A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The region contains genes encoding BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that play a critical role in the regulation of pattern formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The type species of the genus ILTOVIRUS found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian. (1/5)


Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. (2/5)


Expression of the active Notch1 decreases MTC tumor growth in vivo. (3/5)


Nematostella vectensis achaete-scute homolog NvashA regulates embryonic ectodermal neurogenesis and represents an ancient component of the metazoan neural specification pathway. (4/5)


BMP and Delta/Notch signaling control the development of amphioxus epidermal sensory neurons: insights into the evolution of the peripheral sensory system. (5/5)


The Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C) is a genomic region that encodes basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which are essential for the development and differentiation of specific types of cells in various organisms, including insects and mammals. In Drosophila melanogaster, the AS-C genome region contains several genes, such as achaete, scute, lethal of scute, asense, and daughterless, that are involved in neurogenesis and sensory organ development.

The AS-C genes are highly conserved across species, and their mammalian homologs, such as MASH1, HES1, and NEUROD1, play crucial roles in the development of the nervous system, including neural stem cell maintenance, neurogenesis, and differentiation. Mutations or dysregulation of AS-C genes have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders.

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a type of proteins that regulate gene expression through binding to specific DNA sequences. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The bHLH domain is composed of two amphipathic α-helices separated by a loop region. This structure allows the formation of homodimers or heterodimers, which then bind to the E-box DNA motif (5'-CANNTG-3') to regulate transcription.

The bHLH family can be further divided into several subfamilies based on their sequence similarities and functional characteristics. Some members of this family are involved in the development and function of the nervous system, while others play critical roles in the development of muscle and bone. Dysregulation of bHLH transcription factors has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Sense organs are specialized structures in living organisms that are responsible for receiving and processing various external or internal stimuli, such as light, sound, taste, smell, temperature, and touch. They convert these stimuli into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system, allowing the organism to interact with and respond to its environment. Examples of sense organs include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A human genome is the complete set of genetic information contained within the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of most human cells. It includes all of the genes, which are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins, as well as non-coding regions of DNA that regulate gene expression and provide structural support to the chromosomes.

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and is estimated to contain around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003 as part of the Human Genome Project, which has had a profound impact on our understanding of human biology, disease, and evolution.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1), also known as Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and specifically the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects chickens and causes Marek's disease, a highly contagious neoplastic disease characterized by T-cell lymphomas in various organs of the chicken.

The virus is transmitted through the respiratory route and establishes latency in CD4+ T-lymphocytes. GaHV-1 has a complex genome, encoding for more than 100 open reading frames (ORFs), including several virulence factors that contribute to its oncogenic properties.

GaHV-1 infection can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as neurological signs, paralysis, and immunosuppression, in addition to the development of tumors. Vaccination is an effective control measure against Marek's disease, although new strains with increased virulence have emerged, requiring continuous monitoring and vaccine development efforts.

I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. In genetics, there are no specific "gene components." However, genes themselves are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which consist of two complementary strands that twist around each other to form a double helix.

The DNA molecule is composed of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair up with each other in specific ways: Adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine.

The gene is a segment of DNA that contains the instructions for making a particular protein or performing a specific function within an organism. The sequence of these nucleotide bases determines the genetic information encoded in a gene.

So, if you're referring to the parts of a gene, they can be described as:

1. Promoter: A region at the beginning of a gene that acts as a binding site for RNA polymerase, an enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA.
2. Introns and exons: Introns are non-coding sequences within a gene, while exons are coding sequences that contain information for protein synthesis. Introns are removed during RNA processing, and exons are spliced together to form the final mature mRNA (messenger RNA) molecule.
3. Regulatory elements: These are specific DNA sequences that control gene expression, such as enhancers, silencers, and transcription factor binding sites. They can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of a gene.
4. Terminator: A region at the end of a gene that signals RNA polymerase to stop transcribing DNA into RNA.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is that part of the nervous system which lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. It includes all the nerves and ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS is divided into two components: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS, and for controlling voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.

The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, and sexual arousal. It is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Damage to the peripheral nervous system can result in various medical conditions such as neuropathies, neuritis, plexopathies, and radiculopathies, leading to symptoms like numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Helix-loop-helix (HLH) motifs are structural domains found in certain proteins, particularly transcription factors, that play a crucial role in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. These motifs consist of two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop region. The first helix is known as the "helix-1" or "recognition helix," while the second one is called the "helix-2" or "dimerization helix."

In many HLH proteins, the helices come together to form a dimer through interactions between their hydrophobic residues located in the core of the helix-2. This dimerization enables DNA binding by positioning the recognition helices in close proximity to each other and allowing them to interact with specific DNA sequences, often referred to as E-box motifs (CANNTG).

HLH motifs can be further classified into basic HLH (bHLH) proteins and HLH-only proteins. bHLH proteins contain a basic region adjacent to the N-terminal end of the first helix, which facilitates DNA binding. In contrast, HLH-only proteins lack this basic region and primarily function as dimerization partners for bHLH proteins or participate in other protein-protein interactions.

These motifs are involved in various cellular processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of HLH proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

The formation of neuroblasts depends on the Achaete-scute complex genes - achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and ... The helixes mediate dimerization, and the adjacent basic region is required for DNA binding. The human genome contains ... Members of achaete-scute complex, such as achaete and scute, as well as ''atonal'' and ''daughterless'' confer to ectodermal ... Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural ...
Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila), also known as ASCL2, is an imprinted human gene. This gene is a member of the ... Human ASCL2 genome location and ASCL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Miyamoto T, Jinno Y, Sasaki T, Ikeda Y, ... gene region". Journal of Human Genetics. 43 (1): 69-70. doi:10.1007/s100380050041. PMID 9610003. Onions J, Hermann S, ... Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (ASCL2) is a maternally expressed imprinted gene that codes is a part of the basic helix-loop- ...
... the Achaete-scute complex, it was originally named MASH-1 for mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. This gene encodes a member of ... Human ASCL1 genome location and ASCL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. This article incorporates text from the ... transcriptional regulation by dual inhibitory regions". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 8 (6): 677-86. PMID 9186001. Lo L, ... "Entrez Gene: ASCL1 achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Sanes DH (2011). The development of the nervous system. ...
... to tag certain regions of the genome where AP site damage occurrence has been significant. Another genome-wide mapping ... February 2009). "Translational regulation of the human achaete-scute homologue-1 by fragile X mental retardation protein". The ... Metal complexes have a number of features that make them particularly suitable as G4 DNA binders and therefore as potential ... AP site damage was found to be predominant in PQS regions of the genome, where formation of G-quadruplex structures is ...
The preinitiation complex binds to promoter regions of DNA upstream to the gene that they regulate. Other transcription factors ... Achaete-Scute 1.2.4 Family: Tal/Twist/Atonal/Hen 1.3 Class: Helix-loop-helix / leucine zipper factors (bHLH-ZIP) 1.3.1 Family: ... The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, and larger genomes tend to have more ... Genome Informatics. International Conference on Genome Informatics. 15 (2): 276-86. PMID 15706513. Archived from the original ...
It is suspected CFAP298 is found in the brain early in development due to the two achaete-scute complex homologue transcription ... transcription start sites and discovery of a large number of additional exons in ENCODE regions". Genome Research. 17 (6): 746- ... Human CFAP298 genome location and CFAP298 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Denoeud F, Kapranov P, Ucla C, Frankish ... The CFAP298 gene lies within the critical region of Down Syndrome. There are no clear paralogs in humans, but the gene has ...
Chen H, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Van Gompel JJ (2006). "Medullary thyroid cancer: the functions of raf-1 and human achaete-scute ... enabling complex movements and profound conformational rearrangements within the molecule. This hinge region contains a small, ... Human RAF1 genome location and RAF1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information ... Historically, this autoinhibitory block was labelled as the CR1 region ("Conserved Region 1"), the hinge region being named CR2 ...
The formation of neuroblasts depends on the Achaete-scute complex genes - achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and ... The helixes mediate dimerization, and the adjacent basic region is required for DNA binding. The human genome contains ... Members of achaete-scute complex, such as achaete and scute, as well as atonal and daughterless confer to ectodermal ... Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region 10% * Matrix Metalloproteinases 10% 由 Pure、Scopus 與 Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2023 ...
The basic helix-loop-helix protein, achaete-scute complex-like 1/achaete-scute homologue 1 (ASH1), is expressed in normal fetal ... Genome and transcriptome sequencing of lung cancers reveal diverse mutational and splicing events.. Genome Res. 2012; 22(12): ... Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q ... by addition of the human achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASH1) enhancer. We developed an oncolytic serotype 5-based adenovirus ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region. *Locus Control Region. *Major Histocompatibility Complex. *Minor Histocompatibility Loci ... Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates ... Genome-wide association study implicates immune dysfunction in the development of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2018 11 08; 132(19): ... Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes. ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region [G05.360.340.024.380.124] Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region ... Locus Control Region Entry term(s). Control Region, Locus Control Regions, Locus Locus Control Regions Region, Locus Control ... Control Region, Locus. Control Regions, Locus. Locus Control Regions. Region, Locus Control. Regions, Locus Control. ... Locus Control Region - Preferred Concept UI. M0029559. Scope note. A regulatory region first identified in the human beta- ...
Human achaete-scute homologue (hASH1) mRNA level as a diagnostic marker to distinguish esthesioneuroblastoma from poorly ... This is partially due to the ability to analyze cancer genomes on a whole genome basis. Recently, a tool called array ... Due to the rare and complex nature of ENB, multiple opinions exist regarding the etiology, optimal staging system, and ... Usefulness of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of "small" round cell tumors of the sinonasal region. Ultrastruct Pathol. ...
Achaete-Scute homologue 2-regulated follicular helper T cells promote autoimmunity in a murine model for Sjogren syndrome. Am. ... 6 Characterization of TKMF5-binding region of hCD80.. a, Defective binding of TKMF5 to hCD80 mutants that cannot form cis-PD-L1 ... Multiple knockout of classical HLA class II beta-chains by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing driven by a single guide RNA. J. Immunol. ... Major histocompatibility complex independent clonal T cell anergy by direct interaction of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B ...
Defective neuroblast commitment in mutants of the achaete-scute complex and adjacent genes of D. melanogaster ... A region of the Drosophila genome necessary for CNS development. . Nature. 282 ... S59 is expressed in three muscles in each abdominal segment (arrows in A3) as well as in the CNS (asterisk) and a region of the ... S59 is expressed in three muscles in each abdominal segment (arrows in A3) as well as in the CNS (asterisk) and a region of the ...
J:15850 Guillemot F, et al., Mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 is required for the early development of olfactory and autonomic ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ...
Since each of the chromosomal deficiencies uncovers multiple genes, further mapping of the relevant genome regions is expected ... Good candidates for such factors would be the proneural proteins Achaete or Scute or their partner Daughterless (Janody, 2011 ... Taatjes, D. J. (2010). The human Mediator complex: a versatile, genome-wide regulator of transcription. Trends Biochem Sci 35: ... The mediator complex was first defined in yeast as a large multisubunit complex required for transcription of RNA polymerase II ...
... the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 and the transcription factors POU class 3 homeobox 2 and achaete-scute ... RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain ... Genomic regions, transcripts, and products Go to the top of the page Help ... Myt1L interacts via a conserved motif with the PAH1 domain of Sin3 to recruit the Sin3L/Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex. ...
... and achaete-scute (Ash1 or Mash1 in mouse), as well as NeuroD, Islet1, Phox2a, Phox2b, Brn3a, and Brn3c (Schlosser, 2006). ... 2018). The sea lamprey germline genome provides insights into programmed genome rearrangement and vertebrate evolution. Nat. ... Placodes arise in the non-neural ectoderm just lateral to the neural plate border, a region known as the pre-placodal ectoderm ... The vertebrate head is a complex tapestry of morphological features woven together during embryonic development from a varied ...
The genetics of the Drosophila achaete-scute gene complex: a historical appraisal ... In addition to a bHLH domain, NeuroD subfamily members contain a 40 amino acid region, called the extended homology region, ... elegans genome. A search of the C. elegans database using the CND-1 sequence further identified a closely related bHLH protein ... the Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C) subfamily and the Atonal subfamily. Members of both subfamilies are transiently expressed in ...
... the Drosophila achaete-scute, twist, and daughterless proteins, and two recently described immunoglobulin enhancer binding ... The major breakpoint region (mbr) within the 3 untranslated region of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene accounts for approximately 60% ... A trithorax-group complex purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for methylation of histone H3 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ... MicroRNA programs in normal and aberrant stem and progenitor cells GENOME RESEARCH Arnold, C. P., Tan, R., Zhou, B., Yue, S., ...
... achaete-scute family BHLH transcription factor 4 and divalent metal transporter 1 protein expression. Fer-1 significantly ... Genome-wide placental DNA methylation patterns were relatively stable and not significantly affected by levels of one-carbon ... RBC folate and particularly the SAM:SAH ratio did affect overall CpG DNA methylation in some CpG regions when the loci were ... Folate plays an important role in the modulation of one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation through a complex biosynthesis ...
1993) Mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 is required for the early development of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Cell 75: 463- ... Článek Genome-scale Analysis of FNR Reveals Complex Features of Transcription Factor Binding ... Arrows point to region of SCG. ascl1 does not regulate phox2b in zebrafish. Observations in murine models have revealed that ... Genome-scale Analysis of FNR Reveals Complex Features of Transcription Factor Binding ...
The expression pattern of two zebrafish achaete-scute homolog (ash) genes is altered in the embryonic brain of the cyclops ... To prepare coe2 capped RNA, the full-length coding region of coe2 (Bally-Cuif et al.,1998) was PCR-amplified using the ... Both constructs were then flanked by I SceI restriction sites, which allow efficient integration in the Medaka genome in co- ... prevents activity of the enzymatic complex cleaving Notch(De Strooper et al., 2001; Steiner and Haass, 2000) and induces ...
... that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice ... BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute ... DMDS acted on complex IV or complex I. ... The full genome of A. hydrophila AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp. The ... Ref: Genome Announc, 4:, 2016 : PubMed. Abstract. ESTHER: Yang_2016_Genome.Announc_4_. PubMedSearch: Yang 2016 Genome.Announc 4 ...
... l sc has been proposed to play a role in muscle progenitor selection similar to the role of achaete and scute in neuroblast ... The second region (Col residues 297 to 431) shows 89% identity and partially overlaps a region of EBF sufficient for ... Genome-wide mapping of Collier in vivo binding sites highlights its hierarchical position in different transcription regulatory ... In a complex nervous system, neuronal functional diversity is reflected in the wide variety of dendritic arbor shapes. ...
... achaete and scute genes are controlled by combinations of axis-patterning genes through a common intergenic control region. ... Owing to the ongoing deepening and medio-lateral compression of the invagination, pycnogonid NSCs are found in a complex three- ... Genome Biol Evol. 2010, 2: 425-440. 10.1093/gbe/evq030.. PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar ... Wheeler SR, Carrico ML, Wilson BA, Brown SJ, Skeath JB: The expression and function of the achaete-scute genes in Tribolium ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Preferred Concept UI. M0541078. Scope Note. A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The ... Genome Components [G05.360.340.024] * Genetic Loci [G05.360.340.024.380] * Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region [G05.360.340.024 ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Preferred Term Term UI T761383. Date11/23/2009. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2011). ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region. Tree Number(s). G05.360.340.024.380.124. Unique ID. D058145. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Preferred Concept UI. M0541078. Scope Note. A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The ... Genome Components [G05.360.340.024] * Genetic Loci [G05.360.340.024.380] * Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region [G05.360.340.024 ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Preferred Term Term UI T761383. Date11/23/2009. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2011). ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region. Tree Number(s). G05.360.340.024.380.124. Unique ID. D058145. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Entry term(s). Achaete Scute Complex Genome Region Achaete Scute Gene Complex Achaete-Scute ... Achaete Scute Complex Genome Region. Achaete Scute Gene Complex. Achaete-Scute Gene Complex. Gene Complex, Achaete-Scute. Gene ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region - Preferred Concept UI. M0541078. Scope note. A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The ... Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region [G05.360.340.024.380.124] Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region ...
... the Achaete-Scute Complex - to demarcate the regions of the body where bristles can form. We found 4-5 Achaete-Scute Complex ... homologue genes (ASH) in the mammalian genome, which are homologous with scute in Drosophila. Although ASH2 and ASH3 have ... To investigate whether the members of the mammalian Achaete-Scute Complex homologue (ASH) gene family have evolved functional ... scute, pnr, ush, hairy, and emc) for bristle development between two species. We also checked the overexpression of scute and ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region UI - D058145 MN - G5.360.340.24.380.124 MS - A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The ... It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. HN - 2011 ... Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act ... HN - 2011 MH - Epidemics UI - D058872 MN - N6.850.290.200 MS - Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not ...
Significance of achaete-scute complex homologue 1 (ASCL1) in pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas; RNA sequence analyses using ... Comparative analysis of TTF-1 binding DNA regions in small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer.. Hokari S; Tamura Y ... Genome Med; 2020 Jul; 12(1):63. PubMed ID: 32669118. [TBL] [Abstract]. ... 7. MBD5 and MBD6 stabilize the BAP1 complex and promote BAP1-dependent cancer.. Tsuboyama N; Szczepanski AP; Zhao Z; Wang L. ...
... significance of inactive Notch signaling and expression of achaete-scute complex homologue 1. Ito T, Kudoh S, Ichimura T, ... Bioinformatics annotation of NHLH1 promoter region using the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome browser. (a) ... The histone modification tracks show the level of enrichment of the histone marks across the genome as determined by a ChIP‐seq ... Bioinformatics annotation of NHLH1 promoter region using the University of California Santa Cruz… ...
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region Achievement Achillea Achilles Tendon Achlorhydria Achlya Acholeplasma Acholeplasma ... Adaptor Protein Complex 1 Adaptor Protein Complex 2 Adaptor Protein Complex 3 Adaptor Protein Complex 4 Adaptor Protein Complex ... Electron Transport Complex I Electron Transport Complex II Electron Transport Complex III Electron Transport Complex IV ... Complementarity Determining Regions Complementary Therapies Complex Mixtures Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Compliance ...
Transcription factor achaete scute-like 2 controls intestinal stem cell fate. LG van der Flier, ME van Gijn, P Hatzis, P Kujala ... Genome-wide pattern of TCF7L2/TCF4 chromatin occupancy in colorectal cancer cells. P Hatzis, LG van der Flier, MA van Driel, V ... The Tup1-Cyc8 protein complex can shift from a transcriptional co-repressor to a transcriptional co-activator. RS Conlan, N ... TCF4 and CDX2, major transcription factors for intestinal function, converge on the same cis-regulatory regions. MP Verzi, P ...
Implications of Constitutive Expression of Achaete-scute Homologue-1 (ASH-1) on Airway Cell Growth and Differentiation during ... Complex Roles for PI3 Kinase and PH Domain Containing Proteins in Eukaryotic Chemotaxis ... HPV Testing and Visual Inspection Could Achieve Accurate and Affordable Cervical Cancer Screening in Resource-Poor Regions ... Cell-Type Specific Spatial Organization of Genomes CB-17 Quimby, Byrn Booth (NICHD) B. Booth Quimby, Alexei Arnaotov and Mary ...
... has sequence similarities to myc and the achaete-scute complex. 1989, Pubmed Conlon, A primary requirement for nodal in the ... suggesting they form a complex at critical target regions. This association is biologically important, as E2A is critical for ... Genomes *Download Xenopus Genomes. *X. laevis v10.1 (J-Strain) on JBrowse. *X. laevis v9.2 (J-Strain) on JBrowse ... GREAT improves functional interpretation of cis-regulatory regions. 2010, Pubmed Murre, A new DNA binding and dimerization ...
C21299 Q9NP58 ABL Interactor 2 C21300 Q9NYB9 Achaete-Scute Homolog 1 C21321 P50553 SH2B Adapter Protein 2 C21323 O14492 ... Region Protein C17477 P11274 Catenin Beta-1 C17478 P35222 Choriogonadotropin Subunit Beta C17479 P01233 Polycomb Complex ... C96018 O15519 Activin Receptor Type-1C C96021 Q8NER5 Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 C96024 Q9NZQ7 RecQ-Mediated Genome ... Recognition Complex Subunit 1 C34011 Q13415 Origin Recognition Complex Subunit 2 C34014 Q13416 Origin Recognition Complex ...
Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate. 1994, Pubmed Verschueren, ... RTK and TGF-beta signaling pathways genes in the sea urchin genome. 2007, Pubmed , Echinobase Lapraz, Patterning of the dorsal- ... Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor ... At blastula stages, protein complexes containing BMP2/4 and Chordin can diffuse towards the dorsal side to specify dorsal fates ...
  • The demonstration of human achaete-scute homologue ( HASH1 ) gene expression, although still investigational, could become the diagnostic procedure of choice. (medscape.com)
  • In a whole-genome sequencing in 17 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma cases and whole-exome sequencing in 71 cases, Song (2014), reported ASH1L alterations. (cancerindex.org)
  • This is partially due to the ability to analyze cancer genomes on a whole genome basis. (medscape.com)
  • Forced expression of this gene in combination with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 and the transcription factors POU class 3 homeobox 2 and achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 can convert fetal and postnatal human fibroblasts into induced neuronal cells, which are able to generate action potentials. (nih.gov)
  • The region is believed to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by opening and remodeling CHROMATIN structure. (bvsalud.org)
  • Besides CDK8 and CycC, further analyses of other subunits of the MED complex have revealed six additional subunits that are required for Mad-dependent transcription in the wing discs: Med12, Med13, Med15, Med23, Med24, and Med31. (sdbonline.org)
  • These results suggest that CDK8 and CycC, together with a few other subunits of the MED complex, may coordinate with other transcription cofactors in regulating Mad-dependent transcription during wing development in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Región reguladora que fue identificada por primera vez en el locus de la globina beta humana pero que se halló posteriormente en otros loci. (bvsalud.org)
  • A regulatory region first identified in the human beta-globin locus but subsequently found in other loci. (bvsalud.org)
  • MTHFR genotype was associated with DNA methylation of several loci, including a locus in the MTHFR region. (bvsalud.org)
  • RBC folate and particularly the SAM:SAH ratio did affect overall CpG DNA methylation in some CpG regions when the loci were split according to their CpG island relation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A web-based survey on various symptoms of computer vision syndrome and the genetic understanding based on a multi-trait genome-wide association study. (nih.gov)
  • Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural development in Drosophila, were identified[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryogenesis Drosophila constructs a complex pattern of larval muscles beneath the newly forming epidermis. (biologists.com)
  • Proneural proteins bind DNA as heterodimeric complexes that are formed by bHLH proteins or E proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using molecular tools it was possible to isolate the first four genes of this complex: achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and asense (ase). (wikipedia.org)
  • and two ato-related genes, amos and cato, were later-isolated, defining a second family of proneural genes - atonal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also observed hypermethylation at the promotor regions of autophagy genes (LC3B, ATG-5, and ATG-7). (bvsalud.org)
  • Genome-wide association study implicates immune dysfunction in the development of Hodgkin lymphoma. (childrensmercy.org)
  • International Cancer Genome Consortium. (cancerindex.org)
  • Dysregulation of CDK8 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8) and its regulatory partner CycC (Cyclin C) , two subunits of the conserved Mediator (MED) complex, have been linked to diverse human diseases such as cancer. (sdbonline.org)
  • Still, further experimentation will be required to determine the role of these genomic regions in ENB. (medscape.com)
  • Folate plays an important role in the modulation of one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation through a complex biosynthesis pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Therapeutic targeting of BAP1/ASXL3 sub-complex in ASCL1-dependent small cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The region contains genes encoding BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that play a critical role in the regulation of pattern formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT . (nih.gov)
  • A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA . (nih.gov)
  • Still, further experimentation will be required to determine the role of these genomic regions in ENB. (medscape.com)
  • We identified a new motif, termed SMAD complex-associated (SCA), that is bound by SMAD2 /3/4 and FOXH1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and derived endoderm . (xenbase.org)
  • D) Bar graphs show the percentage of each motif present in Smad2/3 target regions during gastrulation in X. tropicalis as determined by ChIP-seq. (xenbase.org)
  • The basic region and helix 1 of the bHLH domain form a long alpha-helix that is connected with the loop region to helix 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that HEB and E2A associate with SMAD2 /3 and FOXH1 , suggesting they form a complex at critical target regions. (xenbase.org)