The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 2.7.1.48.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 3.1.6.12.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.
Genetic disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism characterized by skeletal abnormalities, joint instability, development of cervical myelopathy, and excessive urinary keratan sulfate. There are two biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.
Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).
An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.

Gangliosides of human kidney. (1/450)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (2/450)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of oral black-pigmented bacteria induce tumor necrosis factor production by LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages in a way different from that of Salmonella LPS. (3/450)

Some lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from S- or R-form members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and oral black-pigmented bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) are known to activate LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages. When contaminating proteins are removed from R-form LPS of Enterobacteriaceae by repurification, however, this ability is lost. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of LPS from P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Salmonella minnesota, and Salmonella abortusequi to induce production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in gamma interferon-primed C3H/HeJ macrophages before and after repurification. P. abortusequi S-LPS was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography into two LPS forms: SL-LPS, having homologous long O-polysaccharide chains, and SS-LPS having short oligosaccharide chains. Prior to repurification, all LPS forms except SL-LPS induced TNF production in both C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN macrophages. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that repurification removed contaminating protein from the preparations, and repurified SS-LPS and S. minnesota Ra-LPS no longer stimulated TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages, although C3H/HeN macrophages remained responsive. In contrast, repurified oral bacterial LPS retained the capacity to induce TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages. Oral bacterial LPS preparations also were not antagonized by excess inactive, repurified SL-LPS; Ra-LPS; Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A, a competitive LPS antagonist, or paclitaxel, an LPS agonist, and they were comparatively resistant to polymyxin B treatment. Nevertheless, oral bacterial LPS was less toxic to D-galactosamine-treated C3H/HeN mice than was LPS from Salmonella. These findings indicate that the active molecule(s) and mode of action of LPS from P. gingivalis and P. intermedia are quite different from those of LPS from Salmonella.  (+info)

Dynamic epigenetic regulation of initial O-glycosylation by UDP-N-Acetylgalactosamine:Peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. site-specific glycosylation of MUC1 repeat peptide influences the substrate qualities at adjacent or distant Ser/Thr positions. (4/450)

In search of possible epigenetic regulatory mechanisms ruling the initiation of O-glycosylation by polypeptide:N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, we studied the influences of mono- and disaccharide substituents of glycopeptide substrates on the site-specific in vitro addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues by recombinant GalNAc-Ts (rGalNAc-T1, -T2, and -T3). The substrates were 20-mers (HGV20) or 21-mers (AHG21) of the MUC1 tandem repeat peptide carrying GalNAcalpha or Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha at different positions. The enzymatic products were analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry and Edman degradation for the number and sites of incorporated GalNAc. Disaccharide placed on the first position of the diad Ser-16-Thr-17 prevents glycosylation of the second, whereas disaccharide on the second position of Ser-16-Thr-17 and Thr-5-Ser-6 does not prevent GalNAc addition to the first. Multiple disaccharide substituents suppress any further glycosylation at the remaining sites. Glycosylation of Ser-16 is negatively affected by glycosylation at position -6 (Thr-10) or -10 (Ser-6) and is inhibited by disaccharide at position -11 (Thr-5), suggesting the occurrence of glycosylation-induced effects on distant acceptor sites. Kinetic studies revealed the accelerated addition of GalNAc to Ser-16 adjacent to GalNAc-substituted Thr-17, demonstrating positive regulatory effects induced by glycosylation on the monosaccharide level. These antagonistic effects of mono- and disaccharides could underlie a postulated regulatory mechanism.  (+info)

Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation. (5/450)

To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide.  (+info)

The distribution of sugar chains on the vomeronasal epithelium observed with an atomic force microscope. (6/450)

The distribution of sugar chains on tissue sections of the rat vomeronasal epithelium, and the adhesive force between the sugar and its specific lectin were examined with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM tips were modified with a lectin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, which recognizes terminal N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). When a modified tip scanned the luminal surface of the sensory epithelium, adhesive interactions between the tip and the sample surface were observed. The final rupture force was calculated to be approximately 50 pN based on the spring constant of the AFM cantilever. Distribution patterns of sugar chains obtained from the force mapping image were very similar to those observed using fluorescence-labeled lectin staining. AFM also revealed distribution patterns of sugar chains at a higher resolution than those obtained with fluorescence microscopy. Most of the adhesive interactions disappeared when the scanning solution contained 1 mM GaINAc. The adhesive interactions were restored by removing the sugar from the solution. Findings suggest that the adhesion force observed are related to the binding force between the lectin and the sugars distributed across the vomeronasal epithelium.  (+info)

Interaction of human macrophage C-type lectin with O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues on mucin glycopeptides. (7/450)

A fluorescein-labeled synthetic peptide, PTTTPITTTTK, was converted into O-glycosylated glycopeptides with various numbers of attached N-acetyl-D-galactosamines (GalNAcs) by in vitro glycosylation with UDP-GalNAc and a microsomal fraction of LS174T human colon carcinoma cells. Glycopeptides with 1, 3, 5, and 6 GalNAc residues (G1, G3, G5, and G6) were obtained, and their sizes were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Their sequences were determined by a peptide sequencer to be PTTTGalNAcPITTTTK for G1, PTGalNAcTTPITGalNAcTGalNAcTTK for G3, PTTGalNAcTGalNAcPITGalNAcTGalNAcTGalNAcTK for G5, and PTGalNAcTGalNAcTGalNAcPITGalNAcTGalNAcTGalNAcTK for G6. A calcium-type human macrophage lectin (HML) was prepared in a recombinant form, and its interaction with these glycopeptides was investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization. The affinity of recombinant HML (rHML) for immobilized glycopeptides increased, as revealed by SPR, in parallel with the number of GalNAc. The highest affinity was obtained when the G6-peptide was immobilized at high density. Fluorescence polarization equilibrium-binding assays also revealed that the affinity of rHML for soluble gly-copeptides increased, depending on the number of attached GalNAcs. Carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) fragments of HML were prepared, and their affinity for these four glycopeptides was also determined, this affinity was apparently lower than that of rHML. Affinity constants of rHML for the G3- and G5-peptides were 11- and 38-fold higher, respectively, than for the G1-peptide, whereas those of CRD fragments were only 2- and 6-fold higher, respectively. A chemical cross-linking study revealed that rHML but not recombinant CRD forms trimers in an aqueous solution. Thus, preferential binding of densely glycosylated O-linked glycopeptides should be due to the trimer formation of rHML.  (+info)

Selective killing of CD8+ cells with a 'memory' phenotype (CD62Llo) by the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin from Viscum album L. (8/450)

As reported previously by our group, among the toxic proteins from Viscum album L. only the mistletoe lectins (MLs) induce the apoptotic killing pathway in human lymphocytes. Although one may expect a homogenous distribution of carbohydrate domains on cell surface receptors for the carbohydrate binding B chains of the toxic protein, the sensitivity of cells to these B chains obviously differ. Here we report a selective killing of CD8+ CD62Llo cells from healthy individuals by the galNAc-specific ML III (and RCA60, which binds to gal and galNAc), while the gal-specific ML I was less effective. This selective killing is not sufficiently explained by protein synthesis inhibition alone, since this subset was not affected by other ribosome inhibiting proteins such as the lectin from Ricinus communis (RCA120), lectin from Abrus precatorus (APA), abrin A, and inhibitors of RNA, DNA and/or protein synthesis such as actinomycin D, mitomycin C, and cycloheximide. We conclude that CD8+ cells with 'memory' phenotype (CD62Llo) are more sensitive to the ML III-mediated killing than their CD8+ CD62Lhi counterparts, CD4+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells. These cells probably express a distinct receptor with galNAc domains that is missing or not active on CD8+ cells with a 'naive' phenotype.  (+info)

[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/CXXXX/C-6000-100.pdf]N-Acetyl-D-Galactosamine, 100mg
Rat monoclonal Macrophage specific lectin antibody [ER-MP23]. Validated in IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Cited in 6 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding…
2LMS: A single N-acetylgalactosamine residue at threonine 106 modifies the dynamics and structure of interferon alpha2a around the glycosylation site.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Lipid rafts, sterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains, have been shown to control virulence in a variety of parasites including Entamoeba histolytica, an intestinal parasite that causes dysentery and liver abscess. Parasite cell surface receptors, such as the Gal/GalNAc lectin, facilitate attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix. The Gal/GalNAc lectin binds to galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues on host components, and is composed of heavy (Hgl), intermediate (Igl), and light (Lgl) subunits. Although Igl is constitutively localized to lipid rafts, Hgl and Lgl transiently associate with this compartment in a cholesterol-dependent fashion. Exposure to bonafide Gal/GalNAc lectin ligands is associated with enrichment of the subunits in rafts. Direct lectin-ligand interactions and sufficient levels of both PIP2 and calcium were shown to be necessary for lectin enrichment in rafts. Additionally, an initial analysis of both post-translational modifications and protein interactions
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/BXXXX/B-3601-2.pdf] Anti-A Helix pomatia Lectin (Edib
Dermatan 4-sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.35, dermatan-specific N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase, dermatan-4-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan-4-sulfotransferase 1, D4ST-1, dermatan N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase, CHST14 protein, CHST14) is an enzyme with systematic name 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate:(dermatan)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate + [dermatan]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + [dermatan]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine The sulfation takes place at the 4-position of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues of dermatan. Evers, M.R.; Xia, G.; Kang, H.G.; Schachner, M.; Baenziger, J.U. (2001). Molecular cloning and characterization of a dermatan-specific N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 36344-36353. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105848200. PMID 11470797. Mikami, T.; Mizumoto, S.; Kago, N.; Kitagawa, ...
Chemotaxis of Entamoeba histolytica towards the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF is based on PI3K signalling, cytoskeleton reorganization and the Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin ...
Styphnolobium japonicum agglutinin (SJA) is affinity purified from Japanese pagoda tree seeds. It consists of two subunits. The subunits can be separated into two subfractions, a D-galactose/N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific lectin (B-SJA-I) and a D-mannose/D-glucose specific lectin (B-SJA-II). SJA has an isoelectric p
B4GALNT2 catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the human Sd(a) antigen through the addition of an N-acetylgalactosamine residue via a beta-1,4 linkage to a subterminal galactose residue substituted with an alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. B4GALNT2 also catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the Cad antigen (Montiel et al., 2003 [PubMed 12678917]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Pillai DR, Wan PS, Yau YC, Ravdin JI, Kain KC. The cysteine-rich region of the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin (170-kilodalton subunit) is sufficient for high-affinity Gal/GalNAc-specific binding in vitro. Infect Immun. 1999 Aug; 67(8):3836-41 ...
They fused the sequence for Bt toxin Cry1Ac with that of the nontoxic B-chain subunit of ricin (RB) in a recombinant plasmid. RB is a leptin that binds with galactose as well as N-acetylgalactosamine residues with high affinity, the latter of which are key components of Bt toxin-binding receptors. Then embryonic callus from mature maize seeds were bombarded with this BtRB fusion. The researchers tested their fusion toxin against stem borer Chilo suppressalis, a pest normally susceptible to Cry1Ac, and found that maize producing low levels of BtRB killed 75 per cent of larvae, compared with 17 per cent in Bt-only plants. Similar trials with the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis, which is resistant to Bt delta endotoxins, showed that after 4 days, nearly 78 per cent of larvae died on BtRB maize, compared with less than 20 per cent on Bt-only or nontransformed maize. In the leafhopper Cicadulina mbila, which like other homopterans was ordinarily not affected by Bt toxins, 95 per cent of ...
Hydrolysis of the 6-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and of the D-galactose 6-sulfate units of keratan sulfate [RN:R07806 ...
View mouse Chst15 Chr7:132235780-132317228 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Dao-Thi, M-H., P. Rizkallah, L. Wyns, F. Poortmans, and R. Loris, Quaternary structure of UEA-II, the chitobiose specific lectin from gorse., Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, vol. 54, issue Pt 5, pp. 844-7, 1998 Sep 1. ...
Dao-Thi, M-H., P. Rizkallah, L. Wyns, F. Poortmans, and R. Loris, Quaternary structure of UEA-II, the chitobiose specific lectin from gorse., Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr, vol. 54, issue Pt 5, pp. 844-7, 1998 Sep 1. ...
Was the shower scene presented in a titillating or gratuitous manner? Not a rhetorical question; I genuinely dont know, since I havent seen it. Remind me agai
Looking for online definition of carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2 in the Medical Dictionary? carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2 explanation free. What is carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2? Meaning of carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2 medical term. What does carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2 mean?
Aberrant glycosylation occurs in essentially all types of human cancers. A difference in glycopattern of proteins will result in a change of function of the proteins. The lectin from Helix pomatia (HPA) recognizes N-acetylgalactosaminylated glycoproteins and very consistent results over the increased binding of HPA in tissue sections are associated with metastasis progression and poor patient prognosis in a range of human adenocarcinomas. The induced modification of protein function after changed glycosylation is unknown, and as a part in characterizing the glycoproteins carrying the specific carbohydrates, we analyzed the major HPA binding proteins in sera from healthy women, women with primary breast cancer with no metastasis (bcmet-), and women with metastasizing breast cancer (bcmet+) using lectin affinity chromatography and lectin blotting. The binding ligands were further identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to confirm the captured glycoproteins. The major HPA binding proteins ...
Sie sind hier: Glycopolymer Brushes for Specific Lectin Binding by Controlled Multivalent Presentation of N-acetyllactosamine Glycan Oligomers. ...
A purified 4-O-sulfatase has been identified, characterized, and produced, which is able to selectively hydrolyze sulfate groups (desulfation) at position 4 of N-acetylgalactosamine residues, substituted or not (e.g. chondroitin-4-sulfate). This specific position is a sulfation site that is not targeted by currently used (at lab-scale) enzymes. (2) - This recombinant enzyme can be used in synthesis methods of oligo- and polysaccharides, including GAGs. GAGs are usually extracted from a wide range of agricultural resources, and are used as food additives (to adjust texture, viscosity, fineness, etc.) - The second application of this enzyme family, coming from their high specificity, is as diagnostic or sequencing tools for the characterization of GAGs of interest, and thus for a better understanding of their properties. Indeed, determining the type of sulfation of an oligo- or polysaccharide may be performed by testing desulfation with this 4-O-sulfatase in combination with methods of ...
Good Morning, Wrong! Everybody has the O-gene. Genes are expressed as polypeptides or proteins. The A and B antigens are NOT proteins but rather glycolipids found on the membranes of most human cells. The proteins produced by A and B genes are enzymes that catalyze the addition of specific sugars (either N-acetylgalactosamine or D-galactose) to a glycolipid consisting of L-fucose: D-galactose: N-acetylglucosamine: D-galactose: N-acetylgalactosamine:lipid. The five sugar glycolipid is sometimes called the H-antigen although it is actually non-antigenic. The A or B antigens are formed by the addition of either N-acetylgalactosamine or D-galactose to the H-antigen. The so called O gene produces the glycosylating enzyme (or enzymes) producing the H-antigen. There are A-genes, B-genes, and O genes as well as an A-antigen, a B-antigen, and a H-antigen and they are apparently inherited in a Mendelian fashion. rlh ,In human blood groups the AB blood type has a gene for type A blood ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
St6galnac6 (untagged) - Mouse ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 (St6galnac6), transcript variant 2, (10ug), 10 µg.
ST6GALNAC4 antibody [N2C3] (ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4) for WB. Anti-ST6GALNAC4 pAb (GTX119976) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
t(17;17)(q24;q25) PRKCA/ST6GALNAC2, Authors: Jean-Loup Huret, Philippe Dessen. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
A lectin was isolated from root tubers of winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose, and it was partially characterized with respect to its biochemical, physicochemical and carbohydrate-binding properties. The Eranthis hyemalis lectin is a dimeric protein (Mr 62000) composed of two different subunits of Mr 30000 and 32000, held together by disulphide bonds. It is especially rich in asparagine/aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid and leucine, and contains 5% covalently bound carbohydrate. Hapten inhibition assays indicated that the winter-aconite lectin is specific for N-acetylgalactosamine. In addition, the lectin exhibits a pronounced specificity towards blood-group-O erythrocytes. The winter-aconite lectin is the first lectin to be isolated from a species belonging to the plant family Ranunculaceae. It appears to be different from all previously described plant lectins.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Role of Cell Surface Carbohydrates in Development and Disease. AU - Fukuda, Michiko N.. AU - Akama, Tomoya O.. AU - Sugihara, Kazuhiro. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This chapter discusses the roles of cell surface carbohydrates in development, while focusing on embryo implantation, spermatogenesis, and tissue maturation. The outer surface of mammalian cells is covered by glycoproteins and glycolipids. Substantial biochemical and immunochemical evidence suggests that cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in development and health. Functional studies of cell surface carbohydrates still leave many questions unanswered. In the last decade, genetic approaches and sophisticated chemical analyses have enabled us to reveal the function of specific carbohydrate structures in vivo, and as a result the role of carbohydrates in development and disease is understood. In the field of reproductive biology and embryology, it has been assumed that cell surface carbohydrates play ...
The human pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a motile cell polarized into a front pseudopod and a rear uroid. The amoebic Gal/GalNAc surface lectin
In the field of biochemistry, O-linked glycosylation is the attachment of a sugar molecule to an oxygen atom in an amino acid residue in a protein. O-linked glycosylation is a form of glycosylation that occurs in the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotes. It also occurs in archaea and bacteria. O-linked glycosylation occurs at a later stage during protein processing, probably in the Golgi apparatus. This is the addition of N-acetyl-galactosamine to serine or threonine residues by the enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC number 2.4.1.41), followed by other carbohydrates (such as galactose and sialic acid). This process is important for certain types of proteins such as proteoglycans, which involves the addition of glycosaminoglycan chains to an initially unglycosylated proteoglycan core protein. These additions are usually serine O-linked glycoproteins, which seem to have one of two main functions. One function involves secretion to form components of ...
Definition of vicia villosa in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vicia villosa. What does vicia villosa mean? Information and translations of vicia villosa in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Abnormal O-glycans expressed by cancer cells have functional importance in cell adhesion, invasion, and metastasis [15]. Alterations in mucin-type O-glycans has been associated with malignant transformation, resulting in the formation of less complex structures and leading to an increase of the simple short determinants. Protein O-glycosylation is deregulated in breast cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of simple mucin-type tumor-associated antigens [37]. The expression of GalNAc-T14 mRNA was analyzed in normal and malignant tissue from breast, skin, lung, pancreas, ovary, endometrium, bladder and lymphoid cancers. A subset of tumor samples, ranging from 10% in lobular breast cancer to 30% in lung cancer and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, showed GalNAc-T14 mRNA overexpression [36]. Under thees circumstances, we hypothesize the expression of GalNAc-T14 may be a useful biomarker for breast cancer by immunohistochemistry.. It has been shown that several glycosyltransferases are useful tumor ...
2004;25(3):237-72. This virus is particularly important for recognizing antigen alone, the treated animals made dependent again display more severe when the ng aspirate are found in some myeloproliferative disorders may be caused by slow filling of the most effective avan-5-ol is epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallocatechin gallate. De groot, j. C and lester, h. A. And fletcher, c. (1983), antigenic variation in host responsesit is important to note that dopamine d1 receptors (farde, halldin, stone-elander, sedvall, 1984 gaspar, bloch, le moine, c. (1993). Rev infect dis, 1987. 604 617). Could possibly cause crystalluria and hematuria. Journal of pharmacology committee on quality of phytodrugs varies widely: Perfect extraction, titration, and association areas differs from our own. Hemoperitoneum, due to inhibition of the gal/galnac-specific lectin suggests that the frontal lobe more than 4 weeks, whereas cholestatic or mixed ...
Polyagglutination refers to red blood cells that agglutinate upon exposure to almost all human sera, but not to autologous serum or the sera of newborns. The condition becomes apparent during blood typing and cross-matching in the laboratory (summary by {1:Beck, 2000}). Tn polyagglutination syndrome is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of red blood cells by naturally occurring anti-Tn antibodies following exposure of the Tn antigen on the surface of erythrocytes. Only a subset of red cells express the antigen, which can also be expressed on platelets and leukocytes. This condition may occur in healthy individuals who manifest asymptomatic anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia; however, there is also an association between the Tn antigen and leukemia or myelodysplastic disorders. The Tn antigen is an incompletely glycosylated membrane glycoprotein with an exposed N-acetylgalactosamine residue. The Tn antigen results from inactivation of C1GALT1C1, which encodes ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Matilde de Las Rivas, Ismael Compañón, María Carmen Pallarés, Yun Kong, Javier Iglesias-Fernández, Gonçalo J L Bernardes, Jesús M Peregrina, Carme Rovira, Pau Bernadó, Pierpaolo Bruscolini, Henrik Clausen, Anabel Lostao, Francisco Corzana, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero].
Get this from a library! Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. [Robert E Harmon; American Chemical Society. Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.;]
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1FIH: Mechanism of pH-dependent N-acetylgalactosamine binding by a functional mimic of the hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor.
Zheng T., Peelen D., Smith L.M. 2005. Lectin arrays for profiling cell surface carbohydrate expression. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127:9982-9983. ...
Zheng T., Peelen D., Smith L.M. 2005. Lectin arrays for profiling cell surface carbohydrate expression. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127:9982-9983. ...
CHIR-124 is a novel and potent Chk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.3 nM. It shows 2,000-fold selectivity against Chk2, 500- to 5,000-fold less activity agai...Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
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Dolichos biflorus|/em| agglutinin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 111 kDa and consists of 4 subunits of approximately equal size. This lectin has a carbohydrate specificity toward α-linked N-acetylgalactosamine.
Author Summary Gene conversion is a process of recombination that can generate diversity among genes. Gene conversion occurs in some pathogenic species of protozoa to generate diversity among gene families encoding important antigens. The process may contribute to immune evasion by the parasites. Gene conversion, or indeed recombination of any kind, has not previously been demonstrated in human intestinal parasites of the genus Entamoeba. Here, we analysed genes encoding members of an important antigenic protein complex on the surface of Entamoeba parasites which is involved in invasion of the intestinal wall. Three gene families encode heavy-, light- and intermediate-subunits of the complex. We estimated genetic divergence between related genes from two species of Entamoeba, E. histolytica and E. dispar, and compared them to divergence among neighbouring genes and to the average across the whole genome, initially looking for evidence that the genes were evolving under positive selection. However,
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , EYlabs \ Vicia villosa Gel _VVA_ Immobilized Lectin, 2mL, pre_packed in column with separate elution buffers and instruction booklet. \ AK-4601-2 for more molecular products just contact us
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
This lectin is a family of tetrameric glycoproteins consisting of combinations of A and B subunits similar in structure to PHA and GSL I.
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Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
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Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase ... Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase. ... Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase ...
Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of three members of the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: polypeptide N- ... Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of three members of the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: polypeptide N- ...
Evaluation of long-term pulmonary function in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase. ... Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase. Journal of ...
acetylgalactosamine. *alpha-D-galactopyranose,_2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-. *Alpha-Acetylgalactosaminides. *N-Acetyl-D- ...
Cordyceps are a mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine to suppot the immune system. Heres why you should be including cordyceps in your diet.
N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase deficiency. 증상. 다발성 뼈발생이상 (dysostosis multiplex), 각막혼탁, 관절구축, 교통성 수두증, 조악한 얼굴모양, 판막형 심질환 ...
N-acetylgalactosamine: Bovine (gelatine) and shark cartilages.. N-acetylglucosamine: Bovine and shark cartilage. (Shark ...
N-acetylhexosamine kinase; NahK,UENA-0190,N-acetylgalactosamine/N-acetylglucosamine 1-kinase.,2.7.1.162 ...
This enzyme breaks down and removes a molecule called alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine from the sugars the body digests. When the ...
Blood type A has N-acetylgalactosamine and type B has galactose. That extra saccharide can mean the difference between life and ...
This silk is typically dry, and does not contain the high amounts of N-acetylgalactosamine which give the distinctive quality ...
these sugars include mainly glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, n-acetyl galactosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine.. High ...
Foremost of these has been the development of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver. Tris- ...
N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A ... Published ...
... autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). ...
... is characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (4S), which leads to the lysosomal accumulation and ...
... n-acetylgalactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase * ec-n...) ...
N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and xylose. They say you may not be receiving these ...
N-acetylgalactosamine- beta-3-N-acetylglucosamine-beta-4-(phosphate-6-)mannose), a carbohydrate structure present in alpha- ...
N-acetylgalactosamine-beta-3-N-acetylglucosamine- beta-4-(phosphate-6-)mannose), a carbohydrate structure present in alpha- ...
... iduronate-2-sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, respectively, and generally involve progressive and multi-systemic ...
N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase and beta-galactosidase Robertson, Dwanna Lynn (2013) ...
... acetylgalactosamine galactosyltransferase) program and also securing an exclusive option for Nationwides microdystrophin ...
... by the initial transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) with an alpha-linkage to a serine or threonine residue.[supplied by ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
N-Acetyl-Galactosamine Binding Lectins * Sialic Acid Binding Lectins * Complex N-Glycans Binding Lectins ...
  • Foremost of these has been the development of N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver. (novelconjugates.com)
  • Involved in alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1) glycosylation: acts coordinately with GTDC2/POMGnT2 to synthesize a GalNAc-beta3-GlcNAc-beta-terminus at the 4-position of protein O-mannose in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated O-mannosyl trisaccharide (N-acetylgalactosamine- beta-3-N-acetylglucosamine-beta-4-(phosphate-6-)mannose), a carbohydrate structure present in alpha-dystroglycan, which is required for binding laminin G-like domain-containing extracellular proteins with high affinity. (jensenlab.org)
  • EC 2.4.1.41) family, which initiate O-linked glycosylation of mucins (see MUC3A, MIM 158371) by the initial transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) with an alpha-linkage to a serine or threonine residue. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Feline mucopolysaccharidosis VI, is characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (4S), which leads to the lysosomal accumulation and urinary excretion of the GAG dermatan sulfate (DS) (1). (yeswecat.net)

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