Season". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 29, 1992. ... However, Mays only played just two games due to two ruptured tendons in his right ankle. The Hawks got off to an 8-8 start and ... Hafner, Dan (January 29, 1992). "NBA ROUNDUP: Hawks' Wilkins Suffers Tendon Injury, Is Sidelined for Season". Los Angeles Times ...
On 30 August 2015, Watson suffered a torn Achilles tendon during the third preseason game against the Arizona Cardinals. On 1 ... Bergman, Jeremy (30 August 2015). "Raiders' Menelik Watson ruptures Achilles tendon". National Football League. Retrieved 31 ...
An MRI revealed that Ballard tore his Achilles tendon, which caused him to miss the full 2014 season. On September 15, 2015, ... "Vick Ballard has torn Achilles tendon". espn.go.com. July 26, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014. Alper, Josh (September 15, 2015 ...
Further testing indicated that he had suffered a ruptured Achilles tendon. The Texans traded Posey and their 2015 third round ( ... "Report: Texans' Posey tears Achilles tendon". go.com. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2017. Lange, Randy (May 1, 2015). "Jets ...
Douglas J, Kelly M, Blachut P (2009). "Clarification of the Simmonds-Thompson test for rupture of an Achilles tendon". Canadian ... Thompson TC, Doherty JH (1962). "Spontaneous Rupture of Tendon of Achilles". The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and ... Simmonds FA (1957). "The diagnosis of the ruptured Achilles tendon". The Practitioner. 179 (1069): 56-8. PMID 13453094. (Use ... is used in lower limb examination to test for the rupture of the Achilles tendon. The patient lies face down with feet hanging ...
In week 4 of the 2013 NFL season against the Atlanta Falcons, Wilfork tore his right Achilles' tendon while trying to get past ... "Source: Wilfork has torn Achilles' tendon". Boston Globe. September 30, 2013. Wesseling, Chris (October 3, 2013). "Zach Sudfeld ...
"Torino trainer ruptures achilles tendon celebrating goal". eurosport.com. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. "Lazio vs. ...
Foucher was a favourite in 2015, but was not able to compete after tearing her Achilles tendon during the season's second ... Michigan-based coach, Doug Chapman, said, "What makes her special is how hard she works." *Foucher tore her Achilles tendon ... Her final attempt at the title, in 2015, was cut short by a torn Achilles. Foucher tore her Achilles during an event on the ...
In the coming week on Raw, it came to light that Edge had legitimately torn his Achilles tendon, which required surgery, as ... "Edge undergoes surgery on his Achilles tendon". World Wrestling Entertainment. July 10, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2009. Plummer ...
On February 21, 2018 he ruptured his Achilles tendon and missed the rest of the season. Kleinpeter, Jim (December 18, 2010). " ... Malloy, Jason (February 22, 2018). "Storm PG Andre Stringer ruptures Achilles tendon". The Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2018. ...
Hodges ruptured his Achilles tendon during pre-season training, and subsequently missed the entire 2010 NRL season. Hodges also ... "Broncos Centre Justin Hodges Tears Achilles Tendon". The Courier-Mail. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2015. "Broncos ... However, Hodges season ended prematurely after a snapped left Achilles which he suffered in the Round 22 home clash against the ...
"FEVER: TORN ACHILLES TENDON ENDS GRIFFITHS SEASON". www.wnba.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018. "WNBA.com: AllStar 2011". www.wnba. ... On June 9, 2009, Griffith tore her achilles tendon in a game against the Seattle Storm, her former team. She was out for the ...
Achilles tendinosis is a known risk factor for calf muscle tears. Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon breaks. ... The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon at the back of the lower leg, and is the ... The Achilles tendon connects muscle to bone, like other tendons, and is located at the back of the lower leg. The Achilles ... The Achilles tendon is often tested as part of a neurological examination. In this examination, the tendon is hit with a tendon ...
Imaging modalities that are used most commonly in the diagnostic assessment of the Achilles tendon include conventional ... The Achilles tendon is the most commonly injured tendon in the foot and ankle; injuries commonly are related to sports/athletic ... The Achilles tendon is the most commonly injured tendon in the foot and ankle; injuries commonly are related to sports/athletic ... Imaging of the Achilles tendon Foot Ankle Clin. 2005 Jun;10(2):239-54. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2005.01.006. ...
Achilles tendon rupture, a complete disruption of the tendon, is observed most commonly in patients aged 30-50 years who have ... Achilles tendon pathologies include rupture and tendonitis. Achilles tendon rupture, a complete disruption of the tendon, is ... Tendon rupture. Most Achilles tendon tears occur in the left leg in the substance of the tendo-Achilles, approximately 2-6 cm ... encoded search term (Achilles Tendon Injuries) and Achilles Tendon Injuries What to Read Next on Medscape ...
A well-developed Achilles tendon is crucial for this distinctively human mode of locomotion ... He then restored normal elasticity to the Achilles tendon only.. "Even if the only tendon you have working is the Achilles ... A well-developed Achilles tendon, it turns out, is crucial for running, so the first appearance of this tendon - or its bony ... However, Pontzer notes that no one knows yet whether Sharpeys fibres really are a foolproof marker of an Achilles tendon, or ...
... tendon in Sundays 20-14 loss to the Detroit Lions. ... Monday that defensive end Willie Young suffered a torn Achilles ... Young tore Achilles tendon in loss Dec 22, 2014 at 08:34 AM ... tendon in Sundays 20-14 loss to the Detroit Lions. ... Bears coach Marc Trestman confirmed Monday that defensive end Willie Young suffered a torn Achilles ...
Kirk Cousins underwent an MRI this morning at Twin Cities Orthopedics that confirmed an Achilles tendon tear. The timeline and ... Vikings confirmed everyones worst fears in reporting that an MRI revealed Kirk Cousins tore his right Achilles tendon. The ...
Surgery may be done to sew the tendon back together. This lowers the risk of it rupturing again. ... Surgery may be done to sew the tendon back together. This lowers the risk of it rupturing again. ...
The Achilles tendon has long been believed to be a key structure in allowing us to run efficiently, acting like a spring to ... By altering the elasticity in the tendons of their models, the experimenters were able to see that a tight Achilles would make ... The most important elastic energy store on the human hind limb is the Achilles tendon: a feature that is at best weakly ... suggest that our Achilles tendon is the key feature that allows us to be efficient running machines. ...
40,000 for Achilles Tendon Injury Loaded on March 15, 2002 published in Prison Legal News March, 2002, page 21 Filed under: ... 40,000 for Achilles tendon injury. On August 21, 1993, while incarcerated at the Coyote Ridge Corrections Center (CRCC) in ... As a result, the torn Achilles tendon was allowed to atrophy to such a degree that Mr. Yamamoto suffered permanent, ... Richard Yamamoto suffered a severe injury to his right Achilles tendon. The nature, extent, and severity of the injury was ...
... explained by Dr. Robert Anderson An Achilles tendon tear can be a devastating ... The tendon may also tear because of damage sustained over a long period of time. The risk for tearing the Achilles tendon also ... These muscles join to form the Achilles tendon, a tough band of tissue that attaches to the heel. The tendon is also known as ... Your Achilles tendon attaches the muscles of the calf in the back of your lower leg to your foot and ankle. Your calf muscles ...
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... What is a Ruptured Achilles Tendon?. June 29, 2022. May 9, 2018. by Chris ... Tags achilles tendon, ankle injury, ankle tear, Arsenal, koscielny, ruptured achilles, wenger ... a ruptured achilles tendon. Though still, when playing in the Europa League semi-final against Atletico Madrid, the Frenchman ...
Re: Evidently my Statin ruined my Achilles tendons. I was not familiar with statins causing tendon rupture. they DO cause ... Evidently my Statin ruined my Achilles tendons. Now I need major surgery on both my ankles. [link to www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ( ... Re: Evidently my Statin ruined my Achilles tendons. Thread: 72 year old Father pulled off all drugs and insulin let me tell you ... Re: Evidently my Statin ruined my Achilles tendons. Now I need major surgery on both my ankles. -------------. Do you have 3 ...
Complication in the plasty of Achilles tendon Villalobos GE, Calzada PL, Carbajal CR, Magaña MFJ, Solache AR, Sol s DVM ... Fox JM, Blazina ME, Jobe FW, Kerlan RK, Caster US, Shields CL Jr: Degeneration and rupture of the Achilles tendon. Clin Orthop ... Soldatis JJ, Goodfellow DB, Wilber JH: End to end operative repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Am J Sports Med 1997; 25(1): 90- ... Troop RL, Losse GM, Lane JG, Robertson DB, Hastings PS, Howard ME: Early motion after repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Foot ...
Atletico Madrid midfielder Thomas Lemar will undergo surgery after rupturing his right Achilles tendon during Saturdays 3-0 ... Thomas Lemar suffers an Achilles tendon rupture. Our player will undergo surgery.. All the best Thom, we wish you a speedy ... Atleticos Lemar to undergo surgery on ruptured Achilles tendon. football18 September 2023 04:52, © Reuters ... Atletico Madrid midfielder Thomas Lemar will undergo surgery after rupturing his right Achilles tendon during Saturdays 3-0 ...
... they saw Vinny Testaverde exit the opener with a season-ending Achilles tendon rupture. ... quarterback Aaron Rodgers was dejected on Tuesday after learning he had suffered a season-ending torn left Achilles tendon, New ... New York Jets quarterback Aaron Rodgers, front, suffered a torn left Achilles tendon that will end his 2023 NFL season when ... they saw Vinny Testaverde exit the opener with a season-ending Achilles tendon rupture. They went 8-8. ...
Sexist Body Parts Rejected by Doctors: Adams Apple and Achilles Tendon Deemed Irrelevant and Misogynistic. 3,400 Abid ... The Achilles tendon, the tough band of fibrous tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone, is named after the ... mythological Greek warrior, Achilles.. Dr Small lamented much of the female reproductive system is named "after dead dudes" and ...
This video provides information about the Achilles tendon, how it can be injured, and how injuries are treated - both ... Although the Achilles tendon can withstand great stresses from running and jumping, it is vulnerable to injury. ... The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. It connects your calf muscles to your heel bone and is used when you ... A rupture of the tendon is a tearing and separation of the tendon fibers so that the tendon can no longer perform its normal ...
Most commonly injured tendon. Usually occurs while performing actions requiring explosive acceleration, such as pushing off or ... The Achilles tendon is the largest and strongest tendon in the body. ... The Simmond’s test is used in lower limb examination to test for the rupture of the Achilles tendon: The patient lies face ... My cousin was playing basketball the other day and it seems his Achilles tendon got injured while playing. He should definitely ...
Aaron Rodgers announced on his Instagram Stories Thursday night that he had surgery to repair his torn left Achilles tendon on ... Rodgers is out for the season after tearing his Achilles tendon on the fourth snap of his debut with his new team Monday night ... Jets QB Aaron Rodgers announces he had surgery to repair torn Achilles tendon. ... Aaron Rodgers announced on his Instagram Stories Thursday night that he had surgery to repair his torn left Achilles tendon on ...
The beginning of the Krackow suture (see pectoralis major tendon rupture)of #5 braided permanent material is shown from the ...
The Achilles tendon often becomes painful for athletes of all ages. Here is the latest on the problem and the cures. ... Best Surgery for Achilles Tendon Rupture (Video Blog) We repair Achilles tendon ruptures without an open... ... Whats the Best Way to Fix a Ruptured Achilles Tendon? The Achilles tendon connects the muscles of the... ... Achilles: Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Achilles Tendon Repair - Patient Experience Rich L. is an avid Crossfit athlete who ...
A 29-year-old man presented with recurrent acute disruption of his right Achilles tendon (see leg anatomy) five months after ... There was no avulsion of the tendon insertion at the calcaneous. Notes:. Link to this frame from your Personal Thumbnails page ... The tendon was exposed through the same posterior midline incision previously used (viewed from the patients left). ...
Rodgers is out for the season after tearing his Achilles tendon on the fourth snap of his debut with his new team Monday night ... Jets QB Aaron Rodgers announces he had surgery to repair torn Achilles tendon by: DENNIS WASZAK Jr., Associated Press ... Aaron Rodgers announced on his Instagram Stories Thursday night that he had surgery to repair his torn left Achilles tendon on ...
Consists of the Achilles tendon and a calcaneal bone block. The graft is cell and marrow depleted, decontaminated by washing in ... Consists of the Achilles tendon and a calcaneal bone block. The graft is cell and marrow depleted, and decontaminated by ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... April 26, 2017. Achilles causes rupture symptoms TENDON treatments ... Movements involving repeated stop-and-start footwork can also cause the Achilles tendon to rupture. Can an Achilles Tendon ... A ruptured Achilles tendon may occur when the tendon has been structurally weakened by an ongoing tendonitis, or when a ... A rupture can occur from simply overstretching your Achilles tendon in the course of a simple activity, such as gardening. ...
Indianas Creek Tears Achilles Tendon. BTN.com staff, October 10, 2011 According to an Indiana press release, junior guard ... Maurice Creek underwent surgery Monday to repair a torn Achilles tendon he suffered away from the basketball court in his left ...
Achilles Tendon Tear. Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscle to bone. The Achilles tendon is located where the ... The Achilles tendon can tear or rupture during sudden activity, like jumping or sprinting, or during violent tendon stretches. ... Surgery and casting or casting alone may be required to repair a torn Achilles tendon. ...
The 26-year-old injured his left Achilles tendon in offseason training. ... AP) - Florida Panthers winger Anthony Duclair had surgery to repair an Achilles tendon injury and is expected to miss ... The 26-year-old injured his left Achilles tendon in offseason training. ... The 26-year-old injured his left Achilles tendon in offseason training. ...
  • The Minnesota Vikings confirmed everyone's worst fears in reporting that an MRI revealed Kirk Cousins tore his right Achilles tendon . (yahoo.com)
  • On August 21, 1993, while incarcerated at the Coyote Ridge Corrections Center (CRCC) in Connell, Washington, Richard Yamamoto suffered a severe injury to his right Achilles tendon. (prisonlegalnews.org)
  • Atletico Madrid midfielder Thomas Lemar will undergo surgery after rupturing his right Achilles tendon during Saturday's 3-0 loss at Valencia, the LaLiga team said. (supersport.com)
  • Following tests carried out on the French player, the medical report from the club's medical services indicates that he has a ruptured right Achilles tendon and will have to undergo surgery," Atletico said in a statement on Sunday. (supersport.com)
  • A 29-year-old man presented with recurrent acute disruption of his right Achilles tendon (see leg anatomy ) five months after primary repair of an acute rupture. (vesalius.com)
  • EAGAN, Minn. (AP) - Kirk Cousins has a torn right Achilles tendon that will end his season, dampening the mood around the Minnesota Vikings after their recent resurgence and putting the front office and coaching staff in a scramble to figure out which quarterback to finish with. (wwlp.com)
  • Fernandez-Fairen M, Gimeno C: Augmented repair of Achilles tendon ruptures. (medigraphic.com)
  • Helgand J, Odland P, Hove LM: Achilles tendon ruptures. (medigraphic.com)
  • Levy N: The incidence of Achilles tendon ruptures. (medigraphic.com)
  • Motta P, Errichiello C, Pontini I: Achilles tendon ruptures a new technique for easy surgical repair and immediate movement of ankle and foot. (medigraphic.com)
  • Myerson MS. Achilles tendon ruptures. (medigraphic.com)
  • Surgical interventions for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures. (peacehealth.org)
  • Achilles tendon tears (ruptures) most often result from ankle dorsiflexion, particularly when the tendon is taut. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tears (ruptures) may also occur in tendons. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis references Achilles tendon tears (ruptures) most often result from ankle dorsiflexion, particularly when the tendon is taut. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Active ROM must be assessed, because Achilles tendon ruptures can mimic ankle sprains. (medscape.com)
  • NFL superstar quarterback Aaron Rodgers was dejected on Tuesday after learning he had suffered a season-ending torn left Achilles tendon, New York Jets coach Robert Saleh said Tuesday. (yahoo.com)
  • FLORHAM PARK, N.J. (AP) - New York Jets quarterback Aaron Rodgers announced on his Instagram Stories Thursday night that he had surgery to repair his torn left Achilles tendon on Wednesday. (wilx.com)
  • LAS VEGAS (AP) - New York Jets quarterback Aaron Rodgers said his goal is to return from a torn Achilles tendon by mid-December, NBC's Melissa Stark reported during the telecast of the Jets' game at Las Vegas on Sunday night. (wboy.com)
  • He's the second key member of the Jets' offense to suffer a torn Achilles tendon after quarterback Aaron Rodgers was injured on the fourth snap of his debut with the team in the season opener. (fox40.com)
  • AP) - Aaron Rodgers has a torn left Achilles tendon and the 39-year-old New York Jets quarterback will miss the rest of the season, coach Robert Saleh announced Tuesday. (wspa.com)
  • New York Jets QB Aaron Rodgers has a torn Achilles tendon, AP source says. (wtop.com)
  • New York Jets quarterback Aaron Rodgers has raised the long-shot possibility of returning yet this season from his torn left Achilles tendon, but he's nearly two months ahead of Cousins on his rehab because he was hurt in the opener. (wwlp.com)
  • Kirk Cousins underwent an MRI this morning at Twin Cities Orthopedics that confirmed an Achilles tendon tear. (yahoo.com)
  • The tendon may also tear because of damage sustained over a long period of time. (bellin.org)
  • A partial tear of the tendon can be treated with physical therapy. (bellin.org)
  • An MRI exam Tuesday morning showed the 39-year-old, four-time NFL Most Valuable Player suffered a complete tendon tear when he was sacked by Buffalo's Leonard Floyd only four plays into his Jets debut, which New York won 22-16 over the visiting Bills in the season opener for both. (yahoo.com)
  • Sometimes, however-when landing from a jump or simply walking in badly fitting shoes-we irritate or tear the tendon in such a way that it does not heal. (stoneclinic.com)
  • You can think of all tendon injuries in these simple terms: stretch injury, mild tear, moderate tear, or complete tear. (stoneclinic.com)
  • The Achilles tendon can tear or rupture during sudden activity, like jumping or sprinting, or during violent tendon stretches. (merckmanuals.com)
  • I have a severe tear in my left Achilles tendon and only eight percent of my tendon was left intact. (guitarworld.com)
  • If clinicians suspect an Achilles tendon tear, 3 main tests can be done to help confirm the diagnosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The 26-year-old injured his left Achilles tendon in offseason training. (nhlpa.com)
  • Coach Robert Saleh said the team believes Rodgers injured his left Achilles tendon when he was sacked by Buffalo's Leonard Floyd and fell awkwardly on the leg during Monday night's 22-16 overtime win over the Bills. (ktla.com)
  • The tendon begins near the middle of the calf, and receives muscle fibers on its inner surface, particularly from the soleus muscle, almost to its lower end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with an Achilles tendon rupture frequently present with complaints of a sudden snap in the lower calf associated with acute, severe pain. (medscape.com)
  • Biomechanicians have long assumed that the long, elastic Achilles tendon of humans, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone, plays a role in our running ability by storing and releasing energy during the stride, much as a spring would. (newscientist.com)
  • Chimpanzees and gorillas, which are poor bipedal runners, lack an elastic tendon and have calf muscles that attach directly to the heel bone. (newscientist.com)
  • As a result, the torn Achilles tendon was allowed to atrophy to such a degree that Mr. Yamamoto suffered permanent, irreversible damage to his right foot, tendon, calf, and leg. (prisonlegalnews.org)
  • Your Achilles tendon attaches the muscles of the calf in the back of your lower leg to your foot and ankle. (bellin.org)
  • The Achilles tendon, the tough band of fibrous tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone, is named after the mythological Greek warrior, Achilles. (breitbart.com)
  • With a positive test there is no movement of the foot on squeezing the corresponding calf, signifying likely rupture of the Achilles tendon. (standardofcare.com)
  • The Achilles tendon is located where the calf muscle, or gastrocnemius, attaches to the heel bone, or calcaneus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Keeping your affected leg straight, slowly let that heel hang down off of the step or curb until you feel a stretch in the back of your calf and/or Achilles area. (alberta.ca)
  • The fourth type of injury-the complete rupture of the Achilles tendon-can heal on its own. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Ever since Travis Zajac returned from an offseason torn Achilles tendon, things have gone slowly for him. (nbcsports.com)
  • LOS ANGELES - Los Angeles Rams running back Cam Akers is out indefinitely after tearing his Achilles tendon in an offseason training session. (tribtown.com)
  • Laboratory studies usually are not necessary in evaluating and diagnosing an Achilles tendon rupture or injury, although evaluation may help to rule out some of the other possibilities in the differential diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound diagnosis of Achilles tendon pathology in runners. (bmj.com)
  • Confirmed clinical and /or imaging-based (MRI or Grey-scale ultrasound) diagnosis of chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy d. (who.int)
  • Abnormalities of the Achilles tendon include inflammation (Achilles tendinitis), degeneration, rupture, and becoming embedded with cholesterol deposits (xanthomas). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is called Achilles tendinitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heel spurs or Achilles tendinitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These muscles join to form the Achilles tendon, a tough band of tissue that attaches to the heel. (bellin.org)
  • Wapner KL, Hecht PJ, Mills RH Jr: Reconstruction of Neglected Achilles tendon injuries. (medigraphic.com)
  • This video animation provides information about the Achilles tendon, how it can be injured, and how injuries are treated - both nonsurgically and surgically. (aaos.org)
  • Unfortunately, it is possible that, with any of these injuries, the otherwise elegant healing process within the tendon fails to complete its job. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Before and after the training period, plantarflexion force, peak Achilles tendon strain and stiffness were measured during isometric contractions, using a combination of dynamometry, ultrasound and kinematics data. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, testing included a step-landing task, during which joint mechanics and lengths of gastrocnemius and soleus fascicles, Achilles tendon, and MTU were determined using synchronized ultrasound, kinematics and kinetics data collection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The name thus also refers to the particularly disabling and painful effect of an injury to this tendon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Last Thursday Laurent Koscielny faced what must have seemed like an inevitable blow given his last few years of injury woes, a ruptured achilles tendon. (physioroom.com)
  • Surgery, if warranted, consists of a highly trained orthopedic surgeon repairing the Achilles tendon at the location of the injury. (bellin.org)
  • Although the Achilles tendon can withstand great stresses from running and jumping, it is vulnerable to injury. (aaos.org)
  • He should definitely ask for an Achilles tendon rupture care service immediately in order to prevent the injury from getting worse. (standardofcare.com)
  • SUNRISE, Fla. (AP) - Florida Panthers winger Anthony Duclair had surgery to repair an Achilles tendon injury and is expected to miss significant time next season. (nhlpa.com)
  • This exercise will get you started on building strength after an Achilles tendon injury. (alberta.ca)
  • More than 80 out of 100 people who have surgery for an Achilles tendon rupture are able to return to all the activities they did before the injury, including returning to sports. (peacehealth.org)
  • The possibility that the healed tendon will not be as strong as before the injury. (peacehealth.org)
  • The injury - a torn Achilles tendon - occurred during the second show of the band's long-awaited Public Service Announcement tour with Run the Jewels in Chicago on July 11. (guitarworld.com)
  • Imaging modalities that are used most commonly in the diagnostic assessment of the Achilles tendon include conventional radiography, ultrasonography, and MRI. (nih.gov)
  • The Achilles tendon connects muscle to bone, like other tendons, and is located at the back of the lower leg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Achilles tendon connects the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to the calcaneal tuberosity on the calcaneus (heel bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the fibres of the tendon spiral about 90 degrees, fibres from the gastrocnemius tend to attach to the outer part of the bone, whereas fibres from the soleus tend to attach closer to the midline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tendons do not fossilise well, but they leave traces called Sharpey's fibers where they attach to the bone. (newscientist.com)
  • Consists of the Achilles tendon and a calcaneal bone block. (nhsbt.nhs.uk)
  • Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscle to bone. (merckmanuals.com)
  • [ 2 ] The bone plug of the Achilles was inserted in the popliteus origin at the anterior aspect of the popliteus sulcus. (medscape.com)
  • These muscles, acting via the tendon, cause plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle joint, and (except the soleus) flexion at the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acting via the Achilles tendon, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles cause plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the Achilles tendon is intact, plantar flexion of the ankle to 20 to 30° occurs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A bursa lies between the tendon and the upper part of the calcaneus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the tendon tears, it is often accompanied by a "pop" felt in the back of the lower leg. (bellin.org)
  • Then one and a half shows into it and my tendon tears. (guitarworld.com)
  • Very rarely, spontaneous Achilles tendon tears have occurred in people who take fluoroquinolone antibiotics or corticosteroids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Achilles tendon tears may be partial or complete. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The blood supply to the Achilles tendon is poor, and mostly via a recurrent branch of the posterior tibial artery, and some through arterial branches passing through surrounding muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bill Sellers of the University of Manchester, UK, created a computer model of human hips and legs, including the tendons and muscles. (newscientist.com)
  • The models, powered by NW-GRID , created frames with the most important muscles, tendons and bones. (isgtw.org)
  • Achilles tendinosis is the soreness or stiffness of the tendon, particularly worse when exercising, and generally due to overuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery may also be used in the treatment of Achilles tendinosis and paratenonitis. (medscape.com)
  • In tendinosis, in addition to the above procedures, the degenerated portions of the tendon and any osteophytes are excised. (medscape.com)
  • The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon at the back of the lower leg, and is the thickest in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sellers wrote: "By running simulations both with and without this structure we can demonstrate its importance, and we suggest that identification of the presence or otherwise of this tendon - perhaps by calcaneal morphology or Sharpey's fibers - is essential for identifying when and where in the fossil record human style running originated. (isgtw.org)
  • In a multimeter , randomized, control trial comparing non-operative treatment, open repair, and minimally invasive surgery in adults with acute Achilles tendon rupture: there was not an association of better outcomes in operative treatment at 12 months (Myhrvold SB). (standardofcare.com)
  • The most common symptoms are sharp achy pain and swelling around the affected tendon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms include severe pain in the back of the ankle, swelling, and bruising, a loud pop or snapping sound, a gap in the tendon about 2 inches above the heel, and difficulty walking. (standardofcare.com)
  • 152 ancianos atendidos en la atención primaria de agosto a octubre de 2021. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to examine the effect of training-induced stiffening of the Achilles tendon on triceps surae muscle-tendon behavior during a landing task. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, during a task where power attenuation is required, the tendon mechanical properties affect the active lengthening of muscle fibers and their ability to dissipate energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, we investigated if storage of healing tendons in the fridge or freezer changed the mechanical properties compared to fresh tendons, using a pull-to-failure or a creep test. (lu.se)
  • Quantification of Mechanical Properties in Healthy Achilles Tendon Using Continuous Shear Wave Elastography: A Reliability and Validation Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purposes of this study were to (i) evaluate the intra-rater reliability of estimating Achilles tendon mechanical properties with continuous shear wave elastography (cSWE), (ii) propose an equivalent shear modulus comparable to Supersonic Shear Imaging, (iii) demonstrate construct validity of cSWE and (iv) explore relationships between tensile and shear properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Achilles tendon mechanical properties were estimated with cSWE at four time points throughout a 4-h period and at a 2-wk follow up. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intra-rater reliability was fair-to-excellent for Achilles tendon mechanical properties estimated with cSWE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Findings demonstrate that cSWE has sufficient intra-rater reliability and validity for estimating Achilles tendon mechanical properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bears coach Marc Trestman confirmed Monday that defensive end Willie Young suffered a torn Achilles' tendon in Sunday's 20-14 loss to the Detroit Lions. (chicagobears.com)
  • The patient was taken to the operating room for anterior and posterior cruciate ligament as well as posterolateral corner reconstruction, including biceps tendon repair by one surgeon (RGM). (medscape.com)
  • Lateral side reconstruction using a single Achilles tendon allograft. (medscape.com)
  • He then restored normal elasticity to the Achilles tendon only. (newscientist.com)
  • By altering the elasticity in the tendons of their models, the experimenters were able to see that a tight Achilles would make running more exhausting and necessarily slower. (isgtw.org)
  • Surgery may be done to sew the tendon back together. (denverhealth.org)
  • Surgery, special casts, and physical therapy help the tendon heal, and most people can resume normal activities after 4 to 6 months. (standardofcare.com)
  • Surgery to reattach the tendon helps to return to activities more quickly, and it has a lower risk for reinjury than nonsurgical treatment. (standardofcare.com)
  • According to an Indiana press release, junior guard Maurice Creek underwent surgery Monday to repair a torn Achilles' tendon he suffered away from the basketball court in his left leg. (btn.com)
  • Surgery and casting or casting alone may be required to repair a torn Achilles tendon. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Saleh was not immediately certain when or where Vera-Tucker would have surgery to repair his Achilles tendon. (fox40.com)
  • In both types of surgery, the surgeon sews the tendon back together through the incision(s). (peacehealth.org)
  • This surgery is done to repair an Achilles tendon that has been torn into two pieces. (peacehealth.org)
  • Previous Achilles tendon surgery on the affected side c. (who.int)
  • Rodgers is out for the season after tearing his Achilles tendon on the fourth snap of his debut with his new team Monday night, a 22-16 overtime victory over Buffalo. (wilx.com)
  • Surgical techniques for rupture repair are varied but usually involve reapproximation of the torn ends of the Achilles tendon, sometimes reinforced by the gastrocsoleus aponeurosis or plantaris tendon. (medscape.com)
  • Studies indicate that patients who undergo percutaneous, rather than an open, Achilles tendon rupture repair have a minimal rate of infection but a high rate of sural nerve entrapment (16.7% of treated cases). (medscape.com)
  • Mandelbaum BR, Myerson MS, Foster R: Achilles tendon rupture: A new method of repair early range of motion, and functional rehabilitation. (medigraphic.com)
  • Soldatis JJ, Goodfellow DB, Wilber JH: End to end operative repair of Achilles tendon rupture. (medigraphic.com)
  • For this reason, most surgeons caring for injured athletes will repair the tendon with sutures to restore its optimal length. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Surgical repair of the tendon was done. (radiopaedia.org)
  • New York Jets offensive lineman Alijah Vera-Tucker has a torn Achilles tendon that will sideline him for the rest of the season. (fox40.com)
  • All participants will receive a standardized rehabilitation programme for Achilles tendinopathy. (who.int)
  • A rupture of the tendon is a tearing and separation of the tendon fibers so that the tendon can no longer perform its normal function. (aaos.org)
  • The Achilles tendon is composed of a mixture of interwoven collagen fibers. (stoneclinic.com)
  • These fibers have chemical crosslinks that, depending on your genetic makeup, can either make for a very flexible tendon or one that is quite stiff. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Most of the time this remarkable process induces the torn tendons to heal-often with slightly thicker fibers and if exercise is applied occasionally, with a stronger tendon. (stoneclinic.com)
  • We suture through tiny punctures in the skin, preserving the tendon sheath and the natural healing blood clot that forms around the torn fibers. (stoneclinic.com)
  • The lateral fibers of the Achilles tendon show a full-thickness defect approximately 25 mm away from the insertion site. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The central fibers of the tendon show a partial thickness defect involving superficial fibers. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The medial most fibers of the tendon are intact. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Bleeding occurs from the torn blood vessels within the tendon and, sometimes, from the sheath itself. (stoneclinic.com)
  • [ 12 ] Deposition of cholestanol and other intermediate metabolites in the CNS (the brain and spinal cord), muscle (including the heart), blood vessels, eyes, and tendons results in progressive dysfunction unless treatment is initiated to prevent further accumulation of toxic metabolites. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] Deposition of cholestanol and cholesterol in the CNS (the brain and spinal cord), muscle (including the heart), blood vessels, eye, and tendon results in a degenerative process that worsens over time unless treated. (medscape.com)
  • Typically, the only sign of the condition may be a palpable intratendinous nodule that accompanies the tendon as the ankle is placed through its range of motion (ROM). (medscape.com)
  • Torn Achilles tendons typically take several months of recovery due to the extensive rehabilitation needed. (wspa.com)
  • Achilles tendon pathologies include rupture and tendonitis. (medscape.com)
  • A ruptured Achilles tendon may occur when the tendon has been structurally weakened by an ongoing tendonitis, or when a completely healthy tendon is subjected to a sudden, unexpected force. (experts123.com)
  • Rats underwent Achilles tendon transection and were euthanized 12 days postoperatively. (lu.se)
  • In 1999, a year after the Jets were one win shy of the Super Bowl, they saw Vinny Testaverde exit the opener with a season-ending Achilles tendon rupture. (yahoo.com)
  • The situation evoked eerily similar memories of 1999, when Vinny Testaverde - who, coincidentally, was the Jets' honorary captain Monday night - ruptured his Achilles tendon early in New York's season opener against New England. (wspa.com)
  • Therapy will help with swelling and pain control initially, as well as, recovering the strength, motion, and use of your leg and foot as the tendon heals. (bellin.org)
  • At first, the cast or boot is positioned to keep the foot pointed downward as the tendon heals. (peacehealth.org)
  • This is diagnosed in patients with activity-related pain, as well as swelling of the tendon sheath and tendon nodularity. (medscape.com)
  • The Achilles is a broad, thick tendon that passes within a thin sheath. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Yet, the influence of changes in tendon stiffness within the physiological range upon these lengthening contractions is unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • After training, plantarflexion strength and Achilles tendon stiffness increased (15 and 18%, respectively), and tendon strain during landing remained similar. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that a training-induced increase in tendon stiffness does not noticeably affect the buffering action of the tendon when the MTU is rapidly stretched. (frontiersin.org)
  • tendons also act as mechanical buffers to accommodate rapid stretches of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) and thus contribute to mechanical energy dissipation via lengthening contractions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Achilles is commonly torn during quick movement patterns during sporting activities such as running, basketball, soccer, and tennis. (bellin.org)
  • The most commonly injured tendon. (standardofcare.com)
  • The sural nerve accompanies the small saphenous vein as it descends in the posterior leg, traveling inferolateral to it as it crosses the lateral border of the Achilles tendon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peroneal tendon subluxation is due to detachment of the peroneal retinaculum from its normal insertion on the posterior border of the fibula to the lateral surface of the fibula. (medscape.com)
  • The structures of the posterior lateral corner were torn, including the fibular collateral ligament and popliteus tendon (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • The tendon is also known as the heel cord. (bellin.org)
  • The Achilles tendon often becomes painful for athletes of all ages. (stoneclinic.com)
  • Disorders of tendons and fascia and adolescent and adult pes planus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Determination of whether the inflammation is in the muscle, tendon, or joint is of paramount importance. (medscape.com)
  • But definitive proof has been lacking, because experimenters cannot take away a human's Achilles tendon to see what happens. (newscientist.com)
  • In humans, several studies have demonstrated a stiffening of the Achilles tendon after various types of resistance training (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reductions in gastrocnemius fascicle lengthening and lengthening velocity during landing occurred independently from tendon strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Verheyen referred to the mythological account of Achilles being held by the heel by his mother Thetis when she dipped him in the River Styx as a baby to render his body invulnerable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beginning of the Krackow suture (see pectoralis major tendon rupture )of #5 braided permanent material is shown from the patient's left side. (vesalius.com)
  • The tendon was exposed through the same posterior midline incision previously used (viewed from the patient's left). (vesalius.com)
  • Left Achilles tendon region laceration a few hours before the presentation. (radiopaedia.org)
  • A rupture can occur from simply overstretching your Achilles tendon in the course of a simple activity, such as gardening. (experts123.com)
  • That shit will kill your liver far before it should be doing tendon and ligament damage. (godlikeproductions.com)