Dictionaries, MedicalCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.PeptidoglycanAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Dictionaries, ChemicalMomordica: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of momordin.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Zineb: An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Megaloblasts: Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Acro-Osteolysis: A condition with congenital and acquired forms causing recurrent ulcers in the fingers and toes. The congenital form exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance; the acquired form is found in workers who handle VINYL CHLORIDE. When acro-osteolysis is accompanied by generalized OSTEOPOROSIS and skull deformations, it is called HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.SwitzerlandImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Homovanillic AcidHydroxyindoleacetic Acid3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Vanilmandelic AcidAcetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins: A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Thoracoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the pleural cavity.Potentilla: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain procyanidins and TANNINS.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.Leuzea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. ECDYSONE has been found in seeds of some members.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
(1/426) Specific binding of glucosaminylmuramyl peptides to histones.

Intracellular N-acetylglucosaminylmuramyl peptide-binding proteins of murine macrophages and myelomonocytic WEHI-3 cells were characterized. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting revealed proteins with molecular masses of 18, 32 and 34 kDa retaining the ability to specifically bind glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide. The inhibition analysis demonstrated that only biologically active muramyl peptides but not inactive analogs or fragments of glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide could inhibit glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide-binding to these proteins. Purification of these proteins and sequencing of peptides obtained after in-gel trypsin digestion enabled us to identify the above mentioned proteins as histones H1 and H3. These findings suggest that nuclear histones might be target molecules for muramyl peptides.  (+info)

(2/426) Adjuvant therapy for melanoma in dogs: results of randomized clinical trials using surgery, liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

Spontaneous canine oral melanoma (COM) is a highly metastatic cancer, resistant to chemotherapy, and can serve as a model for cancer immunotherapy. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) can activate the tumoricidal activity of the monocyte-macrophage system following i.v. injection. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of L-MTP-PE administered alone and combined with recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) in dogs undergoing surgery for oral melanoma. Ninety-eight dogs with histologically confirmed, clinically staged, oral melanoma were entered into two randomized, double-blind, surgical adjuvant trials. In trial 1, 50 dogs were stratified based on clinical stage and randomized to once a week L-MTP-PE or lipid equivalent (control). When all of the clinical stages were combined, no difference in disease-free survival or in survival time (ST) were detected. However, within stage I, dogs receiving L-MTP-PE had a significant increase in ST compared with control, with 80% of the dogs treated with L-MTP-PE still alive at >2 years. Within each stage II and stage III, there was no difference detected between the treatment groups. In trial 2, 48 dogs were stratified on the basis of clinical stage and extent of surgery (simple resection or radical excision), treated with L-MTP-PE two times a week, and randomized to rcGM-CSF or saline (placebo) given s.c. daily for 9 weeks. Within each stage and when all of the stages were combined, there was no difference between the treatment groups. In both studies, stage I COM is associated with a better prognosis. No effect on survival was observed with regard to tumor location in the oral cavity, sex, type/extent of surgery, or age. In a subset of dogs tested, pulmonary alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity was enhanced with combined rcGM-CSF and L-MTP-PE but not in dogs treated with L-MTP-PE alone. The present study indicates that after surgery, L-MTP-PE administered alone or combined with rcGM-CSF showed no significant antitumor activity in treating advanced stage COM. In early stage COM, L-MTP-PE was shown to result in a prolongation of ST. Furthermore, this study provides additional rationale for the use of the dog model for human malignant melanoma.  (+info)

(3/426) Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide.

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.  (+info)

(4/426) Synergistic epithelial responses to endotoxin and a naturally occurring muramyl peptide.

We have investigated the synergistic interactions of a naturally occurring peptidoglycan fragment (muramyl peptide) and bacterial endotoxin in the induction of inflammatory processes within respiratory epithelial cells, at the levels of both signal transduction events and ultimate cellular metabolic effects. The source of the muramyl peptide is Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of the respiratory disease pertussis. During log-phase growth, B. pertussis releases the muramyl peptide tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), which has the structure N - acetylglucosaminyl - 1,6 - anhydro - N - acetylmuramyl - (L) - alanyl - gamma - (D) - glutamyl - meso - diaminopimelyl - (D) - alanine, equivalent to a monomeric subunit of gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan. When applied to hamster trachea epithelial (HTE) cells, TCT and endotoxin were found to be highly synergistic in the induction of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide production, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Neither molecule alone significantly triggered these responses. The serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor H7 blocked induction of both IL-1alpha and iNOS. More selective inhibitors of protein kinase C, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase were not capable of blocking the effects of TCT and endotoxin, suggesting that the H7-inhibited component in this pathway is not among the commonly described kinase targets of H7. Treatment of HTE cells with exogenous IL-1 reproduced the induction of iNOS and DNA synthesis inhibition caused by TCT and endotoxin. H7 was not capable of interfering with effects caused by exogenous IL-1, implying that the H7-sensitive step in the pathway is upstream of IL-1 protein production. Similar assays with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate indicate that it could effectively synergize with endotoxin but not with TCT, suggesting that TCT and endotoxin induce different signal transduction events that combine synergistically. The synergy observed with TCT and endotoxin in epithelial cells is significantly different from their interaction with other cell types, revealing a unique inflammatory response by epithelial cells to these natural bacterial products.  (+info)

(5/426) Scavenger receptor-mediated delivery of muramyl dipeptide activates antitumor efficacy of macrophages by enhanced secretion of tumor-suppressive cytokines.

We showed that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) conjugated to maleylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA) was internalized by macrophages (Mphi) through scavenger receptor (SCR)-mediated endocytosis, which leads to 50-fold higher cytotoxic activity against non-Mphi tumor cells compared with that elicited by free MDP-treated Mphi. The enhanced cytotoxic effect of MBSA-MDP was found to be a result of higher secretion of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and nitric oxide (NO) because the addition of antibodies directed against IL-1, IL-6, or TNF-alpha in combination with Mphi cultures totally abrogated the tumoricidal activity of MBSA-MDP. It is interesting to note that MBSA-MDP triggers the secretion of IL-12, whereas IL-10, a Mphi suppressor cytokine, could be detected only on free MDP treatment. The cytotoxic activity of MBSA-MDP was inhibited by indomethacin, indicating a regulatory role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Efficient SCR-mediated intracellular delivery of MDP leading to elimination of cancer cells suggests the immunotherapeutic potential of this approach for treatment of neoplasia.  (+info)

(6/426) Prostaglandin E2 affects differently the release of inflammatory mediators from resident macrophages by LPS and muramyl tripeptides.

LPS and MTP-PE (liposome-encapsulated N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-:[1',2'dipalmitoyl -sni-glycero-3-(hydroxy-phosphoryl-oxyl)] etylamide) induce in liver macrophages a synthesis and release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and prostanoids. Both agents induce an expression of mRNA's encoding TNF-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and of corresponding proteins. LPS and MTP-PE induce a rapid activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) isoenzymes-1 and -2. Inhibition of map kinase isoenzymes leads to a decreased release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and prostaglandin (PG) E2 after both agents. The transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 are strongly activated by LPS within 30 minutes. MTP-PE induces a weak activation of both transcription factors only after 5 hours. Inhibition of NF-kappaB inhibits the LPS- but not the MTP-PE-induced release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and PGE2. PGE2 release after LPS is higher than after MTP-PE. Exogenously added PGE2 inhibits the activation of map kinase and TNF-alpha release by LPS, but not by MTP-PE. Release of nitric oxide after LPS and MTP-PE is enhanced after prior addition of PGE2. PGD2 is without any effect. MTP-PE, but not LPS, induces a cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells against P815 tumor target cells. The MTP-PE-induced cytotoxicity is reduced by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies, indicating the involvement of TNF-alpha. Thus our results suggest that the different potencies of LPS and MTP-PE as immunomodulators probably result from different actions on Kupffer cells, resulting in differences in the amounts and kinetics of released TNF-alpha and PGE2, and that PGE2 plays an important regulatory role in the action of LPS, but not in the actions of MTP-PE.  (+info)

(7/426) The synthetic immunomodulator murabutide controls human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication at multiple levels in macrophages and dendritic cells.

Macrophages and dendritic cells are known to play an important role in the establishment and persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Besides antiretroviral therapy, several immune-based interventions are being evaluated with the aim of achieving better control of virus replication in reservoir cells. Murabutide is a safe synthetic immunomodulator presenting a capacity to enhance nonspecific resistance against viral infections and to target cells of the reticuloendothelial system. In this study, we have examined the ability of Murabutide to control HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs). Highly significant suppression of viral replication was consistently observed in Murabutide-treated cultures of both cell types. Murabutide did not affect virus entry, reverse transcriptase activity, or early proviral DNA formation in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, treated MDMs and MDDCs showed a dramatic reduction in nuclear viral two-long terminal repeat circular form and viral mRNA transcripts. This HIV-1-suppressive activity was not mediated by inhibiting cellular DNA synthesis or by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, Murabutide-stimulated cells expressed reduced CD4 and CCR5 receptors and secreted high levels of beta-chemokines, although neutralization of the released chemokines did not alter the HIV-1-suppressive activity of Murabutide. These results provide evidence that a clinically acceptable immunomodulator can activate multiple effector pathways in macrophages and in dendritic cells, rendering them nonpermissive for HIV-1 replication.  (+info)

(8/426) Induction of necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in mice in vivo and in murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole blood cells in vitro by Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids.

Earlier studies showed that Micrococcus luteus cells and cell walls induced anaphylactoid reactions leading to death, in some instances within 1 h, in C3H/HeN mice primed with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). They also induced serum cytokines in the surviving mice. The present study investigated the structural components responsible for these activities. Teichuronic acids, a component of M. luteus cell walls, induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MDP-primed C3H/HeN mice. Peptidoglycans had little effect on the cytokine-inducing activities. Reducing teichuronic acids, i.e., teichuronic acids whose carboxyl groups had been reduced, lost their cytokine-inducing activities. Neither peptidoglycans nor teichuronic acids induced anaphylactoid reactions in the MDP-primed mice. Purified teichuronic acids also induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in C3H/HeN murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole-blood cells in the culture, but reduced teichuronic acids did not. The purified teichuronic acids induced no TNF-alpha and only low levels of IL-6 in MDP-primed C3H/HeJ mice, and neither cytokine in peritoneal macrophage cultures from C3H/HeJ mice with a single point of mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. These findings suggest that induction of cytokines by teichuronic acids is mainly TLR4-dependent.  (+info)

*  Ferrier carbocyclization
"Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic analogs of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)". J. Org. Chem. 54 (16): ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.067.687.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.067.687.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.811.589.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.811.589.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.644)
... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D12.644.233.110 --- bleomycin MeSH D12.644.233.110.690 --- peplomycin MeSH D12.644. ...
*  Mifamurtide
... uses N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, hydroxysuccinimide and alanyl-2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid ... Brundish, D. E.; Wade, R. (1985). "Synthesis of N-[2-3H]acetyl-D-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-iso-glutaminyl-L-alanyl-2-(1',2'- ... assisted esterification of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine with N-hydroxysuccinimide, followed by a ...
*  Delta wave
The muramyl peptide, muramyl dipeptide (MDP, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) has been shown to increase delta wave ...
*  Epineurial repair
Research for the use of neurotrophic factors such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) to aide in the nerve ...
Alanyl Isoglutamine, Acetylmuramyl - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org  Alanyl Isoglutamine, Acetylmuramyl - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Alanyl Isoglutamine, Acetylmuramyl. Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial Cell Wall fragments; also ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/alanyl-isoglutamine-acetylmuramyl.html
N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC) | Sigma-Aldrich  N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC) | Sigma-Aldrich
N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC); CAS Number: 53678-77-6; EC Number: 258-696-9; Synonym: Adjuvant ... N-Acetylmuramyl-. L. -alanyl-. D. -isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC) Synonym: Adjuvant Peptide, Muramyl dipeptide ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-. D-isoglutamine hydrate has been used in staphylococcal cell wall preparation to induce the release ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-. D-isoglutamine (MDP, muramyl dipeptide), a neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factor related to ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/A9519?lang=en®ion=US
Deoxyuridine
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Deoxyuridine Summary Report | CureHunter
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy) 2. Injections ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD003857.do
Effects of MDP (3 mg/kg), FK565 (0.003 mg/kg) and LPS | Open-i  Effects of MDP (3 mg/kg), FK565 (0.003 mg/kg) and LPS | Open-i
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/pharmacology. *Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology. *Animals. *Corticosterone/blood. * ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4295938_gr4&req=4
Effects of MDP (3 mg/kg), LPS (0.83 mg/kg) and MDP + | Open-i  Effects of MDP (3 mg/kg), LPS (0.83 mg/kg) and MDP + | Open-i
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/pharmacology. *Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology. *Animals. *Corticosterone/blood. * ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4295938_gr8&req=4
Syntex adjuvant formulation - Semantic Scholar  Syntex adjuvant formulation - Semantic Scholar
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine. Polysorbates. Squalene. Related mentions per year. Related mentions per year. 1937-2018 ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Syntex-adjuvant-formulation/289527
Differential tumor necrosis factor production by human monocyte subset by Gyongyi Szabo, Carol L. Miller-Graziano et al.  "Differential tumor necrosis factor production by human monocyte subset" by Gyongyi Szabo, Carol L. Miller-Graziano et al.
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine; Adult; Antigen-Presenting Cells; Antigens, Differentiation; Dinoprostone; Humans; Immune ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1149/
Peptidoglycans  < Glycopeptides  << Peptides  <<< Proteins (Protein Science)  @...  Peptidoglycans < Glycopeptides << Peptides <<< Proteins (Protein Science) @...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine *Bleomycin *Peplomycin *Phleomycins *Peptidoglycan *Ristocetin *sialoglycoproteins *SCD43 ...
more infohttp://wellnessadvantage.com/?dgl=8817
Patent US8883213 - Ion exchange resin treated to control swelling - Google Patents  Patent US8883213 - Ion exchange resin treated to control swelling - Google Patents
... the synthetic dipeptide N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isog-lutamine; anti-fungalagents such as ketoconazole, nystatin, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US8883213
Method for identifying and validating dominant T helper cell epitopes using an HLA-DM-assisted class II binding assay - The...  Method for identifying and validating dominant T helper cell epitopes using an HLA-DM-assisted class II binding assay - The...
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) (Hornung, R L et al., Ther Immunol 1995 2:7-14) or ISAF-1 (5% squalene, 2.5% ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/8916340.html
3R Research Foundation Switzerland / 3R Info Bulletins / Immunization of laboratory animals  3R Research Foundation Switzerland / 3R Info Bulletins / Immunization of laboratory animals
GMDP: N-acetyl-glycosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine. MDP: N-acetylmuramyl-Lanalyl-D-isoglutamine. PBS: ...
more infohttp://www.forschung3r.ch/en/publications/bu11_print.html
Ferrier carbocyclization - Wikipedia  Ferrier carbocyclization - Wikipedia
"Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic analogs of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)". J. Org. Chem. 54 (16): ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrier_carbocyclization
List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia
... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.067.687.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.067.687.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.811.589.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.811.589.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D09)
US Patent for Non-crosslinked protein particles for therapeutic and diagnostic use Patent (Patent #  5,616,311 issued April 1,...  US Patent for Non-crosslinked protein particles for therapeutic and diagnostic use Patent (Patent # 5,616,311 issued April 1,...
Adjuvant peptide (N-acetylmuramyl-1-alanyl-d-isoglutamine). 35. HIV-1 protease substrate (acetyl-ser-gln-asn-tyr-pro-val-val- ... N-acetyl-glucosaminyl-beta(1-4)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine ... N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine-6-O-stearoyl. ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-L-isoglutamine. N-Acetylmuramyl-Ala-D- ... 4-(2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-Glu Amide ...
more infohttps://patents.justia.com/patent/5616311
Effect of tacrine on in vivo release of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum of freely moving rats.  Effect of tacrine on in vivo release of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum of freely moving rats.
97234 - Adjuvant activity of synthetic 6-o-"mycoloyl"-n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine a.... 6761144 - Evidence that the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effect-tacrine-in-vivo-release/8627574.html
Potential of Peptides as Inhibitors and Mimotopes: Selection of Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides from Phage Display Libraries  Potential of Peptides as Inhibitors and Mimotopes: Selection of Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides from Phage Display Libraries
N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) [43], and high-mannose oligosaccharide (Man9GlcNAc2 for HIV-1 gp120) [45]. The ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jna/2012/740982/
Nod2-Nodosome in a Cell-Free System: Implications in Pathogenesis and Drug Discovery for Blau Syndrome and Early-Onset...  Nod2-Nodosome in a Cell-Free System: Implications in Pathogenesis and Drug Discovery for Blau Syndrome and Early-Onset...
whereas no increase was detected upon incubation with the same amount (5.33 mg/mL) of N-Acetylmuramyl-D-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine ( ... N-acetyl muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)," Journal of Immunology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 980-982, 1978. View at Google ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), a bacterial peptidoglycan component, and makes a NF-κB-activating complex called ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), one of the components of bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan, and is utilized as ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/2597376/
6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine
     Summary Report | CureHunter  6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine Summary Report | CureHunter
6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine: lipophilic muramyl dipeptide analog; RN given refers to (L- ... Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: 392*6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine ... Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: 392*6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine ... Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: 392*6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC045168-6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine.do
COMBINATION OF VACCINATION AND INHIBITION OF MHC CLASS I RESTRICTED     ANTIGEN PRESENTATION - Patent application  COMBINATION OF VACCINATION AND INHIBITION OF MHC CLASS I RESTRICTED ANTIGEN PRESENTATION - Patent application
N-acetylmuramyl-L47 alanyl-D-isoglutamine); imiquimod (1-(2-methypropyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline-4-amine); ImmTher® (N- ... N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D35 glutamine (GMDP), ii) dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DDA), iii) zinc-L-proline salt complex ... N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-isoGlu-LAladipalmitoxypropy- lamide); Theronyl-MDP (Termurtide® or [thr 1]-MDP; N- ... N-acetyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-(1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glyce- ro-3-(hydroxyphosphoryloxy))ethylamide, monosodium ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130280283