Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.N-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Histone Deacetylase 1: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Histone Chaperones: Proteins involved in the assembly and disassembly of HISTONES into NUCLEOSOMES.Histone Deacetylase 2: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 1; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/3280)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (2/3280)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness. (3/3280)

Transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family bind to the type I interferon (IFN)-responsive element (ISRE) and activate transcription from IFN-inducible genes. To identify cofactors that associate with IRF proteins, DNA affinity binding assays were performed with nuclear extracts prepared from tissue culture cells. The results demonstrated that the endogenous IRFs bound to the ISRE are complexed with the histone acetylases, PCAF, GCN5, and p300/CREB binding protein and that histone acetylase activities are accumulated on the IRF-ISRE complexes. By testing recombinant proteins, we show that PCAF directly binds to some but not all members of the IRF family through distinct domains of the two proteins. This interaction was functionally significant, since transfection of PCAF strongly enhanced IRF-1- and IRF-2-dependent promoter activities. Further studies showed that expression of PCAF and other histone acetylases was markedly induced in U937 cells upon phorbol ester treatment, which led to increased recruitment of PCAF to the IRF-ISRE complexes. Coinciding with the induction of histone acetylases, phorbol ester markedly enhanced IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression in U937 cells. Supporting the role for PCAF in conferring IFN responsiveness, transfection of PCAF into U937 cells led to a large increase in IFN-alpha-inducible promoter activity. These results demonstrate that PCAF is a phorbol ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF proteins which contributes to the establishment of type I IFN responsiveness.  (+info)

A novel H2A/H4 nucleosomal histone acetyltransferase in Tetrahymena thermophila. (4/3280)

Recently, we reported the identification of a 55-kDa polypeptide (p55) from Tetrahymena macronuclei as a catalytic subunit of a transcription-associated histone acetyltransferase (HAT A). Extensive homology between p55 and Gcn5p, a component of the SAGA and ADA transcriptional coactivator complexes in budding yeast, suggests an immediate link between the regulation of chromatin structure and transcriptional output. Here we report the characterization of a second transcription-associated HAT activity from Tetrahymena macronuclei. This novel activity is distinct from complexes containing p55 and putative ciliate SAGA and ADA components and shares several characteristics with NuA4 (for nucleosomal H2A/H4), a 1.8-MDa, Gcn5p-independent HAT complex recently described in yeast. A key feature of both the NuA4 and Tetrahymena activities is their acetylation site specificity for lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16 of H4 and lysines 5 and 9 of H2A in nucleosomal substrates, patterns that are distinct from those of known Gcn5p family members. Moreover, like NuA4, the Tetrahymena activity is capable of activating transcription from nucleosomal templates in vitro in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent fashion. Unlike NuA4, however, sucrose gradient analyses of the ciliate enzyme, following sequential denaturation and renaturation, estimate the molecular size of the catalytically active subunit to be approximately 80 kDa, consistent with the notion that a single polypeptide or a stable subcomplex is sufficient for this H2A/H4 nucleosomal HAT activity. Together, these data document the importance of this novel HAT activity for transcriptional activation from chromatin templates and suggest that a second catalytic HAT subunit, in addition to p55/Gcn5p, is conserved between yeast and Tetrahymena.  (+info)

In vivo and in vitro processing of the Bacillus subtilis transcript coding for glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyltransferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (5/3280)

In Bacillus subtilis, the adjacent genes gltX, cysE, and cysS encoding respectively glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, serine acetyl-transferase, and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, are transcribed as an operon but a gltX probe reveals only the presence of a monocistronic gltX mRNA (Gagnon et al., 1994, J Biol Chem 269:7473-7482). The transcript of the gltX-cysE intergenic region contains putative alternative secondary structures forming a p-independent terminator or an antiterminator, and a conserved sequence (T-box) found in the leader of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and many amino acid biosynthesis genes in B. subtilis and in other Gram-positive eubacteria. The transcription of these genes is initiated 45 nt upstream from the first codon of gltX and is under the control of a sigmaA-type promoter. Analysis of the in vivo transcript of this operon revealed a cleavage site immediately downstream from the p-independent terminator structure. In vitro transcription analysis, using RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, B. subtilis, and that encoded by the T7 phage, in the presence of various RNase inhibitors, shows the same cleavage. This processing generates mRNAs whose 5'-end half-lives differ by a factor of 2 in rich medium, and leaves putative secondary structures at the 3' end of the gltX transcript and at the 5' end of the cysE/S mRNA, which may be involved in the stabilization of these mRNAs. By its mechanism and its position, this cleavage differs from that of the other known transcripts encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in B. subtilis.  (+info)

Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue. (6/3280)

We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues.  (+info)

Virus infection leads to localized hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IFN-beta promoter. (7/3280)

Transcriptional activation of the human interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene by virus infection requires the assembly of a higher order nucleoprotein complex, the enhanceosome, which consists of the transcriptional activators NF-kappa B (p50/p65), ATF-2/c-jun, IRF-3 and IRF-7, architectural protein HMGI(Y), and the coactivators p300 and CBP. In this report, we show that virus infection of cells results in a dramatic hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 that is localized to the IFN-beta promoter. Furthermore, expressing a truncated version of IRF-3, which lacks a p300/CBP interaction domain, suppresses both histone hyperacetylation and activation of the IFN-beta gene. Thus, coactivator-mediated localized hyperacetylation of histones may play a crucial role in inducible gene expression.  (+info)

A viral mechanism for inhibition of p300 and PCAF acetyltransferase activity. (8/3280)

Nucleosomal histone modification is believed to be a critical step in the activation of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. p300/CBP and PCAF histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are coactivators for several transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors, p53, and Stat1alpha, and participate in transcription by forming an activation complex and by promoting histone acetylation. The adenoviral E1A oncoprotein represses transcriptional signaling by binding to p300/CBP and displacing PCAF and p/CIP proteins from the complex. Here, we show that E1A directly represses the HAT activity of both p300/CBP and PCAF in vitro and p300-dependent transcription in vivo. Additionally, E1A inhibits nucleosomal histone modifications by the PCAF complex and blocks p53 acetylation. These results demonstrate the modulation of HAT activity as a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

CP002160.PE153 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS 242742..243257 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="Clocel_0156" FT /product="GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase" FT /note="PFAM: GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase; KEGG: FT hor:Hore_00330 GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Clocel_0156" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ADL49944" FT /db_xref="GOA:D9SNS3" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR000182" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR016181" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:D9SNS3" FT /inference="protein motif:PFAM:PF00583" FT /protein_id="ADL49944.1" FT /translation="MIKFQLLTKENMAENALDNYDRLQNVRRVYRKIDSEYMLVEDVGI FT MDWSFERKQAVAKALISDDYITFGAIREDEIVGFASIEKQLQGKYIVLDMMQVSRKYRG FT KGMGRTLFQLVKEKAKEMGAKQLYISACASEETIEFYKSMGCKITDNPIKKIAEDEPFD FT LQMVCDVD" MIKFQLLTKE NMAENALDNY DRLQNVRRVY RKIDSEYMLV EDVGIMDWSF ERKQAVAKAL 60 ISDDYITFGA IREDEIVGFA SIEKQLQGKY IVLDMMQVSR KYRGKGMGRT LFQLVKEKAK 120 EMGAKQLYIS ACASEETIEF YKSMGCKITD NPIKKIAEDE PFDLQMVCDV D 171 ...
Author: Taschner, Michael et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2012-11-27; Keywords: HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS; MICROTUBULES; SUPERFAMILY; MECHANISMS;|br/| P300/CBP; DOMAIN; SITEcilium; crystal structure; post-translational modification; ; Title: Atomic resolution structure of human alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase|br/| bound to acetyl-CoA
Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are involved in plant development and particularly in several cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, cell division and cell differentiation. However, the precise role of VLCFAs in these different cellular processes is still poorly understood in plants. In order to identify new factors associated with the biosynthesis or function of VLCFAs, a yeast multicopy suppressor screen was carried out in a yeast mutant strain defective for fatty acid elongation. Loss of function of the elongase 3 hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase PHS1 in yeast and PASTICCINO2 in plants prevents growth and induces cytokinesis defects. PROTEIN TYROSIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE (PTPLA) previously characterized as an inactive dehydratase was able to restore yeast phs1 growth and VLCFAs elongation but not the plant pas2-1 defects. PTPLA interacted with elongase subunits in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and its absence induced the accumulation of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA as expected from a dehydratase involved
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SAT1 - SAT1 (untagged)-Human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Suberin is a hydrophobic polyester found in the cell walls of various plant-environment interfaces, including shoot and root peridermal tissue, and the root hypodermis and endodermis. Suberin deposits form apoplastic barriers that control water and nutrient transport, protect against pathogens and s …
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Find Histone Methylases, Acetyltransferases and Associated Proteins research area related information and Histone Methylases, Acetyltransferases and Associated Proteins research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
From the cloning and characterization of cDNAs, we found that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame (ORF) BMLF1-BSLF2 coding for the early protein EB2 is present in several mRNAs generated by alternative splicing and expressed in the leftward direction from two promoters PM and PM1. The PM promoter controls the expression of two abundant mRNA species of 1.9 and 2 kilobases (kb), whereas the PM1 promoter controls the expression of at least three mRNAs 3.6, 4.0, and 4.4 kb long. The PM promoter probably overlaps with the PS promoter which controls the transcription of a 3.6-kb mRNA expressed in the rightward direction and containing the ORF BSRF1. Although it increases the amount of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme expressed from the chimeric pMCAT gene, EB2 is not a promiscuous trans-activator of gene expression and does not positively regulate its own expression from promoter PM. The EB2 activation is not promoter dependent but could possibly act by stabilizing mRNAs and ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and alcohol, whereas its two products are CoA and acetyl ester. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:alcohol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also called alcohol acetyltransferase. ...
The overall goal of this project is to elucidate the molecular basis for how protein acetyltransferases (PATs) recognize and acetylate their cognate protein sub...
Elovl6 antibody (ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6) for ELISA, IHC, WB. Anti-Elovl6 pAb (GTX48702) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat, Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Definition of Acetyl CoA-deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
S. Chatterjee, P. Mizar, R. Cassel, R. Neidl, B. R. Selvi, D.V Mohankrishna, B. Vedamurthy, A. Schneider, O. Bousiges, C. Mathis, J.C. Cassel, M. Eswaramoorthy, T. K. Kundu and A. L. Boutillier, A novel activator of CBP/p300 acetyltransferases promotes neurogenesis and extends memory duration in adult mice, J. Neuro Science 33, 10698 - 10712 (2013 ...
Cellular processesCellular processesToxin production and resistanceaminoglycoside N(6)-acetyltransferase, AacA4 family (TIGR04431; EC 2.3.1.82; HMM-score: 21) ...
Genetic information processingProtein synthesisRibosomal proteins: synthesis and modificationribosomal-protein-alanine acetyltransferase (TIGR01575; EC 2.3.1.128; HMM-score: 18.8) ...
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In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a transacetylase activity in human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that transfers short-chain fatty acids from platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its close ether- and ester-linked analogues to ether/ester-linked lysophospholipids (lyso-PL). We show evidence that both PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and transacetylase activities are inhibited to the same extent by serine esterase inhibitors, are resistant to heat treatment, and exhibit identical distributions in lipoprotein classes and in LDL subfractions. Additionally, the competitive inhibition of PAF-AH by lyso-PL, and the evidence that the recombinant PAF-AH also showed a similar transacetylase activity, suggest that PAF-AH is responsible for both activities. Using PAF as a donor molecule and lyso-PAF (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) as an acceptor, the transacetylase activity showed typical allosteric kinetics, due to the positive co-operativity of the substrates, with apparent Vmax = ...
The enzyme 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.67) was purified from rat spleen approx. 1500-fold in 1.6% yield. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 0.317 +/- 0.089 mumol/min per mg of protein (mean +/- S.D., n = 6). The Km for the substrate acetyl-CoA was 137 +/- 13 microM and the pH optimum was about 8. Incubation of the purified enzyme was 1-O-[3H]octadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine followed by electrophoresis resulted in the incorporation of radioactivity into a protein of Mr 29,000. The enzyme was most active towards 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as substrate, 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-glycero-3-phosphocholine being a poor substrate. In addition, the enzyme preferred acetyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA as substrate.. ...
The cuticle covers the outer surface of the leaf and stem epidermis and is the interface between the plant and the atmosphere. It has pivotal functions for the plant, including limiting the diffusion of water and solutes while permitting a controlled release of volatiles. It provides protection from attack by herbivores and pathogens and helps the plants resist drought and frost. The brunt of plant VLCFA synthesis occurs in epidermal cells. At the level of the whole plant, the main function of VLCFAs in terms of carbon mass partitioned is their role as precursors for various components of the cuticle such as cutin, epicuticular waxes, and other waxes that are embedded in suberin and cutin layers (3).. However, VLCFAs are also essential components of waxes in the tryphine layer of the extracellular pollen coat (28). They are required for proper pollen-stigma signaling and fertilization (29). Furthermore, VLCFAs accumulate as storage lipids in the seed oil of some plants, in which they are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of IkB contributes to transcriptional activation of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase. AU - Choi, W.. AU - Proctor, L.. AU - Xia, Q.. AU - Feng, Y.. AU - Gerner, E. W.. AU - Chiao, P. J.. AU - Hamilton, S. R.. AU - Zhang, W.. N1 - Contribution: organisation=sgn,FACT1=1. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. U2 - 10.1002/mc.20239. DO - 10.1002/mc.20239. M3 - Article. VL - 45. SP - 685. EP - 693. JO - Molecular Carcinogenesis. JF - Molecular Carcinogenesis. SN - 0899-1987. IS - 9. ER - ...
Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity and can precipitate type 2 diabetes. To date, most known approaches that improve insulin resistance must be preceded by the amelioration of obesity and hepatosteatosis. Here, we show that this provision is not mandatory; insulin resistance and hype …
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have been the focus of considerable research effort as a result of their widespread environmental and economic importance as a sporting and cultured species, write Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas, Douglas R Tocher, John B Taggart and Michael J Leaver. In addition, in common with all other salmonids, they possess a comparatively recently duplicated genome, believed to have arisen as a result of a relatively recent autotetraploidisation event between 25 and 100 mya. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) has been argued as a powerful evolutionary force creating new raw material for evolution to act upon, thus enabling the divergence and neo- or subfunctionalisation of duplicated loci promoting adaptation and speciation.. The imprints of three or four ancient duplications can be detected in vertebrate genomes, including a specific event early in teleost evolution and the recent one in salmonids. Esocids (members of the pike family) are regarded as having the closest extant ...
SAGA/TFTC is a histone acetyltransferase organic which has a second enzymatic activity due to the current presence GSK126 of a deubiquitination component (DUBm). of multiprotein coactivator complexes are structured into sophisticated systems to provide accurate and precise functioning from the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) equipment. Furthermore different transcription levels are intimately linked to each other also to mRNP development and nuclear export. SAGA is normally a big multifunctional multisubunit coactivator complicated that possesses histone acetyltransferase and histone deubiquitination enzymatic actions and it is extremely conserved through the advancement of eukaryotes (1). The histone acetyltransferase module of SAGA consists of a Gcn5-catalytic subunit and works by checking the chromatin surroundings towards Rabbit polyclonal to AGAP. the binding of GSK126 extra transcription elements which leads to PIC formation (2-4). The deubiquitination module (DUBm) of candida SAGA comprises ...
Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half.. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Shop Histone acetyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Histone acetyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Y. Wang, Botolin, D., Xu, J., Christian, B., Mitchell, E., Jayaprakasam, B., Nair, M. G., Nair, M., Peters, J. M., Peters, J. M., Busik, J. V., Busik, J., L Olson, K., and Jump, D. B., "Regulation of hepatic fatty acid elongase and desaturase expression in diabetes and obesity.", Journal of lipid research, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 2028-41, 2006. ...
Elongator Acetyltransferase Complex Subunit 4 (ELP4) Peptide. Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Synthetic. Order product ABIN976315.
Klempan TA, Rujescu D, Mérette C, Himmelman C, Sequeira A, Canetti L, et al. Profiling brain expression of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) gene in suicide. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B(7):934-43. ...
Klempan TA, Rujescu D, Mérette C, Himmelman C, Sequeira A, Canetti L, et al. Profiling brain expression of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) gene in suicide. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B(7):934-43. ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits acetyltransferase activity (ortholog); chromatin binding (ortholog); cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cell cycle arrest (ortholog); cellular response to insulin stimulus (ortholog); chromatin remodeling (ortholog); PARTICIPATES IN cortisol signaling pathway; histone modification pathway; Notch signaling pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH breast cancer (ortholog); Coronary Disease (ortholog); esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ortholog); FOUND IN A band (ortholog); actomyosin (ortholog); Ada2/Gcn5/Ada3 transcription activator complex (ortholog)
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
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Methods for determining proteins and protein-bound compounds comprising enzymatic modification - diagram, schematic, and image 04 ...
Background Involved in transcriptional regulation, through association with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) SAGA-type complexes like the TFTC-HAT, ATAC or STAGA complexes. Specifically recognizes and binds methylated Lys-4...
Pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) is an important enzyme in the metabolic pathway of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is held responsible for the regulation of the shift between homolactic acid to mixed acid fermentation. PFL catalysis the reversible reaction of acetyl-CoA and formate into pyruvate and CoA. A glycyl radical, who is regenerated within the reaction, is involved; therefore, PFL works only under strictly anaerobic conditions. For its activation, the C-terminal domain has to bind to the ...
The enzyme histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are injected in high amount into a yeast cell. Explain how this might impact DNA packing and/or cellular function.
ACAT1 antibody (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) for IP, WB. Anti-ACAT1 pAb (GTX30683) is tested in Human, Mouse, Hamster samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
References for Abcams Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Browse our wide selection of hats and you will find Solid Blank Caps that you fancy. Adjustable Hats come in different styles and designs to fit you.
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Azért használunk sütiket, hogy hatékonyan tudjunk dolgozni. Ön beleegyezik ebbe azzal, hogy használja ezt az oldalt. Beleegyezés a sütik használatába.. ...
Azért használunk sütiket, hogy hatékonyan tudjunk dolgozni. Ön beleegyezik ebbe azzal, hogy használja ezt az oldalt. Beleegyezés a sütik használatába.. ...
Its fun, wintery, and warm! Lots of options and multiple sizes make this a great pattern for crochet earflap hats (or non-earflap!) for the whole family.
I try to install Red Hat 9 on my other machine, and when I try to install in text mode it locks up when it is installing DEV-3.3.2-5 when I try to
Histone Acetyltransferases, also known as HATs, are a family of enzymes that acetylate the histone tails of the nucleosome. ... Wang, Y; Miao, X; Liu, Y; Li, F; Liu, Q; Sun, J; Cai, L (2014). "Dysregulation of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases ... The process is aided by factors known as Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs). HAT molecules facilitate the transfer of an acetyl ... This family includes Sas3, essential SAS-related acetyltransferase (Esa1), Sas2, Tip60, MOF, MOZ, MORF, and HBO1. The members ...
Histone acetyltransferase 1, also known as HAT1, is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the HAT1 gene. The protein encoded ... "Entrez Gene: histone acetyltransferase 1". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific ... 2007). "Properties of the type B histone acetyltransferase Hat1: H4 tail interaction, site preference, and involvement in DNA ... Marmorstein R (2001). "Structure of histone acetyltransferases". J. Mol. Biol. 311 (3): 433-44. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4859. ...
Histone acetyltransferase • Histone deacetyltransferase • DNA methyltransferase • Sister-chromatid cohesion factors • Protein ...
These studies claim that ABT is a more potent inhibitor of N-acetyltransferase 2 compared with N-acetyltransferase 1. Strong JM ... N-Acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines and aromatic amines ... Procainamide is metabolized in the liver to acecainide by N-acetyltransferase, an enzyme that is genetically determined. ... Evans DA (1989). "N-acetyltransferase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 42 (2): 157-234. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(89)90036-3. PMID ...
A tubulin acetyltransferase is located in the axoneme, and acetylates the α-tubulin subunit in an assembled microtubule. Once ... The acetylated residue of α-tubulin is K40, which is catalyzed by α-tubulin acetyl-transferase (α-TAT) in human. The ... The identification of the crystal structure of acetylation of α-tubulin acetyl-transferase (α-TAT) also sheds a light on the ... N-terminal Acetylation is catalyzed by a set of enzyme complexes, the N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NATs transfer an ...
"Inhibition of Histone Acetyltransferases by CTK7A and Mthods thereof". Method for inhibiting histone acetyltransferases by ... of histone acetyltransferases". Use of certain benzoic acid and benzamide compounds as modulators of enzymes histone ... a natural histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, represses chromatin transcription and alters global gene expression". Journal of ... "Nanosphere-histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activator composition, process and methods thereof". A composition including ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... This acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases. This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis. Allosteric ...
Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... "Choline O-Acetyltransferase". GeneCards: The Human Gene Compendium. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 5 December 2013. ... Maselli RA, Chen D, Mo D, Bowe C, Fenton G, Wollmann RL (Feb 2003). "Choline acetyltransferase mutations in myasthenic syndrome ...
Starheim KK, Gevaert K, Arnesen T (April 2012). "Protein N-terminal acetyltransferases: when the start matters". Trends in ... HATs function similarly to N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) but their acetylation is reversible unlike in NATs. HAT ... Many coactivators have histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity meaning that they can acetylate specific lysine residues on the ... Some coactivators also have histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. HATs form large multiprotein complexes that weaken the ...
Glycine C-acetyltransferase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GCAT gene. The degradation of L-threonine to glycine ... Glycine C-acetyltransferase". Jacquot C, Lanco X, Carbonnelle D, Sevestre O, Tomasoni C, Briad G, Juget M, Roussis V, Roussakis ...
The galactosidase acetyltransferase of the classical E.coli lac operon is an enzyme whose biological role remain unclear. Its ... galactoside acetyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.3.1.18 Molecular and ... Transacetylase Galactoside O-acetyltransferase Wang XG; Olsen LR; Roderick SL. (April 2002). "Structure of the lac operon ... June 2005). "The lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase". C R Biol. 328 (6): 568-75. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.03.005. PMID ...
AANAT is a gene that encodes an enzyme aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. It is the key regulator of day-night cycle (circadian ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acetyltransferase superfamily. It is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin ... Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase". "AANAT". NCBI. Retrieved 2 November 2014. This article incorporates text from the United ...
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription of genes via chromatin remodeling This enzyme plays an ... p300 HAT functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling, and is important in the ... "Regulation of histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF by the bHLH protein twist and adenoviral oncoprotein E1A". Cell. 96 (3 ...
Acetyltransferases CBP and p300 bind to the transactivation domain. AP1, STAT5 and VDR bind to C-terminal domain. Also, ETS1 ...
2002). "Previously uncharacterized histone acetyltransferases implicated in mammalian spermatogenesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
This gene encodes a protein containing a chromodomain and a histone acetyltransferase catalytic domain. Chromodomain proteins ... 2002). "Previously uncharacterized histone acetyltransferases implicated in mammalian spermatogenesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
... has separate acetyltransferase and E3 ubiquitin ligase domains as well as a bromodomain for interaction with other ... The acetyltransferase activity and cellular location of PCAF are regulated through acetylation of PCAF itself. PCAF may be ... It has histone acetyl transferase activity with core histones and nucleosome core particles, indicating that this protein plays ... P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), also known as K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B), is a human gene and transcriptional ...
... acetyltransferases and point to hNaa10p as the post-translational actin N(alpha)-acetyltransferase". Molecular & Cellular ... N-alpha-acetyltransferase 15, NatA auxiliary subunit also known as gastric cancer antigen Ga19 (GA19), NMDA receptor-regulated ... Arnesen T, Gromyko D, Horvli O, Fluge Ø, Lillehaug J, Varhaug JE (2006). "Expression of N-acetyl transferase human and human ... NARG1 is the auxiliary subunit of the NatA (Nα-acetyltransferase A) complex. This NatA complex can associate with the ribosome ...
"EC 2.3.1.87 - aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2014. Retrieved 10 November ... and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). N-Methylphenethylamine, an isomer of amphetamine, is produced in humans via the ...
Mutations in Histone Acetyl Transferases (HAT) p300 (missense and truncating type) are most commonly reported in colorectal, ... Acetylation - by HAT (histone acetyl transferase); deacetylation - by HDAC (histone deacetylase) Acetylation tends to define ... Epigenetics Histone Nucleosomes Chromatin Histone acetyltransferase Transcription factors CAF-1 (Chromatin assembly factor-1 ... histone acetyltransferases (HATs), deacetylases, methyltransferases, and kinases, and 2) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling ...
Acetylation - by HAT (histone acetyl transferase); deacetylation - by HDAC (histone deacetylase) Acetylation tends to define ...
N-acetyltransferase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAT10 gene. Model organisms have been used in the study of ... Liu H, Ling Y, Gong Y, Sun Y, Hou L, Zhang B (Jun 2007). "DNA damage induces N-acetyltransferase NAT10 gene expression through ... Chi YH, Haller K, Peloponese JM, Jeang KT (Sep 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase hALP and nuclear membrane protein hsSUN1 ... "Entrez Gene: NAT10 N-acetyltransferase 10". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput ...
N-terminal acetyltransferase B complex catalytic subunit NAT5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAT5 gene. GRCh38: ... 2003). "Nat3p and Mdm20p are required for function of yeast NatB Nalpha-terminal acetyltransferase and of actin and tropomyosin ... "Entrez Gene: NAT5 N-acetyltransferase 5". Vitale N, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Ferrans VJ, et al. (2000). "Specific functional ... "Characterization of the native and fibrillar conformation of the human Nα-acetyltransferase ARD1". Protein Sci. 15 (8): 1968-76 ...
N-acetyltransferase 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAT9 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109065 - ... "Entrez Gene: NAT9 N-acetyltransferase 9". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ...
Akhtar A, Becker PB (February 2001). "The histone H4 acetyltransferase MOF uses a C2HC zinc finger for substrate recognition". ... Smith AT, Tucker-Samaras SD, Fairlamb AH, Sullivan WJ (December 2005). "MYST family histone acetyltransferases in the protozoan ... Proteins containing these domains include: MYST family histone acetyltransferases Myelin transcription factor Myt1 Suppressor ...
There is increasing evidence that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5), although first identified as a ... Mouse N-acetyltransferase type 2, the homologue of human N-acetyltransferase type 1. ... Mouse N-acetyltransferase type 2, the homologue of human N-acetyltransferase type 1. ... There is increasing evidence that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5), although first identified as a ...
... a MYST family histone acetyltransferase, is required for normal cerebral cortex development. ... Querkopf, a MYST family histone acetyltransferase, is required for normal cerebral cortex development. Thomas, T., Voss, A. K ... Chowdhury, K., & Gruss, P. (2000). Querkopf, a MYST family histone acetyltransferase, is required for normal cerebral cortex ...
Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is polymorphic in humans and may associate with cancer risk by modifying individual ... Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is polymorphic in humans and may associate with cancer risk by modifying individual ...
Here, we report an unexpected finding that the MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex (MYS‐1/TRR‐1 complex) promotes ... Our results thus identify the evolutionarily conserved role of the MYST family acetyltransferase as a key epigenetic regulator ... The MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex regulates stress resistance and longevity through transcriptional control of ...
N-acetyltransferase 2 Description. This gene encodes an enzyme that functions to both activate and deactivate arylamine and ... A second arylamine N-acetyltransferase gene (NAT1) is located near this gene (NAT2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Other ...
... and that P/CAF acetyltransferase (HAT), but not p300 HAT activity, is required for a significant E2F1 stabilization and ... and that P/CAF acetyltransferase (HAT), but not p300 HAT activity, is required for a significant E2F1 stabilization and ... and that P/CAF acetyltransferase (HAT), but not p300 HAT activity, is required for a significant E2F1 stabilization and ... and that P/CAF acetyltransferase (HAT), but not p300 HAT activity, is required for a significant E2F1 stabilization and ...
... acetyltransferase Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase Serotonin N-acetyltransferase NatA Acetyltransferase NatB acetyltransferase ... Examples include: Histone acetyltransferases including CBP histone acetyltransferase Choline ... Acetyltransferase (or transacetylase) is a type of transferase enzyme that transfers an acetyl group. ... Acyltransferase Acetylation Acetyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
N-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines. They have wide ... 50% of the British population are deficient in hepatic N-acetyltransferase. This is known as a negative acetylator status. ... "N-acetyltransferase". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 42 (2): 157-234. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(89)90036-3. PMID 2664821. Ma Y, ... isoniazid procainamide hydralazine dapsone sulfasalazine The following is a list of human genes that encode N-acetyltransferase ...
This review discusses our current understanding of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or acetyltransferases (ATs): their ... Histone acetyltransferases.. Roth SY1, Denu JM, Allis CD.. Author information. 1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular ...
Acetyltransferase. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Lee KK, Workman JL (April 2007). "Histone acetyltransferase complexes ... Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs)[edit]. HATs can be grouped into several different families based on sequence homology ... The Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) family includes Gcn5, PCAF, Hat1, Elp3, Hpa2, Hpa3, ATF-2, and Nut1. These HATs are ...
Structure of histone acetyltransferases.. Marmorstein R1.. Author information. 1. The Wistar Institute and the Department of ...
Diamine acetyltransferase 1, also known as spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), is an enzyme that catalyses the ... GO:0004145 diamine N-acetyltransferase activity GO:0005515 protein binding Cellular Component. No terms assigned in this ... Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase: a key metabolic regulator.. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 294 E995-1010 2008 ...
... Yonggang Wang,1,2 Xiao Miao,2,3 ... X. Yang, W. Yu, L. Shi et al., "HAT4, a golgi apparatus-anchored B-type histone acetyltransferase, acetylates free histone H4 ... D. Cao, Z. Wang, C.-L. Zhang et al., "Modulation of smooth muscle gene expression by association of histone acetyltransferases ... M. R. Parthun, J. Widom, and D. E. Gottschling, "The major cytoplasmic histone acetyltransferase in yeast: links to chromatin ...
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs) are involved in the regulation of lysine acetylation, a ... post-translational protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs; also ... Lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases as targets for cardiovascular disease. *Peng Li ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001- ... Tafrova, J. I. & Tafrov, S. T. Human histone acetyltransferase 1 (Hat1) acetylates lysine 5 of histone H2A in vivo. Mol. Cell. ...
Isolation, partial purification and characterization of an N-acetyltransferase from Streptomyces akiyoshiensis L-138  ...
C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase (GNA1): coenzyme A adduct. 4ag9 C. elegans glucosamine-6-phosphate N- ...
... Cell. 1996 Nov 29;87(5):953-9. doi: 10.1016/s0092- ... p300/CBP represents a novel class of acetyltransferases in that it does not have the conserved motif found among various other ... Here, we demonstrate that p300/CBP is not only a transcriptional adaptor but also a histone acetyltransferase. ... One such factor, the cellular p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF), possesses intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. ...
Gene Ontology Term: Hpa2 acetyltransferase complex. GO ID. GO:1990331 Aspect. Cellular Component. Description. A tetrameric ... protein complex capable of acetyltransferase activity. It can catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to an ...
This review discusses our current understanding of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or acetyltransferases (ATs): their ... Histone acetyltransferases Annu Rev Biochem. 2001;70:81-120. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.70.1.81. ...
Histone acetyltransferase type B subunit 2. B, E. 401. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: HAT2, YEL056W ... Histone acetyltransferase type B catalytic subunit. A, D. 320. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HAT1 ... Previous studies have established that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex Hat1p/Hat2p medicates this modification. ...
Gene Ontology Term: H3 histone acetyltransferase activity. GO ID. GO:0010484 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis ...
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Compare carnitine acetyltransferase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... carnitine acetyltransferase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool ... Your search returned 59 carnitine acetyltransferase ELISA ELISA Kit across 8 suppliers. ...
Compare N-acetyltransferase 8 (putative) Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Your search returned 17 N-acetyltransferase 8 (putative) Biomolecules across 7 suppliers. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody (ab3506) validated for WB and tested in Rat. Immunogen corresponding ... Anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody. See all Serotonin N-acetyltransferase primary antibodies. ... Pineal gland serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AA-NAT) is an ~23 kDa protein which is the rate ... Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.. Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain. ...
  • Finally, we report that the formation of E2F1-p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor (P/CAF) complexes is preferentially induced in doxorubicin-treated cells, and that P/CAF acetyltransferase (HAT), but not p300 HAT activity, is required for a significant E2F1 stabilization and accumulation. (elsevier.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5), although first identified as a homologue of a drug-metabolising enzyme, appears to be a marker in human oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Arylamine N-acetyltransferases. (hstalks.com)
  • Ohsako S, Deguchi T: Cloning and expression of cDNAs for polymorphic and monomorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferases from human liver. (drugbank.ca)
  • My own interest is/was arylamine N-acetyltransferases involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the sequences of the two human forms (and variants) and rabbit forms have been available for some time. (bio.net)
  • Arylamine N -acetyltransferases metabolise a range of hydrazines and arylamines (see Weber and Hein 1 for review). (bmj.com)
  • The human arylamine N -acetyltransferases first attracted attention because of their role in drug metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In eukaryotes, there are up to six N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), termed NatA-NatF, serving as the catalytic machinery for Nt-acetylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • it mainly occurs cotranslationally on nascent polypeptide chains and almost all N α-acetylation is catalyzed by the action of ribosome associated N -terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex in eukaryotes [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)