Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.CholinesterasesCholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Electrophorus: A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Pseudocholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterases.Edrophonium: A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Echothiophate Iodide: A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide: N,N',N'',N'''-Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide. A specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterases. It is commonly used experimentally to determine whether pseudo- or acetylcholinesterases are involved in an enzymatic process.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Obidoxime Chloride: Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Trimedoxime: Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Benzyl CompoundsPyridinium CompoundsPesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Decamethonium Compounds: Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Diazonium Compounds

Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? (1/2082)

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes. (2/2082)

Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibody 3F3 against conformational epitope of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase. (3/2082)

AIM: To study the type of epitope of native Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) directed by its monoclonal antibody (McAb) 3F3. METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the assay of the reaction between antigen and antibody. RESULTS: McAb 3F3 immunoreacted well with the native AChE, but not with the reduced- and alkylated-AChE (RA-AChE) at all. Soman did not interfere the binding of 3F3 with AChE molecule. The synthesized 24-peptide containing the active serine residue of the AChE active center did not react with McAb 3F3. CONCLUSION: 3F3 is a monoclonal antibody against the conformational epitope of Torpedo AChE active center, but dose not occupy the active serine residue of the enzyme.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of human neuroblastoma cell lines. (4/2082)

Three new tissue culture cell lines, CHP-100, CHP-126, and CHP-134, have been established from explant cultures of human neuroblastoma. The cell lines have been characterized with respect to morphology, chromosomes constitution, growth, neural enzyme content, and their ability to grow in nude mice. The cells grow as dense masses comprised of fibroblast-or neuroblast-like cells with small processes. The cell lines differ in their neural enzyme acitivity. The chromosomal content of the 3 cell lines is near diploid, and all are capable of forming tumors in nude mice. The morphological findings indicate that the cells in culture resemble those found in the tumor, and the enzyme activities are consistent with those of nervous tissue. This the morphological, biochemical, and tumorigenic properties confirm that the 3 cell lines are neoplastic cells of neural origin.  (+info)

Electron paramagnetic resonance reveals altered topography of the active center gorge of acetylcholinesterase after binding of fasciculin to the peripheral site. (5/2082)

Fasciculin, a peptidic toxin from snake venom, inhibits mammalian and fish acetylcholinesterases (AChE) by binding to the peripheral site of the enzyme. This site is located at the rim of a narrow, deep gorge which leads to the active center triad, located at its base. The proposed mechanisms for AChE inhibition by fasciculin include allosteric events resulting in altered conformation of the AChE active center gorge. However, a fasciculin-induced altered topography of the active center gorge has not been directly demonstrated. Using electron paramagnetic resonance with the spin-labeled organophosphate 1-oxyl-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinylethylphosphorofluoridate (EtOSL) specifically bound to the catalytic serine of mouse AChE (mAChE), we show that bound fasciculin on mAChE slows down, but does not prevent phosphorylation of the active site serine by EtOSL and protects the gorge conformation against thermal denaturation. Most importantly, a restricted freedom of motion of the spin label bound to the fasciculin-associated mAChE, compared to mAChE, is evidenced. Molecular models of mAChE and fasciculin-associated mAChE with tethered EtOSL enantiomers indicate that this restricted motion is due to greater proximity of the S-EtOSL nitroxide radical to the W86 residue in the fasciculin-associated enzyme. Our results demonstrate a topographical alteration indicative of a restricted conformation of the active center gorge of mAChE with bound fasciculin at its rim.  (+info)

Organophosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase in the presence of peripheral site ligands. Distinct effects of propidium and fasciculin. (6/2082)

Structural analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has revealed two sites of ligand interaction in the active site gorge: an acylation site at the base of the gorge and a peripheral site at its mouth. A goal of our studies is to understand how ligand binding to the peripheral site alters the reactivity of substrates and organophosphates at the acylation site. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the phosphorylation of AChE by two fluorogenic organophosphates, 7-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)oxy]-1-methylquinolinium iodide (DEPQ) and 7-[(methylethoxyphosphonyl)oxy]-4-methylcoumarin (EMPC), by monitoring release of the fluorescent leaving group. Rate constants obtained with human erythrocyte AChE were in good agreement with those obtained for recombinant human AChE produced from a high level Drosophila S2 cell expression system. First-order rate constants kOP were 1,600 +/- 300 min-1 for DEPQ and 150 +/- 11 min-1 for EMPC, and second-order rate constants kOP/KOP were 193 +/- 13 microM-1 min-1 for DEPQ and 0.7-1.0 +/- 0.1 microM-1 min-1 for EMPC. Binding of the small ligand propidium to the AChE peripheral site decreased kOP/KOP by factors of 2-20 for these organophosphates. Such modest inhibitory effects are consistent with our recently proposed steric blockade model (Szegletes, T., Mallender, W. D., and Rosenberry, T. L. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 4206-4216). Moreover, the binding of propidium resulted in a clear increase in kOP for EMPC, suggesting that molecular or electronic strain caused by the proximity of propidium to EMPC in the ternary complex may promote phosphorylation. In contrast, the binding of the polypeptide neurotoxin fasciculin to the peripheral site of AChE dramatically decreased phosphorylation rate constants. Values of kOP/KOP were decreased by factors of 10(3) to 10(5), and kOP was decreased by factors of 300-4,000. Such pronounced inhibition suggested a conformational change in the acylation site induced by fasciculin binding. As a note of caution to other investigators, measurements of phosphorylation of the fasciculin-AChE complex by AChE inactivation gave misleading rate constants because a small fraction of the AChE was resistant to inhibition by fasciculin.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of collagen Q: roles in acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase assembly and in synaptic structure and function. (7/2082)

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) occurs in both asymmetric forms, covalently associated with a collagenous subunit called Q (ColQ), and globular forms that may be either soluble or membrane associated. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, asymmetric AChE is anchored to the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft, where it hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate synaptic transmission. AChE has also been hypothesized to play developmental roles in the nervous system, and ColQ is also expressed in some AChE-poor tissues. To seek roles of ColQ and AChE at synapses and elsewhere, we generated ColQ-deficient mutant mice. ColQ-/- mice completely lacked asymmetric AChE in skeletal and cardiac muscles and brain; they also lacked asymmetric forms of the AChE homologue, butyrylcholinesterase. Thus, products of the ColQ gene are required for assembly of all detectable asymmetric AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Surprisingly, globular AChE tetramers were also absent from neonatal ColQ-/- muscles, suggesting a role for the ColQ gene in assembly or stabilization of AChE forms that do not themselves contain a collagenous subunit. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, toxicological, and electrophysiological assays all indicated absence of AChE at ColQ-/- neuromuscular junctions. Nonetheless, neuromuscular function was initially robust, demonstrating that AChE and ColQ do not play obligatory roles in early phases of synaptogenesis. Moreover, because acute inhibition of synaptic AChE is fatal to normal animals, there must be compensatory mechanisms in the mutant that allow the synapse to function in the chronic absence of AChE. One structural mechanism appears to be a partial ensheathment of nerve terminals by Schwann cells. Compensation was incomplete, however, as animals lacking ColQ and synaptic AChE failed to thrive and most died before they reached maturity.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and properties of a nonneuronal secreted acetylcholinesterase from the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. (8/2082)

We have isolated a full-length cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase secreted by the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The predicted protein is truncated in comparison with acetylcholinesterases from other organisms such that the carboxyl terminus aligns closely to the end of the catalytic domain of the vertebrate enzymes. The residues in the catalytic triad are conserved, as are the six cysteines which form the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Three of the fourteen aromatic residues which line the active site gorge in the Torpedo enzyme are substituted by nonaromatic residues, corresponding to Tyr-70 (Thr), Trp-279 (Asn), and Phe-288 (Met). High level expression was obtained via secretion from Pichia pastoris. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomeric hydrophilic species. Although of invertebrate origin and possessing the above substitutions in the active site gorge residues, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine and showed minimal activity against butyrylthiocholine. It displayed excess substrate inhibition with acetylthiocholine at concentrations over 2. 5 mM and was highly sensitive to both active site and "peripheral" site inhibitors. Northern blot analysis indicated a progressive increase in mRNA for AChE B in parasites isolated from 6 days postinfection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity with Various RBC Indices. AU - Gupta, Shalvika. AU - Belle, Vijetha Shenoy. AU - Kumbarakeri Rajashekhar, Ramya. AU - Jogi, Sushma. AU - Prabhu, RV Krishnananda. PY - 2018/9/4. Y1 - 2018/9/4. N2 - Cholinesterases belongs to class hydrolases. There are two types acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase present in nerve endings and also in the RBC membrane. It helps to maintain the shape and size of RBCs. Any change in shape and size of RBCs may affect the activity of Acetylcholinesterase. Thus this study aimed to estimate RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in various types of anemias and correlate the RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity with various hematological indices such as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) etc. After ...
Free Online Library: AhR-mediated effects of dioxin on neuronal acetylcholinesterase expression in vitro.(Research, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Acetylcholinesterase Chlorocarbons Analysis Dibenzofurans Dichloropropane Dioxin Health aspects Dioxins Enzymes Neurons
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stabilization of collagen-tailed acetylcholinesterase in muscle cells through extracellular anchorage by transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking. AU - Hand, D. AU - Dias, D. AU - Haynes, LW. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 204. SP - 65. EP - 76. JO - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. JF - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. SN - 0300-8177. ER - ...
Define acetylcholinesterase. acetylcholinesterase synonyms, acetylcholinesterase pronunciation, acetylcholinesterase translation, English dictionary definition of acetylcholinesterase. n. An enzyme in the blood and in certain tissues that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. n an enzyme in nerve cells that is responsible for the...
Objective:To investigate the effect of YiShenJiangZhuo decoction on intracerebral AchE activity of ischemia reperfusion rat.Methods:After preparing a model of ischemia-reperfusion based on hypotension,we observed the praxiology of rat by using water labyrinth test and AchE activity of hippocampus by colorimetric method.Results:The model rat had distinct disturbances of learning and remembrance the Ache activity increased.The result of learning and remembrance in YiShenJiangZhuo decoction group improved significantly (P0.01)compared with the model rat;And AchE activity in YiShenJiangZhuo decoction group significaitly decreased(P0.05).Conclusion:It is suggested that the YiShenJiangZhuo decoction can improve the learning and remembrance by decreasing the AchE activity of ischemia reperfusion
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reaction pathway and free-energy barrier for reactivation of dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase. AU - Liu, Junjun. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. AU - Zhan, Chang Guo. PY - 2009/12/17. Y1 - 2009/12/17. N2 - The dephosphorylation/reactivation mechanism and the corresponding free-energy profile of the dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited conjugate of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been studied by performing firstprinciples quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free-energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations. On the basis of the QM/MM-FE results, for the favorable reaction pathway, the entire dephosphorylation/reactivation process consists of three reaction steps, including the nucleophilic water attack on the P atom, the spatial reorganization of the dimethylphosphoryl group, and the dissociation between the dimethylphosphoryl group and Ser203 of AChE. The overall free-energy barrier for the entire dephosphorylation/reactivation reaction is found to be the free-energy change from ...
In non-neuronal contexts, ACh (acetylcholine) is thought to be involved in the regulation of vital cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell-cell interaction. In airways, most cells express the non-neuronal cholinergic system, each containing a specific set of components required for synthesis, signal transduction and ACh hydrolysis. The aim of the present study was determine the expression of cholinergic system components in bronchial aspirates from control subjects and patients with lung cancer. We conducted an analysis of cholinergic components in the stored soluble and cellular fraction of bronchial aspirates from non-cancerous patients and patients diagnosed with lung cancer. The results show that the fluid secreted by human lung cells contains enough AChE (acetylcholinesterase) activity to control ACh levels. Thus these findings demonstrate that: (i) AChE activity is significantly lower in aspirates from squamous cell carcinomas; (ii) the molecular ...
A rabbit antiserum against commercially available Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase has been prepared. Five precipitation bands were distinguished by immunoelectrophoresis, but only three of these contained demonstrable enzyme activity. In an in vitro system, activity of the commercial enzyme or of highly purified acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 70-82 per cent after incubation with antiserum. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the absence of serological cross reactions or enzyme inhibition with bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase or horse serum cholinesterase. ...
Irreversible inhibition of the essential nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase by organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides may quickly lead to death. Oxime reactivators currently used as antidotes are generally less effective against pesticide exposure than nerve agent exposure, and pesticide exposure constitutes the majority of cases of organophosphate poisoning in the world. The current lack of published structural data specific to human acetylcholinesterase organophosphate-inhibited and oxime-bound states hinders development of effective medical treatments. We have solved structures of human acetylcholinesterase in different states in complex with the organophosphate insecticide, paraoxon, and oximes. Reaction with paraoxon results in a highly perturbed acyl loop that causes a narrowing of the gorge in the peripheral site that may impede entry of reactivators. This appears characteristic of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphate insecticides but not nerve agents. ...
Molecular isoform distribution and glycosylation of acetylcholinesterase are altered in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimers disease
An acetylcholinesterase has been purified from Torpedo californica by mild proteolysis of electroplax membranes with trypsin (5 µg/ml for 5 min) to solubilize the enzyme, followed by affinity chromatography of the soluble enzyme. The procedure yields an apparently homogeneous enzyme whose molecular weight (approximately 335,000), frictional coefficient (1.65), and amino acid composition all distinguished the Torpedo acetylcholinesterase from that which has been prepared by lytic procedures from Electrophorus. The enzyme is composed of four similar, if not identical, subunits, each of which possesses a catalytic and inhibitor binding site. Torpedo acetylcholinesterase contains 7.9% carbohydrate present as hexoses, hexosamines, and sialic acid, and at least some of these residues are exposed on the outer surface of the molecule. Concanavalin A, a plant lectin with specificity toward mannose residues at nonreducing positions, forms a sedimentable complex with the purified acetylcholinesterase ...
The X-ray crystal structures were solved for complexes with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase of two bivalent tacrine derivative compounds in which the two tacrine rings were separated by 5- and 7-carbon spacers. The derivative with the 7-carbon spacer spans the length of the active-site gorge, making sandwich interactions with aromatic residues both in the catalytic anionic site (Trp84 and Phe330) at the bottom of the gorge and at the peripheral anionic site near its mouth (Tyr70 and Trp279). The derivative with the 5-carbon spacer interacts in a similar manner at the bottom of the gorge, but the shorter tether precludes a sandwich interaction at the peripheral anionic site. Although the upper tacrine group does interact with Trp279, it displaces the phenyl residue of Phe331, thus causing a major rearrangement in the Trp279-Ser291 loop. The ability of this inhibitor to induce large-scale structural changes in the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has significant implications for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - COOH-terminal collagen Q (COLQ) mutants causing human deficiency of endplate acetylcholinesterase impair the interaction of ColQ with proteins of the basal lamina. AU - Arredondo, Juan. AU - Lara, Marian. AU - Ng, Fiona. AU - Gochez, Danielle A.. AU - Lee, Diana C.. AU - Logia, Stephanie P.. AU - Nguyen, Joanna. AU - Maselli, Ricardo A. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel ...
A cholinesterase inhibitor (or "anticholinesterase") suppresses the action of the enzyme. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of cholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death (examples are some snake venoms, and the nerve gases sarin and VX). One counteracting medication is pralidoxime. The so-called nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by combining with a residue of serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. The enzyme acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC.3.1.1.7.) is an enzyme located in the postsynaptic membrane and in the muscle endplates, where it hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholin. AChE from brain is a tetramer (G4-AChE) with a molecular mass of 320 kDa, AChE from erythrocytes is a dimer (G2-AChE) with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. Detection of higher levels of AChE in amniotic fluid can indicate fetal malformations such as neural tube defects. This antibody is specific for brain AChE and does not recognize AChE from erythrocytes. The antibody can thus distinguish between mammalian brain AChE and erythrocyte AChE. There is a weak cross-reactivity with Torpedo marmorata AChE but none with AChE from electric eel or human BtChE ...
Clean Seas Environment Monitoring Programme (CSEMP) accessment of acetylcholine esterase activity in biota (common dab muscle) at station Severn_SeInter_fi01 (Camarthen Bay) from the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National database (MERMAN).
Background: Neuropsychological studies have extensively described the presence of cognitive dysfunction in MS patients. One possible pharmacological treatment of the impairment could be based on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), which have sh
2HA4: Substrate and product trafficking through the active center gorge of acetylcholinesterase analyzed by crystallography and equilibrium binding
The bovine acetylcholinesterase (BoAChE) gene was cloned from genomic DNA and its structure was determined. Five exons coding for the AChE T-subunit and the alternative H-subunit were identified and their organization suggests high conservation of structure in mammalian AChE genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the bovine T-subunit is highly similar to the human sequence, showing differences at 34 positions only. However, the cloned BoAChE sequence differs from the published amino acid sequence of AChE isolated from fetal bovine serum (FBS) by: (1) 13 amino acids, 12 of which are conserved between BoAChE and human AChE, and (2) the presence of four rather than five potential N-glycosylation sites. The full coding sequence of the mature BoAChE T-subunit was expressed in human embryonal kidney 293 cells (HEK-293). The catalytic properties of recombinant BoAChE and its reactivity towards various inhibitors were similar to those of the native bovine enzyme. Soluble recombinant BoAChE is ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a tetrameric serine hydrolase that rapidly catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline. The breakdown of acetylcholine is critical for the termination of impulse transmissions at cholinergic synapses within the nervous system. Progressive loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimers disease (AD) patients results in severe memory loss and impairment of cognitive function. AChE inhibitors are a strategic approach to symptomatic treatment for AD, since AChE inhibitors increase the levels of acetylcholine in the synapse, thereby enhancing cholinergic activity in the affected regions of the brain. AChE also plays an important role in agriculture since modifications in AChE can confer resistance to pesticides. AChE is a key component in many snake venoms, and AChE staining is routinely used for the initial diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease, a congenital disorder caused by the absence of ganglion cells in the distal colon ...
Recombinant Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Protein. Species: Mouse (Murine). Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6301593.
The long article for discussion on the August 31, 2018 #GeriMedJC will take a look at Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and risk of stroke and death in people with dementia.. Remember during the live hour, you can view the presentation live via Zoom https://zoom.us/j/102282147 . Have you missed our previous sessions? The 2018 presentations are all available on YouTube (click the Subscribe button!): https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0lfYRt-7pBKFG_81JHUyWg. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and risk of stroke and death in people with dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2018 Jul;14(7):944-951. INTRODUCTION ...
2JGJ: Crystal Structures of Acetylcholinesterase in Complex with Organophosphorus Compounds Suggest that the Acyl Pocket Modulates the Aging Reaction by Precluding the Formation of the Trigonal Bipyramidal Transition State.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of the binding site of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon-2-yl)methyl]piperidine in acetylcholinesterase by docking studies with the SYSDOC program. AU - Pang, Yuan-Ping. AU - Kozikowski, Alan P.. PY - 1994/12. Y1 - 1994/12. N2 - In the preceding paper we reported on a docking study with the SYSDOC program for predicting the binding sites of huperzine A in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) [Pang, Y.-P. and Kozikowski, A.P., J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Design, 8 (1994) 669]. Here we present a prediction of the binding sites of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanon-2-yl)methyl]piperidine (E2020) in AChE by the same method. E2020 is one of the most potent and selective reversible inhibitors of AChE, and this molecule has puzzled researchers, partly due to its flexible structure, in understanding how it binds to AChE. Based on the results of docking 1320 different conformers of E2020 into 69 different conformers of AChE and on the pharmacological data reported for E2020 and its ...
Two novel families of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been developed, consisting of a tacrine or 6-chlorotacrine unit as the active site interacting moiety, either the 5,6-dimethoxy-2-[(4-piperidinyl)methyl]-1-indanone fragment of donepezil (or the indane derivative thereof) or a 5-phenylpyrano[3,2-c]quinoline system, reminiscent to the tryciclic core of propidium, as the peripheral site interacting unit, and a linker of suitable length as to allow the simultaneous binding at both sites. These hybrid compounds are all potent and selective inhibitors of human AChE, and more interestingly, are able to interfere in vitro both formation and aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide, the latter effects endowing these compounds with the potential to modify Alzheimers disease progression ...
Due to the diversity of biological activities that can be found in aquatic ecosystems, marine metabolites have been an active area of drug discovery for the last 30 years. Marine metabolites have been found to inhibit a number of enzymes important in the treatment of human disease. Here, we focus on marine metabolites that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is the cellular target for treatment of early-stage Alzheimers disease. Currently, development of anticholinesterase drugs with improved potency, and drugs that act as dual acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors, are being sought to treat Alzheimers disease. Seven classes of marine metabolites are reported to possess anti-cholinesterase activity. We compared these metabolites to clinically-used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors having known mechanisms of inhibition. We performed a docking simulation and compared them to published experimental data for each metabolite to determine the most likely mechanism of
Complete information for COLQ gene (Protein Coding), Collagen Like Tail Subunit Of Asymmetric Acetylcholinesterase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Vol 14: Acetylcholinesterase overexpression mediated by oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent anti-tumor effect.. This article is from BMC Cancer, volume 14.AbstractBackground: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) mainly functions as an effici. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In the fetal and neonatal monkey, periodically organized regions of high activity of acetylcholinesterase were found in the visual cortical area V2 (Area 18). The acetylcholinesterase bands, like the thin and thick stripes of cytochrome oxidase, were found to run orthogonal to the area 17/18 border. During neonatal development these bands progressively narrow and finally disappear shortly after four months of age.
Small numbers of postganglionic cells persist in sympathetic ganglia after the treatment of newborn animals with the nerve growth factor antiserum. In the present study the possibiity was explored whether the cells which survive the immunosympathectomy may be predominantly those which have been designated, in the cat, as cholinergic sympathetic cells. The acetylcholinesterase activity of sympathetic ganglia (superior cervical, stellate, thoracic chain, superior mesenteric, celiac and cardiac) from immunosympathectomized and control rats was visualized by the histochemical method of Koelle. As in the cat, the sympathetic ganglia of rats contain postganglionic cell bodies with either marked, moderate or slight acetylcholinestrase activity. Contrary to cat sympathetic ganglia, the cells with marked and moderate acetylcholinesterase activity predominate in the sympathetic ganglia of control rats. In the various sympathetic ganglia studied in this investigation, cells with slight acetylcholinesterase ...
Excess expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cortex and hippocampus causes a decrease in the number of glutamatergic synapses and alters the expression of neurexin and neuroligin, trans-synaptic proteins that control synaptic stability. The molecular sequence and three-dimensional structure of AChE are homologous to the corresponding aspects of the ectodomain of neuroligin. This study investigated whether excess AChE interacts physically with neurexin to destabilize glutamatergic synapses. The results showed that AChE clusters colocalized with neurexin assemblies in the neurites of hippocampal neurons and that AChE co-immunoprecipitated with neurexin from the lysate of these neurons. Moreover, when expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, N-glycosylated AChE co-immunoprecipitated with non-O-glycosylated neurexin-1β, with N-glycosylation of the AChE being required for this co-precipitation to occur. Increasing extracellular AChE decreased the association of neurexin with neuroligin and
Acetylcholinesterase小鼠单克隆抗体[HR2](ab2803)可与小鼠, 兔, 豚鼠, 牛, 猫, 人, 猕猴样本反应并经IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。
inproceedings{BUT7539, author="Lukáš {Fujcik} and Radimír {Vrba} and Jan {Krejčí} and Jiří {Háze} and Michal {Skočdopole} and Ondřej {Sajdl}", title="INPUT CONTROL OF SENSOR PARAMETERS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SENSOR MEASUREMENT", annote="Fast detection of pesticide toxicity in the field conditions is very important in many aspects (longtime influence of low concentrations on man´s health, pesticide storage, price of one test etc.). The pesticide concentration measurements are performed on a biosensor with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The AChE is a very sensitive compound. The measurement uses principle of an artificial synapse (AS) and inhibition of an enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The AS is a very effective detector of the pesticide toxicity. Therefore properties of the sensor have to be measured without AChE at first. This process is called input control of the sensor. The reproducibility of electrochemical detector is studied first using hydrogen peroxide and second ...
Acetylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol ACHE), also known as AChE or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides. AChE is a hydrolase that hydrolyzes choline esters. It has a very high catalytic activity - each molecule of AChE degrades about 25000 molecules of acetylcholine (ACh) per second, approaching the limit allowed by diffusion of the substrate. The active site of AChE comprises 2 subsites - the anionic site and the esteratic subsite. The structure and mechanism of action of AChE have been elucidated from the crystal structure of the enzyme. ...
The researchers) demonstrate that the active component of marijuana, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), competitively inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as prevents AChE-induced amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) aggregation, the key pathological marker of Alzheimers disease. Computational modeling of the THC-AChE interaction revealed that THC binds in the peripheral anionic site of AChE, the critical region involved in amyloidgenesis. Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimers disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of Abeta aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may directly impact the progression of this debilitating disease. ...
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor: | | ||| | |Acetylcholine| | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Has anyone had any luck using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like razadyne/ aricept to improve cognitive function? My Doc prescribed razadyne, but insurance wont cover it unless I get a DX of Alzheimers. Im not willing to do that. I saw and ...
Characterization and gene cloning of acetylecholinesterase (AChE) in the insecticide-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) insects have been reported in the past. However, the studies focused mostly on herbivorous pests, rather than predacious species, such as ladybird beetles. Using R and S Propylaea japonica (thunberg), a full-length cDNA sequence (2928 bp) of the ace1-type AChE gene was determined for the first time. The ace1 encoding a protein of 645 amino acids contained typical conserved motifs, such as FGESAG domains, catalytic triad, acyl pocket, oxyanino hole, choline binding site, peripheral anionic site, omega loop and conserved aromatic residues. R P. japonica displayed 50-times greater resistance to chlorpyrifos or mathamidophos with a significantly lower AChE sensitivity to paraoxon, malaoxon, chlorpyrifos or methamidophos than its S counterpart. Five amino acids in the ace1 of R P. japonica differed from those found in S P. japonica. One of them, F358S, located in the acyl-binding ...
Silver, Ann - 07 The Acetylcholine System: Mapping the Enzymes, Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) (mp3 ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChE-Is) are the standard for the therapy of AD associated disorders and are the only class of approved drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the target for many Alzheimer’s dementia drugs which block the function of AChE but have some side effects. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt was made to elucidate cholinesterase inhibition potential of secondary metabolite from |i |Cannabis|/i| plant which has negligible or no side effect. Molecular docking of 500 herbal compounds, against AChE, was performed using Autodock 4.2 as per the standard protocols. Molecular dynamics simulations have also been carried out to check stability of binding complex in water for 1000 ps. Our molecular docking and simulation have predicted high binding affinity of secondary metabolite (|svg xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg style=vertical-align:-3.40876pt id=M1 height=12.5291pt
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It requires the activation of a large number of nicotinic cholinergic receptors to excite a single muscle fiber and stimulate muscle contraction. At the same time the process requires a very rapid termination of response. A single synaptic vesicle contains roughly 7000-12,000 molecules of ACh and a single motor axon action potential may trigger the fusion of 40-300 vesicles depending on the species or type of NMJ studied (Steinbach and Wu, 2004). After release into the synaptic cleft the ACh reaches high concentration rapidly, where it can bind to cholinergic receptors. However, ACh released into the synaptic cleft also can bind to the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which hydrolyzes ACh to choline and acetate thus inactivating it. All unbound, extraneuronal ACh is rapidly metabolized by the AChE enzyme, which is localized in the motor end-plate region. Although AChE may be bound in part to presynaptic elements, it is concentrated at the postsynaptic membrane (Inestrosa and Perelman, 1990; ...
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We have developed a highly selective sensitive fluorescent detection of acetylcholine (ACh) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protected atomically precise clusters of gold. The gold quantum clusters ([email protected]) synthesized using bovine serum albumin and conjugated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme specific for acetylcholine, resulting in [email protected] The enzyme, AChE hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) to choline (Ch) which in turn interacts with [email protected] and quenches its fluorescence, enabling sensing. We have carried out the real time monitoring of the hydrolysis of ACh using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to find out the mechanism of fluorescent quenching. The validity of present method for determination of concentration of acetylcholine in real system such as blood was demonstrated. Further, the sensor, [email protected] can be easily coated on paper and an efficient and cheap sensor can be developed and detection limit for ACh is found to be 10nM. The fluorescent ...
From a pharmacological perspective, these substances act via the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) as reversible inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Typically, acetylcholine (ACh) is released into the neural synaptic cleft and binds to ACh receptors post-synapse, which then relays a signal from the nerve. AChE halts the signal transmission via hydrolysis of ACh into acetate and choline. AChE functions rapidly and has a very high catalytic activity - it has been demonstrated that AChE can degrade about 25,000 molecules of ACh per second. Choline is then taken up by the presynaptic nerve and ACh is constructed from choline and Acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via another enzyme, choline acetyltransferase. As AChE inhbitors, aldicarb and carbofuran inhibit or slow down the normal function of this enzymatic pathway of ACh which results in an accumulation of ACh in the neural synaptic cleft. This accumulation can result in devastating consequences for the organism. ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exhibits functions unrelated to the catalysis of acetylcholine (ACh) in particular during development. Although the underlying mechanism(s) is presently unknown, a candidat
Various types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) subunits are characterized by specific C-terminal peptides. In Torpedoand mammals, alternative exons encode H peptides, which contain a C-terminal signal...
Lanks, K W.; Dorwin, J M.; and Papirmeister, B, "Increased rate of acetylcholinesterase synthesis in differentiating neuroblastoma cells." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 492 ...
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Brain Protex with Huperzine (60 caps)-Benefits:May help block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, helping to prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, an i
"Acetylcholinesterase". Proteopedia. "Hemoglobin". Proteopedia. "Photosystem II". Proteopedia. Luiggi C (September 2010). "Web ... as well as pages that are more descriptive of protein structures in general such as acetylcholinesterase, hemoglobin, and the ...
Leuzinger W, Baker AL, Cauvin E (1968). "Acetylcholinesterase. II. Crystallization, absorption spectra, isoionic point". Proc. ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. AChE is an enzyme associated with nerve synapses that it's designed to regulate nerve ... see Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Irritants. These are chemicals that cause an inflammatory effect on living tissue by ...
MSH6 Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency; 603034; COLQ Enhanced S-cone syndrome; 268100; NR2E3 Enlarged vestibular ...
In a study it has also been found to weakly inhibit acetylcholinesterase in rat brain (striatum) homogenates. Fung, M.; ... Contreras JM, Rival YM, Chayer S, Bourguignon JJ, Wermuth CG (1999). "Aminopyridazines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors". ...
Pulok K. Mukherjee; Venkatesan Kumar; Mainak Mal; Peter J. Houghton (2007). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from plants". ... and Peter J Houghton discovered how to inhibit acetylcholinesterase to treat neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, senile ...
Singh, J; Kour, K; Jayaram, MB (January 2012). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia". Cochrane Database of ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme found in animals from insects to humans. It is essential to nerve cell function ... Other artificial enzyme inhibitors block acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine, and are used as nerve ... Hostettmann, K.; Borloz, A.; Urbain, A.; Marston, A. (2006). "Natural Product Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase". Current ... The organophosphate pesticides such as malathion, parathion, and chlorpyrifos irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase. The ...
"Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology". Current Neuropharmacology. 11 (3): 315-335. doi:10.2174/ ...
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo. Xiao, Hai-Tao; Peng, Jiao; Liang, Yan; Yang, ... Jie; Bai, Xue; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Fu-Mei; Sun, Qian-Yun (September 2011). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Corydalis ...
It also contains the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor corydaline. N-methyltetrahydroprotoberberines with κ-opioid receptor ... "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Corydalis yanhusuo". Natural Product Research. Taylor and Francis. 25 (15): 1418-1422. doi ...
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It acts by covalently binding to acetylcholinesterase. Diisopropyl- ...
Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; it is a drug that inhibits the breakdown of the inhibitory neurotransmitter ... 0.6 words when participants were given the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Conversely, neither speed nor accuracy declined in ...
An injection with TEPP (~0.01 mg/kg, or more) can result in a fast depression of acetylcholinesterase in the plasma and the ... "Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology". Current Neuropharmacology. 11 (3): 315-335. doi:10.2174/ ...
Wilson IB, Harrison MA (Aug 1961). "Turnover number of acetylcholinesterase" (PDF). J Biol Chem. 236 (8): 2292-5. Berry WK (Oct ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may be one of the fastest enzymes. It hydrolyzes acetylcholine to choline and an acetate group. One ... "Fractional diffusion-limited component of reactions catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase". Biochemistry. 25 (1): 125-30. doi: ...
Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae). ... Journal of Molecular Structure, 734(1-3), 1-6. Colovic, M. B. (2013). Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and ... Chelidonine is an isolate of Papaveraceae with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.[citation ... Chelidonine is an isolate of Papaveraceae with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (a nonspecific cholinesterase) ...
It inhibits acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Phorate is most commonly applied in granular form. It is non- ...
... 's poor tolerability led to it being abandoned in favor of later acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, three of which ... It is a covalent (reversible - bond hydrolyzed and released) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the ... Its mechanism is to prevent the hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase at the transmitted sites of acetylcholine. ... Mehta, Mona; Ade,, Abdu; Sabbagh, Marwan (2012). "New Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease". International ...
Physostigmine is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Plants and fungi that contain indole alkaloids have a long ... Physostigmine - an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase - and its synthetic analogs are used in the treatment of glaucoma, ...
Golomb BA (March 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (11): 4295- ...
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in the cholinergic family of medications. It works by blocking the action ... To prevent constant stimulation once the ACh is released, an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase is present in the endplate ... Golomb BA (March 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... of acetylcholinesterase and therefore increases the levels of acetylcholine. Pyridostigmine was patented in 1945 and came into ...
The plasma acetylcholinesterase activity was lowered at the high dose at day one and from eight weeks onwards in males and at ... Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also lowered, more in males than in females. In rats a two-year study of 60 rats was ... The erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity is apparently not inhibited in a dose-related fashion. The duration of the study ... No brain acetylcholinesterase activity was observed. Because methiocarb is widely used as an insecticide on crops, ...
... is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolated from Stephania venosa tuber. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ...
Acetylcholinesterase is thought to be inhibited at the lower temperature, and this is the basis for this diagnostic test. This ... Usually, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are started at a low dose and increased until the desired result is achieved. If taken ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can provide symptomatic benefit and may not fully remove a person's weakness from MG. While ... A child with TNM typically responds very well to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and the condition generally resolves over a ...
It acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is pending approval in the United States; ten clinical trials have been ...
Keywords: acetylthiocholine iodide; acetylthiocholine chloride; amperometry; acetylcholinesterase acetylthiocholine iodide; ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ... Acetylthiocholine Iodide and Acetylthiocholine Chloride as Substrates for Amperometric Biosensors Based on Acetylcholinesterase ...
From Pyridinium-based to Centrally Active Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators. Author(s): Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup, Rafael ... Firstly, they are inefficient in the restoration of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity due to a hard blood-brain ... Firstly, they are inefficient in the restoration of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity due to a hard blood-brain ... Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, HI-6, organophosphorus compounds, pyridinium oximes, pralidoxime, reactivator, trimedoxime, ...
Conclusions: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition with pyridostigmine increased heart rate recovery at one minute but not at three ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibition with pyridostigmine improves heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in patients with ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibition with pyridostigmine improves heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in patients with ... The central finding of this study is that acetylcholinesterase inhibition with a single dose of 30 mg of pyridostigmine acutely ...
Acetylcholinesterase were measured using Ellmans method. RBC acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly increased in ... Acetylcholinesterase were measured using Ellmans method. RBC acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly increased in ... Acetylcholinesterase were measured using Ellmans method. RBC acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly increased in ... Acetylcholinesterase were measured using Ellmans method. RBC acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly increased in ...
The putative principle mechanism of action for Alzheimers disease is as a non-competitive reversible acetylcholinesterase ... work demonstrated that this broad spectrum arousal of the central nervous system was due to the reversible acetylcholinesterase ... is the theory that auto-cannibalism of cholinergic nerves can be induced by chronic administration of acetylcholinesterases ...
The cardiovascular electrophysiologic basis for the action of pyridostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has not been ...
... an order of magnitude less than the minimal dose necessary to cause a measurable change in red blood cell acetylcholinesterase ... an order of magnitude less than the minimal dose necessary to cause a measurable change in red blood cell acetylcholinesterase ...
... is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. Its main therapeutic use is in the treatment of Alzheimer 39; ...
A person who has died from Sarin exposure would have little or no acetylcholinesterase present. It should be noted that this ... Acetylcholinesterase(AChE and Acetylcholine - This only gives an indication that the nervouse system has been disrupted , ... Sarins method of action is to inhibit a substance called acetylcholinesterase, which is used by the human nervous system. At ... presence of a nerve agent could be deduced by examining post-mortem blood samples for presence or lack of acetylcholinesterase ...
In mammals, acetylcholinesterase is encoded by a single AChE gene while some invertebrates have multiple acetylcholinesterase ... inhibitors AChE bivalent inhibitors Acetylcholinesterase: A gorge-ous enzyme - PDBe Acetylcholinesterase - RCSB PDB Human ACHE ... and secretion of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase. Expression of acetylcholinesterase Cys-580----Ala mutant". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: ACHE acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)". Dori A, Ifergane G, Saar-Levy T, Bersudsky M, Mor I, Soreq H, Wirguin ...
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are classified as reversible, irreversible, or quasi-irreversible (also called pseudo- ... ISBN 0-443-07145-4. Page 156 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... ISBN 978-0-47-097948-8. Singh, J; Kour, K; Jayaram, MB (January 2012). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia". The ...
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the ... Comparison of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Inhibitor Duration Main site of action Clinical use Adverse effects ... Acetylcholinesterase+inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Wang, BS; Wang, H; Wei, ZH; Song, YY; Zhang, L; Chen, HZ (2009). "Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ...
In an in vitro system, activity of the commercial enzyme or of highly purified acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 70-82 per ... A rabbit antiserum against commercially available Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase has been prepared. Five ... ANTIBODIES TO ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE. R. Michael Williams. PNAS April 1, 1969 62 (4) 1175-1180; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.62.4 ... demonstrated by the absence of serological cross reactions or enzyme inhibition with bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase or ...
acetylcholinesterase synonyms, acetylcholinesterase pronunciation, acetylcholinesterase translation, English dictionary ... definition of acetylcholinesterase. n. An enzyme in the blood and in certain tissues that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ... Related to acetylcholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. a·ce·tyl·cho·li·nes·ter·ase. (ə-sēt′l-kō′lə-nĕs′tə-rās′, -rāz ... acetylcholinesterase. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is histochemically demonstrable in capillary basement membranes of brain regions that contain ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is histochemically demonstrable in capillary basement membranes of brain regions that contain ... AChE Activity Alzheimer Brain Sucrose Density Gradient Acetylcholinesterase Activity Sedimentation Coefficient These keywords ... Kreutzberg, G. W., Tóth L., and Kaiya, H., 1975, Acetylcholinesterase as a marker for dendritic transport and dendritic ...
Inhibition of mammalian acetylcholinesterase by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride.. Alid G, Orrego FG.. PMID:. 5013045. DOI:. ...
Various types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) subunits are characterized by specific C-terminal peptides. In Torpedoand mammals ... Various types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) subunits are characterized by specific C-terminal peptides. In Torpedo and mammals ... Bon S., Coussen F., Massoulié J. (1998) The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P., ... The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. Cellular Compartmentation, Cleavage, GPI Addition and Secretion ...
... , Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, Cholinesterase Inhibitor, Anticholinesterase. ... Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor. Aka: Central Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, ... Central cholinesterase inhib, Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (product), Central ... acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (substance). Spanish. inhibidor central de la acetilcolinesterasa (producto), inhibidor central ...
... acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 translation, English dictionary definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347. ... redirected from acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ache. (āk). ... Acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 - definition of acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 by The Free Dictionary https:// ... Define acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347. acetylcholinesterase OTTHUMP00000211347 synonyms, acetylcholinesterase ...
Unbalanced acetylcholinesterase activity in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.. Castillo-González AC1, Pelegrín-Hernández JP2, ... pieces of larynx squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were compared in terms of their acetylcholinesterase ...
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ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE. A. 537. Tetronarce californica. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ache. EC: 3.1.1.7. ... Static Laue diffraction studies on acetylcholinesterase.. Ravelli, R.B., Raves, M.L., Ren, Z., Bourgeois, D., Roth, M., Kroon, ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is one of natures fastest enzymes, despite the fact that its three-dimensional structure reveals ... Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is one of natures fastest enzymes, despite the fact that its three-dimensional structure reveals ...
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits the cholinesterase enzyme ... Comparison of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Inhibitor Duration[1] Main site of action[1] Clinical use[1] Adverse ... An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits the cholinesterase enzyme from breaking ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitor". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Mouse monoclonal Acetylcholinesterase antibody [4E11] validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... Monoclonal antibodies against a C-terminal peptide of human brain acetylcholinesterase distinguish between erythrocyte and ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Acetylcholinesterase aa 574-583.. Sequence: TDTLDEA ERQ ... brain acetylcholinesterases.. Clin Chem 42:19-23 (1996). Read more (PubMed: 8565226) » ...
Influence of estrogen on acetylcholinesterase activity in primary cultures of cerebral cells from neonatal rats ... were treated to cultured cells from the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was ...
  • Studies carried out through estimation of the detoxification enzymes activity indicated that enhanced acetylcholinesterase, alkaline & acid phosphatases and α & β nonspecific esterases as well as total protein contents were probably important mechanisms for profenofos resistance in field strains. (ekb.eg)
  • Acetylcholinesterase present in nerve endings and also in the RBC membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • RBC acetylcholinesterase correlated negatively with hemoglobin (r = −0.356, p = 0.001) and positively with RDW (r = 0.31, p = 0.003). (elsevier.com)
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