Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Acetyl-CoA Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Carnitine Acyltransferases: Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coenzyme ACitric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.EstersEpididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
(1/192) Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in inactive muscle during and after maximal exercise in men.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl-group accumulation were examined in the inactive deltoid muscle in response to maximal leg exercise in men. Seven subjects completed three consecutive 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling, with 4-min rest intervals between bouts. Biopsies of the deltoid were obtained before exercise, after bouts 1 and 3, and after 15 min of rest recovery. Inactive muscle lactate (LA) and pyruvate (PYR) contents increased more than twofold (P < 0.05) after exercise (bout 3) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased PYR accumulation secondary to LA uptake by the inactive deltoid was associated with greater PDHa, which progressively increased from 0.71 +/- 0.23 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 at rest to a maximum of 1.83 +/- 0.30 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 after bout 3 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (1.63 +/- 0.24 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1; P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine accumulations were unaltered. Increased PDHa allowed and did not limit the oxidation of LA and PYR in inactive human skeletal muscle after maximal exercise.  (+info)

(2/192) A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction.

Dementias and other severe cognitive dysfunction states pose a daunting challenge to existing medical management strategies. An integrative, early intervention approach seems warranted. Whereas, allopathic treatment options are highly limited, nutritional and botanical therapies are available which have proven degrees of efficacy and generally favorable benefit-to-risk profiles. This review covers five such therapies: phosphatidylserine (PS), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), vinpocetine, Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), and Bacopa monniera (Bacopa). PS is a phospholipid enriched in the brain, validated through double-blind trials for improving memory, learning, concentration, word recall, and mood in middle-aged and elderly subjects with dementia or age-related cognitive decline. PS has an excellent benefit-to-risk profile. ALC is an energizer and metabolic cofactor which also benefits various cognitive functions in the middle-aged and elderly, but with a slightly less favorable benefit-to-risk profile. Vinpocetine, found in the lesser periwinkle Vinca minor, is an excellent vasodilator and cerebral metabolic enhancer with proven benefits for vascular-based cognitive dysfunction. Two meta-analyses of GbE demonstrate the best preparations offer limited benefits for vascular insufficiencies and even more limited benefits for Alzheimer's, while "commodity" GbE products offer little benefit, if any at all. GbE (and probably also vinpocetine) is incompatible with blood-thinning drugs. Bacopa is an Ayurvedic botanical with apparent anti-anxiety, anti-fatigue, and memory-strengthening effects. These five substances offer interesting contributions to a personalized approach for restoring cognitive function, perhaps eventually in conjunction with the judicious application of growth factors.  (+info)

(3/192) Entry of [(1,2-13C2)acetyl]-L-carnitine in liver tricarboxylic acid cycle and lipogenesis: a study by 13C NMR spectroscopy in conscious, freely moving rats.

The biochemical pathways involved in acetyl-L-carnitine utilization were investigated in conscious, freely moving rats by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Following 4-h [(1,2-13C2)acetyl]-L-carnitine infusion in fasted animals, the free carnitine levels in serum were increased, and an efflux of unlabelled acetyl-L-carnitine from tissues was observed. [(1,2-13C2)Acetyl]-L-carnitine was found to enter biosynthetic pathways in liver, and the acetyl moiety was incorporated into both cholesterol and 3-hydroxybutyrate carbon skeleton. In accord with the entry of [(1,2-13C2)acetyl]-L-carnitine in the mitochondrial acetylCoA pool associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle, the 13C label was also found in liver glutamate, glutamine, and glutathione. The analysis of the 13C-labelling pattern in 3-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol carbon skeleton provided evidence that the acetyl-L-carnitine-derived acetylCoA pool used for ketone bodies synthesis in mitochondria was homogeneous, whereas cholesterol was synthesized from two different acetylCoA pools located in the extra- and intramitochondrial compartment, respectively. Furthermore, cholesterol molecules were shown to be preferentially synthesized by the metabolic route involving the direct channelling of CoA-activated mitochondria-derived ketone bodies into 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylCoA pathway, prior to equilibration of their acyl groups with extramitochondrial acetylCoA pool via acetoacetylCoA thiolase.  (+info)

(4/192) The effect of aging and acetyl-L-carnitine on the pyruvate transport and oxidation in rat heart mitochondria.

The effect of aging and acute treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine on the pyruvate transport and oxidation in rat heart mitochondria was studied. The activity of the pyruvate carrier as well as the rates of pyruvate-supported respiration were both depressed (around 40%) in heart mitochondria from aged rats, the major decrease occurring during the second year of life. Administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to aged rats almost completely restored the rates of these metabolic functions to the level of young control rats. This effect of acetyl-L-carnitine was not due to changes in the content of pyruvate carrier molecules. The heart mitochondrial content of cardiolipin, a key phospholipid necessary for mitochondrial substrate transport, was markedly reduced (approximately 40%) in aged rats. Treatment of aged rats with acetyl-L-carnitine reversed the age-associated decline in cardiolipin content. As the changes in cardiolipin content were correlated with changes in rates of pyruvate transport and oxidation, it is suggested that acetyl-L-carnitine reverses the age-related decrement in the mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism by restoring the normal cardiolipin content.  (+info)

(5/192) Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter.

We have demonstrated in the present study that novel organic cation transporter (OCTN) 2 is a transporter for organic cations as well as carnitine. OCTN2 transports organic cations without involving Na(+), but it transports carnitine only in the presence of Na(+). The ability to transport organic cations and carnitine is demonstrable with human, rat, and mouse OCTN2s. Na(+) does not influence the affinity of OCTN2 for organic cations, but it increases the affinity severalfold for carnitine. The short-chain acyl esters of carnitine are also transported by OCTN2. Two mutations, M352R and P478L, in human OCTN2 are associated with loss of transport function, but the protein expression of these mutants is comparable to that of the wild-type human OCTN2. In situ hybridization in the rat shows that OCTN2 is expressed in the proximal and distal tubules and in the glomeruli in the kidney, in the myocardium, valves, and arterioles in the heart, in the labyrinthine layer of the placenta, and in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in the brain. This is the first report that OCTN2 is a Na(+)-independent organic cation transporter as well as a Na(+)-dependent carnitine transporter and that OCTN2 is expressed not only in the heart, kidney, and placenta but also in the brain.  (+info)

(6/192) Skeletal muscle metabolism during high-intensity sprint exercise is unaffected by dichloroacetate or acetate infusion.

This study investigated whether increased provision of oxidative substrate would reduce the reliance on nonoxidative ATP production and/or increase power output during maximal sprint exercise. The provision of oxidative substrate was increased at the onset of exercise by the infusion of acetate (AC; increased resting acetylcarnitine) or dichloroacetate [DCA; increased acetylcarnitine and greater activation of pyruvate dehydrogeanse (PDH-a)]. Subjects performed 10 s of maximal cycling on an isokinetic ergometer on three occasions after either DCA, AC, or saline (Con) infusion. Resting PDH-a with DCA was increased significantly over AC and Con trials (3.58 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.1 and 0.74 +/- 0.1 mmol. kg wet muscle(-1). min(-1)). DCA and AC significantly increased resting acetyl-CoA (35.2 +/- 4.4 and 22.7 +/- 2.9 vs. 10.2 +/- 1.3 micromol/kg dry muscle) and acetylcarnitine (12.9 +/- 1.4 and 11.0 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.6 mmol/kg dry muscle) over Con. Resting contents of phosphocreatine, lactate, ATP, and glycolytic intermediates were not different among trials. Average power output and total work done were not different among the three 10-s sprint trials. Postexercise, PDH-a in AC and Con trials had increased significantly but was still significantly lower than in DCA trial. Acetyl-CoA did not increase in any trial, whereas acetylcarnitine increased significantly only in DCA. Exercise caused identical decreases in ATP and phosphocreatine and identical increases in lactate, pyruvate, and glycolytic intermediates in all trials. These data suggest that there is an inability to utilize extra oxidative substrate (from either stored acetylcarnitine or increased PDH-a) during exercise at this intensity, possibly because of O(2) and/or metabolic limitations.  (+info)

(7/192) Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise.

The time course for the activation of glycogen phosphorylase (Phos) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and their allosteric regulators was determined in human skeletal muscle during repeated bouts of maximal exercise. Six subjects completed three 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling separated by 4-min recovery periods. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and at 6, 15, and 30 s of exercise during bouts 1 and 3. Phos was rapidly activated within the first 6 s of bout 1 from 12% at rest to 47% at 6 s. The activation of PDH increased from 14% at rest to 48% at 6 s and 95% at 15 s of bout 1. Phos reverted back to basal values at the end of the first bout, whereas PDH remained fully activated. In contrast, in the third bout, PDH was 42% at rest and was activated more rapidly and was nearly completely activated by 6 s, whereas Phos remained at basal levels (range 14-20%). Lactate accumulation was marked in the first bout and increased progressively from 2.7 to 76.1 mmol/kg dry wt with no further increase in bout 3. Glycogen utilization was also marked in the first bout and was negligible in bout 3. The rapid activation of Phos and slower activation of PDH in bout 1 was probably due to Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Lactate accumulation appeared to be due to an imbalance of the relative activities of Phos and PDH. The increase in H(+) concentration may have served to reduce pyruvate production by inhibiting Phos transformation and may have simultaneously activated PDH in the third bout such that there was a better matching between pyruvate production and oxidation and minimal lactate accumulation. As each bout progressed and with successive bouts, there was a decreasing ability to stimulate substrate phosphorylation through phosphocreatine hydrolysis and glycolysis and a shift toward greater reliance on oxidative phosphorylation.  (+info)

(8/192) Acetyl-L-carnitine.

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of the trimethylated amino acid, L-carnitine, and is synthesized in the human brain, liver, and kidney by the enzyme ALC-transferase. Acetyl-L-carnitine facilitates the uptake of acetyl CoA into the mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation, enhances acetylcholine production, and stimulates protein and membrane phospholipid synthesis. ALC, similar in structure to acetylcholine, also exerts a cholinomimetic effect. Studies have shown that ALC may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, diabetic neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment of alcoholism.  (+info)

*  Acetylcarnitine
... is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids ... Acetylcarnitine is the most abundant naturally occurring derivative and is formed in the reaction: acetyl-CoA + carnitine ⇌ {\ ... May 2015). "L-acetylcarnitine for treating fragile X syndrome". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 19 (5): CD010012. doi:10.1002/ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + acetylcarnitine where the acetyl group displaces the hydrogen atom in the central ...
*  Carnitine
Acetylcarnitine Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GPLC) Meldonium Systemic primary carnitine ... Carnitine is involved in transporting fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, by forming a long chain acetylcarnitine ...
*  Carnitine O-acetyltransferase
If either acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine binds to CRAT, a water molecule may fill the other binding site and act as an acetyl ... Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and carnitine, whereas its two products are CoA and O-acetylcarnitine. ... The deprotonated group is now free to attack the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine at its carbonyl site. The ... Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA-carnitine O-acetyltransferase, acetylcarnitine transferase, carnitine acetyl ...
*  Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
... by using the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase and 14C-labelled acetyl-coenzyme A to give labelled acetylcarnitine for ...
*  Dehydroepiandrosterone
Catalpol and a combination of acetyl-carnitine and propionyl-carnitine on 1:1 ratio also improves endogenous DHEA production ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... acetylcarnitine MeSH D02.092.877.883.099.700 --- palmitoylcarnitine MeSH D02.092.877.883.111 --- cetrimonium compounds MeSH ...
*  ATC code N06
N06BX07 Oxiracetam N06BX08 Pirisudanol N06BX09 Linopirdine N06BX10 Nizofenone N06BX11 Aniracetam N06BX12 Acetylcarnitine ...
Acetylcarnitine and Insulin Sensitivity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Acetylcarnitine and Insulin Sensitivity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acetylcarnitine and Insulin Sensitivity. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Acetylcarnitine. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Vitamin B Complex. Vitamins. Micronutrients. Growth ... A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Short-term Effects of Acetyl-carnitine on Insulin Resistance and the Metabolic Syndrome in ... Thus, we designed the Acetylcarnitine in insulin resistance study, a pilot, sequential,longitudinal study aimed to assess ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00393770
Effects of Acute Exercise on Acetylcarnitine Concentration in Endurance Trained and Untrained Subjects - Tabular View -...  Effects of Acute Exercise on Acetylcarnitine Concentration in Endurance Trained and Untrained Subjects - Tabular View -...
Exercise-induced changes in acetylcarnitine concentrations and dynamics of acetylcarnitine restoration after exercise [ Time ... Exercise-induced changes in acetylcarnitine concentrations and dynamics of acetylcarnitine restoration after exercise [ Time ... Effects of Acute Exercise on Acetylcarnitine Concentration in Endurance Trained and Untrained Subjects. The safety and ... Acetylcarnitine concentration is suggested to be a marker of such imbalance. It is expected that when TCA-cycle capacity is ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01553968
Acetyl carnitine  Acetyl carnitine
... Acetyl-L-carnitine is an acetylated derivative of the amino acid L-carnitine; it possesses both superior ...
more infohttp://nei7hn9mne.soup.io/post/255852667/Acetyl-carnitine
Analgesia induced by the epigenetic drug, L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic...  Analgesia induced by the epigenetic drug, L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic...
L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain Abstrac ... L-acetylcarnitine treatment enhanced mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal region of the spinal cord. This effect also ... L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 ... L-Acetylcarnitine-induced analgesia persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. In contrast, the analgesic effect of ...
more infohttp://lowcarbdiabetic.forumotion.co.uk/t3017-analgesia-induced-by-the-epigenetic-drug-l-acetylcarnitine-outlasts-the-end-of-treatment-in-mouse-models-of-chronic-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
Acylcarnitines in plasma and blood spots of patients with long-chain 3 by J. L. Van Hove, S. G. Kahler et al.  "Acylcarnitines in plasma and blood spots of patients with long-chain 3" by J. L. Van Hove, S. G. Kahler et al.
Acetylcarnitine was decreased. In plasma, elevation of hydroxy-C18:1 acylcarnitine over the 95th centile of controls, in ... Acetylcarnitine was decreased. In plasma, elevation of hydroxy-C18:1 acylcarnitine over the 95th centile of controls, in ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/peds_gastro/3/
Acetylcarnitine - Wikipedia  Acetylcarnitine - Wikipedia
Acetylcarnitine is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids ... Acetylcarnitine is the most abundant naturally occurring derivative and is formed in the reaction: acetyl-CoA + carnitine ⇌ {\ ... May 2015). "L-acetylcarnitine for treating fragile X syndrome". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 19 (5): CD010012. doi:10.1002/ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + acetylcarnitine where the acetyl group displaces the hydrogen atom in the central ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcarnitine
Acetylcarnitine - Drugs.com  Acetylcarnitine - Drugs.com
A list of US medications equivalent to Acetylcarnitine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Acetylcarnitine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Acetylcarnitine. ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification). N06BX12. CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/acetylcarnitine.html
Acetylcarnitine
      - Alcar
     Summary | CureHunter Mobile  Acetylcarnitine - Alcar Summary | CureHunter Mobile
Acetylcarnitine (Alcar) Summary Description: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the ... Key Diseases for which Acetylcarnitine is Relevant. * Alzheimer Disease (Alzheimer's Disease) : 10 outcomes 15 studies in 40 ... Also Known As: Alcar; Acetyl-L-Carnitine; Carnitine, Acetyl; Acetylcarnitine, (R)-Isomer; Branigen; Glaxo Brand of Acetyl L- ... Acetyl Carnitine; Medosan; 1-Propanaminium, 2-(acetyloxy)-3-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt. Networked: 345 relevant ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/m/keywordSummaryD000108.do?showAllSynonyms=true
l-Acetylcarnitine Induces Analgesia by Selectively Up-Regulating mGlu2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors | Molecular Pharmacology  l-Acetylcarnitine Induces Analgesia by Selectively Up-Regulating mGlu2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors | Molecular Pharmacology
l-acetylcarnitine. LY 341495. (αS)-α-Amino-α-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-9H-xantine-9-propanoic acid. CCI. chronic ... l-Acetylcarnitine Induces Analgesia by Selectively Up-Regulating mGlu2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. S. Chiechio, A. ... l-Acetylcarnitine Induces Analgesia by Selectively Up-Regulating mGlu2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. S. Chiechio, A. ... l-Acetylcarnitine Induces Analgesia by Selectively Up-Regulating mGlu2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. S. Chiechio, A. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/61/5/989
Noninvasive Assessment of Exercise-Related Intramyocellular Acetylcarnitine in Euglycemia and Hyperglycemia in Patients With...  Noninvasive Assessment of Exercise-Related Intramyocellular Acetylcarnitine in Euglycemia and Hyperglycemia in Patients With...
Spectra were analyzed using TDFDFit (7) with a fit strategy optimized for the acetylcarnitine-peak. Acetylcarnitine content is ... Acetylcarnitine formation during intense muscular contraction in humans. J Appl Physiol 1987;63:440-442. ... Acetylcarnitine content is expressed in absolute arbitrary units relative to the water signal obtained from separate reference ... OBJECTIVE Intramyocellular acetylcarnitine (IMAC) is involved in exercise-related fuel metabolism. It is not known whether ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/1/220
Behaviour and Degenerative Changes in the Basal Forebrain Systems of Aged Rats (12 Months Old) after Levo-Acetyl-Carnitine...  Behaviour and Degenerative Changes in the Basal Forebrain Systems of Aged Rats (12 Months Old) after Levo-Acetyl-Carnitine...
One group of six male control rats [12 months old] and one group of six male rats of the same age, singularly maintained in a cage, and treated with acetyl-L-carnitine-HCl [(gamma-trimethyl-beta-acetyl-butyrobetaine-HCl: Sigma-Tau code ST200 or ALCAR: 60 mg/kg/day[7]/po)] for six months were tested in the spatial learning/memory Morris mazewater task and for atrophy and cell loss in seven myelo- and cytostructurally defined basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic regions [Freddi et al., 2009]. Coronal sections 25 ?m thick were cut through the BF regions and processed every 200 ?m for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. The ALCAR-treated rats had significantly shorter exit times on the Morris maze-water task test than the control rats (average ± SD 28.3 ± 12.4 s vs. 61.16 ± 4.67 s; t = 6.07, DOF = 10, P = 0.0001). Degenerative morphological changes in the BF ChAT-positive cells were observed in the substantia innominata pars anterior of the control rats but _disibledevent= 0.319]. In the
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownLaodReport.aspx?PaperID=17717
Acetylcarnitine Research and Studies - Limitless Mindset  Acetylcarnitine Research and Studies - Limitless Mindset
Acetylcarnitine Research and Studies *^ Zeyner A, Harmeyer J (1999). "Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as ...
more infohttp://www.limitlessmindset.com/informational-products/147-brain-power-guide.html
Detection and Alterations of Acetylcarnitine in Human Skeletal Muscles by 1H MRS at 7 T. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine  Detection and Alterations of Acetylcarnitine in Human Skeletal Muscles by 1H MRS at 7 T. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
The T1 of acetylcarnitine in the vastus lateralis muscle was found to be 1807.2 ± 513.1 milliseconds and T2 was found to be ... Acetylcarnitine concentrations changed during the day, tending to be higher in the morning after an overnight fast than after ... RESULTS: Using a long echo time of 350 milliseconds, we were able to detect the acetylcarnitine resonance line at 2.13 ppm in ... Concentrations of acetylcarnitine from the vastus lateralis muscle in moderately trained volunteers were higher than ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/680720
ISMRM 2018) The interplay of MRS measured skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine, mitochondrial function and glucose availability  ISMRM 2018) The interplay of MRS measured skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine, mitochondrial function and glucose availability
Recently resting muscle acetylcarnitine content (AC) has been proposed as a marker for peripheral insulin resistance. However, ... The interplay of MRS measured skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine, mitochondrial function and glucose availability. Anne Tonson1, ...
more infohttp://archive.ismrm.org/2018/5138.html
L-carnitine supplements in capsule, pill, liquid form - ALCAR (Acetylcarnitine) tablets shop - L-carnitine dosage, best time to...  L-carnitine supplements in capsule, pill, liquid form - ALCAR (Acetylcarnitine) tablets shop - L-carnitine dosage, best time to...
L-carnitine. Nutritional and dietary supplements Muscle-Zone.pl. A wide selection of carnitine at affordable prices. The best supplements available on the market. CHECK HERE!
more infohttps://www.mz-store.com/l-carnitine
Amino Acid | BCAA | Sports Nutrition NZ | Sportsfuel, Product Form Pills  Amino Acid | BCAA | Sports Nutrition NZ | Sportsfuel, Product Form Pills
What Are The Benefits Of Amino Acids? - Find Out Here. FREE Shipping On The Best Selling Amino Acids Products. Save Big On Amino-Acids With Sportstfuel Now!, Product Form Pills
more infohttps://www.sportsfuel.co.nz/amino-acids/l/pills.html
Doctors Best Acetyl L-Carnitine - 120 x 500mg Capsules - UK Supplier  Doctors Best Acetyl L-Carnitine - 120 x 500mg Capsules - UK Supplier
Acetyl-L-carnitine is involved in the metabolism of food into energy and contributes to the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is required for mental function and well-being.
more infohttps://www.bodykind.com/product/262-best-acetyl-l_carnitine-120-x-500mg-capsules.aspx
BioCare Broad Spectrum Amino Acids - 60 Vegicaps - UK Supplier  BioCare Broad Spectrum Amino Acids - 60 Vegicaps - UK Supplier
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. There are 22 known amino acids of which eight have been deemed essential. Broad Spectrum Amino Acids contains seven of the essential amino acids.
more infohttps://www.bodykind.com/product/788-broad-spectrum-amino-acids-60-vegicaps.aspx
Patent US7297545 - Clinical method for the genetic screening of newborns using tandem mass ... - Google Patents  Patent US7297545 - Clinical method for the genetic screening of newborns using tandem mass ... - Google Patents
c demonstrates an Acetylcarnitine MRM. Peak 501 is the acetylcarnitine (acetylCN) peak and peak 503 is a quality assurance (QA ... wherein said preparation is a solution and said 2H3-acetylcarnitine is present at a concentration of about 0.19 nmol/l. ... 1. An internal standard preparation comprising 2H9-carnitine, 2H3-acetylcarnitine, 2H3-propionylcarnitine, 2H3-butyrylcarnitine ... d is an example of a full scan Acetylcarnitine profile, showing the pertinent peaks and values for quality assurance. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7297545?dq=6,907,387
Sport Supplements | BioCare  Sport Supplements | BioCare
Acetyl Carnitine & Alpha Lipoic Acid 30 Capsules. £27.50 Add to Basket. *Add to Favourites ...
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  • Thus, we designed the Acetylcarnitine in insulin resistance study, a pilot, sequential,longitudinal study aimed to assess whether acetyl-carnitine may improve insulin function and lipid profile in patients at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators hypothesize that the increase in acetylcarnitine levels will be lower in trained subjects when compared to sedentary subjects, due to a better balance between lipid supply and utilization by the TCA-cycle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The major research objective is to examine if acute exercise results in a more pronounced increase in acetylcarnitine concentration in sedentary subjects compared to endurance-trained subjects and if the exercise-induced increase in acetylcarnitine is restored more quickly in endurance-trained subjects when compared to sedentary subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate an effective detection of acetylcarnitine using a long TE of 350 milliseconds at 7 T in the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles with high repeatability and reliability on a 7 T scanner. (ox.ac.uk)