The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.

JunB forms the majority of the AP-1 complex and is a target for redox regulation by receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor agonists in smooth muscle cells. (1/2675)

To understand the role of redox-sensitive mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, we have studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a potent NADH/NADPH oxidase inhibitor, on serum-, platelet-derived growth factor BB-, and thrombin-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; and DNA synthesis. Both NAC and DPI completely inhibited agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC. On the contrary, these compounds had differential effects on agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression. NAC inhibited agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression except for platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced ERK2 activation. In contrast, DPI only inhibited agonist-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB expression. Antibody supershift assays indicated the presence of c-Fos and JunB in the AP-1 complex formed in response to all three agonists. In addition, cotransfection of VSMC with expression plasmids for c-Fos and members of the Jun family along with the AP-1-dependent reporter gene revealed that AP-1 with c-Fos and JunB composition exhibited a higher transactivating activity than AP-1 with other compositions tested. All three agonists significantly stimulated reactive oxygen species production, and this effect was inhibited by both NAC and DPI. Together, these results strongly suggest a role for redox-sensitive mechanisms in agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; AP-1 activity; and DNA synthesis in VSMC. These results also suggest a role for NADH/NADPH oxidase activity in some subset of early signaling events such as p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB induction, which appear to be important in agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC.  (+info)

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents. (2/2675)

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions.  (+info)

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (3/2675)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Proteasome-dependent degradation of the human estrogen receptor. (4/2675)

In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the major mechanism for the targeted degradation of proteins with short half-lives. The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues of targeted proteins is a signal for the recognition and rapid degradation by the proteasome, a large multi-subunit protease. In this report, we demonstrate that the human estrogen receptor (ER) protein is rapidly degraded in mammalian cells in an estradiol-dependent manner. The treatment of mammalian cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits activity of the proteasome and blocks ER degradation, suggesting that ER protein is turned over through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, we show that in vitro ER degradation depends on ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme (UBA) and ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes (UBCs), and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin block ER protein degradation in vitro. Furthermore, the UBA/UBCs and proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of higher molecular weight forms of ER. The UBA and UBCs, which promote ER degradation in vitro, have no significant effect on human progesterone receptor and human thyroid hormone receptor beta proteins.  (+info)

Critical role of glass fiber length in TNF-alpha production and transcription factor activation in macrophages. (5/2675)

Recent studies have demonstrated that dielectrophoresis is an efficient method for the separation of fibers according to fiber length. This method allows the investigation of fiber-cell interactions with fiber samples of the same composition but of different lengths. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of length on the interaction between glass fibers and macrophages by focusing on production of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The underlying molecular mechanisms controlling TNF-alpha production were investigated at the gene transcription level. The results show that glass fibers induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages and that this induction was associated with activation of the gene promoter. Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB was responsible for this induced promoter activity. The inhibition of both TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, indicates that generation of oxidants may contribute to the induction of this cytokine and activation of this transcription factor by glass fibers. Long fibers (17 micrometer) were significantly more potent than short fibers (7 micrometer) in inducing NF-kappaB activation, the gene promoter activity, and the production of TNF-alpha. This fiber length-dependent difference in the stimulatory potency correlated with the fact that macrophages were able to completely engulf short glass fibers, whereas phagocytosis of long glass fibers was incomplete. These results suggest that fiber length plays a critical role in the potential pathogenicity of glass fibers.  (+info)

Evidence for proteasome involvement in polyglutamine disease: localization to nuclear inclusions in SCA3/MJD and suppression of polyglutamine aggregation in vitro. (6/2675)

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD), is one of at least eight inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the disease protein. Here we present two lines of evidence implicating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in SCA3/MJD pathogenesis. First, studies of both human disease tissue and in vitro models showed redistribution of the 26S proteasome complex into polyglutamine aggregates. In neurons from SCA3/MJD brain, the proteasome localized to intranuclear inclusions containing the mutant protein, ataxin-3. In transfected cells, the proteasome redistributed into inclusions formed by three expanded polyglutamine proteins: a pathologic ataxin-3 fragment, full-length mutant ataxin-3 and an unrelated GFP-polyglutamine fusion protein. Inclusion formation by the full-length mutant ataxin-3 required nuclear localization of the protein and occurred within specific subnuclear structures recently implicated in the regulation of cell death, promyelocytic leukemia antigen oncogenic domains. In a second set of experiments, inhibitors of the proteasome caused a repeat length-dependent increase in aggregate formation, implying that the proteasome plays a direct role in suppressing polyglutamine aggregation in disease. These results support a central role for protein misfolding in the pathogenesis of SCA3/MJD and suggest that modulating proteasome activity is a potential approach to altering the progression of this and other polyglutamine diseases.  (+info)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits primary human T cell responses at the dendritic cell level: association with NF-kappaB inhibition. (7/2675)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant molecule endowed with immunomodulatory properties. To investigate the effect of NAC on the induction phase of T cell responses, we analyzed its action on human dendritic cells (DC) derived from adherent PBMC cultured with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage CSF. We first found that NAC inhibited the constitutive as well as the LPS-induced activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. In parallel, NAC was shown to down-regulate the production of cytokines by DC as well as their surface expression of HLA-DR, CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 molecules both at the basal state and upon LPS activation. NAC also inhibited DC responses induced by CD40 engagement. The inhibitory effects of NAC were not due to nonspecific toxicity as neither the viability of DC nor their mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis were modified by NAC. Finally, we found that the addition of NAC to MLR between naive T cells and allogeneic DC resulted in a profound inhibition of alloreactive responses, which could be attributed to a defect of DC as APC-independent T cell responses were not inhibited by NAC. Altogether, our results suggest that NAC might impair the generation of primary immune responses in humans through its inhibitory action on DC.  (+info)

Modulation of proteasomal activity required for the generation of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-defined peptide derived from the tumor antigen MAGE-3. (8/2675)

We have analyzed the presentation of human histocompatability leukocyte antigen-A*0201-associated tumor peptide antigen MAGE-3271-279 by melanoma cells. We show that specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-recognizing cells transfected with a minigene encoding the preprocessed fragment MAGE-3271-279 failed to recognize cells expressing the full length MAGE-3 protein. Digestion of synthetic peptides extended at the NH2 or COOH terminus of MAGE-3271-279 with purified human proteasome revealed that the generation of the COOH terminus of the antigenic peptide was impaired. Surprisingly, addition of lactacystin to purified proteasome, though partially inhibitory, resulted in the generation of the antigenic peptide. Furthermore, treatment of melanoma cells expressing the MAGE-3 protein with lactacystin resulted in efficient lysis by MAGE-3271-279-specific CTL. We therefore postulate that the generation of antigenic peptides by the proteasome in cells can be modulated by the selective inhibition of certain of its enzymaticactivities.  (+info)

Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used for its antioxidant effects and to help loosen thick mucus in the lungs. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. Acetylcysteine is also known by the brand names Mucomyst and Accolate. It works by thinning and breaking down mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. Additionally, acetylcysteine is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It is available as a oral tablet, liquid, or inhaled medication.

Expectorants are a type of medication that help to thin and loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. They work by increasing the production of fluid in the respiratory tract, which helps to moisten and soften thick or sticky mucus. This makes it easier for the cilia (tiny hair-like structures that line the airways) to move the mucus out of the lungs and into the throat, where it can be swallowed or spit out.

Expectorants are often used to treat respiratory conditions such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which can cause excessive mucus production and difficulty breathing. Some common expectorants include guaifenesin, iodinated glycerol, and potassium iodide.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking expectorants, as taking too much can lead to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is also important to drink plenty of fluids while taking expectorants, as this can help to thin the mucus and make it easier to cough up.

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with liver dysfunction and/or portosystemic shunting. It results from the accumulation of toxic substances, such as ammonia and inflammatory mediators, which are normally metabolized by the liver. HE can present with a wide range of symptoms, including changes in sleep-wake cycle, altered mental status, confusion, disorientation, asterixis (flapping tremor), and in severe cases, coma. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and exclusion of other causes of cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying liver dysfunction, reducing ammonia production through dietary modifications and medications, and preventing further episodes with lactulose or rifaximin therapy.

Carbocisteine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as mucolytic agents. It works by breaking down and thinning mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. This can help to relieve symptoms of respiratory conditions such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.

The chemical name for carbocisteine is S-carboxymethylcysteine. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and syrup, and is typically taken by mouth several times a day. As with any medication, it's important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to be aware of potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Poisoning is defined medically as the harmful, sometimes fatal, effect produced by a substance when it is introduced into or absorbed by living tissue. This can occur through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. The severity of poisoning depends on the type and amount of toxin involved, the route of exposure, and the individual's age, health status, and susceptibility. Symptoms can range from mild irritation to serious conditions affecting multiple organs, and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, seizures, or unconsciousness. Immediate medical attention is required in cases of poisoning to prevent severe health consequences or death.

Alcoholic hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption. It is a type of hepatitis that specifically results from alcohol abuse, rather than from viral infections or other causes. The condition can vary in severity, and long-term heavy drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholic hepatitis.

The inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis can lead to symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause liver failure, which may be life-threatening. Treatment typically involves alcohol abstinence, supportive care, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, hospitalization and more intensive treatments may be necessary.

Iopamidol is a non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays, CT scans, and angiography. It is a type of radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms, which absorb X-rays and make the internal structures of the body visible on X-ray images. Iopamidol has a low osmolarity, which means it has fewer particles per unit volume compared to high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM). This makes it safer and more comfortable for patients as it reduces the risk of adverse reactions such as pain, vasodilation, and kidney damage. Iopamidol is elimated from the body primarily through the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, also known as pulmonary diffusion capacity, is a measure of the ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli to the bloodstream. It is often used to assess the severity of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis.

The most common measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reflects the transfer of carbon monoxide from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillaries. The DLCO is measured during a spirometry test, which involves breathing in a small amount of carbon monoxide and then measuring how much of it is exhaled.

A reduced DLCO may indicate a problem with the lung's ability to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can be caused by a variety of factors including damage to the alveoli or capillaries, thickening of the alveolar membrane, or a decrease in the surface area available for gas exchange.

It is important to note that other factors such as hemoglobin concentration, carboxyhemoglobin level, and lung volume can also affect the DLCO value, so these should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a diffusing capacity test.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Ondansetron is a medication that is primarily used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It is a selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, which are found in the brain and gut and play a role in triggering the vomiting reflex. By blocking these receptors, ondansetron helps to reduce the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting.

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solution, and injection, and is typically administered 30 minutes before chemotherapy or surgery, and then every 8 to 12 hours as needed. Common side effects of ondansetron include headache, constipation, and diarrhea.

It's important to note that ondansetron should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain individuals, such as those with a history of allergic reactions to the drug or who have certain heart conditions.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A vegetarian diet is a type of eating pattern that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, and sometimes other animal products like eggs, dairy, or honey, depending on the individual's specific dietary choices. There are several types of vegetarian diets, including:

1. Ovo-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
2. Lacto-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, fish, and sometimes eggs.
3. Ovo-lacto vegetarian: This is the most common type of vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Vegan: This diet excludes all animal products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and sometimes honey or other bee products.
5. Fruitarian: This is a more restrictive form of veganism that includes only fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant.
6. Raw vegan: This diet includes only raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that have not been cooked or processed above 115°F (46°C).

Vegetarian diets can provide a range of health benefits, including lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. However, it is important to ensure that vegetarian diets are well-planned and nutritionally adequate to meet individual nutrient needs, particularly for nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

"Panax" is a term used in the field of botany and medicine, particularly in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. It specifically refers to the genus of plants that includes ginseng, which is known scientifically as "Panax ginseng." This plant has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its perceived ability to boost energy levels, reduce stress, and improve overall health. The term "Panax" itself comes from the Greek words "pan," meaning all or everything, and "akos," meaning cure or remedy, reflecting the belief in its wide-ranging healing properties. It's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Panax ginseng, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Ginsenosides are a type of saponin, which are natural compounds found in the roots and leaves of the ginseng plant (Panax ginseng). These triterpene glycosides have been identified as the primary active components responsible for the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

There are several structurally different ginsenosides, classified into two major groups: the protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol groups. These compounds have been reported to exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects.

The content and composition of ginsenosides can vary depending on the species, cultivation methods, and processing techniques used for ginseng. The potential health benefits of ginseng are often attributed to these unique compounds, making them a subject of ongoing research in pharmacology and herbal medicine.

... , also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose and to loosen ... Acetylcysteine is used in the treatment of obstructive lung disease as an adjuvant treatment. Acetylcysteine has been used to ... N-acetylcysteine can be used to protect the liver. Acetylcysteine can be used in Petroff's method of liquefaction and ... Acetylcysteine is being considered as a possible treatment for COVID-19. A combination of guanfacine and N-acetylcysteine has ...
In September 1976, he began a protocol and was the principal investigator of the use of n-acetylcysteine for the treatment of ... 662 cases with evaluation of oral acetylcysteine treatment". Archives of Internal Medicine. 141 (3 Spec No): 380-385. doi: ... Villeneuve, Eric; Gosselin, Sophie (November 2, 2016). "N-Acetylcysteine". In Brent, Jeffrey; Burkhart, Keith; Dargan, Paul; ... "Efficacy of Oral N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Acetaminophen Overdose". The New England Journal of Medicine. 319 (24): ...
"N-acetylcysteine". Altern Med Rev. 5 (5): 467-71. October 2000. PMID 11056417. Kristin Chambers (2009-05-02). "2 flu cases ... In 1997 a randomized clinical trial found that volunteers taking 1.2 grams of N-acetylcysteine daily for six months were as ... See cellular immunity). High concentrations of N-acetylcysteine have been used to enhance growth of these cells. This method is ... 2000). "Protective effect of n-acetylcysteine in a model of influenza infection in mice". Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 13 (3 ...
"Acetylcysteine Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Meyer AJ, May MJ, Fricker M (July 2001). "Quantitative 'in vivo ...
N-Acetylcysteine amide (abbrev. NACA, AD4 and also known as acetylcysteinamide) is an amide derivative of N-acetylcysteine that ... Sunitha K, Hemshekhar M, Thushara RM, Santhosh MS, Yariswamy M, Kemparaju K, Girish KS (May 2013). "N-Acetylcysteine amide: a ... derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine". Free Radical Research. 47 (5): 357-67. doi:10.3109/10715762.2013. ...
Two examples are acetylcysteine and guaifenesin. Antitussives, or cough suppressants, are substances which suppress the ...
2019). "N-Acetyl cysteine prevents activities of STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and BP-1-102 independently of its antioxidant ... However NAC (Acetylcysteine) inhibits STAT3 inhibitors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168610 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
Acetylcysteine) Short Supply Products (i.e. Mediven Stockings) Made to Measure Hosiery Homeopathics Dressings, bandages & ...
Berk M, Malhi GS, Gray LJ, Dean OM (March 2013). "The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry". Trends in ... Acetylcysteine: It targets a diverse array of factors germane to the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders ...
Identification of acetylcysteine at the NH2 terminus". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 259 (11): 7224-9. doi:10.1016/S0021 ...
A more recent example is mucolytic acetylcysteine. Sulfur is a part of many bacterial defense molecules. Most β-lactam ...
Once-daily dosing and co-administration of N-acetylcysteine may protect against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. The anti- ... Tepel M (August 2007). "N-Acetylcysteine in the prevention of ototoxicity". Kidney International. 72 (3): 231-2. doi:10.1038/sj ...
While the antidote, acetylcysteine (also called N-acetylcysteine or NAC), acts as a precursor for glutathione, helping the body ... N-acetylcysteine treatment is efficacious in dogs when administered within two hours of paracetamol ingestion. Paracetamol is ... "Paracetamol overdose: new guidance on treatment with intravenous acetylcysteine". Drug Safety Update. September 2012. pp. A1. ... "Treating paracetamol overdose with intravenous acetylcysteine: new guidance". GOV.UK. 11 December 2014. Archived from the ...
Raghu G, Anstrom KJ, King TE, Lasky JA, Martinez FJ (May 2012). "Prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine for pulmonary ... A widely used therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was azathioprine in combination with prednisone and N-acetylcysteine. A ...
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor to glutathione, an antioxidant. It has been hypothesized that treatment with high doses ... 2005). "High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis" (PDF). New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (21): 2229-2242 ... Raghu G, Anstrom KJ, King TE, Lasky JA, Martinez FJ (May 2012). "Prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine for pulmonary ... 2014). "Randomized trial of acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (22): 2093- ...
Lubrication and topical acetylcysteine are also a requirement. Rapuano, Christopher J. (2012-01-10). Wills Eye Institute - ...
The antidote for acetaminophen toxicity is N-acetylcysteine. Most diseases that affect dogs or humans are not transferable ...
662 cases with evaluation of oral acetylcysteine treatment". Archives of Internal Medicine. 141 (3): 380-5. doi:10.1001/ ... in order to predict possible liver toxicity and allow a clinician to decide whether to proceed with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) ...
2019) Acetylcysteine 600mg capsule: Information for the users. Retrieved from https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/files/pil.11586. ...
In the process, the active ingredient tended to be more effective than N-acetylcysteine. In further studies, it was possible to ... These values are comparable with effects of N-acetylcysteine. Secretomotor action (increased ciliary beat frequency): By virtue ...
N-acetyl cysteine reverses many models of mitochondrial dysfunction. In the case of mood disorders, specifically bipolar ... disorder, it is hypothesized that N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), coenzyme ...
Dodd S, Dean O, Copolov DL, Malhi GS, Berk M (December 2008). "N-acetylcysteine for antioxidant therapy: pharmacology and ... Although large amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids such as acetylcysteine can increase glutathione, no evidence exists ...
... acetylcysteine, glutathione, selegiline, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q); anti-apoptotic drugs (pentoxyfilline, omigapil, and ... acetylcysteine, selegiline, amantadine, cyclophosphamide, various neurotrophic factors, which has shown promise in both in- ...
Treatment includes antibiotics and collagenase inhibitors such as acetylcysteine. Surgery in the form of corneal ...
EDTA - 0.05% q1h Acetylcysteine - 5-10% q1h Tetracyclines - Doxycycline especially has been shown to have anti-MMP effects ... Aldavood S, Behyar R, Sarchahi A, Rad M, Noroozian I, Ghamsari S, Sadeghi-Hashjin G (2003). "Effect of acetylcysteine on ... Treatment includes antibiotics and collagenase inhibitors such as acetylcysteine and homologous blood serum. Surgery may be ... and acetylcysteine. Melting ulcers are a type of corneal ulcer involving progressive loss of stroma in a dissolving fashion. ...
Research shows that nitrotyrosine levels can be reduced by N-acetyl cysteine, which is a precursor to glutathione, one of the ... "The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevents accelerated atherosclerosis in uremic apolipoprotein E knockout mice". Kidney ... "Beneficial effects of n-acetylcysteine on ischaemic brain injury". British Journal of Pharmacology. 130 (6): 1219-1226. doi: ...
The supplement n-acetylcysteine may be effective for blepharitis. [1] Cunningham ET, Riordan-Eva P (2011-05-17). Vaughan & ...
Intravenous N-acetylcysteine has been found to be beneficial in acetaminophen toxicity but not in non-acetaminophen-related ... Siu, Jacky TP; Nguyen, Trina; Turgeon, Ricky D (9 December 2020). "N-acetylcysteine for non-paracetamol (acetaminophen)-related ... September 2009). "Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver ...
A 2012 Cochrane review concluded that N-acetylcysteine does not reduce mortality in those with SIRS or sepsis and may even be ... Szakmany T, Hauser B, Radermacher P (September 2012). "N-acetylcysteine for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response in adults ...
Silibinin and N-acetylcysteine appear to be the therapies with the most potential benefit. Repeated doses of activated carbon ... N-Acetylcysteine has shown promise in combination with other therapies. Animal studies indicate the amatoxins deplete hepatic ... Montanini S, Sinardi D, Praticò C, Sinardi A, Trimarchi G (1999). "Use of acetylcysteine as the life-saving antidote in Amanita ... Chyka P, Butler A, Holliman B, Herman M (2000). "Utility of acetylcysteine in treating poisonings and adverse drug reactions". ...
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose and to loosen ... Acetylcysteine is used in the treatment of obstructive lung disease as an adjuvant treatment. Acetylcysteine has been used to ... N-acetylcysteine can be used to protect the liver. Acetylcysteine can be used in Petroffs method of liquefaction and ... Acetylcysteine is being considered as a possible treatment for COVID-19. A combination of guanfacine and N-acetylcysteine has ...
Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Acetylcysteine should only be used with nebulizers made of plastic or glass. Acetylcysteine should not be routinely used in a ... Before using acetylcysteine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to acetylcysteine, any other medications, or ... There may be a slight unpleasant odor when you use acetylcysteine that goes away quickly. In an opened bottle of acetylcysteine ...
... and an Italian study published in 2013 discovered that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) may be particularly a effective endometrioma ... an observational cohort study on ovarian endometrionma reduction by N-acetylcysteine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013 ...
Acetylcysteine. HSCH2CH(NHCOCH3)CO2H. Synonyms: <I>N</I>-Acetyl-<SC>L</SC>-cysteine, LNAC, NAC. CAS 616 ... Browse Acetylcysteine and related products at MilliporeSigma. ...
N-Acetylcysteine) is an amino acid that supports respiratory health and immune function, in addition to increasing glutathione ...
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) Acetyl Cysteine, Acétyl Cystéine, Acetylcysteine, Acétylcystéine, NAC, N-Acetil Cisteína, N-Acetyl-B- ... Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to ... Medicines to treat symptoms, including an antidote, n-acetylcysteine (NAC), to counteract the effects of the drug ... ... the blood or to counteract its effects (n-acetylcysteine) Medicine to reverse the effects of the hydrocodone ... ...
Renal & Urology News publishes timely news coverage of scientific developments of interest to nephrologists and urologists, including in-depth coverage of all relevant medical conferences.. All of the news and departments from the print edition are fully archived on the site.. ...
... blocks Acetaminophen toxicity. ... Administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) within 8 hours of APAP overdose effectively mitigates APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. ... Co-administration of N-Acetylcysteine and Acetaminophen efficiently blocks Acetaminophen toxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary ...
... Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008 Dec;8(12):1955-62. doi ... Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to increase levels of glutathione. NAC has been proposed as a treatment ...
... cobalt dichloride-N-acetylcysteine [1% CoCl,sub,2,/sub,:2% NAC]) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging contrast marker that ... Toxicity Evaluation of a Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Marker, CoCl2-N-Acetylcysteine, in Rats. Li Wang. ,1Mihai Gagea. ,2 ... S. J. Frank, M. J. Johansen, K. S. Martirosyan et al., "A biodistribution and toxicity study of cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine ... C4 (cobalt dichloride-N-acetylcysteine [1% CoCl2:2% NAC]) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging contrast marker that ...
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used as an antioxidant drug in tumor cells and preclinical mice tumor xenografts, and it ... They discuss their findings in their article, "Antiproliferative Effects of Mitochondria-Targeted N-acetylcysteine and Analogs ...
A new retrospective study on the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on children with acute liver failure not caused by ... Treatment with N-acetylcysteine is associated with better outcomes for children with liver failure. *Download PDF Copy ... A new retrospective study on the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on children with acute liver failure not caused by ...
The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34(3):167-177. PubMed CrossRef Show Abstract ... N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: current status and future prospects. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ... N-acetylcysteine as an adjunct to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a ... N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia-a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Biol ...
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supports both liver health and lung health. NAC acts as an antioxidant by scavenging harmful free ... Country Life NAC N-Acetyl Cysteine 750 mg Vegetarian Capsules. 30 ctUPC: 0001579401686 ...
Product Description Package Description: 60 Capsules x 600mgAn effective way to support healthy antioxidant glutathione levels*. Oral glutathione is not absorbed well. Glutathione is one of our two basic antioxidant enzymes along with S.O.D. These import
of N-acetylcysteine on fluoride-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in sertoli cells].. Author: Yang Y, Huang H, Feng D, Liu W ... N-acetylcysteine alleviates fluoride-induced testicular apoptosis by modulating IRE1?/JNK signaling and nuclear Nrf2 activation ... OBJECTIVE: Investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on endoplasmic reticulum stress of sertoli cells induced by ...
The popular health-conscious brand Switch Nutrition have created a pure N-Acetyl-Cysteine powder supplement after seeing an ...
Ingredients: N-Acetyl Cysteine (free form). Warning: if you are pregnant, nursing, taking any medications or have any medical ...
The therapeutic efficacy of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol as compared with the effect of placebos was studied in 36 ... A double-blind placebo controlled trial with oral ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine for mucolytic treatment in cystic fibrosis Eur ... The therapeutic efficacy of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol as compared with the effect of placebos was studied in 36 ...
Decrease quantity for N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) Increase quantity for N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) ... About NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) An Antioxidant Nutrient to Support Sperm and Egg Health. N-acetyl-l-cysteine-commonly referred to ...
N-Acetyl Cysteine™ helps support:. • Healthy liver function. • Optimal detoxification. • Antioxidant maintenance. • Healthy ... Designs for Health N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) - 120 Vegetarian Capsules Shop all Designs for Health products ...
Oral N‐acetylcysteine speeds reversal of cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia in the rat. Exp Lung Res 1988;14:19-35 ... Long-term oral acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis. A double-blind controlled study. Eur J Respir Dis 1980;61: Suppl. 111, 93- ... Effect of oral acetylcysteine on tobacco smoke-induced secretory cell hyperplasia. Eur J Respir Dis 1985;66: Suppl. 139, 117- ... N‐acetylcysteine and viruses. The effects of NAC on influenza and influenza-like episodes have been studied in 262 patients ...
N-Acetyl Cysteine 1000 mg by Source Naturals N-acetyl cysteine is a more stable form of the sulfur amino acid L-cysteine, and ... Additionally, a meta-analysis of human clinical trials has reported that N-acetyl cysteine supplementation supports respiratory ...
... and apoptosis and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in preserving hepatic cells ... Alizadeh, B., Salehzadeh, A., Ranji, N. et al. Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Genes Expression of c-myc, and Ask-1, ... Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Genes Expression of c-myc, and Ask-1, Histopathological, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and ... Wang J, Li M, Zhang W, Gu A, Dong J, Li J, Shan A (2018) Protective effect of n-acetylcysteine against oxidative stress induced ...
... acetylcysteine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... encoded search term (acetylcysteine (N-acetylcysteine%2C Mucomyst)) and acetylcysteine (N-acetylcysteine, Mucomyst) What to ... acetylcysteine ACETYLCYSTEINE - ORAL INHALATION/ORAL (a-SEET-il-SIS-teen) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Mucomyst USES: When inhaled by ... PRECAUTIONS: Before using acetylcysteine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other ...
Decrease quantity for NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine) (600 mg) Increase quantity for NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine) (600 mg) ...
Effect of N-acetyl cysteine in a patient cohort with severe or very severe COVID-19 pneumonia. C M Gotera Rivera, C López Chang ... Effect of N-acetyl cysteine in a patient cohort with severe or very severe COVID-19 pneumonia ... Effect of N-acetyl cysteine in a patient cohort with severe or very severe COVID-19 pneumonia ... Effect of N-acetyl cysteine in a patient cohort with severe or very severe COVID-19 pneumonia ...
N‑acetyl cysteine (NAC) has been shown to exhibit antioxidant effects in vitro. However, the effects of NAC on LPS‑induced ... N‑acetyl cysteine inhibits lipopolysaccharide‑induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells via the p38MAPK ... N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor for glutathione biosynthesis, can scavenge oxygen free radicals, control inflammatory ... NAC, N-acetyl cysteine; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; LPS, ...
Continuous monitoring reveals protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on an isogenic microphysiological model of the ... Continuous monitoring reveals protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on an isogenic microphysiological model of the ... Continuous monitoring reveals protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on an isogenic microphysiological model of the ... Continuous monitoring reveals protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on an isogenic microphysiological model of the ...
  • Acetylcysteine should only be used with nebulizers made of plastic or glass. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acetylcysteine may be administered using conventional nebulizers made of plastic or glass. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Intravenous and oral formulations of acetylcysteine are available for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, acetylcysteine acts to maintain or replenish depleted glutathione reserves in the liver and enhance non-toxic metabolism of acetaminophen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cetylev (acetylcysteine) is an antidote for acetaminophen overdose indicated to prevent or lessen liver damage after the ingestion of a potentially hepatotoxic quantity of acetaminophen. (drugs.com)
  • Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a modified amino acid that is used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose to prevent hepatic injury. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protective effects on hepatic damage when administered after acetaminophen overdose. (nih.gov)
  • When a diagnosis is made of acetaminophen overdose in an emergency room, out comes the N-acetylcysteine (NAC). (mcgill.ca)
  • There was no significant relation between the risk of contrast nephropathy and the volume of acetylcysteine administered or the degree of chronic renal insufficiency before the procedure. (medscape.com)
  • If a tent or Croupette must be used, the recommended dose is the volume of acetylcysteine (using 10% or 20%) that will maintain a very heavy mist in the tent or Croupette for the desired period. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • 2013) Double blind, randomized, two-way crossover, pilot study to assess the effect of high dose N-acetylcysteine on airway geometry, inflammation and oxidative stress in copd patients using functional respiratory imaging. (umj.com.ua)
  • This means that N-acetylcysteine helps to reduce conditions related to oxidative stress as well as having a therapeutic effect on the brain. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • Acetylcysteine is useful in treating conditions that involve tissue damage or toxicity due to oxidative stress, such as acetaminophen, xylitol, or phenol toxicity, degenerative myelopathy in dogs, chronic kidney disease, respiratory inflammation in cats, and FIV in cats. (ahcfargo.com)
  • While many antioxidants have been researched to treat a large number of diseases by reducing the negative effect of oxidative stress, acetylcysteine is one of the few that has yielded promising results, and is currently already approved for the treatment of paracetamol overdose. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to thick or abnormal mucous secretions in people with lung conditions including asthma, emphysema, bronchitis and cystic fibrosis (an inborn disease that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to acetylcysteine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in acetylcysteine inhalation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases brain levels of glutathione in rodents, an international group of researchers sought to determine its effect in patients. (thecamreport.com)
  • N-acetylcysteine has been reported to have pleiotropic effect, closely connected with antioxidant action: direct - that is realized by thiol group, and indirect - due to increasing of intracellular glutathione levels, thus regulating of intracellular redox status. (umj.com.ua)
  • N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, which is used for the intention of allowing more glutathione to be produced when it would normally be depleted. (meadbery.com)
  • N-acetylcysteine, a drug also widely available as a dietary supplement, is a precursor of l-cysteine, which in turn is a component of glutathione. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • N-acetylcysteine is a precursor of l-cysteine, which in turn is a component of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione, a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • But the advantages of N-acetylcysteine don't just halt at counteracting age-related glutathione decline. (gymfluencers.com)
  • These vegetarian capsules, each packed with 600mg of N-acetylcysteine, offer an affordable pathway to sustaining the body's glutathione levels. (gymfluencers.com)
  • 01:00 N-acetylcysteine and glycine are rate limiting amino acids in glutathione production. (myoxcience.com)
  • A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Healthy Older Adults to Determine Efficacy of Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation on Glutathione Redox Status and Oxidative Damage. (myoxcience.com)
  • Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with chronic bronchopulmonary disorders like pneumonia and bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research suggests that the rate of liver toxicity is approximately 3% when acetylcysteine is administered within 10 hours of overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcysteine is also sometimes used to treat people who have taken or received an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Randomised open label exploratory, safety and tolerability study with calmangafodipir in patients treated with the 12-h regimen of N-acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdose-the PP100-01 for Overdose of Paracetamol (POP) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (nih.gov)
  • Acetylcysteine is used for Mucus thinning, Prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy , Paracetamol overdose and other conditions. (tabletwise.net)
  • A combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been widely used as a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • 2009) Oral N-acetylcysteine attenuates pulmonary emphysema and alveolar septal cell apoptosis in smoking-induced COPD in rats. (umj.com.ua)
  • Chalumeau M., Duijvestijn Y.C. (2013) Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease. (umj.com.ua)
  • The trial tests prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) triple therapy vs. placebo, and NAC alone vs. placebo, on lung function and other health outcomes in patients with newly-diagnosed Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • The initial objective of the PANTHER-IPF study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a drug combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to N-acetylcysteine alone or placebo. (nih.gov)
  • Acetylcysteine has been suggested as a beneficial treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although data from placebo-controlled studies are lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with mild-to-moderate impairment in pulmonary function were randomly assigned to receive a three-drug regimen (prednisone, azathioprine, and acetylcysteine), acetylcysteine alone (plus matched placebos for prednisone and azathioprine), or matched placebos for each of the active therapies. (nih.gov)
  • As compared with placebo, acetylcysteine offered no significant benefit with respect to the preservation of FVC in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with mild-to-moderate impairment in lung function. (nih.gov)
  • The trial, called PANTHER-IPF, found that a currently used triple-drug therapy consisting of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a potentially harmful combination to people with IPF. (nih.gov)
  • Despite being a widely used regimen for IPF, prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) triple therapy has never been studied against placebo for all three drugs in a randomized controlled trial. (nih.gov)
  • After a review and analysis of interim data, the DSMB recommended halting enrollment and study drug administration in the prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (triple therapy) arm of the study because of safety concerns. (nih.gov)
  • Prior pharmacokinetic studies of acetylcysteine did not consider acetylation as a reason for the low bioavailability of acetylcysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Good tolerability and low incidence of adverse reactions, even observed during the long-term administration in high doses, can be explained by the antitoxic, nephro- and hepatoprotective effects and special pharmacokinetic characteristics of N-acetylcysteine. (umj.com.ua)
  • Bonanomi L, Gazzaniga A. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies on acetylcysteine. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Inhaled acetylcysteine has been used for mucolytic ("mucus-dissolving") therapy in addition to other therapies in respiratory conditions with excessive and/or thick mucus production. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetylcysteine works to improve the clearing of this mucus. (ahcfargo.com)
  • Limited studies in animals have been performed, but there is anecdotal evidence that acetylcysteine works to treat toxicities and to break up mucus. (ahcfargo.com)
  • Can Acetylcysteine be used for mucus thinning and prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy? (tabletwise.net)
  • Yes, mucus thinning and prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy are among the most common reported uses for Acetylcysteine. (tabletwise.net)
  • Please do not use Acetylcysteine for mucus thinning and prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy without consulting first with your doctor . (tabletwise.net)
  • Acetylcysteine is a hepatoprotective agent and has not been linked to significant serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to instances of clinically apparent acute liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • A study to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of N- acetylcysteine on anti tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity and quality of life. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acetylcysteine (alternate and brand names: N-acetylcysteine, NAC, ACC, Mucomyst®, Acetadote®, Cetylev®, Parvolex®) is a supplement that is a modified form of an amino acid and acts as an antioxidant . (ahcfargo.com)
  • The reduction of symptom scale measured in the n-acetylcysteine group was not significantly lower than the reduction in the placebo group. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • b) whether GSH levels in PD brain increase significantly following 30 days of daily supplementation with 2000mg or 4000mg of N- acetylcysteine (NAC) compared to placebo and baseline, and (c) whether any such increases in brain GSH would be dose-dependent and be associated with a change in the participants'oxidative stress profiles. (grantome.com)
  • This is a 12-week, intent-to-treat, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) versus matched placebo (PBO) twice daily, added to compliance enhancement (CE) and contingency management (CM) interventions, on cannabis use among treatment-seeking adults. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 264 patients were randomized (pre- and post-clinical alert) into the full acetylcysteine compared with placebo trial. (nih.gov)
  • After NHLBI accepted this recommendation on October 14, 2011, the three-drug regimen was discontinued and patients were recruited for only the acetylcysteine group and the placebo group. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, there were no significant differences between the acetylcysteine group and the placebo group in the rates of death or acute exacerbation. (nih.gov)
  • Azad A, Lall SB, Mittra S (2001) Effect of N-acetylcysteine and L-NAME on aluminium phosphide induced cardiovascular toxicity in rats. (springer.com)
  • Brandao R, Santos FW, Zeni G, Rocha JB, Nogueira CW (2006) DMPS and N-acetylcysteine induced renal toxicity in mice exposed to mercury. (springer.com)
  • Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • N-Acetylcysteine is commonly used in cough syrups, expectorants, and respiratory support supplements due to its mucolytic properties. (vivion.com)
  • However, 3% to 6% of people given intravenous acetylcysteine show a severe, anaphylaxis-like allergic reaction, which may include extreme breathing difficulty (due to bronchospasm), a decrease in blood pressure, rash, angioedema, and sometimes also nausea and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated doses of intravenous acetylcysteine will cause these allergic reactions to progressively worsen in these people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have found this anaphylaxis-like reaction to occur more often in people given intravenous acetylcysteine despite serum levels of paracetamol not high enough to be considered toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining trial investigated intravenous administration of acetylcysteine for elective CT examinations. (medscape.com)
  • Acetylcysteine is used in the treatment of obstructive lung disease as an adjuvant treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, doctors view N-acetylcysteine as the most effective treatment to prevent liver failure caused by paracetamol overdosing. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • Our meta-analysis showed a significant benefit of acetylcysteine treatment in prevention if contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Admit patients with acetaminophen concentrations above the "possible" line on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram for treatment with N -acetylcysteine (NAC). (medscape.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen treatment and N-acetylcysteine ameliorate acetaminophen-induced liver injury in a rat model. (nih.gov)
  • 2015) Long-term treatment with oral N-acetylcysteine: affects lung function but not sputum inflammation in cystic fibrosis subjects. (umj.com.ua)
  • Further research is needed to ascertain the capability of n-acetylcysteine as a standard treatment for the conditions reviewed, both as an adjunctive as well as a monotherapy, in addition to it's neuroprotective potential which may extend to other disorders of the brain. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Should N-acetylcysteine be used as adjunct treatment for COVID-19? (psmid.org)
  • Manheim, Germany - In a recent meta-analysis investigating the protective capacity of acetylcysteine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency receiving contrast media, German investigators found oral prophylactic acetylcysteine therapy can protect against contrast-induced acute renal failure . (medscape.com)
  • Compared with periprocedural hydration alone, administration of acetylcysteine and hydration significantly reduced the relative risk of contrast nephropathy by 56% in patients with chronic renal insufficiency," write lead investigator Dr Rainer Birck (University Hospital Mannheim, Germany) and colleagues in the August 21, 2003 issue of the Lancet . (medscape.com)
  • One previous studyas reported by heart wire found that acetylcysteine improved renal function after administration of radiographic contrast dye in patients undergoing computed tomography (CT). (medscape.com)
  • In this meta-analysis, the investigators analyzed seven randomized controlled trials comparing acetylcysteine and hydration with hydration alone for preventing contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Acetylcysteine should not be used in pets that are allergic to it. (ahcfargo.com)
  • Although IV and oral acetylcysteine are equally effective for this indication, oral administration is generally poorly tolerated due to the higher dosing required to overcome its low oral bioavailability, its foul taste and odour, and a higher incidence of adverse effects when taken by mouth, particularly nausea and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly reported adverse effects for IV formulations of acetylcysteine are rash, urticaria, and itchiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009) A phase II study on safety and efficacy of high-dose N-acetylcysteine in patients with cystic fibrosis. (umj.com.ua)
  • Bustos T.C., Garigliany M. (2016) N-acetylcysteine: an old drug with variable anti-influenza properties. (umj.com.ua)
  • Sekhar, R. V. GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation Improves Impaired Mitochondrial Fuel Oxidation and Lowers Insulin Resistance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Pilot Study. (myoxcience.com)
  • acetylcysteine increases effects of nitroglycerin IV by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • Comment: Acetylcysteine may enhance vasodilatory effects of nitroglycerin. (medscape.com)
  • The following medications should be used with caution when given with acetylcysteine: activated charcoal or nitroglycerin. (ahcfargo.com)
  • Oral acetylcysteine is identical in bioavailability to cysteine precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • NAC stands for N-acetylcysteine or N-Acetyl Cysteine and it is a chemical sold as a dietary supplement. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • NAC stands for N-Acetyl Cysteine or N-acetylcysteine or N-acetyl-L-cysteine. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • Acetylcysteine (or N-acetylcysteine) is a derivative N-acetylated of amino acid cysteine. (elicats.it)
  • On the other hand, since the bioavailability of cysteine, which does cross both the blood-brain barrier and most cell membranes, is rate-limiting in the GSH synthesis pathway, this amino acid and its non-toxic derivatives, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), are being investigated as potential precursors that can be supplied through dietary means to spur in situ synthesis and elevation of brain GSH. (grantome.com)
  • N-acetylcysteine, commonly referred to as NAC, is a special derivative of the amino acid cysteine. (gymfluencers.com)
  • Acetylcysteine, administered orally, is indicated as an antidote to prevent or lessen hepatic injury which may occur following the ingestion of a potentially hepatotoxic quantity of acetaminophen. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Incorporating N-Acetylcysteine into antioxidant formulations can enhance their effectiveness in combating free radicals and supporting overall cellular health. (vivion.com)
  • In acute and chronic respiratory system diseases with thick and purulence sputum N-acetylcysteine benefits in positive dynamics of clinical manifestation, attenuates the lung injury and improves lung function, decreases the frequency of acute exacerbations as well as improves the physical performance and quality of life. (umj.com.ua)
  • N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. (nih.gov)
  • Aremu DA, Madejczyk MS, Ballatori N (2008) N-acetylcysteine as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent of methylmercury exposure. (springer.com)
  • Ballatori N, Lieberman MW, Wang W (1998a) N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. (springer.com)
  • Cysteamine in combination with N-acetylcysteine prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Vivion is known as a reputable wholesale distributor of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and other ingredients and chemicals. (vivion.com)
  • If you are looking for bulk quantities of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) then please reach out below for a quote to work with Vivion as your trusted ingredients supplier. (vivion.com)
  • Experience the unrivaled quality of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) with Vivion, the leading distributor of ingredients and chemicals. (vivion.com)
  • After interim analysis presented safety concerns regarding the three drug regimen, the protocol was modified to evaluate only N-acetylcysteine effectiveness. (nih.gov)
  • activated charcoal decreases effects of acetylcysteine by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • If you experience drowsiness , dizziness, hypotension or a headache as side-effects when using Acetylcysteine medicine then it may not be safe to drive a vehicle or operate heavy machinery. (tabletwise.net)
  • N-acetylcysteine can be used to protect the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The detoxification effect of supplementing your diet with N-acetylcysteine helps to keep your liver healthy . (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • The 24 h urinary SF- N -acetylcysteine recovery was 65, 60 and 24 % of the dose ingested from combination, broccoli sprout and GRP powder meals, respectively. (cambridge.org)
  • Acetylcysteine comes as a solution (liquid) and concentrated solution to inhale by mouth using a nebulizer (machine that turns medication into a mist that can be inhaled). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Accumulated over the past decades data of experimental studies and clinical trials significantly expanded the understanding of mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine positive action in patients with pathology of respiratory system. (umj.com.ua)
  • In one cell line study, n-acetylcysteine was found to significantly improve dopamine receptor binding and neuron survival. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Another studyalso reported by heart wire found acetylcysteine reduced contrast nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. (medscape.com)
  • Four of the seven studies included in the meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the relative risk for development of contrast nephropathy in patients given acetylcysteine, whereas the remaining three studies showed no significant benefit. (medscape.com)
  • p=0.02) in patients receiving acetylcysteine. (medscape.com)
  • Click here and view survey results to find out what other patients report as common uses for Acetylcysteine. (tabletwise.net)
  • TabletWise.com website users have most commonly reported using Acetylcysteine empty stomach. (tabletwise.net)
  • If you use other drugs or over the counter products at the same time, the effects of Acetylcysteine may change. (tabletwise.net)
  • For example, N-acetylcysteine helps to maintain healthy cells in muscle tissue and prevents damage from exercise-related stress. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • Acetylcysteine may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this chapter, the effects of N -acetylcysteine (NAC) as a chelator of heavy metals are examined. (springer.com)
  • Aykin-Burns N, Franklin EA, Ercal N (2005) Effects of N-acetylcysteine on lead-exposed PC-12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Calderon-Cabrera L, Duran-Galetta MG, Garcia I, Galetta D, Lacruz L, Naranjo R, Perez B, Ferreira E (2008) Determination of the N-acetylcysteine and methionine effects in the cerebellum of rats intoxicated with lead. (springer.com)
  • The good news is that the benefits of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are experienced with very few side effects. (healthyandnaturalworld.com)
  • The following is a list of possible side-effects that may occur in medicines that contain Acetylcysteine . (tabletwise.net)
  • Acetylcysteine may also cause side-effects not listed here. (tabletwise.net)