Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.CholinesterasesCholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Electrophorus: A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Pseudocholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterases.Edrophonium: A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Echothiophate Iodide: A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide: N,N',N'',N'''-Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide. A specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterases. It is commonly used experimentally to determine whether pseudo- or acetylcholinesterases are involved in an enzymatic process.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Obidoxime Chloride: Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Trimedoxime: Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Benzyl CompoundsPyridinium CompoundsPesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Decamethonium Compounds: Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Diazonium Compounds
(1/2082) Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes?

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

(2/2082) Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes.

Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene.  (+info)

(3/2082) Monoclonal antibody 3F3 against conformational epitope of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase.

AIM: To study the type of epitope of native Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) directed by its monoclonal antibody (McAb) 3F3. METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the assay of the reaction between antigen and antibody. RESULTS: McAb 3F3 immunoreacted well with the native AChE, but not with the reduced- and alkylated-AChE (RA-AChE) at all. Soman did not interfere the binding of 3F3 with AChE molecule. The synthesized 24-peptide containing the active serine residue of the AChE active center did not react with McAb 3F3. CONCLUSION: 3F3 is a monoclonal antibody against the conformational epitope of Torpedo AChE active center, but dose not occupy the active serine residue of the enzyme.  (+info)

(4/2082) Establishment and characterization of human neuroblastoma cell lines.

Three new tissue culture cell lines, CHP-100, CHP-126, and CHP-134, have been established from explant cultures of human neuroblastoma. The cell lines have been characterized with respect to morphology, chromosomes constitution, growth, neural enzyme content, and their ability to grow in nude mice. The cells grow as dense masses comprised of fibroblast-or neuroblast-like cells with small processes. The cell lines differ in their neural enzyme acitivity. The chromosomal content of the 3 cell lines is near diploid, and all are capable of forming tumors in nude mice. The morphological findings indicate that the cells in culture resemble those found in the tumor, and the enzyme activities are consistent with those of nervous tissue. This the morphological, biochemical, and tumorigenic properties confirm that the 3 cell lines are neoplastic cells of neural origin.  (+info)

(5/2082) Electron paramagnetic resonance reveals altered topography of the active center gorge of acetylcholinesterase after binding of fasciculin to the peripheral site.

Fasciculin, a peptidic toxin from snake venom, inhibits mammalian and fish acetylcholinesterases (AChE) by binding to the peripheral site of the enzyme. This site is located at the rim of a narrow, deep gorge which leads to the active center triad, located at its base. The proposed mechanisms for AChE inhibition by fasciculin include allosteric events resulting in altered conformation of the AChE active center gorge. However, a fasciculin-induced altered topography of the active center gorge has not been directly demonstrated. Using electron paramagnetic resonance with the spin-labeled organophosphate 1-oxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinylethylphosphorofluoridate (EtOSL) specifically bound to the catalytic serine of mouse AChE (mAChE), we show that bound fasciculin on mAChE slows down, but does not prevent phosphorylation of the active site serine by EtOSL and protects the gorge conformation against thermal denaturation. Most importantly, a restricted freedom of motion of the spin label bound to the fasciculin-associated mAChE, compared to mAChE, is evidenced. Molecular models of mAChE and fasciculin-associated mAChE with tethered EtOSL enantiomers indicate that this restricted motion is due to greater proximity of the S-EtOSL nitroxide radical to the W86 residue in the fasciculin-associated enzyme. Our results demonstrate a topographical alteration indicative of a restricted conformation of the active center gorge of mAChE with bound fasciculin at its rim.  (+info)

(6/2082) Organophosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase in the presence of peripheral site ligands. Distinct effects of propidium and fasciculin.

Structural analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has revealed two sites of ligand interaction in the active site gorge: an acylation site at the base of the gorge and a peripheral site at its mouth. A goal of our studies is to understand how ligand binding to the peripheral site alters the reactivity of substrates and organophosphates at the acylation site. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the phosphorylation of AChE by two fluorogenic organophosphates, 7-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)oxy]-1-methylquinolinium iodide (DEPQ) and 7-[(methylethoxyphosphonyl)oxy]-4-methylcoumarin (EMPC), by monitoring release of the fluorescent leaving group. Rate constants obtained with human erythrocyte AChE were in good agreement with those obtained for recombinant human AChE produced from a high level Drosophila S2 cell expression system. First-order rate constants kOP were 1,600 +/- 300 min-1 for DEPQ and 150 +/- 11 min-1 for EMPC, and second-order rate constants kOP/KOP were 193 +/- 13 microM-1 min-1 for DEPQ and 0.7-1.0 +/- 0.1 microM-1 min-1 for EMPC. Binding of the small ligand propidium to the AChE peripheral site decreased kOP/KOP by factors of 2-20 for these organophosphates. Such modest inhibitory effects are consistent with our recently proposed steric blockade model (Szegletes, T., Mallender, W. D., and Rosenberry, T. L. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 4206-4216). Moreover, the binding of propidium resulted in a clear increase in kOP for EMPC, suggesting that molecular or electronic strain caused by the proximity of propidium to EMPC in the ternary complex may promote phosphorylation. In contrast, the binding of the polypeptide neurotoxin fasciculin to the peripheral site of AChE dramatically decreased phosphorylation rate constants. Values of kOP/KOP were decreased by factors of 10(3) to 10(5), and kOP was decreased by factors of 300-4,000. Such pronounced inhibition suggested a conformational change in the acylation site induced by fasciculin binding. As a note of caution to other investigators, measurements of phosphorylation of the fasciculin-AChE complex by AChE inactivation gave misleading rate constants because a small fraction of the AChE was resistant to inhibition by fasciculin.  (+info)

(7/2082) Genetic analysis of collagen Q: roles in acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase assembly and in synaptic structure and function.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) occurs in both asymmetric forms, covalently associated with a collagenous subunit called Q (ColQ), and globular forms that may be either soluble or membrane associated. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, asymmetric AChE is anchored to the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft, where it hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate synaptic transmission. AChE has also been hypothesized to play developmental roles in the nervous system, and ColQ is also expressed in some AChE-poor tissues. To seek roles of ColQ and AChE at synapses and elsewhere, we generated ColQ-deficient mutant mice. ColQ-/- mice completely lacked asymmetric AChE in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain; they also lacked asymmetric forms of the AChE homologue, butyrylcholinesterase. Thus, products of the ColQ gene are required for assembly of all detectable asymmetric AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Surprisingly, globular AChE tetramers were also absent from neonatal ColQ-/- muscles, suggesting a role for the ColQ gene in assembly or stabilization of AChE forms that do not themselves contain a collagenous subunit. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, toxicological, and electrophysiological assays all indicated absence of AChE at ColQ-/- neuromuscular junctions. Nonetheless, neuromuscular function was initially robust, demonstrating that AChE and ColQ do not play obligatory roles in early phases of synaptogenesis. Moreover, because acute inhibition of synaptic AChE is fatal to normal animals, there must be compensatory mechanisms in the mutant that allow the synapse to function in the chronic absence of AChE. One structural mechanism appears to be a partial ensheathment of nerve terminals by Schwann cells. Compensation was incomplete, however, as animals lacking ColQ and synaptic AChE failed to thrive and most died before they reached maturity.  (+info)

(8/2082) Cloning, expression, and properties of a nonneuronal secreted acetylcholinesterase from the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

We have isolated a full-length cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase secreted by the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The predicted protein is truncated in comparison with acetylcholinesterases from other organisms such that the carboxyl terminus aligns closely to the end of the catalytic domain of the vertebrate enzymes. The residues in the catalytic triad are conserved, as are the six cysteines which form the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Three of the fourteen aromatic residues which line the active site gorge in the Torpedo enzyme are substituted by nonaromatic residues, corresponding to Tyr-70 (Thr), Trp-279 (Asn), and Phe-288 (Met). High level expression was obtained via secretion from Pichia pastoris. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomeric hydrophilic species. Although of invertebrate origin and possessing the above substitutions in the active site gorge residues, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and showed minimal activity against butyrylthiocholine. It displayed excess substrate inhibition with acetylthiocholine at concentrations over 2. 5 mM and was highly sensitive to both active site and "peripheral" site inhibitors. Northern blot analysis indicated a progressive increase in mRNA for AChE B in parasites isolated from 6 days postinfection.  (+info)

*  Eseroline
It is a metabolite of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine but unlike physostigmine, the acetylcholinesterase ... "Reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by eseroline, an opioid agonist structurally related to physostigmine (eserine) ...
*  Acetylcholinesterase
In mammals, acetylcholinesterase is encoded by a single AChE gene while some invertebrates have multiple acetylcholinesterase ... inhibitors AChE bivalent inhibitors Acetylcholinesterase: A gorge-ous enzyme - PDBe Acetylcholinesterase - RCSB PDB Human ACHE ... and secretion of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase. Expression of acetylcholinesterase Cys-580----Ala mutant". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: ACHE acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)". Dori A, Ifergane G, Saar-Levy T, Bersudsky M, Mor I, Soreq H, Wirguin ...
*  Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are classified as reversible, irreversible, or quasi-irreversible (also called pseudo- ... ISBN 0-443-07145-4. Page 156 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... ISBN 978-0-47-097948-8. Singh, J; Kour, K; Jayaram, MB (January 2012). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia". The ...
*  Proteopedia
"Acetylcholinesterase". Proteopedia. "Hemoglobin". Proteopedia. "Photosystem II". Proteopedia. Luiggi C (September 2010). "Web ... as well as pages that are more descriptive of protein structures in general such as acetylcholinesterase, hemoglobin, and the ...
*  Phenylalanine N-acetyltransferase
Leuzinger W, Baker AL, Cauvin E (1968). "Acetylcholinesterase. II. Crystallization, absorption spectra, isoionic point". Proc. ...
*  Modes of toxic action
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. AChE is an enzyme associated with nerve synapses that it's designed to regulate nerve ... see Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Irritants. These are chemicals that cause an inflammatory effect on living tissue by ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
MSH6 Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency; 603034; COLQ Enhanced S-cone syndrome; 268100; NR2E3 Enlarged vestibular ...
*  Minaprine
In a study it has also been found to weakly inhibit acetylcholinesterase in rat brain (striatum) homogenates. Fung, M.; ... Contreras JM, Rival YM, Chayer S, Bourguignon JJ, Wermuth CG (1999). "Aminopyridazines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors". ...
*  Pulok Mukherjee
Pulok K. Mukherjee; Venkatesan Kumar; Mainak Mal; Peter J. Houghton (2007). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from plants". ... and Peter J Houghton discovered how to inhibit acetylcholinesterase to treat neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, senile ...
*  Management of schizophrenia
Singh, J; Kour, K; Jayaram, MB (January 2012). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia". Cochrane Database of ...
*  Enzyme inhibitor
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme found in animals from insects to humans. It is essential to nerve cell function ... Other artificial enzyme inhibitors block acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine, and are used as nerve ... Hostettmann, K.; Borloz, A.; Urbain, A.; Marston, A. (2006). "Natural Product Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase". Current ... The organophosphate pesticides such as malathion, parathion, and chlorpyrifos irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase. The ...
*  Physostigma venenosum
"Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology". Current Neuropharmacology. 11 (3): 315-335. doi:10.2174/ ...
*  Corydaline
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo. Xiao, Hai-Tao; Peng, Jiao; Liang, Yan; Yang, ... Jie; Bai, Xue; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Fu-Mei; Sun, Qian-Yun (September 2011). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Corydalis ...
*  Corydalis yanhusuo
It also contains the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor corydaline. N-methyltetrahydroprotoberberines with κ-opioid receptor ... "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Corydalis yanhusuo". Natural Product Research. Taylor and Francis. 25 (15): 1418-1422. doi ...
*  Diisopropylphosphate
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It acts by covalently binding to acetylcholinesterase. Diisopropyl- ...
*  Sleep and memory
Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; it is a drug that inhibits the breakdown of the inhibitory neurotransmitter ... 0.6 words when participants were given the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Conversely, neither speed nor accuracy declined in ...
*  Tetraethyl pyrophosphate
An injection with TEPP (~0.01 mg/kg, or more) can result in a fast depression of acetylcholinesterase in the plasma and the ... "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology". Current Neuropharmacology. 11 (3): 315-335. doi:10.2174/ ...
*  Turnover number
Wilson IB, Harrison MA (Aug 1961). "Turnover number of acetylcholinesterase" (PDF). J Biol Chem. 236 (8): 2292-5. Berry WK (Oct ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may be one of the fastest enzymes. It hydrolyzes acetylcholine to choline and an acetate group. One ... "Fractional diffusion-limited component of reactions catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase". Biochemistry. 25 (1): 125-30. doi: ...
*  Chelidonine
Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae). ... Journal of Molecular Structure, 734(1-3), 1-6. Colovic, M. B. (2013). Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and ... Chelidonine is an isolate of Papaveraceae with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.[citation ... Chelidonine is an isolate of Papaveraceae with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (a nonspecific cholinesterase) ...
*  Phorate
It inhibits acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Phorate is most commonly applied in granular form. It is non- ...
*  Physostigmine
... 's poor tolerability led to it being abandoned in favor of later acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, three of which ... It is a covalent (reversible - bond hydrolyzed and released) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the ... Its mechanism is to prevent the hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase at the transmitted sites of acetylcholine. ... Mehta, Mona; Ade,, Abdu; Sabbagh, Marwan (2012). "New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease". International ...
*  Indole alkaloid
Physostigmine is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Plants and fungi that contain indole alkaloids have a long ... Physostigmine - an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase - and its synthetic analogs are used in the treatment of glaucoma, ...
*  Gulf War syndrome
Golomb BA (March 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (11): 4295- ...
*  Pyridostigmine
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in the cholinergic family of medications. It works by blocking the action ... To prevent constant stimulation once the ACh is released, an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase is present in the endplate ... Golomb BA (March 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... of acetylcholinesterase and therefore increases the levels of acetylcholine. Pyridostigmine was patented in 1945 and came into ...
*  Methiocarb
The plasma acetylcholinesterase activity was lowered at the high dose at day one and from eight weeks onwards in males and at ... Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also lowered, more in males than in females. In rats a two-year study of 60 rats was ... The erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity is apparently not inhibited in a dose-related fashion. The duration of the study ... No brain acetylcholinesterase activity was observed. Because methiocarb is widely used as an insecticide on crops, ...
Acetylcholinesterase - definition of acetylcholinesterase by The Free Dictionary  Acetylcholinesterase - definition of acetylcholinesterase by The Free Dictionary
acetylcholinesterase synonyms, acetylcholinesterase pronunciation, acetylcholinesterase translation, English dictionary ... definition of acetylcholinesterase. n. An enzyme in the blood and in certain tissues that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ... Related to acetylcholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. a·ce·tyl·cho·li·nes·ter·ase. (ə-sēt′l-kō′lə-nĕs′tə-rās′, -rāz ... acetylcholinesterase. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/acetylcholinesterase
From Pyridinium-based to Centrally Active Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators | BenthamScience  From Pyridinium-based to Centrally Active Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators | BenthamScience
From Pyridinium-based to Centrally Active Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators. Author(s): Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup, Rafael ... Firstly, they are inefficient in the restoration of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity due to a hard blood-brain ... Firstly, they are inefficient in the restoration of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity due to a hard blood-brain ... Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, HI-6, organophosphorus compounds, pyridinium oximes, pralidoxime, reactivator, trimedoxime, ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/120474/article
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Critical Evaluation of Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for...  Sensors | Free Full-Text | Critical Evaluation of Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for...
Keywords: acetylthiocholine iodide; acetylthiocholine chloride; amperometry; acetylcholinesterase acetylthiocholine iodide; ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/2/1603/xml
Dual Binding Site and Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Derived from Integrated Pharmacophore Models and Sequential...  Dual Binding Site and Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Derived from Integrated Pharmacophore Models and Sequential...
The best acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors pharmacophore hypotheses Hypo1_A and Hypo1_B, with high ... Gopi Mohan C., "Dual Binding Site and Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Derived from Integrated Pharmacophore Models ... Dual Binding Site and Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Derived from Integrated Pharmacophore Models and Sequential ... filtering to identify dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that can preferentially inhibit acetylcholinesterase ...
more infohttps://www.amrita.edu/publication/dual-binding-site-and-selective-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-derived-integrated
Docking Studies, Synthesis, and In-vitro Evaluation of Novel Oximes Based on Nitrones as Reactivators of Inhibited...  Docking Studies, Synthesis, and In-vitro Evaluation of Novel Oximes Based on Nitrones as Reactivators of Inhibited...
Theprocess of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition can be reversed by a nucleophilic agentto dephosphorylate and reactivate ... Acetylcholinesterase has important role in synaptic cleft. It breaks down the acetylcholineatcholinergic synapsesand terminates ... process of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition can be reversed by a nucleophilic agent. to dephosphorylate and reactivate ... Acetylcholinesterase has important role in synaptic cleft. It breaks down the acetylcholineat. cholinergic synapsesand ...
more infohttp://ijpr.sbmu.ac.ir/article_2102.html
Tacrine
      - Cognex
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Tacrine - Cognex Summary Report | CureHunter
Acetylcholinesterase 3. rivastigmine (Exelon) 4. Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Anticholinesterases) 5. Cholinesterases ( ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD013619-Tacrine-Cognex.do
Pseudocholinesterase-mediated Hydrolysis Is Superior to Neostigmine for Reversal of Mivacurium-induced Paralysis In Vitro |...  Pseudocholinesterase-mediated Hydrolysis Is Superior to Neostigmine for Reversal of Mivacurium-induced Paralysis In Vitro |...
Acetylcholinesterase is ineffective. Neostigmine alone is a poor reversal drug, even in the presence of a visible twitch, ... Acetylcholinesterase at all concentrations had no effect on mivacurium-induced neuromuscular paralysis (Table 2, group 2). The ... The capacity of acetylcholinesterase to hydrolyze mivacurium has previously been demonstrated, albeit its efficacy is 30-fold ... 10,11] This group of drugs, mostly specific for acetylcholinesterase, have effects on other esterases as well. [3,12],*. ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2028423
Dokument bez názvu  Dokument bez názvu
Prediction of a new broad-spectrum reactivator capable to of reactivatinge acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agents ... Kuca K, Cabal J, Bajgar J, Jun D: In vitro searching for a new potent reactivator of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve ... Kuca K, Jun D, Kim TH, Cabal J, Jung Y-S. In vitro evaluation of new acetylcholinesterase reactivators as casual antidotes ... oxime; acetylcholinesterase; reactivation; artificial neural networks; organophosphates; QSAR. REFERENCES. Bajgar J: ...
more infohttp://jab.zsf.jcu.cz/3_3/dohnal.htm
RheumaKnowledgy » Edrophonium Chloride  RheumaKnowledgy » Edrophonium Chloride
Mechanism of Action: Increases acetylcholine concentrations by inhibiting its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase ...
more infohttp://www.rheumaknowledgy.com/edrophonium-chloride/
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor - Wikipedia  Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor - Wikipedia
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the ... Comparison of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Inhibitor Duration Main site of action Clinical use Adverse effects ... Acetylcholinesterase+inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Wang, BS; Wang, H; Wei, ZH; Song, YY; Zhang, L; Chen, HZ (2009). "Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitors
Acetylcholinesterase  Acetylcholinesterase
An easy-to-use directory for life science and biomedical research products. Find special deals on products, order catalogs and browse product lines from suppliers of reagents, antibodies, laboratory equipment, and more.
more infohttp://biosupplynet.com/cfdocs/products/prod_supp.cfm?prod_id=5959
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor  Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits the cholinesterase enzyme ... Comparison of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Inhibitor Duration[1] Main site of action[1] Clinical use[1] Adverse ... An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits the cholinesterase enzyme from breaking ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitor". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitor.html
Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor  Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor
... , Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, Cholinesterase Inhibitor, Anticholinesterase. ... Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor. Aka: Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, ... Central cholinesterase inhib, Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (product), Central ... acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (substance). Spanish. inhibidor central de la acetilcolinesterasa (producto), inhibidor central ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/Neuro/Pharm/CntrlActylchlnstrsInhbtr.htm
The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase | SpringerLink  The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase | SpringerLink
Various types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) subunits are characterized by specific C-terminal peptides. In Torpedoand mammals ... Various types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) subunits are characterized by specific C-terminal peptides. In Torpedo and mammals ... Bon S., Coussen F., Massoulié J. (1998) The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P., ... The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. Cellular Compartmentation, Cleavage, GPI Addition and Secretion ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1540-5_30
Anti-Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] (ab17774)  Anti-Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] (ab17774)
Mouse monoclonal Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... Monoclonal antibodies against a C-terminal peptide of human brain acetylcholinesterase distinguish between erythrocyte and ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Acetylcholinesterase aa 574-583.. Sequence: TDTLDEA ERQ ... brain acetylcholinesterases.. Clin Chem 42:19-23 (1996). Read more (PubMed: 8565226) » ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/acetylcholinesterase-antibody-4e11-ab17774.html
Inhibition of mammalian acetylcholinesterase by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride.  - PubMed - NCBI  Inhibition of mammalian acetylcholinesterase by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. - PubMed - NCBI
Inhibition of mammalian acetylcholinesterase by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride.. Alid G, Orrego FG.. PMID:. 5013045. DOI:. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5013045?dopt=Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase: from 3D structure to function.  - PubMed - NCBI  Acetylcholinesterase: from 3D structure to function. - PubMed - NCBI
Acetylcholinesterase: from 3D structure to function.. Dvir H1, Silman I, Harel M, Rosenberry TL, Sussman JL. ... Acetylcholinesterase is a very fast enzyme, functioning at a rate approaching that of a diffusion-controlled reaction. The ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are utilized in the treatment of various neurological disorders, and are the principal drugs ... The crystal structure of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase in its apo-state is similar in its overall features to that of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138030?dopt=Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase of Cerebral Microvessels Changes in Alzheimers Disease | SpringerLink  Acetylcholinesterase of Cerebral Microvessels Changes in Alzheimer's Disease | SpringerLink
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is histochemically demonstrable in capillary basement membranes of brain regions that contain ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is histochemically demonstrable in capillary basement membranes of brain regions that contain ... AChE Activity Alzheimer Brain Sucrose Density Gradient Acetylcholinesterase Activity Sedimentation Coefficient These keywords ... Kreutzberg, G. W., Tóth L., and Kaiya, H., 1975, Acetylcholinesterase as a marker for dendritic transport and dendritic ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5844-2_95
Anti-Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] (ab17774) | Abcam  Anti-Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] (ab17774) | Abcam
Mouse monoclonal Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11]. Validated in WB, ELISA and tested in Cow, Human. Cited in 1 publication( ... Monoclonal antibodies against a C-terminal peptide of human brain acetylcholinesterase distinguish between erythrocyte and ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Acetylcholinesterase aa 574-583.. Sequence: TDTLDEA ERQ ... brain acetylcholinesterases.. Clin Chem 42:19-23 (1996). Read more (PubMed: 8565226) » ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/acetylcholinesterase-antibody-4e11-ab17774.html
Acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 - definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 by The Free Dictionary  Acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 - definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 by The Free Dictionary
... acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 translation, English dictionary definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347. ... redirected from acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ache. (āk). ... Acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 - definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 by The Free Dictionary https:// ... Define acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347. acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 synonyms, acetylcholinesterase ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/acetylcholinesterase+OTTHUMP00000211347
  • S. Gupta and Dr. Gopi Mohan C., "Dual Binding Site and Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Derived from Integrated Pharmacophore Models and Sequential Virtual Screening", BioMed Research International (Hindawi), 2014. (amrita.edu)
  • The determination of the crystal structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase permitted visualization, for the first time, at atomic resolution, of a binding pocket for acetylcholine. (nih.gov)
  • The dimeric form of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provides a valuable experimental system for studying transitions between native, partially unfolded, and unfolded states since long-lived partially unfolded states can be generated by chemical modification of a nonconserved buried cysteine residue, Cys 231, by denaturing agents, by oxidative stress, and by thermal inactivation. (sigmaaldrich.com)