Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region: A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The region contains genes encoding BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that play a critical role in the regulation of pattern formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Herpesvirus 1, Gallid: The type species of the genus ILTOVIRUS found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
(1/5) An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian.

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(2/5) Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus.

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(3/5) Expression of the active Notch1 decreases MTC tumor growth in vivo.

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(4/5) Nematostella vectensis achaete-scute homolog NvashA regulates embryonic ectodermal neurogenesis and represents an ancient component of the metazoan neural specification pathway.

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(5/5) BMP and Delta/Notch signaling control the development of amphioxus epidermal sensory neurons: insights into the evolution of the peripheral sensory system.

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*  Proneural genes
The formation of neuroblasts depends on the Achaete-scute complex genes - achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and ... The helixes mediate dimerization, and the adjacent basic region is required for DNA binding. The human genome contains ... Members of achaete-scute complex, such as achaete and scute, as well as ''atonal'' and ''daughterless'' confer to ectodermal ... Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural ...
*  ASCL2
Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila), also known as ASCL2, is an imprinted human gene. This gene is a member of the ... Human ASCL2 genome location and ASCL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Miyamoto T, Jinno Y, Sasaki T, Ikeda Y, ... gene region". Journal of Human Genetics. 43 (1): 69-70. doi:10.1007/s100380050041. PMID 9610003. Onions J, Hermann S, ... ASCL2 achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila)". Goo YH, Sohn YC, Kim DH, Kim SW, Kang MJ, Jung DJ, Kwak E, Barlev NA, ...
*  G-quadruplex
"Translational Regulation of the Human Achaete-scute Homologue-1 by Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein". Journal of Biological ... These telomeric regions are characterized by long regions of double-stranded CCCTAA:TTAGGG repeats. The repeats end with a 3' ... "Genome-wide prediction of G4 DNA as regulatory motifs: Role in Escherichia coli global regulation". Genome Research. 16 (5): ... The heterodimeric complex ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase adds TTAGGG repeats at the 3' end of DNA strands. At these 3' end ...
*  ASCL1
... the Achaete-scute complex, it was originally named MASH-1 for mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. This gene encodes a member of ... Human ASCL1 genome location and ASCL1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. This article incorporates text from the ... transcriptional regulation by dual inhibitory regions". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 8 (6): 677-86. PMID 9186001. Lo L, ... "Entrez Gene: ASCL1 achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Sanes, Dan Harvey (2011). The development of the nervous ...
*  Transcription factor
There are up to 2600 TFs in the human genome. TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator ... Achaete-Scute 1.2.4 Family: Tal/Twist/Atonal/Hen 1.3 Class: Helix-loop-helix / leucine zipper factors (bHLH-ZIP) 1.3.1 Family: ... The preinitiation complex binds to promoter regions of DNA upstream to the gene that they regulate. Other transcription factors ... The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, and larger genomes tend to have more ...
*  C21orf59
It is suspected C21orf59 is found in the brain early in development due to the two achaete-scute complex homologue ... transcription start sites and discovery of a large number of additional exons in ENCODE regions". Genome Res. 17 (6): 746-59. ... Human C21orf59 genome location and C21orf59 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Denoeud F, Kapranov P, Ucla C, et al ... The C21orf59 gene lies within the critical region of Down Syndrome. There are no clear paralogs in humans, but the gene has ...
*  C-Raf
Chen H, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Van Gompel JJ (2006). "Medullary thyroid cancer: the functions of raf-1 and human achaete-scute ... enabling complex movements and profound conformational rearrangements within the molecule. This hinge region contains a small, ... Human RAF1 genome location and RAF1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Historically, this autoinhibitory block was labelled as the CR1 region ("Conserved Region 1"), the hinge region being named CR2 ...
ABSTRACT: Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) is an unclassified, pathogenic virus first discovered in Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, USA, and has since been confirmed in lobsters in other parts of the Caribbean. Several studies have examined the prevalence, pathogenicity, and population dynamics of the pathogen in the lobster host, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the virus. We analyzed a fragment of viral DNA from lobsters collected in the Florida Keys, which provided the first insight into the genetic diversity of PaV1. The variation in viral sequences, both within and between individual lobsters, indicates that lobsters can be infected with multiple viral strains. Laboratory experiments in which uninfected lobsters were serially exposed to lobsters inoculated with PaV1 implied that rapid mutation of strains is unlikely and suggest that there may be endemic strains of PaV1. In addition, we discovered PaV1 in P. argus postlarvae (pueruli), ...
The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is under threat from a deadly virus. Panulirus argus 1 (PaV1) is found throughout the Caribbean, infecting up to 30% of lobsters in some areas.
This dissertation investigated larval release and larval behavior of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus and the spotted spiny lobster P. guttatus. These species were examined under laboratory conditions to determine ...
The evolution of the nervous system in metazoan animals has been a topic of great interest. It is thought that the first nerve cell (neuron) evolved in a common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians, because neuronal cell types are absent in their sister group, the sponges (Galliot et al., 2009). Although putative sensory cells do exist in the sponge, these cells do not form synapses and do not possess dendrites and axons (Richards et al., 2008). Although cnidarians typically have a diffuse nerve net, some regionalization patterns of neurons and their neurites have been identified in several types of cnidarians (Galliot et al., 2009; Watanabe et al., 2009). It is possible that these cnidarian nerve rings might represent a primitive organized nervous system. After the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians, a centralized nervous system evolved in the bilaterian lineage (Arendt et al., 2008; Holland, 2003). The evolutionary origin of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterian animals has ...
THE wing surface of lepidopteran adults is covered by wing scales, which function in heat preservation, mimesis, touch, etc. (Nijhout 1991). Lepidopteran scales and Drosophila bristles are considered homologous structures on the basis of the similarities in their cell lineages and the expression of a few molecular markers (Overton 1966, 1967; Galant et al. 1998). Development of the Drosophila bristle is regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors of the Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C). Within the clusters of cells expressing achaete (ac) and scute (sc), some are selected to become sensory organ precursors, which then form and innervate the mature bristles (Skeath and Carroll 1991; Jan and Jan 1994). In ac/sc double-mutant flies, the majority of the bristles are lost; on the contrary, ectopic expression of ac and/or sc can induce extra bristles (Garcia-Bellido 1979; Campuzano et al. 1986; Balcells et al. 1988; Rodriguez et al. 1990). In the butterfly Precis coenia, the AS-C ...
Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL4, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Author Summary Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC) represent one of the largest families of ion channels in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the physiological functions of the majority of these proteins in Drosophila or any other animal are still unknown. We discovered that the DEG/ENaC channel ppk23 is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory neurons. We show that ppk23 and the neurons expressing it are important for normal male sexual behaviors, possibly via the detection of an aphrodisiac pheromone, but not for feeding decisions. Together, these data indicate that DEG/ENaC signaling plays an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila.
Spiny lobsters and allies (infraorder Achelata) are not true lobsters, and they can be distinguished from the latter by the lack of true claws with pincers. They have a soft and flexible tail, and a broad tail fan which allows them to swim rapidly backwards over a short distance. The rostrum (a pointy structure at the front of the head) is usually very small or absent. Many species are scavengers, though studies suggest that they may be opportunists which take a variety of food. While lobsters are occasionally seen by divers in local waters, some of the bigger specimens seen could be those released for religious merit-making. The above picture features a Painted Spiny Lobster (Panulirus versicolor) in the main image, and a dead Mud Spiny Lobster (Panulirus polyhagus) in the inset ...
Our Salad Splashes are naturally fresh and light with just a hint of oil. They are all natural and are made with only the finest high quality ingredients. There is so much flavor that just a splash will do. Splashes are naturally fresh and light. Use just a dash of splash to freshen a salad. Just a little bit of Splash on a salad makes magic. But you can do so much more with our Splashes. You can sauté vegetables, marinate chicken, drizzle over a cold pasta salad or use it a dip for appetizers. Splash your imagination and watch your cooking come alive.. ...
Li, C., J.D. Shields, R.E. Ratzlaff, and M.J. Butler. (2008) Pathology and hematology of the Caribbean spiny lobster experimentally infected with Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1). Virus Research 132: 104-113. (Contact [[jeff]] for a reprint or find it online at Science Direct). Li, C. and J.D. Shields. (2007) Characterization and primary culture of hemocytes from the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. In: Cai, S.L. (ed.), 5th World Chinese Symposium for Crustacean Aquaculture, Ocean Press, Beijing, China. Transactions of the Chinese Crustacean Society 5: 25-35.. Li, C. and J.D. Shields. (2007) Primary cell culture of hemocytes from the spiny lobster and their susceptibility to Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 48-55 PDF. Montgomery-Fullerton, M.M., R.A. Cooper, K. Kauffman, J.D. Shields and R.E. Ratzlaff. (2007) Detection of Panulirus argus virus 1 by PCR in Caribbean spiny lobsters. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 76: 1-6. PDF Salierno, J.D., J.D. Shields, A.Z. ...
212 Splash Perfume on sale. 212 Splash by Carolina Herrera as low as $50.99 at fragranceX.com, FREE Shipping on orders over $35. 212 Splash, 212 Splash Perfume by Carolina Herrera, Youll find a pleasant pop of citrus in 212 splash by carolina herrera, a womens fragrance that will take you from morning to night, from a lunch date to a casual dinner. The scent offers a delectable mixture of grapefruit, cedar, bergamot and tangerine in the top notes, followed by floral scents of rose and peony, with fruity litchi, too. The woody base was created with notes of cedar, sandalwood and musk. Its a little lighter, a little more casual than some other fragrances in the designers 212 collection. The outer
Comprehensive nutrition resource for V8 Splash Splash Smoothie, Strawberry Banana. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for V8 Splash Splash Smoothie, Strawberry Banana. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
Proneural bHLH genes have been shown to play important roles in specifying neural fates/diversities in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The developing vertebrate retina expresses several such genes, such as achaete-scute homologue 1 (ash1), atonal homologue 3 (ath3), ath5, neuroD, neurogenin1 (ngn1), ngn2, ngn3, NSCL1, and NSCL2. Proneural bHLH genes known to be expressed in retinal progenitor cells include ash1, ath3, ngn1, ngn2, and ngn3. 16-21 Analysis of retinal explants derived from ash1-null mice indicated that ash1 participates in the production of late-born neurons, including rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells. 22 In the chick retina, ash1 was proposed to promote amacrine cells, 23 and this was later confirmed experimentally. 24 Studies have indicated ath3 in the production of bipolar and amacrine cells. 25-27 Ngn2 is expressed in the proliferating zone, 25,28 including cells still in the cell cycle. 29,30 In the mouse retina, regions lacking ngn2 ...
[ Phylogeny And Systematics Guide Answers ] - Phylogenetic Approaches In Comparative Physiology Journal Of,Taxonomy Life U0027s Filing System Crash Course Biology 19 Youtube,A Molecular Phylogeny Of The Spiny Lobster Panulirus Homarus
Meinl Byzance Series, 10 Vintage Splash, Vintage Finish, material: b20 bronze, hand hammered, the Splash delivers a dry, trashy splash sound, ultra-fast response and short sustain,
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Migrating birds are champion navigators. So are sea turtles. But the Caribbean spiny lobster, a humble invertebrate? Believe it. Despite their primitive brains, spiny lobsters, like some birds and turtles, are now thought to have an ability known as true navigation. True navigators never get lost because they can always pinpoint exactly where they are on Earth, and which direction to walk, fly, or swim to get home. Scientists first became curious when they noticed that, although spiny lobsters prowl for food at night when its pitch black on the ocean floor, they easily find their way home again. To test the lobsters sense of direction, researchers captured 100 spiny lobsters, then did their best to confuse them. The scientists covered the lobsters eyes with rubber caps, hung their storage tanks from swinging ropes, and drove them on a boat around and around in circles. When the lobsters were released, seven to twenty miles away, they still found their way back home, no problem. How do the ...
It has been crazy hot these last few weeks. Its part of living in St. Louis. Terrible heat and humidity. But another part of living in St. Louis is that the city is filled with splash pads! Lets be honest, running through a sprinkler is one of the supreme joys of summer, and splash pads…
Why buy just one organic body splash when you can have two at a discounted price! This gift set includes organic rose & lavender water body splash.
Splash Potions break when thrown and cover players/mobs with there contents. Regeneration Splash Potions will increases the regeneration rate of anything they cover ...
The purpose of this document is to provide direction to owners and operators of spray/ splash pads concerning the construction, operation, safety and maintenance of these facilities located within the Niagara region.. There are several risks associated with the use of spray/splash pads. These risks include injuries related to the physical structure and operation of the facility, as well as the risk of waterborne illnesses from exposure to contaminated water.. To reduce the risk of injury, illness or death to facility patrons, it is imperative that the owner/operator of a non-regulated recreational water facility construct, operate, and maintain the facility in a safe manner in accordance with applicable legislation and guidance material, including this document.. ...
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Its no secret that many communities are hopping on the splash play bandwagon. Smart planning can ensure your sprayground offers maximum play value.
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Safety gear specialist Elliotts offers Chem-Tech chemical splash safety apparel, the latest generation of chemical splash suit fabrics with a breathable hydrophilic PTFE lamin.
You all probably know these images that are shown on starting up a certain program: these are so called splash screens. In this tutorial I will show you how to make a special, very beautiful splash...
CAMPBELL Soup Company, V8 SPLASH Smoothies, Strawberry Banana from the USDA Nutrition Facts on RecipeTips.Com CAMPBELL Soup Company, V8 SPLASH Smoothies, Strawberry Banana: USDA Nutrition Facts: RecipeTips.com - 2
AGBENIGA, B. e WEBB, E.C.. Effect of slaughter technique on bleed-out, blood in the trachea and blood splash in the lungs of cattle. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.5, pp.524-529. ISSN 2221-4062.. The South African Animal Protection Law, which requires animals to be stunned before slaughter, allows certain exemptions to accommodate religious slaughter. The supporters of the Jewish method of slaughter (Shechita), in which animals are slaughtered without pre-stunning, claim that the bleed-out and some quality parameters are better than when the animals are stunned before slaughtering. In this study, the percentage blood loss (BL%), presence (%) of blood in the trachea (BLT%) and blood splash % in the lungs (BS%), between the Shechita (Kosher) group and the conventionally slaughtered group of cattle were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the two treatment groups in terms of blood loss, although the conventional group had a higher bleed-out. However, there ...
Detailed nutritional values of V8 SPLASH Juice Drinks, Diet Strawberry Kiwi. Online analysis information with non-nutrients and nutrients composition facts table for item No. 14609 found in category Beverages. Data contents chart for nutritionists. Food details for V8 SPLASH,DIET STRAWBERRY KIWI in different kinds of quantities, amounts or measurements.
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Splash contestant Nicole Eggert talks about her injury on the reality diving show and why she shouldnt have posted the photo of her bruised back.
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Vator Splash: Privacy in the Internet of Things era. If all future appliances are smart appliances, will consumers have a choice to opt out? by Faith Merino on May 08, 2014
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Send Color Splash to Denmark, the gift includes: - 5 Gerberas - 5 Orange Roses (Zanzibar roses preferred) - Peach OR Orange Mini Carnations & greenery ... and more.
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... * A hilarious action-adventure game set on mysterious Prism Island * The Paint Hammer lets Mario restore the drained color of Prism Island: Color in colorless spots to solve puzzles and search for clues, Revive Toads who have been drained of their color * New Battle Card system: Cleverly use Battle Cards during puzzling battles to defeat enemies, Summon objects with Things cards, Use Enemy cards to summon allies * The new cutout feature allows you to extract areas from environments to overcome obstacles whenever possibleA COLORFUL MYSTERY IS AFOOT ON PRISM ISLANDA mystery is afoot ...
This class will be all fun and games! (If you like math or social science) Game Theory is one of the most exciting fields in mathematics and economics, and it allows us to look at why people do the things they do. We use game theory often in our lives! How do we subtly let people know whether were good at something or not? When you shoot a penalty kick in soccer, how can you maximize the percentage you make it? If youre playing tic tac toe, or rock paper scissors, how can you maximize the percentage with which you win? We will start with the formal mathematical definition of a game, $$\Gamma = \left\lbrace {T, I, P, H, A, p, u} \right\rbrace$$ (which everyone will understand!!!) and move to cool applications such as the ones already listed, plus more cool ones like how you can outsmart a game show host ...
Underwater cycling or aqua cycling is a new underwater workout that is starting to make an appearance in Europe and North America. Underwater cycling brings the stationary bike into the pool. Before making a splash in recreation centers around the world, it was used as a form of physical therapy for injured athletes.
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A child infected with a parasite called Cryptosporidum is believed to have contaminated the water supply at the East Athens Community Park splash pad.
Tokyo (AFPTV) (AFP) - In a country known for its high-tech smart loos, a Japanese exhibition dedicated to what gets flushed down them and featuring a giant toilet slide is making a splash in Tokyo ...
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Rob Roth and Rachelle Boucher are ready for a living room makeover. Host David Bromstad and his Color Splash team give them a modern Asian-inspired look. Using clues from around their house, including the color of their clothing, they find a color palette that appeals to both, and Bromstad proves that in design, the right colors can make all the difference.
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LPDC Podaras, commonly marketed under the trademark name of COOL SPLASH, is a densely branched, cascading, low-growing, deciduous shrub that grows shorter than species plants, typically rising to 2-3 tall. It is primarily noted for its attractively-variegated leaves (to 4" long) which have dark green centers surrounded by sharply-contrasting yellow to creamy-white margins. This cultivar is the result of a breeding experiment undertaken in 2004 by LPTC (Landscape Plant Development Center) and the breeder (Podaras) at a Cornell University greenhouse in which, during a mass screening of Diervilla sessilifolia seedlings, a seedling with a minutely variegated mutation was identified, selected and subsequently developed. U.S. Plant Patent PP19,391 was issued on October 28, 2008.. ...
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Chicken & Beer es el cuarto álbum del rapero Ludacris, lanzado en 2003. Los singles fueron "Stand Up", producido por Kanye West, "P-Poppin", "Splash Waterfalls", "Blow It Out" y "Diamond In The Back". "Southern Fried Intro" "Blow It Out" "Stand Up" con Shawnna "Rob Quarters" (skit) "Splash Waterfalls" "Hard Times" con Eightball & MJG & Carl Thomas "Diamonds In The Back" "Screwed Up" con Lil Flip "T-Baggin" (skit) "P-Poppin" con Lil Fate & Shawnna "Hip-Hop Quotables" "Black Mans Struggle" (skit) "Hoes In My Room" con Snoop Dogg "Teamwork" "Interactive (skit)" "We Got" con Chingy, I-20 & Tity Boi "Eyebrows Down" ft. Tity Boi & Dolla ...
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Soccer fans burst into the streets of the Kazakh capital to celebrate after FC Astana became the first Central Asian team to advance to the group stage of Europes Champions League, the most exclusive club tournament in the world.
Arrivals to "The Expendables 2" Los Angeles Premiere at the Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, CA. Pictured: Arnold Schwarzenegger Ref: SPL426750 150812 Picture by: Nate Beckett / Splash News Splash News and Pictures Los Angeles: 310-821-2666 New York: 212-619-2666 London: 870-934-2666 [email protected] ...
We live in an information-rich world. Each of us is capable of downloading gigabytes of data on our mobile or desktop devices each day. The upswing in data generation is also true of dairy science, which has moved into the big data realm. My students can create more data in an afternoon than I created in an entire PhD project when I was a student. Needless to say, capturing and analyzing this data is both challenging and rewarding. Since genomic data became more accessible, a number of approaches have been developed to bring the data together in useful ways. Gradually these approaches have become more sophisticated and insightful. A recent study by Widmann et al. provides a great example of how integrating different sources of large-scale genomic data can shed light on how dairy cows convert their feed into milk. Read More... ...
Undeterred by the mysterious mass in the water, the little boy begins throwing fistfuls of food into the deep. As he does so, theres a noticeable stirring in the ocean. Yes, as the unknown sea creature nears the shore, a number of fish dart out of the way to accommodate it.. ...
On her soon-to-be ex-husband Eric Williams throwing a drink in her face:. Jennifer admits she was completely shocked Eric did that to her. She said she would have never in a million years thought Eric would do something like this to her. She confirmed Eric never hit her or was physically abusive but she did endure his verbal abuse.. On "Basketball Wives" breaking up her and Erics marriage:. Jennifer admits that she and Eric had problems way before the show so it was a struggle for her in the beginning to sign on because she would have to be real about her failing marriage with Eric. She said the show had nothing to do with her divorce from Eric.. On Erics recent behavior:. Jennifer said she doesnt even know who Eric is anymore and that hes psycho! She said his reasoning behind throwing the drink in her face was because he was trying to cast a demon out of her. Jennifer than began quoting Erics tweets saying, "Jesus had to cast 7 demons out of that hoe Mary." She said THOSE are the things ...
Web Development refers to a broad range of tasks that are associated with hosting of websites on the internet or intranet. The processes for web development include the design of the website, the developing of web content, network security configuration and other tasks.. And, that is what we do. We will develop a highly functional website to your specific requirements. We will develop a premium web experience for all consumers browsing your website. We mostly use technologies that do not have hidden lock-ins for vendors, expensive software in need of extra licensing or over the top commercial ware.. We craft lines of coding with loving care. We get excited about small things, beautifully written text, innovative content, and sexy plug-ins. We find imaginative, clever solutions to any problem that might occur.. The bottom line is; we love our job, we enjoy getting to know a clients business, product or services, and then create and develop a website that will increase the traffic on their website ...
A Special Brew. By Sugar Lopez. I know that youre a little shy, But dont let that bother you; Cause Ive got the perfect recipe. For a very special brew!. The first few steps begin with you,. Now you really must believe... For with a little confidence. Theres so much you can achieve!. So, first you take a cup of wonder,. Blend in a little adoration, Combine that with a dash of faith and let this be your foundation! Add a little splash of wisdom. And a nice big shot of fun,. Then mix in a bit of starlight; soon the magic has begun! Stir in a little twist of hope, and a nice big dash of glee; A bit of luck and patience.. Will help make your destiny! Now just add a splash of truth and pour it all into a jar, then think about the one you love. And wish upon a star!. ...
Product Description Feeling annoying of water spill while washing dishes or vege in front of the sink ? Water spill not just created slippery floor it also affe…
The 2017 Walk to Fight Arthritis was a huge success thanks to you and thousands of others just like you that fundraised, spread the word and walked in the 8th annual Walk to Fight Arthritis.. We look forward to the 2018 Walk to Fight Arthritis coming to communities across Canada the weekend of June 2 & 3, 2018 so mark your calendars now!. ...
Our GEL-Cumulus 18 is ideal for neutral runners, or for those that slightly under pronate. This running shoe is designed to better dissipate shock aiding in smoother run transitions, thanks to ForeFoot and Rearfoot GEL¨ Cushioning System. It is also outfitted with a FluidRide Midsole technology that enhances comfort and a spring-loaded ride for when running longer distances. Shoe Features: ComforDry X-40 Sockliner ComforDry Lasting Discrete Eyelets FluidRide® Midsole FluidFit® Upper Gender-Specific Cushioning Guidance Line® Midsole Technology Guidance Trusstic System® Technology Heel Clutching System Technology I.G.S® Technology (Running) Rearfoot and Forefoot GEL® Cushioning Systems Seamless construction
Bursting with big, bold flavors of sweet orange, tangy lime and warm spices, this dressing tastes terrific splashed over spinach, bean or grain salads. It also spruces up salads containing grilled poultry and fresh fruit, such as peaches and grapes.
A lavage/suction tip comprising an elongated barrel with a first pliable conical shield extending outwardly from the distal tip of the barrel and a second substantially rigid conical shield which is slidable upon the barrel. The lavage/suction tip is utilized to provide irrigating fluid to a surgical site while providing suction to remove fluids and debris away from the surgical site. The first shield helps to eliminate splashback of the fluid. The second shield may be positioned to surround the first shield to provide firm support about the first shield, yet with a flexible, pliable tip perimeter. Alternatively, the second shield may be secured on the tip spaced away from the first shield so that the pliable first shield is used alone and may be easily, manually formed to more closely match the tip of the first shield to the working area or surface of the surgical site.
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Please do not get any more testing. You are done! Your risk was extremely low in the first place. Your testing is complete. Enjoy the rest of your medical school...
Im so glad this show is back - its a great mix of procedural/forensic investigation and comedy, with an occasional splash of serious drama. Now...
I was fortunate to have gotten to know Josh this past year as well as his lovely mom and his great nurses. He was an inspiration to me as he was and will continue to be to so many. I admired and drew strength from his courage, compassion and sense of humor. I attended his service today and was very touched by outpouring of love for Josh and his family. I wanted to share part of a poem that reminds me of Josh. Drop a pebble in the water: just a splash and it is gone;but theres half-a-hundred ripples circling on and on and on, spreading, spreading from the center, flowing on out to the sea. and there is no way of telling where the end is going to be. Drop a pebble in the water: in a minute youll forget, But theres a little wave a-flowing, and theres ripples circling yet, And those little waves a-flowing to a great big waves have grown; Youve disturbed a mighty river just by dropping in a stone. Drop a word of cheer and kindness: just a flash and it is gone; But theres half-a-hundred ripples ...
[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in insects play essential roles in multiple developmental processes including neurogenesis, sterol metabolism, circadian rhythms, organogenesis and formation of olfactory sensory neurons. The identification and function analysis of bHLH family members of the most destructive insect pest of rice, Nilaparvata lugens, may provide novel tools for pest management. Here, a genome-wide survey for bHLH sequences identified 60 bHLH sequences (NlbHLHs) encoded in the draft genome of N. lugens. Phylogenetic analysis of the bHLH domains successfully classified these genes into 40 bHLH families in group A (25), B (14), C (10), D (1), E (8) and F (2). The number of NlbHLHs with introns is higher than many other insect species, and the average intron length is shorter than those of Acyrthosiphon pisum. High number of ortholog families of NlbHLHs was found suggesting functional conversation for these proteins. Compared to other insect species studied, N. lugens
Background: Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regul... read moreation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. read less. ...
Transcription factors belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family have been shown to regulate a variety of signaling pathway and the development and activity of numerous cell types. The bHLH transcription factor Twist-2 is known to be a potent suppressor of NF-κB signaling in several processes including hematopoiesis. In previous research a Twist-2 conventional knockout mouse was found to have a dramatic phenotype including increased myeloid lineage, inflammatory cytokine increase and death shortly after birth. NF-κB signaling has been shown to be crucial for development and activation of lymphocytes, so we hypothesize that Twist-2 may play a role in lymphocyte development and function. The generation and initial characterization of a novel colony of tissue specific Twist-2 knockout mouse created by breeding Twist-2floxed mice with MMTVcre mice is described here. Twist-2fl/fl; MMTVcre mice display no gross dysmorphism and are fertile. Initial characterization of thymocytes from these ...
Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells.Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells. ...
Neurogenin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEUROG3 gene.[5]. Neurogenin-3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and is required for endocrine cell development in the pancreas and intestine.[6] It belongs to a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.[7]. Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is expressed by 2-10% of acinar and duct cells in the histologically normal adult human pancreas. NGN3+ cells isolated from cultured exocrine tissue by coexpressed cell surface glycoprotein CD133 have a transcriptome consistent with exocrine dedifferentiation, a phenotype that resembles endocrine progenitor cells during development, and a capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro.[8] Human[9] and rodent[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] exocrine cells have been reprogrammed into cells with an islet cell-like phenotype following direct expression of NGN3 or manipulation that leads to its ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Regulatory proteins have been identified in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. It is unknown whether these factors can also play a role in the formation of pancreatic endocrine cells from postnatal nonendocrine cells. The present study demonstrates that adult human pancreatic duct cells can be converted into insulin-expressing cells after ectopic, adenovirus-mediated expression of the class B basic helix-loop-helix factor neurogenin 3 (ngn3), which is a critical factor in embryogenesis of the mouse endocrine pancreas. Infection with adenovirus ngn3 (Adngn3) induced gene and/or protein expression of NeuroD/beta2, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Pax6, and Nkx6.1, all known to be essential for beta-cell differentiation in mouse embryos. Expression of ngn3 in adult human duct cells induced Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 and neuroendocrine- and beta-cell-specific markers: it increased the percentage of synaptophysin- and insulin-positive cells 15-fold in ngn3-infected versus control cells. Infection with NeuroD
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
article{cd7f6278-687b-4a1d-9f0d-d122c28d5b7f, abstract = {Postnatal neurogenesis takes place in two brain regions, the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). The transcriptional cascade controlling hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in detail; however, the transcriptional control of olfactory bulb neurogenesis is still not well mapped. In this study, we provide insights into the molecular events controlling postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We first show the existence of diverse neural stem cell/progenitor populations along the SVZ-rostral migratory stream (RMS) axis, focusing on those expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Mash1. We provide evidence that Mash1-derived progenies generate oligodendrocytic and neuronal precursors through the transient expression of the bHLH transcription factors Olig2 and neurogenin2 (Ngn2), respectively. Furthermore, we reveal that Ngn2-positive progenies express the T-box transcription factors Tbr2 and Tbr1, which ...
Drosophila determines its sex by "counting" X chromosomes. We show that premature expression of the pair-rule segmentation gene hairy interferes with this process, resulting in female-specific lethality by inhibiting initiation of the master control gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). The female-specific lethality can be suppressed by a constitutive Sxl allele or by extra copies of X-linked "counting elements." These results are best explained by competition between hairy and other helix-loop-helix transcription factors that act in chromosome counting. We have confirmed this model by showing that misexpression of the achaete-scute T4 gene induces ectopic Sxl expression and male-specific lethality, confirming that achaete-scute T4 is the sisterless-b counting element. We propose that X chromosomes are counted through heterodimers of helix-loop-helix transcription factors that act synergistically to initiate Sxl expression. ...
0026] Electrical stimulation devices implanted in the stomach of obese patients have been reported to have variable positive effects on weight loss (Zhang C, Ng K L, Li J D, He F, Anderson D J, Sun Y E, and Zhou Q Y. Prokineticin 2 is a target gene of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors for olfactory bulb neurogenesis. J Biol Chem 282: 6917-6921, 2007), with improvements in glucose control in T2D patients secondary to weight loss. This stimulation would not be expected to act directly on L-cells since these cells are absent from the stomach. Intestinal electrical stimulation studies in obese or diabetic patients are fewer in number and tend to report the resulting neural and motility effects. For example, in diabetic neuropathy, electrical stimulation of the duodenum, which is located at the oral end of the small intestine, results in nerve responses that are weaker than in control patients (Frokjaer J B, Andersen S D, Ejskaer N, Funch-Jensen P, Arendt-Nielsen L, Gregersen H, and Drewes A M ...
Abstract. Skeletal muscle fibre types are determined by the activity of motor neurons, hormones, stretch and probably cell lineage. The electrical activity of the motor neurons might, through an unknown pathway, influence the expression of a unique set of muscle specific genes in the different fibre types.. MRF4 is a member of a family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH) that is important for the development of muscle fibres. These transcription factors are also suggested to be important in adult muscle, where they might be a possible link between electrical activity and expression of muscle specific genes. The myogenic bHLH transcription factors MyoD and myogenin has been shown to possible be involved in the regulation of fibre type specificity. This role is also proposed for MRF4, based on the high amount of MRF4 mRNA that is expressed in all adult skeletal muscle types and that it seems to be preferentially expressed in slow fibre types.. In this thesis I wanted to ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
BACKGROUND: Replacing beta-cells by islet-transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes, but up to 70% of beta-cells die within 10 days of transplantation. ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. Lack of ARNT impairs the ability of beta-cells to respond to physiological stress and potentiates the onset of diabetes, but the exact role of ARNT in graft outcome is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effect of beta-cell deletion of ARNT on graft outcomes. METHODS: Islets were isolated from donor mice which had beta-cell specific ARNT-deletion (beta-ARNT) or littermate floxed controls. The islets were transplanted into diabetic SCID recipients in ratios of (a) 3 donors: 1 recipient, (b) 1 donor: 1 recipient or (c) (1/2) of the islets from 1 donor: 1 recipient. After 28 days, the kidney containing the graft was removed (nephrectomy) to exclude regeneration of the endogenous pancreas. RESULTS: In the supra-physiological-mass model (3:1), both groups
Previous studies have shown that E-protein transcription factors in the thymus have important roles, both in the very earliest stages of thymocyte development and in the regulation of key thymocyte transitions (Murre 2005; Kee 2009; and Jones and Zhuang, 2011). In particular, they have provided convincing evidence that preTCR and TCR signaling leads to successively more profound down-regulation of E-protein levels and that such down-regulation is a precondition for DN to DP transitions and DP to SP transitions (Engel et al., 2001; Jones and Zhuang, 2007; Jones-Mason et al., 2012). Here, we used inducible E-protein KO mice (E2Af/f/HEBf/f/Er-cre mice) to study the effect of E-proteins (and the related effect of Id proteins) on the development of Foxp3+ T reg cells. We found that induced Foxp3+ T reg cell (iT reg cell) development in peripheral tissues was significantly increased both in vitro and in vivo in E-protein KO mice. In addition, this increase in iT reg cell development was accompanied by ...
Metastasis is the final and fatal step in the progression of breast cancer. Currently available therapeutic strategies at this stage of cancer progression are often nonspecific, have only marginal efficacy, and are highly toxic. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the development of aggressive cancers. Therapeutic approaches targeting only specific mechanisms involved in the development of aggressive breast cancers are urgently need. The expectation would be that this strategy would reduce unwanted toxicities associated with the therapy itself.. We previously showed that the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, plays a crucial role during breast cancer progression (4). Id-1 stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells (13, 16). Moreover, targeting Id-1 expression partially in breast cancer cells reduced invasion in vitro and breast cancer metastasis in ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie Graser, Birgit Mentrup, Doris Schneider, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Franz Jakob, Christine Hofmann].
Epithelial tissue morphogenesis relies on tightly regulated cell shape changes and local cell-cell contact rearrangements. However, our knowledge on how these cells behaviours are controlled and implemented during organogenesis remains incomplete. To address this issue, I have made use of the genetically amenable developing Drosophila eye. Patterning of the Drosophila eye is initiated by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a developmental compartment characterized by a wave of apically constricted cells that travels from the posterior pole of the disc. In the wake of the MF emerges a regular array of aligned photoreceptor-precursor cells that will further assemble into mature ommatidia, the building blocks of the flys compound eye. My thesis work is concerned with characterizing the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing early ommatidia patterning. My work demonstrates that the alignment of the ommatidial precursor cells is directed by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atonal ...
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ArH is a nuclear receptor and as such a transcription factor which has been shown to be activated by dioxins and other environmental toxins. Upon ligand binding it is translocated to the nucleus, binds dioxin responsive elements on the DNA, and triggers gene activation notably of CYP 1 monoxygenases, which in turn degradate dioxins to more soluble compounds thus facilitating their removal. It not only binds dioxins, but polyaromatic substances like benzopyrenes in tobacco smoke and a variety of plant substances like e.g. indigo.. Its structure as basic helix loop helix (bHLH) protein has been determined.. It has been questionable how a molecule with such a ligand profile has survived evolution. Groups from Berlin have now determined bacterial secondary products as ligands of the receptor, too. In a paper in Nature this week they describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines and Mycobacterium tuberculosis phthiols as ligands which activate anti-bacterial responses in ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)是一個轉錄協同活化因子,調控著氧化代謝,並在調控粒線體生合成以及功能上,扮演極其重要的角色。過去我們實驗室的結果顯示,basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (Bhlhe40)與PGC-1α在肌肉細胞中具有很強的結合力,並且Bhlhe40會結合在PGC-1α的啟動子上面抑制其表現量,並且會透過招來HDACs來降低PGC-1α的偕同轉錄活性,另外發現短片段的VP16ADBhlhe40(1-135a.a)-flag ...
National Cancer Institute. Evi3 is a common site of retroviral integration in B-cell lymphomas of AKXD mice. BLAST searches of Evi3 genomic sequences against the mouse and human databases showed that most viral integrations at Evi3 are located immediately upstream of the first translated exon (exon 2) of a gene encoding a novel zinc finger protein with 30 kr ppel-like zinc finger repeats. Viral integrations at Evi3 upregulate the expression of this gene via promoter sequences present in the viral long terminal repeat. EVI3 protein is highly related to the early B-cell associated zinc finger protein EBFAZ, and all 30 zinc fingers found in EVI3 are conserved in EBFAZ. Ebfaz and Evi3 are coexpressed in many cell types, and EVI3, like EBFAZ, is located in the nucleus. EBFAZ binds to, and negatively regulates, early B cell factor (EBF), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for B-cell-lineage commitment. EBFAZ also binds to SMAD1 and SMAD4 in response to BMP2 signaling, which in turn ...
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Id1, was shown to induce tetraploidy in telomerase-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells in this study. Using both transient and stable Id1-expressing cell models, multiple mitotic aberrations were detected, including centrosome amplification, binucleation, spindle defects, and microtubule perturbation. Many of these abnormal phenotypes have previously been reported in cells overexpressing Aurora A. Further experiments showed that Id1 could stabilize Aurora A, whereas knocking down Aurora A expression in Id1-expressing cells could rescue some of the mitotic defects. The mechanisms by which Aurora A could be modulated by Id1 were explored. DNA amplification of the Aurora A locus was not involved. Id1 could only weakly activate the transcriptional activity of the Aurora A promoter. We found that Id1 overexpression could affect Aurora A degradation, leading to its stabilization. Aurora A is normally degraded from mitosis exit by the APC/C(Cdh1)
The colonization of the land by plants, sometime before 470 million years ago, was accompanied by the evolution tissue systems [1-3]. Specialized structures with diverse functions-from nutrient acquisition to reproduction-derived from single cells in the outermost layer (epidermis) were important sources of morphological innovation at this time [2, 4, 5]. In extant plants, these structures may be unicellular extensions, such as root hairs or rhizoids [6-9], or multicellular structures, such as asexual propagules or secretory hairs (papillae) [10-12]. Here, we show that a ROOTHAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor positively regulates the development of the unicellular and multicellular structures that develop from individual cells that expand out of the epidermal plane of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha; mutants that lack MpRSL1 function do not develop rhizoids, slime papillae, mucilage papillae, or gemmae. Furthermore, we discovered that RSL class I genes
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier from doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.08.014 Dev Biol 311: 650-64, Davie JK; Cho JH; Meadows E; Flynn JM; Knapp JR; Klein WH, Target gene selectivity of the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor myogenin in embryonic muscle. Copyright 2007 ...
The Notch signaling pathway is activated in many cell types, but its effects are cell type- and stage-specific. In the immune system, Notch activity is required for the differentiation of T cell progenitors, but it is reduced in more mature thymocytes, in which Notch is oncogenic. Studies based on single-gene models have suggested that the tumor suppressor protein Ikaros plays an important role in repressing the transcription of Notch target genes. We used genome-wide analyses, including chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, to identify genes controlled by Notch and Ikaros in gain- and loss-of-function experiments. We found that Ikaros bound to and directly repressed the expression of most genes that are activated by Notch. Specific deletion of Ikaros in thymocytes led to the persistent expression of Notch target genes that are essential for T cell maturation, as well as the rapid development of T cell leukemias in mice. Expression of Notch target genes that are normally silent in T cells, ...
The Notch signal and the repressor-type bHLH transcriptional factors maintain stem cells and prevent neuronal differentiation (3, 4). Inhibitory bHLH transcription factors repress activator-type bHLH genes such as Mash, Math, and Neurogenin (4). When the expression levels of inhibitory bHLH transcription factors are reduced, neuronal differentiation commences spontaneously (3, 4). In this study, we demonstrated that SIRT1 transiently translocated into the nucleus under differentiation conditions. We found that some cells in the embryonic brain expressed SIRT1 in the nucleus, which might indicate the translocation of SIRT1 in vivo (Fig. 1B). Our results indicated that SIRT1 repressed Hes1 and Hes5 expression by directly repressing RBP-J activity promoted by Notch1-ICD. Knockdown of RBP-J promotes the conversion of neural stem cells into intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that generate mostly Tuj1+ neurons after withdrawal of bFGF (20). Because INPs show attenuated RBP-J signaling, transient ...
The bHLH transcription factor ATOH7 (Math5) is crucial for developing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fate. the developing sight as explained by immediate fluorescence (Fig. 1B). GFP expression Aclacinomycin A was observed by E12. 5 various and E13. 5 matching to the maximum time of reflection (Fig. 1C 1 contrary to expression which will diminishes following E14 Even so. 5 GFP expression remained to E18. 5 (Fig. 1E). This is most likely as a result of high steadiness of the H2B-GFP fusion healthy proteins. The stability allowed us to adhere to the fortune of was not a longer stated thereby featuring an opportunity to compare and contrast this pseudo-tracing method to lineage looking up studies that used even more conventional strategies (Brzezinski ain al. 2012 Yang ain al. the year 2003 P0 retinas showed strong and about equal numbers of GFP reflection in the ganglion cell Aclacinomycin A part and interior nuclear part and much sluggish expression inside the outer indivisible layer (Fig. 1F). The ...
Stem cells are a central feature of metazoan biology. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represent the best-characterized example of this phenomenon, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their formation remain obscure. The stem cell leukaemia (SCL) gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor with an essential role in specifying HSCs. Here we have addressed the transcriptional hierarchy responsible for HSC formation by characterizing an SCL 3 enhancer that targets expression to HSCs and endothelium and their bipotential precursors, the haemangioblast. We have identified three critical motifs, which are essential for enhancer function and bind GATA-2, Fli-1 and Elf-1 in vivo. Our results suggest that these transcription factors are key components of an enhanceosome responsible for activating SCL transcription and establishing the transcriptional programme required for HSC formation.
Many mature retinal cell types, including first-born RGCs, 37 are derived from multipotent RPCs. Identification of RGCs requires confirmed expression of a combination of markers because while all are expressed in RGCs, some are also expressed in other cell types outside of the eye. Published RGC markers include βIII TUBULIN (TUBB3), POU class 4 homeobox 1 (POU4F1, also known as BRN3A), POU class 4 homeobox 2 (POU4F2, also known as BRN3B), ISLET1, atonal homolog 7 (ATOH7, also known as Math5 in mouse), HUC, HUD, thy-1 cell surface antigen (THY1), medium polypeptide neurofilament (NEFM), ribosome production factor 1 homolog (RPF1), and opsin 4 (OPN4, also known as melanopsin). βIII TUBULIN, ELAV 3/4, and NEFM are expressed in other neuronal cells, and therefore not exclusive to RGCs. OPN4 is expressed by a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive RGCs. 38-41 Atoh7 is expressed at the onset of RGC differentiation. 42 Downstream of Atoh7, and mediating RGC differentiation, are the ...
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) correlates with high-grade malignancy including the competence to form metastases. In addition, EMT has recently been linked to cellular self-renewal programmes of cancer stem cells and apoptosis/anoikis resistance, which are all features of therapeutic resistance. The EMT programme is driven by several transcription factors (TFs), such as the transcriptional regulators SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and the basic helix-loop-helix factors E47 and TWIST. These proteins target and repress the CDH1 gene, which encodes for E-cadherin, an important caretaker of the epithelial state. Expression studies in human pancreatic cancer showed expression of SNAIL in 78% and of SLUG in 50% of cases.1 Although no or low levels of TWIST are expressed in pancreatic cancers, up-regulation of this gene under hypoxic condition may argue for a contribution towards tumour progression.1 2 Expression of the ZEB2 gene was recently found to be silenced by promoter methylation in the ...
A strong link has been established between adiponectin levels and clinical atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes; however, the molecular regulation of adiponectin is incompletely understood. The present study provides the first evidence that the HLH proteins Id3 and E47 regulate adiponectin transcription during adipocyte differentiation.. Here, we have shown that Id3 can negatively regulate adiponectin expression. Id proteins are unable to bind DNA; therefore, they regulate transcription by dimerizing with other HLH proteins, known as E-proteins, to prevent the DNA binding of these factors. We sought to identify an E-protein that may play a role in the regulation of adiponectin. A previous study demonstrated expression of E-proteins in 3T3-L1 cells at the mRNA level.31 The present study is the first to attribute a function to any E-protein in adipocyte biology. We show that E47 is expressed in preadipocytes and differentiating adipocytes and binds the adiponectin promoter. Furthermore, our data ...
article{8526590, abstract = {The asymmetric cell divisions necessary for stomatal lineage initiation and progression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) require the function of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Mutants lacking SPCH do not produce stomata or lineages. Here, we isolated a new spch-5 allele carrying a point mutation in the bHLH domain that displayed normal growth, but had an extremely low number of sometimes clustered stomata in the leaves, whereas the hypocotyls did not have any stomata. In vivo tracking of leaf epidermal cell divisions, combined with marker lines and genetic analysis, showed that the spch-5 leaf phenotype is dosage dependent and results from the decreased ability to initiate and amplify lineages, defects in asymmetric cell fate allocation, and misorientation of asymmetric division planes. Notably, application of brassinosteroids (BRs) partly rescued the stomatal leaf phenotype of spch-5. Transcriptomic analysis combining ...
Hypoxia, a condition of low tissue O2 concentration, plays an important role in normal physiological processes and tumor formation. Under hypoxic conditions mammalian cells up regulate the expression of hypoxic genes, including induction of angiogenesis and a switch to anaerobic metabolism, in order to survive. HIF-1 (Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1) is one of the key regulators of the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation (1). HIF-1 is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alphaand HIF-1beta also known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) that are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. HIF-1 is essential for angiogenesis, embryonic development, and is associated with tumor progression, erythropoiesis, vascular development/remodeling, vasodilation, and glucose/energy metabolism. The over expression of HIF-1alphahas been demonstrated in many common human cancers including prostate and breast, in which ...
The modulation of glucose (Glc) homeostasis and signaling is crucial for plant growth and development. Nevertheless, the molecular signaling mechanism by which a plant senses a cellular Glc level and coordinates the expression of Glc-responsive genes is still incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane Glc-responsive regulator (AtPGR) is a component of the Glc-responsive pathway. Here, we demonstrated that a transcription factor bHLH34 binds to 5′-GAGA-3′ element of the promoter region of AtPGR in vitro, and activates beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity upon Glc treatment in AtPGR promoter-GUS transgenic plants. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses suggested that the bHLH34 involved in the responses to not only Glc, but also abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity. These results suggest that bHLH34 functions as a transcription factor in the Glc-mediated stress responsive pathway as well as an activator of AtPGR transcription. Furthermore, genetic experiments
Methods and Principal Findings: With the objective of translation to clinics we have chosen a paradigm of delayed grafting, i.e., one week after lesion, in a severe model of spinal cord compression in adult rats. hENPs were either naive or engineered to express Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2). Moreover, we have compared integrating and non-integrating lentiviral vectors, since the latter present reduced risks of insertional mutagenesis. We show that transplantation of hENPs transduced to express Ngn2 fully restore weight support and improve functional motor recovery after severe spinal cord compression at thoracic level. This was correlated with partial restoration of serotonin innervations at lumbar level, and translocation of 5HT1A receptors to the plasma membrane of motoneurons. Since hENPs were not detectable 4 weeks after grafting, transitory expression of Ngn2 appears sufficient to achieve motor recovery and to permit axonal regeneration. Importantly, we also demonstrate that transplantation of naive ...
The LIM only protein 2 (LMO2) is a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell development whose ectopic expression in T cells leads to the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Through its LIM domains, LMO2 is thought to function as the scaffold for a DNA-binding transcription regulator complex, including the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SCL/TAL1 and E47, the zinc finger protein GATA-1, and LIM-domain interacting protein LDB1. To understand the role of LMO2 in the formation of this complex and ultimately to dissect its function in normal and aberrant hematopoiesis, we solved the crystal structure of LMO2 in complex with the LID domain of LDB1 at 2.4 Å resolution. We observe a largely unstructured LMO2 kept in register by the LID binding both LIM domains. Comparison of independently determined crystal structures of LMO2 reveals large movements around a conserved hinge between the LIM domains. We demonstrate that such conformational flexibility is necessary for binding of LMO2 to its partner ...
Next generation sequencing was used to identify Notch mutations in a large collection of diverse solid tumors. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 rearrangements leading to constitutive receptor activation were confined to triple negative breast cancers (TNBC, 6 of 66 tumors). TNBC cell lines with NOTCH1 rearrangements associated with high levels of activated NOTCH1 (N1-ICD) were sensitive to the gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) MRK-003, both alone and in combination with pacitaxel, in vitro and in vivo, whereas cell lines with NOTCH2 rearrangements were resistant to GSI. Immunohistochemical staining of N1-ICD in TNBC xenografts correlated with responsiveness, and expression levels of the direct Notch target gene HES4 correlated with outcome in TNBC patients. Activating NOTCH1 point mutations were also identified in other solid tumors, including adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Notably, ACC primary tumor xenografts with activating NOTCH1 mutations and high N1-ICD levels were sensitive to GSI, whereas N1-ICD-low ...
Definition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit. What does hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit mean? Information and translations of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Tumour progression is characterized by massive cellular proliferation associated with alterations of the tumour microenvironment. Hence, the tumour microenvironment is considered to be of great...
In order to achieve a better outcome for pancreatic cancer patients, reliable biomarkers are required which allow for improved diagnosis. These may emanate from a more detailed molecular understanding of the aggressive nature of this disease. Having previously reported that Notch3 activation appeared to be associated with more aggressive disease, we have now examined components of this pathway (Notch1, Notch3, Notch4, HES-1, HEY-1) in more detail in resectable (n = 42) and non-resectable (n = 50) tumours compared to uninvolved pancreas. All three Notch family members were significantly elevated in tumour tissue, compared to uninvolved pancreas, with expression maintained within matched lymph node metastases. Furthermore, significantly higher nuclear expression of Notch1, -3 and -4, HES-1, and HEY-1 (all p ≤ 0.001) was noted in locally advanced and metastatic tumours compared to resectable cancers. In survival analyses, nuclear Notch3 and HEY-1 expression were significantly associated with ...
In mammals, cerebellar neurons are categorized as glutamatergic or GABAergic, and are derived from progenitors that express the proneural genes atoh1 or ptf1a, respectively. In zebrafish, three atoh1 genes, atoh1a, atoh1b, and atoh1c, are expressed in overlapping but distinct expression domains in the upper rhombic lip (URL): ptf1a is expressed exclusively in the ventricular zone (VZ). Using transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins under the control of the regulatory elements of atoh1a and ptf1a, we traced the lineages of the cerebellar neurons. The atoh1+ progenitors gave rise not only to granule cells but also to neurons of the anteroventral rhombencephalon. The ptf1a+ progenitors generated Purkinje cells. The olig2+ eurydendroid cells, which are glutamatergic, were derived mostly from ptf1a+ progenitors in the VZ but some originated from the atoh1+ progenitors in the URL. In the adult cerebellum, atoh1a, atoh1b, and atoh1c are expressed in the molecular layer of the valvula cerebelli ...
The Notch signaling pathway is crucial for mammalian heart development. It controls cell-fate decisions, coordinates patterning processes and regulates proliferation and differentiation. Critical Notch effectors are Hey bHLH transcription factors (TF) that are expressed in atrial (Hey1) and ventricular (Hey2) cardiomyocytes (CM) and in the developing endocardium (Hey1/2/L). The importance of Hey proteins for cardiac development is demonstrated by knockout (KO) mice, which suffer from lethal cardiac defects, such as ventricular septum defects (VSD), valve defects and cardiomyopathy. Despite this clear functional relevance, little is known about Hey downstream targets in the heart and the molecular mechanism by which they are regulated. Here, I use a cell culture system with inducible Hey1, Hey2 or HeyL expression to study Hey target gene regulation in HEK293 cells, in murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) and in ESC derived CM. In HEK293 cells, I could show that genome wide binding sites largely ...
CAPELLA, C., EUSEBI, V., MANN, B. and AZZOPARDI, J. G. (1980), Endocrine differentiation in mucoid carcinoma of the breast. Histopathology, 4: 613-630. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.1980.tb02957.x ...
Promoting ectopic development of pancreatic beta cells from other cell types is one of the strategies being pursued for the treatment of diabetes. To achieve this, a detailed outline of the molecular lineage that operates in pancreatic progenitor cells to generate beta cells over other endocrine cell types is necessary. Here, we demonstrate that early transient expression of the endocrine progenitor bHLH protein Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) favors the promotion of pancreatic beta and delta cell fates over an alpha cell fate, while later transient expression promotes ectopic development of all three endocrine cell fates. We found that short-term activation of Ngn3 in Xenopus laevis endoderm just after gastrulation was sufficient to promote both early and ectopic development of beta and delta cells. By examining gene expression changes 4 h after Ngn3 activation we identified several new downstream targets of Ngn3. We show that several of these are required for the promotion of ectopic beta cells by Ngn3 as ...
SCL/TAL1 is an essential transcription factor in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. It is required for specification of the blood program during development, adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) survival and quiescence, and terminal maturation of select blood lineages. Following ectopic expression, SCL contributes to oncogenesis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Remarkably, SCLs activities are all mediated through nucleation of a core quaternary protein complex (SCL:E-protein:LMO2:LDB1) and dynamic recruitment of conserved combinatorial associations of additional regulators in a lineage- and stage-specific context. The finely tuned control of SCLs regulatory functions (lineage priming, activation and repression of gene expression programs) provides insight into fundamental developmental and transcriptional mechanisms, and highlights mechanistic parallels between normal and oncogenic processes. Importantly, recent discoveries are paving the way to the development of innovative ...
Diabetes or diabetes mellitus which is the correct medical term is a medical condition were the affected person lack the ability to regulate his or her blood glucose levels. This inability is directly due to the fact that the insulin producing cells, residing in the pancreas, cant meet the bodys demand for insulin. It is estimated that close to 200 million people are suffering from diabetes today and this number is predicted to double within 20 years. Of the approximately 200 million people suffering from diabetes today approximately 20 million are in dependent on daily injections of insulin. Being dependent on exogenous insulin is not only an inconvenience it also increase the risk for several medical complications such as stroke, heart disorders, kidney failure, retinopathy, atherosclerosis and impaired wound healing. The major risk factor for all these complications is long periods of high blood sugar levels that is damaging to thin blood vessels and nerves. Even in the best of situations ...
Differentiating human embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to pancreatic progenitor cells and downstream differentiated cells is a challen
The role of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancers remains largely unknown. The present study shows that neurogenin 3 directed Cre deletion of Tsc1 gene induces the development of pancreatic acinar carcinoma. By cross-breeding the Neurog3-cre mice with Tsc1(loxp/loxp) mice, we generated the Neurog3-Tsc1-/- transgenic mice in which Tsc1 gene is deleted and mTOR signaling activated in the pancreatic progenitor cells. All Neurog3-Tsc1-/- mice developed notable adenocarcinoma-like lesions in pancreas starting from the age of 100 days old. The tumor lesions are composed of cells with morphological and molecular resemblance to acinar cells. Metastasis of neoplasm to liver and lung was detected in 5% of animals. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin significantly attenuated the growth of the neoplasm. Relapse of the neoplasm occurred within 14 days upon cessation of rapamycin treatment. Our studies indicate that activation of mTOR signaling in the pancreatic ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a critical member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-containing Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) protein family, is a master transcription factor involved in maintaining oxygen homeostasis. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel bHLH-PAS family member, CgHIFα-like gene, from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and determined its importance during hypoxia stress. The 3020-bp CgHIFα-like cDNA encoded a protein of 888 amino acids. The predicted CgHIFα-like amino acid sequence was conserved in the N-terminal bHLH, PAS, and PAC domains (but not in the C-terminal domain) and was most closely related to the HIF family in the bHLH-PAS protein phylogenic tree ...
Ngn3 is recognized as a regulator of pancreatic endocrine formation, and Notch signaling as an important negative regulator Ngn3 gene expression. By conditionally controlling expression of Ngn3 in the pancreas, we find that these two signaling components are dynamically linked. This connection involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1,Notch,Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated activation of the Notch,Hes1 pathway impacts formation of the trunk domain in the pancreas causing multipotent ...
Hand Dominance Re-training following or limb loss Katie Yancosek, OTR/L, CHT Objective Raise awareness of hand dominance and discuss treatment options for re-training/transfer. Ultimate Goal: IMPROVE FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES via RELEVANT CLINICAL CARE PATHWAYS WHAT What is hand dominance? Hand dominance is the preferential use of one hand over the other for single limb or bi-manual tasks In bi-manual tasks one hand is the main executor and one is the supporter. Hand Dominance • The dominant hand is affected (acute or chronic) more often than the non-dominant hand • Traditional medical disability ratings consider hand dominance as a main factor Hand Dominance • Limb dominance is evident in most primates and in some lower animals (ex: frogs, rabbits) • Why do we exhibit hand dominance? unknown and still debated • Hand dominance may be a continuous variable rather than a dichotomous variable (leftambidextrous-right vs. left or right) - Edinburgh Handedness Inventory=Laterality Quotient Hand ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the HIF regulating prolyl hydroxylation domain (PHDs) proteins prior to renal injury (preconditioning) has been shown to protect the kidney via activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). Application of erythropoietin (EPO), one of the HIF target genes, has also been shown to be nephroprotective, and it remains unclear to what extent…
Nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCoA-3) (EC 2.3.1.48) (ACTR) (Amplified in breast cancer 1 protein) (AIB-1) (CBP-interacting protein) (pCIP) (Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 42) (bHLHe42) (Receptor-associated coactivator 3) (RAC-3) (Steroid receptor coactivator protein 3) (SRC-3) (Thyroid hormone receptor activator molecule 1) (TRAM-1 ...
Inflammation is a primary response to injury and or infection, allowing the body to eliminate pathogens and/or damaged tissue and to initiate repair processes. Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, is a key feature of inflamed tissue and is due to damage to the local vasculature and increased oxygen consumption by pathogens and infiltrating immune cells. In addition to being a feature of inflammation, hypoxia also induces and regulates the inflammatory response by inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, directing immune cell infiltration, and tuning the responses of the immune cells themselves. These effects are largely mediated by a family of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which serve as the master regulators of cellular responses to inadequate oxygenation and HIFs and their regulatory factors are now emerging as therapeutic targets in a number of disease states. Reviews in this series discuss the roles of hypoxia and HIFs in the regulation of inflammatory pathways, immune ...
Inflammation is a primary response to injury and or infection, allowing the body to eliminate pathogens and/or damaged tissue and to initiate repair processes. Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, is a key feature of inflamed tissue and is due to damage to the local vasculature and increased oxygen consumption by pathogens and infiltrating immune cells. In addition to being a feature of inflammation, hypoxia also induces and regulates the inflammatory response by inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, directing immune cell infiltration, and tuning the responses of the immune cells themselves. These effects are largely mediated by a family of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which serve as the master regulators of cellular responses to inadequate oxygenation and HIFs and their regulatory factors are now emerging as therapeutic targets in a number of disease states. Reviews in this series discuss the roles of hypoxia and HIFs in the regulation of inflammatory pathways, immune ...
Inflammation is a primary response to injury and or infection, allowing the body to eliminate pathogens and/or damaged tissue and to initiate repair processes. Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, is a key feature of inflamed tissue and is due to damage to the local vasculature and increased oxygen consumption by pathogens and infiltrating immune cells. In addition to being a feature of inflammation, hypoxia also induces and regulates the inflammatory response by inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, directing immune cell infiltration, and tuning the responses of the immune cells themselves. These effects are largely mediated by a family of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which serve as the master regulators of cellular responses to inadequate oxygenation and HIFs and their regulatory factors are now emerging as therapeutic targets in a number of disease states. Reviews in this series discuss the roles of hypoxia and HIFs in the regulation of inflammatory pathways, immune ...
The mammalian retina and inner ear are two of the most common places of genetic diseases that cause blindness and deafness due to the degeneration of retinal and inner ear neurons. In order to understand the disease processes, it is very crucial to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms regulating the normal development and maintenance of these neurons at the molecular level. My research is centered on identifying genes required for neuron differentiation and survival, investigating the genetic pathways involved in these processes, and developing therapies for blindness and deafness via gene therapy and stem cell replacement. I am currently investigating the roles of three classes of transcription factors (TFs), the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), POU-homeodomain (POU-HD), and LIM-domain TFs, in the formation and maintenance of mouse retina and inner ear. Using homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to mutate these TF genes, I have shown that these TFs function in a cascade to ...
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Mouse anti Human ARNT antibody, clone 3D10 recognizes human Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, also known as ARNT, Class E ba
ARNTL - ARNTL (untagged)-Human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for MYCN gene (Protein Coding), MYCN Proto-Oncogene, BHLH Transcription Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key regulator in hypoxia. It has been suggested to be a critical regulator of neurological outcomes following ischemic s...
Genetic Loci | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst  Genetic Loci | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region. *Locus Control Region. *Major Histocompatibility Complex. *Minor Histocompatibility Loci ... Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates ... Statistical power and utility of meta-analysis methods for cross-phenotype genome-wide association studies. PLoS One. 2018; 13( ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Genetic%20Loci
Proneural genes - Wikipedia  Proneural genes - Wikipedia
The formation of neuroblasts depends on the Achaete-scute complex genes - achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and ... The helixes mediate dimerization, and the adjacent basic region is required for DNA binding. The human genome contains ... Members of achaete-scute complex, such as achaete and scute, as well as atonal and daughterless confer to ectodermal ... Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proneural_genes
Genomic characterization of a repetitive motif strongly associated with developmental genes in Drosophila | BMC Genomics | Full...  Genomic characterization of a repetitive motif strongly associated with developmental genes in Drosophila | BMC Genomics | Full...
The other copy located in D. virilis is present within the enhancer region of the achaete-scute (ac-sc) complex (Accession No. ... Coding regions constitute a small portion of metazoan genomes, representing ~24% of the small genome of Drosophila melanogaster ... Finishing a whole-genome shotgun: Release 3 of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome sequence. Genome Biol. 2002, 3: ... This led to the identification of the 25-30 bp motif in many regions of the fly genome (more than 300 hits). This motif does ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-4-52
ASCL2 - Wikipedia  ASCL2 - Wikipedia
Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila), also known as ASCL2, is an imprinted human gene. This gene is a member of the ... Human ASCL2 genome location and ASCL2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Miyamoto T, Jinno Y, Sasaki T, Ikeda Y, ... gene region". Journal of Human Genetics. 43 (1): 69-70. doi:10.1007/s100380050041. PMID 9610003. Onions J, Hermann S, ... ASCL2 achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila)". Goo YH, Sohn YC, Kim DH, Kim SW, Kang MJ, Jung DJ, Kwak E, Barlev NA, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCL2
Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system | Development  Molecular markers for identified neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the Drosophila central nervous system | Development
1990) Defective neuroblast commitment in mutants of the achaete-scute complex and adjacent genes of D. melanogaster. Neuron 5, ... 1979) A region of the Drosophila genome necessary for CNS development. Nature 282, 310-312. ... 1990) Lateral inhibition and cell fate during neurogenesis in Drosophila: the interactions between scute, Notch and Delta. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/116/4/855?ijkey=f065e315417b89aa2359851adb22a06dfccff252&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
SCORE: A computational approach to the identification of cis-regulatory modules and target genes in whole-genome sequence data ...  SCORE: A computational approach to the identification of cis-regulatory modules and target genes in whole-genome sequence data ...
... bHLH activators encoded by the achaete-scute complex. Enriched bins (purity ≥50%, P , 0.005) from the proneural activator ... 0 regions of the cluster matrix. This highly unusual genome segment, which we call the A Lot of Su(H) Sites (ALS) region, ... However, these techniques address only part of the informational content of the genome. The complex blueprint that controls the ... The first bin in the matrix where each region was found is marked in Fig. 2; the specifications of each region, including the ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/99/15/9888?ijkey=49850802fd5eb72d3d7f6c27c5776a492f361ecc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
GSE76652 - Silencing of ASCL1 in U87MG glioma cells - OmicsDI  GSE76652 - Silencing of ASCL1 in U87MG glioma cells - OmicsDI
Notably, a neural reprogramming factor, ASCL1 (achaete-scute complex-like 1), was highly induced by EWS-WT1 in MEFs and in ... INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array [CDF: Brainarray HGU133Plus2_Hs_ENTREZG_v15] ... Further analysis demonstrated that EWS-WT1 directly binds to the proximal promoter region of ASCL1 and activates its ... Here we identify FOXO3 direct targets genome-wide in primary cultures of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Interestingly, ...
more infohttps://www.omicsdi.org/dataset/geo/GSE76652
Whats hot today: Current papers in developmental biology and gene function  What's hot today: Current papers in developmental biology and gene function
Most of the achaete-scute complex of the fly Calliphora vicina (including the genes achaete, scute and lethal of scute) have ... This study demonstrates genome-wide and physical association between Nup98 and histone-modifying complexes MBD-R2/NSL and Trx/ ... Copper was found to be concentrated in the copper cell region but also in the region directly anterior to the copper cells and ... The achaete-scute complex has been a useful paradigm for the study of pattern formation and its evolution. achaete-scute genes ...
more infohttp://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/aimain/model-organisms-august2015.htm
SoxNeuro orchestrates central nervous system specification and differentiation in Drosophila and is only partially redundant...  SoxNeuro orchestrates central nervous system specification and differentiation in Drosophila and is only partially redundant...
Using a combination of genome-wide binding analysis and gene expression profiling, we show that SoxNeuro directs embryonic ... D) SoxN and Dichaete common binding across the achaete-scute complex. (E) SoxN unique binding in proximity of robo3. (F) ... The genome-wide binding profiles of SoxN and Dichaete in wild-type embryos showed extensive overlap (2,893 regions, 1,890 genes ... including the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex, the DV patterning TFs encoded by Dr and vnd, and the NB temporal ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2014-15-5-r74
PERSPECTIVE: EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND THE PROBLEM OF VARIATION, Evolution | 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00544.x |...  PERSPECTIVE: EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND THE PROBLEM OF VARIATION, Evolution | 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00544.x |...
Molecular and phenotypic variation in the achaetescute region of Drosophila melanogaster ... Complex modular cis ‐acting elements regulate expression of the cardiac specifying homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 ... The role of the genome project in determining gene function: insights from model organisms ... Upstream regions of the human cardiac actin gene that modulate its transcription in muscle cells: presence of an evolutionarily ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/perspective-evolutionary-developmental-biology-and-the-problem-of-taJ30B1eGC?impressionId=5d070084ced4b&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references
Nervenet.org  Nervenet.org
Mackay and Langley (1990) and Lai and colleagues (1994) have shown that normal allelic variants at the achaete-scute complex ... At this point we have excluded most region of the genome as harboring a QTL and have narrowed our search to several candidate ... Mackay TFC, Langley CH (1990) Molecular and phenotypic variation in the achaete-scute region of Drosophila melanogaster. Nature ... achaete-scute complex (T1a, T2-T5) control the relative abundance of different classes of neurons. Homologs of several of these ...
more infohttp://nervenet.org/papers/printfriend/pf_NSFgrant.html
hairy: A Quantitative Trait Locus for Drosophila Sensory Bristle Number | Genetics  hairy: A Quantitative Trait Locus for Drosophila Sensory Bristle Number | Genetics
1989 Reduced variation in the yellow-achaete-scute region in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 122: 607- ... and the achaete-scute complex (Longet al. 2000), was indeed associated with naturally occurring phenotypic variation in bristle ... Position 1 of the alignment corresponds to position 8,591,371 of the 3L sequence of Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project genome ... homozygous h region NIL; (iii) h region NIL as heterozygotes against Sam; h1 (BC20); (iv) h region NIL as heterozygotes against ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/162/1/155
Chromosomal Elements Evolve at Different Rates in the Drosophila Genome | Genetics  Chromosomal Elements Evolve at Different Rates in the Drosophila Genome | Genetics
We can ask whether or not such complexes are conserved in D. repleta. The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) has been studied ... When the physical maps of this region are compared, only a segment of ~130 kb, which includes the genes achaete and scute, has ... 1998 The achaete-scute complex as an integrating device. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 42: 275-282. ... This DNA contains many cis-regulatory sequences that coregulate the achaete and scute (but not the lethal-of-scute and asense) ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/161/3/1137?ijkey=3482ffbb2849e6254f9cae12f2cf750a3925c80f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Natural Variation in Neuron Number in Mice Is Linked to a Major Quantitative Trait Locus on Chr 11 | Journal of Neuroscience  Natural Variation in Neuron Number in Mice Is Linked to a Major Quantitative Trait Locus on Chr 11 | Journal of Neuroscience
Some of these QTLs are now known to correspond to key proneural and neurogenic genes, includingachaete-scute, atonal, enhancer ... Nnc1 maps between Hoxb and Krt1(Watkins-Chow et al., 1996). This region contains three strong candidates for Nnc1: Rara, Thra, ... A genome-wide search using simple and composite interval-mapping techniques revealed a major QTL on chromosome (Chr) 11 in a 3 ... Genetic variation in complex traits is thought to be generated by large numbers of loci that usually have comparatively small ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/1/138.full
Plus it  Plus it
Achaete-scute complex homologue 1 regulates tumor-initiating capacity in human small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2009;69:845- ... A genome-wide association study of lung cancer identifies a region of chromosome 5p15 associated with risk for adenocarcinoma. ... UTR of mammalian Achaete-Scute Complex homolog 1 (MASH1 or ASCL1), were finally selected. Genomic DNA isolated from peripheral ... UTR of the L-MYC gene MYCL1 and the neuronal development Achaete-Scute Complex homolog ASCL1. Case-control analyses showed that ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/71/15/5175
Selective maintenance of Drosophila tandemly arranged duplicated genes during evolution | Genome Biology | Full Text  Selective maintenance of Drosophila tandemly arranged duplicated genes during evolution | Genome Biology | Full Text
Using in situ gene expression data for more than half of the Drosophila genome, we find that genes in these conserved clusters ... Most genes arise by duplication and move along the genome by random shuffling of DNA segments. Higher order structuring of the ... Our results highlight the association between genome architecture and the gene regulatory networks involved in the construction ... genome occurs in eukaryotes, where groups of physically linked genes are co-expressed. However, the contribution of gene ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2008-9-12-r176
Specification of the vertebrate eye by a network of eye field transcription factors | Development  Specification of the vertebrate eye by a network of eye field transcription factors | Development
Turner, D. L. and Weintraub, H. (1994). Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a ... Complex regulatory region mediating tailless expression in early embryonic patterning and brain development. Development 124, ... ET shares more sequence homology with omb than any other gene in the fly genome (not shown). omb expression is first detected ... 5E,F). These results demonstrate that both ET and Rx1 are able to repress the expression of Otx2 in the eye field region. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/130/21/5155?ijkey=7a155672ee2286893badff2c82d5d8592e17055f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian | BMC Biology...  An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian | BMC Biology...
Heitzler P, Bourouis M, Ruel L, Carteret C, Simpson P: Genes of the Enhancer of split and Achaete-Scute complexes are required ... maritima genome only one ASH homologue was identified; a second gene analyzed was too divergent in the basic region of the bHLH ... Skaer N, Pistillo D, Gibert J, Lio P, Wülbeck C, Simpson P: Gene duplication at the achaete-scute complex and morphological ... Dominguez M, Campuzano S: asense, a member of the Drosophila Achaete-Scute complex, is a proneural and neural differentiation ...
more infohttps://0-bmcbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1741-7007-8-127
Postnatal Survival of Mice with Maternal Duplication of Distal Chromosome 7 Induced by a Igf2/H19 Imprinting Control Region...  Postnatal Survival of Mice with Maternal Duplication of Distal Chromosome 7 Induced by a Igf2/H19 Imprinting Control Region...
Author Summary Parthenogenetic mouse embryos with two maternal genomes die early in development due to the misexpression of ... Also, it has been suggested that excess expression of the achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (Drosophila) (Ascl2) gene could ... Luedi PP, Hartemink AJ, Jirtle RL (2005) Genome-wide prediction of imprinted murine genes. Genome Res 15: 875-884. * View ... probably attributable to the distal region [16]. Second, knockouts of imprinted genes and imprinting control regions (ICRs) ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1000803
Volume 8.24 | Jun 27 - Pulmonary Cell News  Volume 8.24 | Jun 27 - Pulmonary Cell News
The expression of Wnt11 and some neuroendocrine markers increased after the transfection of Achaete-scute complex homolog 1 ( ... Ascl1 regulated Wnt11 expression via lysine H3K27 acetylation at the enhancer region of the WNT11 gene. [Lab Invest] Abstract ... Cells were characterized by morphology, proliferation and transepithelial electrical resistance, whole genome transcription ...
more infohttp://www.pulmonarycellnews.com/issue/volume-8-24-jun-27/
  • Non-coding DNA represents a high proportion of all metazoan genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large fraction of the information content of metazoan genomes resides in the transcriptional and posttranscriptional cis-regulatory elements that collectively provide the blueprint for using the protein-coding capacity of the DNA, thus guiding the development and physiology of the entire organism. (pnas.org)
  • Beyond these specific examples, a number of large-scale computational studies have attempted to detect and measure the level of gene organization within eukaryotic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the results of these studies, normally consisting of rather weak correlation signals, are insufficient to provide an understanding of the overall gene organization in eukaryotic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These advances include (i) a quadrupling of the density of the genetic map of the mouse, (ii) the ease of genotyping large numbers of marker loci distributed across the entire mouse genome by the polymerase chain reaction, (iii) a far more powerful conceptual framework for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie complex genetic traits, and (iv) significantly more reliable and economical ways to estimate numbers of neurons. (nervenet.org)
  • Advances in medicine, agriculture, and an understanding of evolution depend on resolving the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, which is challenging since variation for complex traits is caused by multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with small and conditional effects. (genetics.org)
  • Genetic variation in complex traits is thought to be generated by large numbers of loci that usually have comparatively small effects on phenotypes ( Lande, 1981 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Naturally occurring variation at some of these loci such as the AS-C, scabrous , the Delta-Hairless region, contribute to quantitative variation in bristle number. (sdbonline.org)
  • Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression in proneural clusters is regulated by multiple, independently-acting cis- regulatory enhancer modules scattered throughout the 100 kb or so of the ac-sc complex (AS-C). These mediate activation by transcription factors such as Pannier and Araucan/Caupolican. (sdbonline.org)
  • Combining all results, we estimated that 393 paracentric inversions have been fixed in the whole genome since the divergence between D. repleta and D. melanogaster . (genetics.org)
  • Here we identify FOXO3 direct targets genome-wide in primary cultures of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). (omicsdi.org)
  • Using a combination of genome-wide binding analysis and gene expression profiling, we show that SoxNeuro directs embryonic neural development from the early specification of neuroblasts through to the terminal differentiation of neurons and glia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several eye-field transcription factors (EFTFs) are expressed in the anterior region of the vertebrate neural plate and are essential for eye formation. (biologists.org)
  • SCORE is designed to detect and statistically evaluate these structural features in whole-genome sequence data, and thus to reveal previously unrecognized enhancers. (pnas.org)
  • Adds major insights from recent genome studies, new evo-devo biology research findings, and a new chapter on models of variation and divergence among closely related species. (b-ok.org)
  • Although an unknown proportion of non-coding DNA might be regarded as "junk DNA", non-coding regions also include important information related to essential processes such as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, higher-order chromatin structure and DNA replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To examine the role of misexpressions determined by two maternal copies of the Igf2 / H19 imprinting control region (ICR)-a chromatin insulator, we introduced a mutant ICR (ICR Δ ) into MatDup.dist7 fetuses. (plos.org)
  • Hence, the combinatorial use of a subset of the approximately 2000 human transcription factors easily accounts for the unique regulation of each gene in the human genome during development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotypes for 25 of these and 14 additional sites in the flanking regions were determined for the 57 NIL and associated with variation in bristle number in four genetic backgrounds. (genetics.org)
  • Like other common cancers, SCLC is a complex trait caused by both genetic and environmental factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Developmental transitions, environmental shifts, and pathogenic invasions lend a dynamic character to both the genome and its activity pattern.We study a variety of natural mechanisms that are utilized by cells adapting to genetic change. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell line data were compared with those published for primary colorectal cancers in The Cancer Genome Atlas. (cancer-genetics.org)
  • In this respect, variation in ganglion cell number is a typical complex trait displaying continuous variation over a wide range. (jneurosci.org)
  • however, we lack sufficient data on the genome-wide activities of paralogous TFs to make reliable inferences about the molecular mechanisms underlying redundancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, the union of unbalanced complementary gametes in intercrosses of mice carrying reciprocal or Robertsonian translocations yield, at low frequency, embryos with maternal duplication and paternal deficiency for particular Chr regions as defined by the translocation breakpoint - . (plos.org)
  • Our results highlight the association between genome architecture and the gene regulatory networks involved in the construction of the body plan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The helixes mediate dimerization, and the adjacent basic region is required for DNA binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the involvement of two maternal copies of the Igf2 / H19 imprinting control region (ICR), which is associated with lack of activity of the Igf2 gene, encoding a growth factor, and over-activity of H19 . (plos.org)