Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Neocallimastigales: An order of fungi in the phylum NEOCALLIMASTIGOMYCOTA comprising anaerobic chytrids that inhabit the RUMEN; and CECUM of herbivorous animals. Genera (all in the lone family Neocallimastigaceae) include NEOCALLIMASTIX, Orpinomyces, PIROMYCES, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Caecomyces.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Bacteria, AnaerobicCarboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Glycoside HydrolasesXyloseCellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Paenibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.PolysaccharidesCellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Thermoanaerobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. They are thermophilic and saccharolytic.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)EsterasesCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Manuscripts, MedicalTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Sargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Flammulina: A genus of mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae, whose species are characterized by a slimy cap (FRUITING BODIES, FUNGAL).Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
  • Thermotoga maritima AxeA represents the most thermostable acetyl xylan esterase known to date.Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the thermal stability of AxeA corroborated its extreme heat resistance.A multi-phasic unfolding behaviour was found, with two apparent exothermic peaks at approximately 100-104 °C and 107.5 °C. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the arabinose side chain is further modified by phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid, which provides cross-links with other xylan chains or lignin. (asm.org)
  • MALDI-TOF mass spectra of fraction XOS FA,Ac (A) and fraction XOS FA,Ac (B) after removal of the esterified ferulic acid and O -acetyl groups with NaOH. (nih.gov)
  • Xylans can be acetylated and cereal arabinoxylans also contain esterlinked ferulic and p-coumaric acid the biosynthesis of which is not understood. (berkeley.edu)
  • However, although successful metabolic engineering efforts have created numerous biocatalysts in converting glucose or xylose into target products, these catalysts are unable to directly use xylan substrates. (asm.org)
  • An integrated modular approach was used to design the two strains to function cooperatively in the process of transforming xylan into ethanol. (asm.org)
  • Endoxylanases cleave the xylan chain at cleavage sites determined by the substitution pattern and thus give different oligosaccharide product patterns. (springer.com)
  • Here, we combine comprehensive mass spectrometric glycan sequencing and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the substitution pattern in softwood xylans and to investigate the effect of distinct intramolecular motifs on xylan conformation and on the interaction with cellulose surfaces in Norway spruce (Picea abies). (diva-portal.org)
  • A major component of C. neoformans capsule is glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a large polymer of (1→3)-α-mannose with xylose, glucuronic acid, and O -acetyl branches. (asm.org)
  • Whereas α-glucuronidases from family GH115 target the α-(1→2)-linkage between MeGlc p A and mono-substituted Xyl p at internal and end positions of GX, GH67 activity is restricted to such linkages at the non-reducing end of xylan and/or corresponding oligosaccharides [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It hydrolyzes xylan by hydrolyzing the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds of xylan molecules, xylooligosaccharides such as small oligosaccharides and xylulose, as well as a small amount of xylose and arabinose. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Hakala, T , Liitiä, T & Suurnäkki, A 2011, Enzymatic hydrolysis of spruce acetyl-galactoglucomannans for production of galactoglucomanno-oligosaccharides . (vtt.fi)
  • Three genes were selected and used as templates for synthesis: cell11, xp12 and acetyl xylan esterase (axe10), all previously isolated from metagenomic libraries screened inE. (uwc.ac.za)
  • The method consisted of the selective labeling of xylan structures through the binding of specific monoclonal primary antibodies and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-carrying secondary antibodies. (ncsu.edu)
  • This indirect immunolabeling method was adapted for pulp and viscose fibers through the blockage of unspecific binding sites with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which allowed a selective localization of xylan. (ncsu.edu)