A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. This should not be confused with Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. Members contain teuscordonin. There have been reports of hepatoxicity by this genus.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pulicanadienes and other cytotoxic SESQUITERPENES.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.

DPPH radical scavengers from dried leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare). (1/31)

1,1-Dipehnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were found in the extract of dried leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare). The water-soluble active ingredients were isolated, and their structures were determined to be 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl 4-O-methylprotocatechuate by (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral analyses, and by NOE experiments. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of these compounds were compared with those of rutin, quercetin and rosmarinic acid at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) M. The scavenging activity of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate was almost the same as that of quercetin and rosmarinic acid, but that of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybennzyl 4-O-methylprotocatechuate was less than that of quercetin, rosmarinic acid and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate. The amount of 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl protocatechuate was estimated to be 3.8 mg/1 g of dried leaves by an HPLC analysis.  (+info)

Triterpenic derivatives of Achillea alexandri-regis BORNM. & RUDSKI. (2/31)

Investigation of the aerial parts of Achillea alexandri-regis led to the identification of 19 chemical constituents: twelve 3-O-fatty acid esters of triterpene alcohols arnidiol (1-4), maniladiol (5-8) and 16beta-hydroxylupeol (9-12), alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, 3,4-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, cinnamic acid, pinoresinol-beta-D-glucoside and rutin. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 8, 11 and 12 are new natural products. The structures of all compounds have been elucidated on the basis of their spectral and chemical data.  (+info)

Comparative radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract and fractions from Achillea ligustica ALL. (3/31)

The yield of methanolic extract and total phenol and non polar content of flowered parts from Achillea ligustica ALL. are reported. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fraction showed that the triterpene moretenol was the major constituent (17.228%) followed by stigmast-6-en-3beta-ol, veridiflorol and beta-amyrin (7.524%, 5.078% 4.470%, respectively). The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions from A. ligustica were carried out using two different in vitro assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and lipid peroxidation of liposomes assay. Methanolic extract showed higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH (IC50 of 50 microg/ml). This activity is probably due to the phenolic fraction which shown an IC50 value of 22 microg/ml. A different result was obtained from the methanolic extract on the lipid peroxidation of liposomes (IC50 of 416 microg/ml). The alpha-amylase inhibition assay was applied to evaluate antidiabetic activity. The methanolic extract showed weak activity (28.18% at 1 mg/ml) while the n-hexane fraction showed 74.96% inhibition at 250 microg/ml.  (+info)

Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural populations of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae). (4/31)

Polyploidy is a major mechanism of speciation and adaptation, yet little is known about the origins of polyploids in natural species. I investigated gametic nonreduction and neopolyploid formation in natural tetraploid populations of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), an autopolyploid complex consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes. Cytological analyses of tetraploid populations revealed the occurrence of reduced (n=2x) as well as unreduced 'big' (2n=4x) and 'jumbo' (4n=8x) pollen grains, which were clearly distinguished by size. Production of unreduced pollen was monitored in two tetraploid populations in 1997 and 1998. Mean population-level frequencies of unreduced pollen ranged from 0.030 to 0.538%, with as few as one-third and as many as one-half of sampled plants producing unreduced grains. Eight individuals were found to produce >1% unreduced pollen, with highest observed frequencies of 7.0, 13.2 and 15.8%. Experimental crosses using high unreduced pollen producers as male parents generated viable seeds. However, the frequency of neohexaploids in the progeny of experimental crosses (0.388%) was similar to that observed in progeny of randomly selected, open-pollinated control parents (0.465%). These results suggest that unreduced eggs are the most likely source of new polyploids. In spite of the inefficiency of unreduced pollen in unilateral sexual polyploidization, the overall rate of neohexaploid formation (one in 233) was several orders of magnitude greater than estimates of genic mutation rates.  (+info)

Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. (5/31)

The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.  (+info)

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele essential oils. (6/31)

The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL).  (+info)

Variability of phenolic compounds in flowers of Achillea millefolium wild populations in Lithuania. (7/31)

Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g.  (+info)

Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice. (8/31)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Many investigations are performed to find an effective and safe treatment for leishmaniasis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of herbal extracts of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) and Achillea millefolium (Yarrow), propolis hydroalcoholic extract and systemic glucantime against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: A total of 45 mice were randomised into five groups each including nine mice. They were treated with pure ethanol 70 degrees, systemic glucantime, Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract, Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract and propolis hydroalcoholic extract for six weeks. The statistical tests including student t-test were used for analysis. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, ver 13.00. RESULTS: Mean of ulcer size reduction were -17.66, -22.57, 43.29, 36.09 and 43.77% for the alcohol, glucantime, yarrow, thyme and propolis groups, respectively. The results were suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts were significantly more effective in reduction of ulcer size as compared with glucantime (p = 0.006, 0.002 and 0.008, respectively). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our results are suggestive that Thymus vulgaris, Achillea millefolium and propolis extracts are effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Regarding these results, we suggest that efficacy of these extracts alone or in combination are evaluated against human cutaneous leishmaniasis as a randomized clinical trial.  (+info)

"Achillea" is the genus name for a group of flowering plants commonly known as yarrows. These plants belong to the family Asteraceae and are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name "Achillea" comes from Achilles, the legendary Greek hero of the Trojan War, who was said to have used the plant to treat wounds on the battlefield.

Yarrows are hardy herbaceous plants that typically grow to a height of 1-2 feet. They have feathery, aromatic leaves and produce clusters of small flowers in shades of white, yellow, pink, or red. The flowers are popular with bees and butterflies, making yarrows a good choice for pollinator gardens.

Yarrows have a long history of use in traditional medicine. The leaves and flowers can be made into teas, tinctures, or salves to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, cuts, bruises, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that certain species of yarrow may have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It's worth noting that some people may experience allergic reactions to yarrow, particularly if they are sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. If you are considering using yarrow for medicinal purposes, it's a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider first to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your needs.

"Ruscus" is a botanical term and does not have a medical definition per se. However, it refers to a genus of evergreen shrubs commonly known as "Butcher's Broom," which has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes.

The medicinal preparations made from Ruscus are often standardized to contain certain active compounds, such as ruscogenins and neoruscogenins, which have been studied for their potential effects on blood circulation, venous tone, and inflammation. Some proponents of herbal medicine use Butcher's Broom extracts to treat symptoms related to chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, or swelling in the legs.

However, it is essential to note that while Ruscus has a long history of traditional use, its efficacy and safety as a medical treatment are not fully established. Therefore, individuals should consult their healthcare providers before starting any new supplements or treatments, including those made from Ruscus.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

Teucrium is a genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It includes several species commonly known as germander, which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. However, it's important to note that the use of some Teucrium species as herbal remedies has been associated with serious side effects, including liver toxicity. Therefore, their medical use is not recommended without proper medical supervision and scientific evidence supporting their safety and efficacy.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes, which are large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds derived from isoprene, a five-carbon molecule. Sesquiterpenes are composed of three isoprene units, making them 15-carbon structures. They are synthesized in plants, fungi, and some insects, and can be found in various essential oils, resins, and other natural products.

Guaiane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes characterized by a particular carbon skeleton structure. Guaiane-type sesquiterpenes contain a unique bicyclic ring system with a five-membered ring fused to a seven-membered ring. This class of compounds includes various natural products, some of which have been found to exhibit biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects.

Examples of guaiane sesquiterpenes include:

1. Guaiol: A compound found in the wood of the guaiacum tree, it has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
2. Bulnesin: A compound isolated from the bulnesia sarmientoi tree, it has shown potential as an anticancer agent.
3. Elephantopusin: A compound found in elephantopus mollis, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

It is important to note that while these compounds have demonstrated biological activities, further research is necessary to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.

"Pulicaria" is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It includes around 100 species that are primarily found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Some common names for plants in this genus include fleabane, fleawort, and camphor plant. While some species of Pulicaria have been used in traditional medicine, there is no widely accepted medical definition specifically for "Pulicaria."

It's worth noting that the term "pulicaria" has been used historically to refer to certain plants with insect-repellent properties, which were believed to be effective against fleas. However, this usage is not related to a specific medical definition or diagnosis. If you have any specific concerns about health conditions or treatments, it's always best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

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