Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dictionaries, MedicalCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.PeptidoglycanAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Zineb: An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.

Specific binding of glucosaminylmuramyl peptides to histones. (1/426)

Intracellular N-acetylglucosaminylmuramyl peptide-binding proteins of murine macrophages and myelomonocytic WEHI-3 cells were characterized. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting revealed proteins with molecular masses of 18, 32 and 34 kDa retaining the ability to specifically bind glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide. The inhibition analysis demonstrated that only biologically active muramyl peptides but not inactive analogs or fragments of glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide could inhibit glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide-binding to these proteins. Purification of these proteins and sequencing of peptides obtained after in-gel trypsin digestion enabled us to identify the above mentioned proteins as histones H1 and H3. These findings suggest that nuclear histones might be target molecules for muramyl peptides.  (+info)

Adjuvant therapy for melanoma in dogs: results of randomized clinical trials using surgery, liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (2/426)

Spontaneous canine oral melanoma (COM) is a highly metastatic cancer, resistant to chemotherapy, and can serve as a model for cancer immunotherapy. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) can activate the tumoricidal activity of the monocyte-macrophage system following i.v. injection. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of L-MTP-PE administered alone and combined with recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) in dogs undergoing surgery for oral melanoma. Ninety-eight dogs with histologically confirmed, clinically staged, oral melanoma were entered into two randomized, double-blind, surgical adjuvant trials. In trial 1, 50 dogs were stratified based on clinical stage and randomized to once a week L-MTP-PE or lipid equivalent (control). When all of the clinical stages were combined, no difference in disease-free survival or in survival time (ST) were detected. However, within stage I, dogs receiving L-MTP-PE had a significant increase in ST compared with control, with 80% of the dogs treated with L-MTP-PE still alive at >2 years. Within each stage II and stage III, there was no difference detected between the treatment groups. In trial 2, 48 dogs were stratified on the basis of clinical stage and extent of surgery (simple resection or radical excision), treated with L-MTP-PE two times a week, and randomized to rcGM-CSF or saline (placebo) given s.c. daily for 9 weeks. Within each stage and when all of the stages were combined, there was no difference between the treatment groups. In both studies, stage I COM is associated with a better prognosis. No effect on survival was observed with regard to tumor location in the oral cavity, sex, type/extent of surgery, or age. In a subset of dogs tested, pulmonary alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity was enhanced with combined rcGM-CSF and L-MTP-PE but not in dogs treated with L-MTP-PE alone. The present study indicates that after surgery, L-MTP-PE administered alone or combined with rcGM-CSF showed no significant antitumor activity in treating advanced stage COM. In early stage COM, L-MTP-PE was shown to result in a prolongation of ST. Furthermore, this study provides additional rationale for the use of the dog model for human malignant melanoma.  (+info)

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide. (3/426)

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.  (+info)

Synergistic epithelial responses to endotoxin and a naturally occurring muramyl peptide. (4/426)

We have investigated the synergistic interactions of a naturally occurring peptidoglycan fragment (muramyl peptide) and bacterial endotoxin in the induction of inflammatory processes within respiratory epithelial cells, at the levels of both signal transduction events and ultimate cellular metabolic effects. The source of the muramyl peptide is Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of the respiratory disease pertussis. During log-phase growth, B. pertussis releases the muramyl peptide tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), which has the structure N - acetylglucosaminyl - 1,6 - anhydro - N - acetylmuramyl - (L) - alanyl - gamma - (D) - glutamyl - meso - diaminopimelyl - (D) - alanine, equivalent to a monomeric subunit of gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan. When applied to hamster trachea epithelial (HTE) cells, TCT and endotoxin were found to be highly synergistic in the induction of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide production, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Neither molecule alone significantly triggered these responses. The serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor H7 blocked induction of both IL-1alpha and iNOS. More selective inhibitors of protein kinase C, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase were not capable of blocking the effects of TCT and endotoxin, suggesting that the H7-inhibited component in this pathway is not among the commonly described kinase targets of H7. Treatment of HTE cells with exogenous IL-1 reproduced the induction of iNOS and DNA synthesis inhibition caused by TCT and endotoxin. H7 was not capable of interfering with effects caused by exogenous IL-1, implying that the H7-sensitive step in the pathway is upstream of IL-1 protein production. Similar assays with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate indicate that it could effectively synergize with endotoxin but not with TCT, suggesting that TCT and endotoxin induce different signal transduction events that combine synergistically. The synergy observed with TCT and endotoxin in epithelial cells is significantly different from their interaction with other cell types, revealing a unique inflammatory response by epithelial cells to these natural bacterial products.  (+info)

Scavenger receptor-mediated delivery of muramyl dipeptide activates antitumor efficacy of macrophages by enhanced secretion of tumor-suppressive cytokines. (5/426)

We showed that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) conjugated to maleylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA) was internalized by macrophages (Mphi) through scavenger receptor (SCR)-mediated endocytosis, which leads to 50-fold higher cytotoxic activity against non-Mphi tumor cells compared with that elicited by free MDP-treated Mphi. The enhanced cytotoxic effect of MBSA-MDP was found to be a result of higher secretion of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and nitric oxide (NO) because the addition of antibodies directed against IL-1, IL-6, or TNF-alpha in combination with Mphi cultures totally abrogated the tumoricidal activity of MBSA-MDP. It is interesting to note that MBSA-MDP triggers the secretion of IL-12, whereas IL-10, a Mphi suppressor cytokine, could be detected only on free MDP treatment. The cytotoxic activity of MBSA-MDP was inhibited by indomethacin, indicating a regulatory role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Efficient SCR-mediated intracellular delivery of MDP leading to elimination of cancer cells suggests the immunotherapeutic potential of this approach for treatment of neoplasia.  (+info)

Prostaglandin E2 affects differently the release of inflammatory mediators from resident macrophages by LPS and muramyl tripeptides. (6/426)

LPS and MTP-PE (liposome-encapsulated N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-:[1',2'dipalmitoyl -sni-glycero-3-(hydroxy-phosphoryl-oxyl)] etylamide) induce in liver macrophages a synthesis and release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and prostanoids. Both agents induce an expression of mRNA's encoding TNF-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and of corresponding proteins. LPS and MTP-PE induce a rapid activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) isoenzymes-1 and -2. Inhibition of map kinase isoenzymes leads to a decreased release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and prostaglandin (PG) E2 after both agents. The transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 are strongly activated by LPS within 30 minutes. MTP-PE induces a weak activation of both transcription factors only after 5 hours. Inhibition of NF-kappaB inhibits the LPS- but not the MTP-PE-induced release of TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and PGE2. PGE2 release after LPS is higher than after MTP-PE. Exogenously added PGE2 inhibits the activation of map kinase and TNF-alpha release by LPS, but not by MTP-PE. Release of nitric oxide after LPS and MTP-PE is enhanced after prior addition of PGE2. PGD2 is without any effect. MTP-PE, but not LPS, induces a cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells against P815 tumor target cells. The MTP-PE-induced cytotoxicity is reduced by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies, indicating the involvement of TNF-alpha. Thus our results suggest that the different potencies of LPS and MTP-PE as immunomodulators probably result from different actions on Kupffer cells, resulting in differences in the amounts and kinetics of released TNF-alpha and PGE2, and that PGE2 plays an important regulatory role in the action of LPS, but not in the actions of MTP-PE.  (+info)

The synthetic immunomodulator murabutide controls human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication at multiple levels in macrophages and dendritic cells. (7/426)

Macrophages and dendritic cells are known to play an important role in the establishment and persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Besides antiretroviral therapy, several immune-based interventions are being evaluated with the aim of achieving better control of virus replication in reservoir cells. Murabutide is a safe synthetic immunomodulator presenting a capacity to enhance nonspecific resistance against viral infections and to target cells of the reticuloendothelial system. In this study, we have examined the ability of Murabutide to control HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs). Highly significant suppression of viral replication was consistently observed in Murabutide-treated cultures of both cell types. Murabutide did not affect virus entry, reverse transcriptase activity, or early proviral DNA formation in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, treated MDMs and MDDCs showed a dramatic reduction in nuclear viral two-long terminal repeat circular form and viral mRNA transcripts. This HIV-1-suppressive activity was not mediated by inhibiting cellular DNA synthesis or by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, Murabutide-stimulated cells expressed reduced CD4 and CCR5 receptors and secreted high levels of beta-chemokines, although neutralization of the released chemokines did not alter the HIV-1-suppressive activity of Murabutide. These results provide evidence that a clinically acceptable immunomodulator can activate multiple effector pathways in macrophages and in dendritic cells, rendering them nonpermissive for HIV-1 replication.  (+info)

Induction of necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in mice in vivo and in murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole blood cells in vitro by Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids. (8/426)

Earlier studies showed that Micrococcus luteus cells and cell walls induced anaphylactoid reactions leading to death, in some instances within 1 h, in C3H/HeN mice primed with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). They also induced serum cytokines in the surviving mice. The present study investigated the structural components responsible for these activities. Teichuronic acids, a component of M. luteus cell walls, induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MDP-primed C3H/HeN mice. Peptidoglycans had little effect on the cytokine-inducing activities. Reducing teichuronic acids, i.e., teichuronic acids whose carboxyl groups had been reduced, lost their cytokine-inducing activities. Neither peptidoglycans nor teichuronic acids induced anaphylactoid reactions in the MDP-primed mice. Purified teichuronic acids also induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in C3H/HeN murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole-blood cells in the culture, but reduced teichuronic acids did not. The purified teichuronic acids induced no TNF-alpha and only low levels of IL-6 in MDP-primed C3H/HeJ mice, and neither cytokine in peritoneal macrophage cultures from C3H/HeJ mice with a single point of mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. These findings suggest that induction of cytokines by teichuronic acids is mainly TLR4-dependent.  (+info)

6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine: lipophilic muramyl dipeptide analog; RN given refers to (L-aminobutyryl-D-isoglutamine)-isomer
Acétylmuramyl Alanyl Isoglutamine; acetylmuramyl alanyl isoglutamine; alanyl isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl; dipeptide, muramyl; isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl alanyl; mur nac l ala d isogln; muramyl dipeptide; mur-nac-l-ala-d-isogln; n acetyl muramyl l alanyl d glutamic alpha amide; n acetylmuramyl l alanyl d isoglutamine; n-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-glutamic-alpha-amide; n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine. Aide pour diagnostic médical. Méthode automatique dassociations de symptômes pour classifier les plus de 4.000 maladies en quatre langues différentes
The present invention relates to an algal adduct of the citrullinylarginine natural dipeptide as well as to its dermatological use and the use of chemical analogs issued from the same dipeptide displaying no toxic potential, as skin and phanera care and treatment agents, the said analogs having the following general formula (I): in which: R 1 represents an acyl or acycloxy radical, R 2 represents a hydroxyl, amine, alkylamine or alcoxy radical, R 3 represents a hydrogen atom or a hydroxyl radical.
The purpose of these studies was to select in vitro tumor cells that were resistant to macrophage-mediated lysis. Seven different heterogeneous murine neoplasms (four fibrosarcomas, a melanoma, a rhabdomyosarcoma, and an osteogenic sarcoma) and one cloned line of a fibrosarcoma were incubated in vitro with syngeneic tumoricidal macrophages. Surviving tumor cells were recovered and expanded to undergo subsequent interaction with tumoricidal macrophages. After six sequential interactions, all cell lines were examined for their susceptibility to lysis mediated by murine peritoneal exudate macrophages activated with liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine. In all eight systems, no significant differences were detected between the parent tumor cells and cells that survived the sequential interactions. Neither macrophage infiltration into s.c. tumors nor the experimental or spontaneous metastatic potentials of the parental tumors differed from the lines established by cells ...
Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (determined in a 72-h111In release assay) and the circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, C-reactive protein, and beta2-microglobulin were determined in 14 melanoma patients treated with multilamellar vesicle liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine, 4 mg twice a week for 12 weeks. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity increased 24 h after the first infusion in 9 of 14 patients and had reached maximum levels (mean, 44% +/- 8) in all patients by the sixth week; similar values were observed at the 12th week. Once increased in vivo, peripheral blood monocyte cytotoxicity was not susceptible to any further increase after a subsequent in vitro incubation of the monocytes with liposomes. However, the peripheral blood monocytes which were not cytotoxic in vivo were activated by in vitro incubation with liposomes and not by medium. TNF-alpha and IL-6 peaked 2 h after the first infusion and ...
Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to enhance the antitumor activity of biological response modifiers and cytokines in rodents and humans. The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (a) to determine whether doxorubicin (DOX) would enhance or interfere with the effect of muramyl dipeptide and lipopolysaccharide on canine monocyte activation as measured by an in vitro WEHI-164 cell cytotoxicity assay; and (b) to evaluate the in vivo effect of DOX alone and combined with liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) on monocyte activation and serum tumor necrosis factor activity. The in vitro results showed that increasing concentrations of DOX for either 1 or 24 h incubation did not directly enhance or inhibit spontaneous or activated monocyte supernatant-mediated cytotoxicity. The in vivo study showed that monocyte supernatant-mediated cytotoxicity was increased on day 3 and significantly elevated on day 7 (P = 0.016) post-DOX (30 mg/m2, single injection) ...
Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. AuthorsOstrovskaya RU, et al. Show all Journal J Biomed Sci. 2014 Aug 6;21(1):74. Affiliation Abstract BackgroundNoopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of
Aberrant monocyte mediator production is pivotal in the development of posttrauma immunosuppression. We have previously shown that immunodepressed trauma patients monocytes produce elevated interleukin-6, suggesting their in vivo preactivation. This study confirms that preactivated patients Mo produce greater levels of IL-6 than normals Mo to the same in the in vitro Fc gamma RI stimulation. We also demonstrate the capacity of interleukin-4 to downregulate the elevated interleukin-6 production of trauma patients in vivo preactivated monocytes. Monocyte interleukin-6 downregulation by interleukin-4 is dose dependent and occurs whether Fc gamma RI cross-linking, muramyl dipeptide, indomethacin plus muramyl dipeptide, or interferon-gamma plus muramyl dipeptide is the interleukin-6 inducing stimulus. Furthermore, interleukin-4-dependent downregulation of monocyte interleukin-6 expression is confirmed at both the supernatant and the mRNA levels. Simultaneous downregulation of posttrauma elevated
Abstract: In vitro stimulation of mice spleen cells by means of glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide (GMDP) was accompanied by development of tumor necrosis factor and of interleukin-I. The factor was detected in blood serum only after administration of GMDP simultaneously with lipopolysaccharide. GMDP activated peritoneal macrophages; the phenomenon was evaluated by means of the macrophages ability to kill tumoral cells P815 as well as by interleukin-I production after additional stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. At the same time, an increase in proliferating activity of spleen and bone marrow cells was observed. An increase of middle lifetime and recovery of 24% mice of C57BL/6 strain with leukosis EL-4 were observed after complex treatment of the animals with GMDP, lipopolysaccharide, cyclophosphane and indomethacin ...
A Phase I Clinical Trial to Evaluate: Part A. The Safety of MTP-PE/MF59 Adjuvant Emulsion. Part B. The Safety and Immunogenicity of Env 2-3, a Yeast Derived Recombinant Envelope Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1, in Combination With MTP-PE/ ...
The adjuvant muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has been shown to affect a number of macrophage functions in vitro. We studied the effect of subcutaneous injection of MDP into mice. Cultured peritoneal macrophages from treated mice displayed increased spreading, total cell protein, and specific activity of beta-glucosaminidase a constituent of macrophage lysosomes, and of lactate dehydrogenase. Generation of superoxide anion (O2-) by MDP-treated macrophages stimulated by contact with phorbol myristate acetate was enhanced by over fivefold to levels achieved by macrophages from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-infected mice. The enhancement in stimulated O2- release was noted by 1 h after injection of MDP, peaked by 3 h, and remained high for at least 48 h. Priming for enhancement of O2- release by MDP was similar in athymic nude mice and in normal littermates, suggesting that mature T lymphocytes are not involved in this MDP effect. Priming for enhanced stimulated O2- release, and morphologic and enzymic changes, ...
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether the tumoricidal phenotype of human blood monocytes would be affected by different activation signals. Human monocytes obtained by elutriation of buffy coats were cultured in vitro in medium containing LPS, muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE), or a lipopeptide analogue of gram-negative bacteria cell wall. These immunomodulators were added to monocytes in the presence or absence of IFN-gamma. Incubation with LPS, lipopeptide, and MTP-PE rendered the monocyte cytotoxic against allogeneic melanoma cells. Monocytes treated with LPS and lipopeptide (in the absence of IFN-gamma) secreted IL 1, TNF, and PGE2. In contrast, monocytes incubated with MTP-PE (in the absence of IFN-gamma) secreted only TNF. When the monocytes were coincubated with IFN-gamma (human but not mouse) and the immunomodulators, IL 1, TNF, and PGE2 were secreted at all test groups. These data show that some immunomodulators can regulate the release of TNF independently of
Disclosed herein is a novel antitumor factor, termed Human Monocyte Toxin, obtained by the precise activation of cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocytes are isolated in the absence of endotoxin by counterflow elutriation. HMT release can be triggered by exposure to low levels of 6-0-stearoyl muramyl dipeptide, lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate or other known macrophage activating agents. Triggering results in the rapid release of HMT which requires transcription, translation, and intact secretory apparatus. The requirement for precise control of the triggering agent concentration is disclosed. The government may have certain rights in the present invention pursuant to NIH grant BRSG 5511.
Disease, Crohns Disease, Diseases, Inhibition, Tyrosine, Sarcoidosis, Phosphorylation, Disease Susceptibility, Lead, Family Member, Traf4, Epidermal Growth Factor, Kinase, Muramyl Dipeptide, Serine, Proteins, Regulation, Asthma, Bacteria, Polyubiquitin
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The synthesis and biological activity of new conjugates of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and nor-muramyl dipeptide (nor-MDP) with tuftsin and retro-tuftsin derivatives containing isopeptide bond between ε-amino group of lysine and carboxyl group of simple amino acids such as Ala, Gly and Val are presented. We presumed, based on the cytokine profile, that the examined conjugates of tuftsin and MDP were capable of activating antibacterial mechanisms by switching on Th1 immune response. The most active were compounds 11, 14 and 19-23.
Enzybiotics are a novel class of antibacterials, based on the peptidoglycan lysins, which kill rapidly and specifically the bacteria, preventing the appearance of crossed resistances with other pathogens and the microbiota degradation.. The common narrow lytic spectra of enzybiotics a novel and promising class of antibacterials relies, primarily, on their targeting of specific cell-wall receptors through specialized modules: the cell wall-binding domains. Using as model system the cell wall binding domain of the Cpl-7 endolysin (made of three identical CW_7 repeats), we have established the molecular basis for the cell wall recognition by the CW_7 motif, which is widely represented in sequences of cell wall hydrolases. To this aim, the crystal and solution 25 structures of the Cpl-7 cell wall-binding domain (C-Cpl-7) were solved, N-acetyl-Dglucosaminyl-(β1,4)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) was identified as part of the peptidoglycan target recognized by the CW_7 motifs, ...
The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of individuals with caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) mutations and corresponding abnormalities of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) protein to Crohn disease are still poorly understood. One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2 negatively regulates TLR2 responses and that absence of such regulation leads to heightened Th1 responses. We now report that administration of MDP protects mice from the development of experimental colitis by downregulating multiple TLR responses, not just TLR2. The basis of these in vivo findings was suggested by in vitro studies of DCs, in which we showed that prestimulation of cells with MDP reduces cytokine responses to multiple TLR ligands and this reduction is dependent on enhanced IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) activity. Further studies of mouse models of colitis showed that this inhibitory role of IRF4 does in fact apply to MDP-mediated ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins and Lysozyme. AU - Dziarski, Roman. AU - Royet, Julien. AU - Gupta, Dipika. PY - 2016/4/27. Y1 - 2016/4/27. N2 - Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are evolutionarily conserved innate immunity molecules homologous to bacteriophage type 2 amidases. Mammalian PGRPs are soluble secreted proteins and bind muramyl peptide fragments of bacterial peptidoglycan. Mammalian PGLYRP1, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4 are directly bactericidal and kill bacteria by inducing an exaggerated envelope stress response, which causes oxidative, thiol, and metal stress, membrane depolarization, inhibition of biosynthetic reactions, and bacterial death. Mammalian PGLYRP2 is an enzyme, peptidoglycan amidohydrolase. In vivo, mammalian PGRPs maintain a healthy gut microbiome, which protects animals from experimental colitis. Mammalian PGRPs also modulate sensitivity to skin and joint inflammation and allergic asthma. Human PGRP variants are associated with ...
We have studied serum cytokine profiles in BALB/c mice after immunization with influenza vaccine alone or combined with the following adjuvants: alum; MF59 emulsion; MF59 containing the muramyl peptide N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-(1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-(hydroxyphosphoryloxy)) ethylamide (MTP-PE); MF59 plus the lipid A analogue monophosphoryl lipid A; MF59 plus the Quil A saponin fraction LTC; or LTC alone. Pooled mouse sera were analyzed by ELISA at various times after immunization for IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. In naive mice, vaccine alone induced low levels of IL-3 and IL-5 only; vaccine plus alum induced a low IL-6 response as well. The MF59-based adjuvants significantly increased the IL-5 and IL-6 levels, whereas Quil A LTC induced strong IFN-gamma and measurable IL-2 responses, in addition to moderate IL-5 and IL-6. In previously infected mice, MF59 and MF59/MTP-PE were capable of generating IFN-gamma ...
54] EFFENBERG, R., P. TURANEK KNOTIGOVA, D. ZYKA, H. CELECHOVSKA, J. MASEK, E. BARTHELDYOVA, F. HUBATKA, S. KOUDELKA, R. LUKAC, A. KOVALOVA, D. SAMAN, M. KŘUPKA, L. BARKOCZIOVA, P. KOSZTYU, M. ŠEBELA, L. DROZ, M. HUCKO, M. KANASKOVA, A. MILLER, M. RAŠKA, M. LEDVINA a J. TURANEK. Nonpyrogenic Molecular Adjuvants Based on norAbu-Muramyldipeptide and norAbu-Glucosaminyl Muramyldipeptide: Synthesis, Molecular Mechanisms of Action, and Biological Activities in Vitro and in Vivo. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2017, 60 (18), 7745-7763. ISSN: 0022-2623. IF: 6.259. PMID: 28829599 ...
Accurate structures of aminoacids in the gas phase have been obtained by joint microwave and quantum-chemical investigations. However, the structure and conformational behavior of $\alpha$-aminoacids once incorporated into peptide chains are completely different and have not yet been characterized with the same accuracy. To fill this gap, we present here an accurate characterization of the simplest dipeptide analogue (N-acetylglycinamide) involving peptidic bonds. State-of-the-art quantum-chemical computations are complemented by a comprehensive study of the rotational spectrum using a combination of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with laser ablation. The coexistence of the $C_7$ and $C_5$ conformers has been proved and energetically as well as spectroscopically characterized. This joint theoretical-experimental investigation demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining accurate structures for flexible small biomolecules, thus paving the route to the elucidation of the inherent behavior ...
0146]Further exemplary adjuvants to enhance effectiveness of the composition include, but are not limited to: (1) oil-in-water emulsion formulations (with or without other specific immunostimulating agents such as muramyl peptides (see below) or bacterial cell wall components), such as for example (a) MF59® (W090/14837; Chapter 10 in Vaccine design: the subunit and adjuvant approach, eds. Powell & Newman, Plenum Press 1995), containing 5% Squalene, 0.5% Tween 80, and 0.5% Span 85 (optionally containing MTP-PE) formulated into submicron particles using a microfluidizer, (b) SAF, containing 10% Squalane, 0.4% Tween 80, 5% pluronic-blocked polymer L121, and thr-MDP either microfluidized into a submicron emulsion or vortexed to generate a larger particle size emulsion, and (c) RIBI® adjuvant system (RAS), (Ribi Immunochem, Hamilton, Mont.) containing 2% Squalene, 0.2% Tween 80, and one or more bacterial cell wall components such as monophosphorylipid A (MPL), trehalose dimycolate (TDM), and cell ...
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after hemorrhagic shock (HS) resulting from major surgery and trauma. The increased susceptibility in HS patients to the development of ALI suggests not yet fully elucidated mechanisms that enhance proinflammatory responses and/or suppress anti-inflammatory responses in the lung. Alveolar macrophages (AMϕ) are at the center of the pathogenesis of ALI after HS. We have previously reported that HS-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) interact with macrophages to influence inflammation progress. In this study, we explore a novel function of PMNs regulating AMϕ anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving autophagy. Using a mouse "two-hit" model of HS/resuscitation followed by intratracheal injection of muramyl dipeptide, we demonstrate that HS initiates high mobility group box 1/TLR4 signaling, which upregulates NOD2 expression in AMϕ and sensitizes them to subsequent NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide to augment ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jun-Young Lee, Eun-Ha Hwang, Dong-Jae Kim, Sang-Muk Oh, Kyung-Bok Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park].
#medicinal chemistry #Iminoguanidines as Allosteric Inhibitors of the Iron-Regulated Heme Oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa |Geoffrey A. Heinzl, Weiliang Huang, Wenbo Yu, Bennett J. Giardina, Yue Zhou, Alexander D. MacKerellJr. Angela Wilks*, and Fengtian Xue* Porphyromonas gingivalis -Induced Pro-inflammatory Effects by High Doses of Muramyl Dipeptide | Porphyromonas gingivalis -Induced Pro-inflammatory Effects by…
Absorption of simvastatin, estimated relative to an intravenous reference dose, in each of two animal species tested, averaged about 85% of an oral dose. In animal studies, after oral dosing, simvastatin achieved substantially higher concentrations in the liver than in non-target tissues ...
The presence of DPPII (dipeptidyl peptidase II; E.C. 3.4.14.2) has been demonstrated in various mammalian tissues. However, a profound molecular and catalytic characterization, including substrate selectivity, kinetics and pH-dependence, has not been conducted. In the present study, DPPII was purified from human seminal plasma to apparent homogeneity with a high yield (40%) purification scheme, including an inhibitor-based affinity chromatographic step. The inhibitor lysyl-piperidide (Ki~0.9 μM at pH 5.5) was chosen, as it provided a favourable affinity/recovery ratio. The human enzyme appeared as a 120 kDa homodimer. Mass spectrometric analysis after tryptic digestion together with a kinetic comparison indicate strongly its identity with QPP (quiescent cell proline dipeptidase), also called dipeptidyl peptidase 7. pH profiles of both kcat and kcat/Km clearly demonstrated that DPPII/QPP possesses an acidic and not a neutral optimum as was reported for QPP. Kinetic parameters of the human ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
2,994,669 Patented Aug. 1, 1961 2,994,660 WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION DRILLING FLUID William A. Reddie and Robert N. Grifliu, Houston, Tex., assignors to Magnet Cove Barium Corporation, Houston, Texas, a corporation No Drawing. Filed May 27, 1957, Ser. No. 661,615 26 Claims. (Cl. 2528.5) This invention relates to water-in-oil (invert) type emulsion well fluids useful in various well operations including the drilling, completing or working over of wells. In one of its aspects, it relates to compositions and methods wherein invert emulsion Well fluids have certain properties thereof controlled by using a polybasic fatty acid polymer, preferably in combination with a polyamine or a polyamino alcohol. In another aspect it relates to compositions and methods for forming invert emulsions having very high tolerance towards clay solids and other contaminants. Invert emulsion systems have been developed for use in oil well operations and the advantages derived from their use are well known; see, for example, ...
The mechanism of toxicity for cytolytic lymphocytes of Leu-Leu-OMe and related dipeptide derivatives was examined. Selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI), a lysosomal thiol protease highly enriched in cytotoxic lymphocytes, prevented all natural killer (NK) toxic effects of such agents. However, many DPPI substrates were found to possess no NK toxic properties. For some such agents, this lack of NK toxicity appeared to be related to the lack of uptake by lymphocytes. In this regard, Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be incorporated by lymphocytes and monocytes via a saturable facilitated transport mechanism with characteristics distinct from previously characterized mammalian dipeptide transport processes. This novel transport process was found to be specific for dipeptides composed of selective L-stereoisomer amino acids and enhanced by hydrophobic ester or amide additions to the COOH terminus of dipeptides. Maximal rates of Leu-Leu-OMe uptake by T8 and NK cell-enriched peripheral blood ...
γδT cells have been recognized as multifaceted effector cells for immunotherapy of cancer. Their tumoricidal properties include targeting cells in an MHC-independent manner by differentiating between healthy and transformed cells (31) and expanding from peripheral blood in response to engagement of their TCR. Previous studies of cancer immunotherapy using γδT cells have either enriched Vγ9Vδ2+ numbers in patients through administration of aminobisphosphonates (32) or have expanded this population of cells ex vivo before adoptive transfer (33, 34). A limitation in the field has been the lack of protocols for expansion of subsets other than Vγ9Vδ2+, and lack of understanding of the tumoricidal properties of these cells. Hence, our demonstration of expansion and killing properties of the non-Vδ2 subset raises new prospects for translation into clinical studies.. We chose to use neuroblastoma as a model system for evaluation of γδT-cell immunotherapy. Neuroblastoma immune evasion ...
IDM Pharma, Inc. (Nasdaq: IDMI) announced today that it received a not approvable letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after completing the review of the new drug
Ricardo Villalobos, ZIP, El Cezere, Praslea, Bill Patrick, Lee Burridge, Seth Troxler, Kozo, Bill Patrick b2b Seth Troxler, El Cezere, Kozo, Cristi Cons, Tobias Freund, Dan [...]. ...
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16. NOD2 plays an important role in the immune system. It recognizes bacterial molecules (peptidoglycans) and stimulates an immune reaction. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants and recognizes molecules containing the specific structure called muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is found in certain bacteria. The C-terminal portion of the protein contains a leucine-rich repeat domain that is known to play a role in protein-protein interactions. The middle part of the protein is characterized by a NOD domain involved in protein self-oligomerization. The N-terminal portion contains two CARD domains known to play a role in apoptosis and NF-κB activation pathways. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of Nod1 signaling induces fetal growth restriction and death through fetal and maternal vasculopathy. AU - Inoue, Hirosuke. AU - Nishio, Hisanori. AU - Takada, Hidetoshi. AU - Sakai, Yasunari. AU - Nanishi, Etsuro. AU - Ochiai, Masayuki. AU - Onimaru, Mitsuho. AU - Chen, Si Jing. AU - Matsui, Toshiro. AU - Hara, Toshiro. PY - 2016/3/15. Y1 - 2016/3/15. N2 - Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and death (IUFD) are both serious problems in the perinatal medicine. Fetal vasculopathy is currently considered to account for a pathogenic mechanism of IUGR and IUFD. We previously demonstrated that an innate immune receptor, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-1 (Nod1), contributed to the development of vascular inflammations in mice at postnatal stages. However, little is known about the deleterious effects of activated Nod1 signaling on embryonic growth and development. We report that administration of FK565, one of the Nod1 ligands, to pregnant C57BL/6 ...
The characterization of the immunological cascades of the innate immune system activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) have allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of adjuvants. Thus, the combinatorial use of adjuvants with specific, complementary functions is investigated to achieve tailored immune responses to subunit vaccines. We have previously shown how combinatorial administration of chitosan and cholera toxin B or muramyl-di-peptide (MDP) intranasally, but not intramuscularly, can allow small doses of MDP which, when administered alone cannot adjuvantise Helicobacter pylori urease (rUre), achieve an immunomodulatory effect through the specific physiological effect of chitosan. The aim of this study was to investigate if in the context of rUre the adjuvantising effect of MDP could be realized via the intramuscular route by combination with aluminium hydroxide, as compared with ...
Medical definition of immunoadjuvant: a nonspecific substance acting to enhance the immune response to an antigen with which it is administered
Suzuki Junzo unleashes some of his best work ever on the new LP Shark-Infested Custard coming in March on Nod and Smile Records. Dig this excerpt from the 21 minute mind melting opening track "G-E.M.J ...
Suzuki Junzo unleashes some of his best work ever on the new LP Shark-Infested Custard coming in March on Nod and Smile Records. Dig this excerpt from the 21 minute mind melting opening track "G-E.M.J ...
Abstract. Background: Increasing evidences suggest that innate immunity is involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the liable innate immune receptors have not been completely elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a member of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family, in acute focal cerebral I/R injury.. Methods: An in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model that in wild type (WT) and NOD2 deficient (NOD2-/-) mice and in vitro model of oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in cultured primary microglia and astrocytes were used to investigate the expression of NOD2 and explore the roles of NOD2 in ischemic stroke.. Results: Our results showed that NOD2 expression was significantly increased in microglia and astrocytes in response to the I/R insult. Pretreatment with muramyl dipeptide, an extrinsic ligand of NOD2, significantly increased the infarct volume and neurological dysfunction in mice ...
One approach to improve the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 subunit protein vaccine is to combine the immunogen with an adjuvant. Adjuvants may augment vaccine immunogenicity by several mechanisms, and as a result induce a more favorable antibody response with high titers, which appear earlier in the course of immunization and persist over time.. Volunteers are randomized to receive 50 mcg rgp120/HIV-1SF2 in combination with one of seven different adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide (alum), monophosphoryl lipid A, liposome-encapsulated monophosphoryl lipid A, MF59, MTP-PE/MF59, Syntex adjuvant formulation (SAF/2), and SAF/2 plus threonyl muramyl dipeptide (threonyl MDP). An additional placebo control arm of volunteers receive alum only. Doses are administered at 0, 2, and 6 months. Volunteers are followed for 1 year after the last immunization. Per 8/5/94 amendment, eligible volunteers except those who received monophosphoryl lipid A for the first three immunizations may receive a fourth dose at month ...
The peptidoglycan monomers are synthesized in the cytosol and are then attached to a membrane carrier bactoprenol. Bactoprenol transports peptidoglycan monomers across the cell membrane where they are inserted into the existing peptidoglycan.[11] In the first step of peptidoglycan synthesis, the glutamine, which is an amino acid, donates an amino group to a sugar, fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate.[12] In step three of the synthesis process, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate is isomerized, which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate.[12] In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is now a monophosphate, attacks UTP. Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular ...
L to D isomerization of amino acids in a commercially prepared alkali-treated food-grade soy isolate was investigated. A soy flour product was also investigated as a control which had not been alkali treated. Methionine and valine collected from two soy flour and two soy isolate samples were coupled with L-leucine-N-carboxyanhydride.. If both D- and L-forms were present this would produce diastereomeric dipeptide derivatives. The derivatives were separated by ion-exchange chromatography using a TSM Amino Acid Analyzer. Comparison of the sample methionine and valine dipeptide peaks to standard dipeptide peaks revealed the presence of L-valine, L-methionine and D-methionine in both soy flour and soy isolate samples. Methionine was substantially isomerized in both products. D-valine was not observed in either soy flour or soy isolate samples. Thus, isomerization of methionine appeared to occur at a faster rate than valine. Acid hydrolysis, toasting of soy meal, and alkaline treatment are all ...
Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) protein is a member of a group of RNA helicases, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), known as DEAD box proteins. IFIH1 is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis autoantigen 140 kDa, helicase with 2 CARD domains (HLCD), helicard, murabutide down-regulated protein, RIG-I-like receptor 2 (RLR-2), CADM-140 autoantigen, RNA helicase-DEAD box protein 116 (RH116), DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide, and IDDM19. IFIH1/MDA5 plays a major role in sensing viral infection and in the activation of a cascade of antiviral and inflammatory responses. IFIH1 gene expression is upregulated in response to treatment with beta-interferon and a protein kinase C-activating compound, mezerein. Treatment with both these agents causes irreversible reprogramming of melanomas, while treatment with either agent alone only achieves reversible differentiation. Mutations in ...
Interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) protein is a member of a group of RNA helicases, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), known as DEAD box proteins. IFIH1 is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis autoantigen 140 kDa, helicase with 2 CARD domains (HLCD), helicard, murabutide down-regulated protein, RIG-I-like receptor 2 (RLR-2), CADM-140 autoantigen, RNA helicase-DEAD box protein 116 (RH116), DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide, and IDDM19. IFIH1/MDA5 plays a major role in sensing viral infection and in the activation of a cascade of antiviral and inflammatory responses. IFIH1 gene expression is upregulated in response to treatment with beta-interferon and a protein kinase C-activating compound, mezerein. Treatment with both these agents causes irreversible reprogramming of melanomas, while treatment with either agent alone only achieves reversible differentiation. Mutations in ...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and genetic factors, infectious microbes, and the dysregulated immune system. Although many environmental factors (for example, geographic locations, smoking, etc.) affect the development of IBD, the most crucial might be the luminal (external) environment of the epithelial cells. There are pathogens that are found in increasing frequency in IBD. The microbial components such as flagellin, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide are recognized by receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins, and also by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in genetically susceptible host. The TLR recognition triggers the activation of NF-kappaB, leading to an inflammatory response. APC-expressed gene NOD2 has been associated with Crohn disease. In case of mutations of NOD2, ...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and genetic factors, infectious microbes, and the dysregulated immune system. Although many environmental factors (for example, geographic locations, smoking, etc.) affect the development of IBD, the most crucial might be the luminal (external) environment of the epithelial cells. There are pathogens that are found in increasing frequency in IBD. The microbial components such as flagellin, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide are recognized by receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins, and also by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in genetically susceptible host. The TLR recognition triggers the activation of NF-kappaB, leading to an inflammatory response. APC-expressed gene NOD2 has been associated with Crohn disease. In case of mutations of NOD2, ...
In this study, we provide evidence based on both functional assays and structural modeling that is consistent with EsLBP1 functioning as an LBP-like protein. Most notably, EsLBP1 binds Gram-negative bacterial LOS and LPS with nanomolar or higher avidity under in vitro conditions, i.e., when LPS/LOS is presented as part of supramolecular assemblies containing LPS-rich lipid-water interfaces, as in aggregates of purified LPS/LOS. eslbp1 gene expression is regulated by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer TCT, which synergizes with LPS in the triggering of V. fischeri-induced morphogenesis of the host symbiotic tissues. The gene is expressed and the protein produced across the organs epithelia-from the point where V. fischeri initially gathers, along the path of its migration, to where it takes up permanent residence in the crypts. The protein is also abundant along the apical surfaces of other epithelial tissues, where colonization by bacteria does not occur.. Although EsLBP1 has only ~25% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement-mediated acute effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. AU - Szebeni, J.. AU - Alving, Carl R.. PY - 1999/1. Y1 - 1999/1. N2 - Recent studies on liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) have indicated that this potential blood substitute can activate the complement (C) system of rats, pigs and man. The reaction can involve both the classical and the alternative pathways, and is mediated, in part, by the binding of natural anti-lipid antibodies to the lipid membrane of liposomes. The significance of these discoveries lies in the fact that C activation appears to be the primary cause of the acute physiological, hematological and laboratory changes that have been observed previously in rats and pigs following the administration of LEH or liposomes, which changes include pulmonary vasoconstriction with decreased cardiac output. In light of the proposed use of LEH as an emergency blood substitute, the latter impairment of cardiopulmonary function may warrant particular ...
Effect of the chemical nature of amino acid residues located either at the N- or C-terminal end of dipeptides on the utilization by strains of the SBP penta mut
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An anonymous reader sent us a bit where Rick Moen speaks about the recent Linux Myths thing that has raise MS once again to the top of everyones People We Love list. Its a good summary piece that pretty much explains how valid the Gartner Report was....
Six complexes of vancomycin and peptidoglycan precursors were studied via molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between the antibiotic and peptidoglycan fragments were identified and described in detail. All six studied modifications of the peptidoglycan precursor resulted in a weakening of the interaction with vancomycin when comparing to the native D-Ala-D-Ala-terminated fragment. It was confirmed that the N-terminus of the vancomycin is directly responsible for peptidoglycan recognition and antimicrobial activity. In simulated systems, the saccharide part of the antibiotic interacts with peptide precursors, thus it could also be important for antimicrobial activity. The complex terminated with D-Lac is the only one in which there is a weak interaction with the sugar moiety in the simulated systems. Analysis of conformational changes is a major scope of this work. The lack of interactions resulting from modification of the peptidoglycan precursors (D-Lac, D-Ser or other ...
Aim: The active domains (TIR and NACHT) of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors [NLR], respectively) are the major hotspots of evolution as natural selection has crafted their final structure by substitution of residues over time. This paper addresses the evolutionary perspectives of the TLR and NLR genes with respect to the active domains in terms of their chronological fruition, functional diversification, and species-specific stipulation.. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 full-length cds (and corresponding peptide) of the domains were selected as representatives of each type of PRRs, belonging to divergent animal species, for the biocomputational analyses. The secondary and tertiary structure of the taurine TIR and NACHT domains was predicted to compare the relatedness among the domains under study. Results: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results indicated that these ...
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PCR solutions are sequenced around the Illumina platform and properly paired VH and VL R, the regular Okinawan diet plan has undergone comprehensive post-war modify, most sequences are identified by virtue of their shared barcode77 (Fig. Offered the speedy pace of technology advancement, it might be expected that inside the extremely close to future all antibody repertoire analyses will report natively paired VH and VL genes. Bioinformatic analysis of antibody sequences Numerous established techniques for VDJ assignment and CDR-H3 identification are offered (e.g., IMGT/V-Quest, IgBLAST or iHMMune-align) and quicker, additional precise algorithms continue to be developed54,57,78,79. Estimation on the size with the antibody repertoire is often achieved by rarefaction analysis, maximum entropy and Poisson log-normal distribution models51,80,81. You can find also quite a few approaches for clustering V genes probably to possess originated from the expansion and somatic hypermutation of a single ...
Pyrogenicity is the ability of a chemical agent or other substance to produce a febrile reponse. Pyrogenic responses may be material-mediated, endotoxin-mediated, or mediated by other substances, such as components of gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Method of Pyrogenicity test: Rabbit pyrogen test, TAL test. ...
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Treat chronic myofascial inflammation and associated problems in horses Rubeola Virus Immunomodulator. Order this equine vaccine from VetDepot.com today.
Please feel free to post photos relating to chemtrail activity here. I would like to concentrate on taking active steps to put a stop to this. This being said, all views are welcome. Thanks, Rick
Look through Dr. Ricks recent Medical Questions to get an answer to your own Medical Question from a verified Expert on JustAnswer.
Ricardo Villalobos, ZIP, El Cezere, Praslea, Bill Patrick, Lee Burridge, Seth Troxler, Kozo, Bill Patrick b2b Seth Troxler, El Cezere, Kozo, Cristi Cons, Tobias Freund, Dan [...]. ...
h5 id=8,2-1-5 Confirming sequence specificity of DNA ,/h5, ,h6,Purpose,/h6, In this project, we adopt DNA for the Key of chain reaction because DNA has a significant characteristic: sequence specificity. Utilizing this sequence specificity, we aim to select liposomes that will be broken by Key DNA, induce chain-reactive liposomal disruption by some Key DNA, and make connections between liposomes.,br, Corresponding to the liposomes, we arrange two kinds of Origami-anchor DNA of different sequences and attach the anchor to the liposomes. Then we mix both kinds of liposomes together. ,br, Into the mixture, Key DNA for just one kind of liposomes is added. We confirm that the Key DNA breaks only the corresponding kind of liposomes.,br, ,br, ,h6,Method,/h6, We made two kinds of liposomes: liposomeA and liposomeB by water-in-oil emulsion process. LiposomeA contains GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) inside, and liposomeB has Rhodamine (red fluorescent dye) in itself. ,br, ,!--脂質の組成は?--, ,br, ...
A process for preparing a dilute aqueous solution of a cationically modified polyacrylamide from a water-in-oil emulsion of a finely divided water soluble acrylamide polymer, a secondary amine containing 2 - 4 carbon atoms and formaldehyde is disclosed.
In the search for immunoadjuvant active compounds without pyrogenic activity we prepared N-Ac-norMur-L-Abu-D-Gln-O-Bu (V), N-Ac-Mur-L-Abu-D-Gln-O-Bu (VII) and their respective α-benzylglycosides VI and VIII. All the prepared compounds are nonpyrogenic. In the delayed hypersensitivity test, compound V is inactive, VI is comparable to MDP, VII is more and VIII is less active than MDP.. ...
In contrast to nonspecific resistance, immunity (i-mu- ni-te), or specific resistance, is directed at specific antigens. An immune response involves the production of specific cells and substances to attack a specific antigen. Immunity has "memory," that is, if the same pathogen should reenter the body at a ...
title: Efficacy of early immunomodulator therapy on the outcomes of Crohns disease, doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-14-85, category: Article
Effects of a novel immunomodulator in HIV infected individuals. Международная деятельность. Экомед
Most bacteria are encased in walls that protect the cells against lysis by osmotic forces from within and from chemical or biological assaults from outside
|strong||em|Results|/em||/strong|: Healthier carnitine levels for needed fat metabolism and regulating healthier cell health and detox. |strong||em|B ...
If Rick Santorum runs for President on an anti-gay platform, Dan Savage will have no choice but to redefine his first name now, too.
Read Rick Santorum Fast Facts on CNN.com and learn more about the former Pennsylvania congressman and former presidential candidate.
Hoelzer, D; Thiel, E; Loffler, H; Buchner, T; Ganser, A; Heil, G; Kurrle, E; Heimpel, Hermann; Koch, P; Lipp, T; Kaboth, W; Kuse, R; Kuchler, R; Sodomann, H; Maschmeyer, G; Freund, M; Diedrich, H; Vonpaleske, A; Weh, J; Kolb, H; ...
Hoelzer, D; Thiel, E; Loffler, H; Buchner, T; Ganser, A; Heil, G; Kurrle, E; Heimpel, Hermann; Koch, P; Lipp, T; Kaboth, W; Kuse, R; Kuchler, R; Sodomann, H; Maschmeyer, G; Freund, M; Diedrich, H; Vonpaleske, A; Weh, J; Kolb, H; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recruitment of exogenous macrophages into metastases at different stages of tumor growth. AU - Bugelski, Peter J.. AU - Kirsh, Richard. AU - Buscarino, Charles. AU - Corwin, Steven P.. AU - Poste, George. PY - 1987/4/1. Y1 - 1987/4/1. N2 - The endogenous tumor-associated macrophage content and recruitment of labeled peritoneal exudate cells into experimental murine B16 melanoma metastases has been examined at different stages in the progressive growth of metastatic lesions. The recruitment of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal exudate cells activated in vitro with muramyl dipeptide was studied. Tumor-associated macrophages and labeled peritoneal exudate cells were identified in paraffin sections by specific histochemical staining and their density in individual metastases measured morphometrically. The density of tumor-associated macrophages and exogenously recruited peritoneal exudate cells was high in very small lesions but decreased rapidly as a ...
The action of vancomycin and teicoplanin depends on their ability to bind specifically to the terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine group on the peptide side chain of the membrane-bound intermediates in peptidoglycan synthesis. Bacitracin was isolated in 1943 from a strain of a Bacillus sp., which was originally classified as Bacillus subtilis but now is known as Bacillus licheniformis. Binding of bacitracin prevents the enzymatic dephosphorylation of the lipid carrier molecule to its monophosphate form, a reaction which occurs during the second stage of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Bacitracin is highly active against most gram-positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Vancomycin binds reversibly to the D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide segment of the muramyl pentapeptide present in peptidoglycan monomers which are exposed at the external cell surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. The dimeric structure of vancomycin is held together by four hydrogen bonds between the two amide backbones.
Here, we demonstrate that HOIL-1L is specifically required for NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion in BMDMs independently of NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, the assembly of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome and linear ubiquitination of the novel LUBAC substrate, ASC, both require HOIL-1L expression. The loss of these functions in HOIL-1L−/− mice results in resistance to MDP-induced peritonitis and contributes to survival upon LPS-induced systemic inflammation. This is the first demonstration that linear ubiquitination is required for NLRP3/ASC-dependent inflammasome activation, thus expanding the role of LUBAC as an innate immune regulator. This work is also the first to compare the role of HOIL-1L in MEF and macrophage cells. Our data indicate that HOIL-1L is critical for NF-κB activation in MEF cells, consistent with the literature (Fig. 1; Tokunaga et al., 2009; Gerlach et al., 2011; Ikeda et al., 2011). However, this activity is cell type specific because HOIL-1L is not required ...
Genome wide scanning in complex autoimmune diseases has been expensive, time consuming, and frustrating. One outstanding example of the success of this approach was the identification of NOD2 as a risk factor in Crohn-s disease (NOD stands for nucleotide oligomerization domain). NOD2, a protein that recognises bacterial components, is a member of a family of such proteins entitled NOD-like receptors. The NALP proteins are another group of these NOD-like receptors. Already there is a possible explanation for the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by NALP1 . NALP1 is part of a cascade of proteins which can regulate the activation of caspases 1 & 5 which, in turn, activate pro-inflammatory interleukins such as IL-1 and IL-18. Thus, polymorphism in NALP1 could lead to altered tissue levels of IL-1 and other inflammatory cytokines.. The study itself does not breakdown the disease components in the patients with vitiligo and so no comments can be made at present on the relationship between ...
A CHRONIC RELAPSING inflammatory disorder, Crohn disease can affect any area of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus; ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
The final circle [of Hell] is basically sitting in a room watching Canada Action Plan ads over and over again on a loop." Yeah, Rick Mercer really does not like the new ad campaign from Canadas Cons ...
Explore Finland! Get inspired with Rick Steves recommended places to go and things to do, with tips, photos, videos, and travel information on Finland.
Abstract We report a trial in squirrel monkeys of 2 recombinant Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates based on the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. One recombinant (NSI81 V20), produced in Escherichia coli, contains the repeat region of the CS protein. The other (VIVAX-1) recombinant is yeast-derived and contains the entire repeat domain and part of the surrounding N-terminal and C-terminal regions. Both antigens were administered with alum and muramyl tripeptide as adjuvants. No formulations caused toxic side effects. Both antigens, when administered with alum, induced high levels of sporozoite antibodies in all animals. Another group of animals was immunized with irradiated sporozoites alone. Upon challenge, a few immunized animals did not develop detectable parasitemia and others developed parasitemia only after a prolonged prepatent period. Monkeys immunized with irradiated sporozoites had higher levels of antibody but no increased protection. There was no correlation between protection and
title: Clustering of peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA is required for sensing lysine-type peptidoglycan in insects, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0610924104, category: Article
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Medici to Navarette in Naples, MdP 270, fo. Medici to Visconti, MdP 270, fo. cancer of 10 July 1586, Francesco to Urbani, MdP 269, fo.
Steinbach, F, Bischoff, S, Freund, H, Metzner-Flemisch, S, Ibrahim, S, Walter, J, Wilke, I and Mauel, S (2009) Clinical application of dendritic cells and interleukin-2 and tools to study activated T cells in horses - First results and implications for quality control ...
Watch Ich liebe alles an dir (außer deinen Freund) by Benny + The Jets online at vevo.com. Discover the latest music videos by Benny + The Jets on Vevo.
Rick Mercer doesnt like the way the Harper government signed on to a trade deal with China, and he wants to know just how many supervillains were involved in the process. In his weekly rant on CBC Tu ...
Tyroserleutide TFA, isolated from the degradation products of porcine spleen, is a small molecular tripeptide which inhibits tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
NALP1兔多克隆抗体(ab36852)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
"Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic analogs of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)". J. Org. Chem. 54 (16): ...
... uses N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, hydroxysuccinimide and alanyl-2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid ... Brundish, D. E.; Wade, R. (1985). "Synthesis of N-[2-3H]acetyl-D-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-iso-glutaminyl-L-alanyl-2-(1',2'- ... assisted esterification of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine with N-hydroxysuccinimide, followed by a ...
The muramyl peptide, muramyl dipeptide (MDP, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) has been shown to increase delta wave ...
Research for the use of neurotrophic factors such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) to aide in the nerve ...
... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.067.687.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.067.687.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D09.811.589.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D09.811.589.668.250 --- cytidine monophosphate n- ...
... acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine MeSH D12.644.233.110 --- bleomycin MeSH D12.644.233.110.690 --- peplomycin MeSH D12.644. ...
N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC); CAS Number: 53678-77-6; EC Number: 258-696-9; Synonym: Adjuvant ... N-Acetylmuramyl-. L. -alanyl-. D. -isoglutamine hydrate ≥98% (TLC) Synonym: Adjuvant Peptide, Muramyl dipeptide ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-. D-isoglutamine hydrate has been used in staphylococcal cell wall preparation to induce the release ... N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-. D-isoglutamine (MDP, muramyl dipeptide), a neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factor related to ...
Alanyl Isoglutamine, Acetylmuramyl. Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial Cell Wall fragments; also ...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antineoplastic Agents. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. ...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine); EC 2.7.11.1 (Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2). ...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine / analogs & derivatives * Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine / pharmacology * Adjuvants, ...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine Related Therapies and Procedures. 1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy) 2. Injections ...
Enhancement of endotoxic shock by N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-(L-seryl)-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide). ...
... the synthetic dipeptide N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isog-lutamine; anti-fungalagents such as ketoconazole, nystatin, ...
... isoglutamine (thr-MDP); N-acetyl-nor-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (CGP 1 1637, referred to as nor-MDP); N-acetylmuramyl-L- ... Examples of adjuvants which may be effective include but are not limited to: aluminum hydroxide; N-acetyl-muramyl-L-threonyl-D ... alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-(1 - 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3hydroxyphosphoryloxy)-ethylamine (CGP 19835A, referred to ...
"Synthesis of biologically active carbocyclic analogs of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)". J. Org. Chem. 54 (16): ...
Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/pharmacology. *Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology. *Animals. *Corticosterone/blood. * ...
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) (Hornung, R L et al., Ther Immunol 1995 2:7-14) or ISAF-1 (5% squalene, 2.5% ...
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) and several analogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:2089-2093. ...
108010042708 Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine Proteins 0 claims description 11 * 208000006572 Human Influenza Diseases 0 ...
N-acetyl-nor-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (CGP 11637, referred to as nor-MDP); N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L- ... The vaccine compositions of the invention can include an adjuvant, including, but not limited to aluminum hydroxide; N-acetyl-muramyl ...
... uses N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, hydroxysuccinimide and alanyl-2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid ... Brundish, D. E.; Wade, R. (1985). "Synthesis of N-[2-3H]acetyl-D-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-iso-glutaminyl-L-alanyl-2-(1,2- ... assisted esterification of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine with N-hydroxysuccinimide, followed by a ...
6-O-butyryl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine N-hydroxy-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylmidyl ester ...
The muramyl peptide, muramyl dipeptide (MDP, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) has been shown to increase delta wave ...
These adjuvants include N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D- isoglutamine [Boss, Methods in Enzymology 121 :27-33 (1986)]. Salmonella ...
Research for the use of neurotrophic factors such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP) to aide in the nerve ...
GMDP: N-acetyl-glycosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine. MDP: N-acetylmuramyl-Lanalyl-D-isoglutamine. PBS: ...
LT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and muramyldipeptide (N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDPI). Commercially available ...
Muramyl peptides, such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-threonyl-D-isoglutamine ("thr-MDP"), N-acetyl-normuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine ( ... N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-(1′-2′dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-hydroxyphosphoryloxy)-ethylamine ("MTP-PE ... nor-MDP), N-acetylglucsaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Al-D-isoglu-L-Ala-dipalmitoxy propylamide ("DTP-DPP", or "Theramide™), ...
N-acetyl-nor-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine-2-(1′-2′-dipalmitoyl-sn- ... and potentially useful human adjuvants such as N-acetyl-muramyl-L-threonyl-D-isogltitamine (thr-MDP), ...
N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (GMDP) [43], and high-mannose oligosaccharide (Man9GlcNAc2 for HIV-1 gp120) [45]. The ...
  • Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (Nod) 2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which recognizes muramyl dipeptide (N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), a bacterial peptidoglycan component, and makes a NF- κ B-activating complex called nodosome with adaptor protein RICK (RIP2/RIPK2). (hindawi.com)
  • Nod2 was reported to be oligomerized with adaptor protein RICK (RIP2/RIPK2) and IKK complexes, which can activate NF- κ B by muramyl dipeptide (N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), one of the components of bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan, and is utilized as an immune-stimulatory adjuvant for vaccination and for developing antibodies [ 4 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unsanctioned use india prescription without from s to rounding weighing of organic medic,:Al atid mechanisms in proper closure systems of reduced cognitive decline prescriptio vitro metabolic function can be devoid of the eye lotion of the n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine, or the elderly: The most able to shows degradation products and chronic kidney drug monitoring of alternating way of antibiotics, among the effect results. (creativephl.org)
  • One method of synthesis (shown first) is based on N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) assisted esterification of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanine with N-hydroxysuccinimide, followed by a condensation with 2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid in triethylamine (Et3N). (wikipedia.org)