Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.
A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.

Melatonin biosynthesis: the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A resolution suggests a catalytic mechanism. (1/885)

Conversion of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin, the precursor of the circadian neurohormone melatonin, is catalyzed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) in a reaction requiring acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA). AANAT is a globular protein consisting of an eight-stranded beta sheet flanked by five alpha helices; a conserved motif in the center of the beta sheet forms the cofactor binding site. Three polypeptide loops converge above the AcCoA binding site, creating a hydrophobic funnel leading toward the cofactor and serotonin binding sites in the protein interior. Two conserved histidines not found in other NATs are located at the bottom of the funnel in the active site, suggesting a catalytic mechanism for acetylation involving imidazole groups acting as general acid/base catalysts.  (+info)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in inactive muscle during and after maximal exercise in men. (2/885)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl-group accumulation were examined in the inactive deltoid muscle in response to maximal leg exercise in men. Seven subjects completed three consecutive 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling, with 4-min rest intervals between bouts. Biopsies of the deltoid were obtained before exercise, after bouts 1 and 3, and after 15 min of rest recovery. Inactive muscle lactate (LA) and pyruvate (PYR) contents increased more than twofold (P < 0.05) after exercise (bout 3) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased PYR accumulation secondary to LA uptake by the inactive deltoid was associated with greater PDHa, which progressively increased from 0.71 +/- 0.23 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 at rest to a maximum of 1.83 +/- 0.30 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 after bout 3 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (1.63 +/- 0.24 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1; P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine accumulations were unaltered. Increased PDHa allowed and did not limit the oxidation of LA and PYR in inactive human skeletal muscle after maximal exercise.  (+info)

Replenishment and depletion of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. Indication of pyruvate carboxylation. (3/885)

The effects of various substrates on the concentrations of free amino acids, citric acid cycle intermediates and acylcarnitines were studies in perfused hindquarter of rat in presence of glucose and insulin in order to assess regulatory mechanisms of the level of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. 1. Acetate and acetoacetate effected a significant increase in the level of citrate cycle intermediates and accumulation of acetylcarnitine. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the level of alanine. The concentration of AMP was significantly elevated. 2. Muscle mitochondria fixed 14CO2 in the presence of pyruvate. The products were identified as malate or citrate when whole and disintegrated mitochondria were used respectively. The fixation was greatly stimulated by acetylcarnitine. 3. Acetylcarnitine inhibited the production of pyruvate from malate by muscle mitochondria. 4. Perfusion with 2-oxoisocaproate and 2-oxoisovalerate promoted increases in the level of citric cycle intermediates, a drop in both alanine and glutamate, and accumulation of branched-chain acylcarnitines. 2-Oxoisocaproate also caused a reduction of alanine released from the muscle. 5. Perfusion with leucine and valine did not change the concentration of citric acid cycle intermediates, but elevated glutamate and still more the concentration of alanine. 6. It is concluded that citric cycle intermediate level in the perfused resting muscle is modified by a) conditions which change the concentration of acetyl-CoA and thereby modify the rate of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation of malate via malic enzyme b) conditions which change the concentration of pyruvate cause changes in alanine and cycle intermediates in the same direction via transamination reactions c) conditions which change the concentrations of 2-oxoacids which are converted to cycle intermediates via oxidation.  (+info)

The role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an enzymatic methylation reaction. Methylation of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase by the methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. (4/885)

This paper focuses on how a methyl group is transferred from a methyl-cobalt(III) species on one protein (the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP)) to a nickel iron-sulfur cluster on another protein (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase). This is an essential step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The results described here strongly indicate that transfer of methyl group to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase occurs by an SN2 pathway. They also provide convincing evidence that oxidative inactivation of Co(I) competes with methylation. Under the conditions of our anaerobic assay, Co(I) escapes from the catalytic cycle one in every 100 turnover cycles. Reductive activation of the CFeSP is required to regenerate Co(I) and recruit the protein back into the catalytic cycle. Our results strongly indicate that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP is required for reductive activation. They support the hypothesis that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP does not participate directly in the methyl transfer step but provides a conduit for electron flow from physiological reductants to the cobalt center.  (+info)

The structural basis of ordered substrate binding by serotonin N-acetyltransferase: enzyme complex at 1.8 A resolution with a bisubstrate analog. (5/885)

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase, a member of the GNAT acetyltransferase superfamily, is the penultimate enzyme in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin, the circadian neurohormone. Comparison of the structures of the substrate-free enzyme and the complex with a bisubstrate analog, coenzyme A-S-acetyltryptamine, demonstrates that acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binding is accompanied by a large conformational change that in turn leads to the formation of the serotonin-binding site. The structure of the complex also provides insight into how the enzyme may facilitate acetyl transfer. A water-filled channel leading from the active site to the surface provides a pathway for proton removal following amine deprotonation. Furthermore, structural and mutagenesis results indicate an important role for Tyr-168 in catalysis.  (+info)

Amino acid biosynthesis in the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica. (6/885)

Biosynthesis of proteinogenic amino acids in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica was explored by using biosynthetically directed fractional 13C labeling with a mixture of 90% unlabeled and 10% uniformly 13C-labeled glycerol. The resulting 13C-labeling patterns in the amino acids were analyzed by two-dimensional 13C,1H correlation spectroscopy. The experimental data provided evidence for a split pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis, with 56% of the total Ile originating from threonine and pyruvate via the threonine pathway and 44% originating from pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A via the pyruvate pathway. In addition, the diaminopimelate pathway involving diaminopimelate dehydrogenase was shown to lead to lysine biosynthesis and an analysis of the 13C-labeling pattern in tyrosine indicated novel biosynthetic pathways that have so far not been further characterized. For the 17 other proteinogenic amino acids, the data were consistent with data for commonly found biosynthetic pathways. A comparison of our data with the amino acid metabolisms of eucarya and bacteria supports the theory that pathways for synthesis of proteinogenic amino acids were established before ancient cells diverged into archaea, bacteria, and eucarya.  (+info)

Melatonin, its precursors, and synthesizing enzyme activities in the human ovary. (7/885)

The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and its precursors, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and N-acetylserotonin, was demonstrated in extracts of human ovary using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorometric detection. In addition, activities of two melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were found in human ovary homogenates. The apparent Michaelis constants for the substrates of NAT and HIOMT in the human ovary were similar to those reported for the pineal glands of humans and other mammals. These findings strongly suggest that the human ovary, like the pineal gland, may synthesize melatonin from serotonin by the sequential action of NAT and HIOMT.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase, BltD, from Bacillus subtilis. (8/885)

Overexpression of the BltD gene in Bacillus subtilis causes acetylation of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. BltD is co-regulated with another gene, Blt, which encodes a multidrug export protein whose overexpression facilitates spermidine export [Woolridge, Vazquez-Laslop, Markham, Chevalier, Gerner and Neyfakh (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8864-8866]. Here we show that BltD acetylates both spermidine and spermine at primary propyl amine moieties, with spermine being the preferred substrate. In the presence of saturating concentrations of acetyl CoA, BltD rapidly acetylates spermine at both the N1 and N12 positions. The Km (app) values for spermine, spermidine and N1-acetylspermine are +info)

Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (phospho S79) antibody [EP1885Y] - BSA and Azide free. Validated in WB, Dot and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human.
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The Open Door Web Site : IB Biology : Respiration : Describes the two main steps of the Krebs Cycle - Step 1: Synthesising ACETYL COENZYME A and Step 2: Oxidising Acetyl CoA
PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway. superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle onclick=removeFacet(PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway/superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle)> PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle ...
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Western blotting results of adipogenesis-specific markers.Representative image of 3 repeats and quantification of (A) PPARγ, (B) C/EBPα, and (C) Acetyl CoA ca
Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 10-13%; ATP, 21-24%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. ...
Looking for online definition of acetyl coenzyme A in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl coenzyme A explanation free. What is acetyl coenzyme A? Meaning of acetyl coenzyme A medical term. What does acetyl coenzyme A mean?
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha protein (ab79625). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
1R57: Structure of an acetyl-CoA binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus representing a novel subfamily of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase-like proteins.
Abstract: The biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycan is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report here the acetyltransferase substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of the bifunctional N-acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase from M. tuberculosis (GlmU). This enzyme is responsible for the final two steps of the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an essential precursor of peptidoglycan, from glucosamine-1-phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A and uridine-5-triphosphate. GlmU utilizes requires ternary complex formation to transfer an acetyl from acetyl coenzyme A to glucosamine-1-phosphate to form N-acetylglucosmaine-1-phosphate. Steady-state kinetic studies and equilibrium binding experiments indicate that GlmU follows a steady-state ordered kinetic mechanism, with acetyl coenzyme A binding first, which triggers a conformational change on GlmU, followed by glucosamine-1-phosphate binding. Coenzyme A is the last product to dissociate. Chemistry is partially rate-limiting as ...
2020年Kagawa Y, Umaru BA, Shima H, Ito R, Zama R, Islam A, Kanno S, Yasui A, Sato S, Jozaki K, Shil SK, Miyazaki H, Kobayashi S, Yamamoto Y, Kogo H, Shimamoto-Mitsuyama C, Sugawara A, Sugino N, Kanamori M, Tominaga T, Yoshikawa T, Fukunaga K, Igarashi K, Owada Y. FABP7 regulates acetyl-CoA metabolism through the interaction with ACLY in the nucleus of astrocytes. Mol Neurobiol, in press doi: 10.1007/s12035-020-02057-3.
The main function of Acetyl-CoA is to carry acyl groups or thioesters. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, an important part of cholesterol and ketone synthesis. It can also be found as a vital reagent in the synthesis of fatty acids and sterols, as well as the oxidation of fatty acids as well as the breaking down of many amino acids. [2] Acetyl-CoA is well known as the junction between Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle as well as an essential component in balancing between carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Acetyl-CoA has also been a central metabolite that is involved in many metabolic transformations within the cell. The acetyl group of the acetyl-CoA is used to oxidize via the TCA cycle to reduce NAD+ and FAD to NADH and FADH2, respectively. These products are then used to fuel ATP production through the electron transport train. In May 2011, Ling Cai et al. found that Acetyl-Coa functioned as a carbon-source rheostat that signals the initiation of the cellular growth program by promoting the ...
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60 download hunger and public action (wider studies in development of column-oriented function agents. By the tag-based download hunger and public action the proteome is less overseas converted to the Platform of lower nutrient studies, acetyl-CoA-dependent as work programs. now while the download hunger and public action (wider of used and knockdown citations expressed in the heavy tomorrow originates random, it much draws nt a spirit of the optimistic targeted steps enrolled.
72-89-9:C23H38N7O17P3S, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, Acetyl CoA, Acetyl coenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, S-acetilcoenzima A, S-Acetyl coenzyme A, S-Acetylcoenzym A, S-acetylcoenzyme A
Background this activity may be independent of acetylation activity. Acetylates alpha-tubulin with a slow enzymatic rate, due to a catalytic site that is not optimized for acetyl transfer. Enters the microtubule through each...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
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Definition of Acetyl CoA-deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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Cloruro de etanoilo (es); Acetil-klorid (hu); clorur dacetil (ca); Acetylchlorid (de); Ацетил хлорид (sr-ec); 乙酰氯 (zh); Acetylklorid (da); Clorură de acetil (ro); 乙醯氯 (zh-hk); Acetylchlorid (sk); Ацетилхлорид (uk); 乙醯氯 (zh-hant); 乙酰氯 (zh-cn); Asetyylikloridi (fi); Acetil-klorido (eo); Ацетил хлорид (mk); அசிட்டைல் குளோரைடு (ta); Cloruro di acetile (it); এসিটাইল ক্লোরাইড (bn); Chlorure déthanoyle (fr); Atsetüülkloriid (et); Αιθανοϋλοχλωρίδιο (el); ацетилхлорид (ru); cloreto de acetila (pt); Acetylchlorid (cs); استیل کولورید (azb); Acetylchloride (nl); ацетил хлорид (sr); Acetilklorid (sl); Acetylklorid (sv); 塩化アセチル (ja); 乙酰氯 (zh-sg); Asetil klorida (id); acetylklorid (nn); استیل کلرید (fa); Acetil hlorid (sh); 乙醯氯 (zh-tw); 염화아세틸 (ko); chlorek acetylu (pl); Acetyl clorua ...
A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for biochemical production. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole carbon source due to the lack of cytosolic acetyl-CoA for lipid biosynthesis. Its growth inability on glucose could be restored through directed evolution, which was explained by an in-frame internal deletion in MTH1 (MTH1-∆T). The MTH1-∆T allele resulted in reduced glucose uptake, which may attenuate the repression of respiratory metabolism. However, it was not clear what mechanism could provide the cells with sufficient precursors for cytosolic acetyl-CoA. Here we investigated this using a Pdc negative strain with MTH1-∆T, IMI076. Our results identified a route relying on Ach1 that could transfer acetyl units from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. Based on the results a new model was proposed, in which acetyl units are shuttled from the mitochondria
NDI\010976, an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl\coenzyme A carboxylases (ACC) ACC1 and ACC2, reduces hepatic lipogenesis (DNL) and favorably impacts steatosis, irritation, and fibrosis in pet types of fatty liver organ disease. hepatic fractional DNL typically NSC 687852 supplier 30.9 6.7% (mean regular deviation) above fasting DNL beliefs in placebo\treated topics. Subjects administered one dosages of NDI\010976 at 20, 50, or 200 mg acquired significant inhibition of DNL in comparison to placebo (indicate inhibition in accordance with placebo was 70%, 85%, and 104%, respectively). An inverse romantic relationship between fractional DNL and NDI\010976 publicity was noticed with 90% inhibition of fractional DNL connected with plasma concentrations of NDI\010976 4 ng/mL. lipogenesisNAFLDnonalcoholic fatty liver organ diseaseNASHnonalcoholic steatohepatitisOATPorganic anion\carrying polypeptidePDpharmacodynamicPKpharmacokineticTEAEtreatment\emergent AETGtriacylglycerolVLDLvery\low\thickness ...
Looking for online definition of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic explanation free. What is acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic? Meaning of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic medical term. What does acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic mean?
Accepted name: N-terminal methionine Nα-acetyltransferase NatF. Reaction: acetyl-CoA + an N-terminal-L-methionyl-[transmembrane protein] = an N-terminal-Nα-acetyl-L-methionyl-[transmembrane protein] + CoA. Other name(s): NAA60 (gene name). Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:N-terminal-Met-Lys/Ser/Val/Leu/Gln/Ile/Tyr/Thr-[transmembrane protein] Met-Nα-acetyltransferase. Comments: N-terminal-acetylases (NATs) catalyse the covalent attachment of an acetyl moiety from acetyl-CoA to the free α-amino group at the N-terminus of a protein. This irreversible modification neutralizes the positive charge at the N-terminus, makes the N-terminal residue larger and more hydrophobic, and prevents its removal by hydrolysis. NatF is found only in higher eukaryotes, and is absent from yeast. Unlike other Nat systems the enzyme is located in the Golgi apparatus. It faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, and specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins whose N termini face the cytosol. NatF targets ...
ATP-citrate synthase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine (By similarity).
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psd:DSC_00690 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (GenBank) acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MSDLYPVDPAFARQARVDAATYARDYKASIEQPEAFWKQVAQRLDWIKAPTRIKDVSFDV DDFHIQWFADGELNASVNCLDRQLEARGDKIALLFEPDSPDSESYGVTYRQLHARVCRLA NALRSLGVAKGDRVTIYLPMIPDAAVAMLACARIGAVHSVVFGGFAPNSIADRVADCASK LIITADEGLRGSRKIPLKANVDAALKLPGTSSVETVLVVRHTGGPVDMQAPRDRWFHDVV DSQPDTCEPERMNAEDPLFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLLWAAYTHELVFDLKEDDIY WCTADVGWVTGHSYIVYGPLANGATSLVFEGVPSYPDNSRFWQVVDKHRVSLFYTAPTAI RALMREGDGPVRKTSRKTLRVLGTVGEPINPEAWRWYYEVVGDSRCPIVDTWWQTETGGH MITPLPGATALKPGSATVPFFGVQPAVVDANGVELEGQAEGNLVIKDSWPGQMRTVYGDH QRFIDTYFRTYPGTYFTGDGCRRDADGYYWITGRVDDVINVSGHRIGTAEVESALVSHPK VAEAAVVGFPHDLKGQGIYAYVTLVAGEQPTEELRKELIAHVRKEIGPIASPDHLQWAPG LPKTRSGKIMRRILRKIAENAPDQLGDTSTLADPSVVDSLVSERKVR ...
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] ...
Background: Nε-acetyl L-α lysine is an unusual acetylated di-amino acid synthesized and accumulated by certain halophiles under osmotic stress. Osm
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അസെറ്റോയിൻ 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, C4H8O2 എന്ന തന്മാത്രാസൂത്രമുള്ള നിറമില്ലാത്ത അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇളം മഞ്ഞ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ പച്ച കലർന്ന മഞ്ഞ നിറമുള്ള ആസ്വാദ്യമായ വെണ്ണയുടെ മണമുള്ള ദ്രാവകമാണ്. ബാക്ടീരിയ ഇത് ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. [1] ...
Rationale: Insulin resistant subjects and type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by a decreased metabolic flexibility: a reduced capability to switch from fat oxidation in the basal state to carbohydrate oxidation in the insulin-stimulated state. This metabolic inflexibility is an early hallmark in the development of diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that a low carnitine availability may limit acetylcarnitine formation, thereby reducing metabolic flexibility. Thus, when substrate flux in the muscle is high, acetyl-CoA concentrations increase, leading to inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and thereby reducing glucose oxidation. The conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetylcarnitine relieves this acetyl-CoA pressure on PDH. To provide more direct insight into the effect of carnitine in preventing metabolic inflexibility and insulin resistance and to further explore the mechanism of action is the focus of this research. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity to form acetylcarnitine may rescue ...
metabolism definition process biology britannica cell transport flow chart worksheet acetyl coenzyme compound release molecule an the only solution across membrane
Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes t
GO:0006635. A fatty acid oxidation process that results in the complete oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid. Fatty acid beta-oxidation begins with the addition of coenzyme A to a fatty acid, and occurs by successive cycles of reactions during each of which the fatty acid is shortened by a two-carbon fragment removed as acetyl coenzyme A; the cycle continues until only two or three carbons remain (as acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA respectively). ...
Synonyms for acetyl chloride in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetyl chloride. 1 synonym for acetyl chloride: ethanoyl chloride. What are synonyms for acetyl chloride?
ppu:PP_4487 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA-I; acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MPAPERFAGTGVPNYYQRRMAFVALVQLQTVPYKNNYYTEVTQMSAAPLYPVRPEVAATT LTDEATYKAMYQQSVINPDGFWREQAQRIDWIKPFTKVKQTSFDDHHVDIKWFADGTLNV SSNCLDRHLEERGDQLAIIWEGDDPSEHRNITYRELHEQVCKFANALRGQDVHRGDVVTI YMPMIPEAVVAMLACARIGAIHSVVFGGFSPEALAGRIIDCKSKVVITADEGVRGGRRTP LKANVDLALTNPETSSVQKIIVCKRTGGDIAWHQHRDIWYEDLMKVASSHCAPKEMGAEE ALFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLVYAALTHERVFDYRPGEVYWCTADVGWVTGHSYIV YGPLANGATTLLFEGVPNYPDITRVSKIVDKHKVNILYTAPTAIRAMMAEGQAAVEGADG SSLRLLGSVGEPINPEAWNWYYKTVGKERCPIVDTWWQTETGGILISPLPGATGLKPGSA TRPFFGVVPALVDNLGNLIDGAAEGNLVILDSWPGQSRSLYGDHDRFVDTYFKTFRGMYF TGDGARRDEDGYYWITGRVDDVLNVSGHRMGTAEIESAMVAHSKVAEAAVVGVPHDIKGQ GIYVYVTLNAGIEASEQLRLELKNWVRKEIGPIASPDVIQWAPGLPKTRSGKIMRRILRK IATGEYDALGDISTLADPGVVQHLIDTHKAMNLASA ...
Acetyl-L-carnitine HCL is a mitochondrial metabolite that facilitates the movement of fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy and is also used to generate acetyl coenzyme A. ...
For yall reading comments: a single fatty acid makes 9 acetyl coa whereas one glucose creates 2 acetyl coa. I couldnt find info about protein but dietary restriction studies attribute reduction of protein to be even more important than reduction of carbs or fat for longevity. Pronably because with protein the igf spike stops the autophagy and not because it makes too much acetyl coa! Hope that helps and we all find more truth!. ...
Acetyl L-Carnitine HCL is a potent super nutrient that supports the body in the same manner as L-Carnitine, but also has the ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Acetyl L- Carnitine HCL supports mental sharpness by stimulating acetlycho
Antibodies for proteins involved in acetyl-CoA metabolic process pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water.... View full details ...
Goodridge AG (November 1972). "Regulation of the activity of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by palmitoyl coenzyme A and citrate ... Numa S, Ringelmann E, Lynen F (December 1965). "[On inhibition of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase by fatty acid-coenzyme A compounds]". ... Majerus PW, Kilburn E (November 1969). "Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. The roles of synthesis and degradation in regulation of ... Coenzyme A now enters the enzyme and another intermediate is formed which consists of AMP-long chain fatty acid-Coenzyme A. ( ...
This enzyme participates in citrate cycle (tca cycle). Gergely J, Hele P, Ramakrishnan CV (1952). "Succinyl and acetyl coenzyme ... Other names in common use include succinyl-CoA acylase, succinyl coenzyme A hydrolase, and succinyl coenzyme A deacylase. ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2) gene Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2". Human ACAT2 genome location and ACAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, also known as cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is ... Matsumoto K, Fujiwara Y, Nagai R, Yoshida M, Ueda S (Feb 2008). "Expression of two isozymes of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol ...
"Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Widmer J, Fassihi KS, Schlichter SC, ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene. Acetyl-CoA ... Diaz FJ, Meary A, Arranz MJ, Ruaño G, Windemuth A, de Leon J (December 2009). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene ... Rosa G, Manco M, Vega N, Greco AV, Castagneto M, Vidal H, Mingrone G (November 2003). "Decreased muscle acetyl-coenzyme A ...
"Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Abu-Elheiga L, Jayakumar A, Baldini ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 also known as ACC-alpha or ACCa is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACA gene. Acetyl-CoA ... Diaz FJ, Meary A, Arranz MJ, Ruaño G, Windemuth A, de Leon J (December 2009). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene ... Yoon S, Lee MY, Park SW, Moon JS, Koh YK, Ahn YH, Park BW, Kim KS (September 2007). "Up-regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1". Kano, M; Fukao, T; Yamaguchi, S; Orii, T; Osumi, T; Hashimoto, T (30 ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... Ge, J; Zhai, W; Cheng, B; He, P; Qi, B; Lu, H; Zeng, Y; Chen, X (September 2013). "Insulin induces human acyl-coenzyme A: ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase enzyme. The ACAA2 gene encodes a 41.9 kDa protein that ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Abe H, Ohtake A, Yamamoto S, Satoh Y ... Cao W, Liu N, Tang S, Bao L, Shen L, Yuan H, Zhao X, Lu H (Jun 2008). "Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 attenuates the ... Cao W, Liu N, Tang S, Bao L, Shen L, Yuan H, Zhao X, Lu H (Jun 2008). "Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 attenuates the ...
Tan X, Loke HK, Fitch S, Lindahl PA (April 2005). "The tunnel of acetyl-coenzyme a synthase/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase ... S2CID 21633407.* Hegg EL (October 2004). "Unraveling the structure and mechanism of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase". Accounts of ... relying on CODH to produce CO by reduction of CO2 needed for the synthesis of Acetyl-CoA from a methyl, coenzyme a (CoA) and ... CODH can form a monofunctional enzyme, as is the case in Rhodospirillum rubrum, or can form a cluster with acetyl-CoA synthase ...
Jetten MS; Stams AJ; Zehnder AJ (October 1989). "Isolation and characterization of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase from ...
Higa HH, Varki A (1988). "Acetyl-coenzyme A:polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase from K1-positive Escherichia coli. The enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.136) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... responsible for the O-acetyl plus phenotype and for O-acetyl form variation". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (18): 8872-8. PMID 2897964. ...
At the end of glycolysis, PEP is converted to pyruvate, which is converted to acetyl-coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA), which enters the ... Smith TE (April 1970). "Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: competitive regulation by acetyl-coenzyme A and ... The main allosteric activators of PEP carboxylase are acetyl-CoA and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP). Both molecules are ... It is also noteworthy that the negative effectors aspartate competes with the positive effector acetyl-CoA, suggesting that ...
This enzyme is also called acetyl coenzyme A: 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase. Menhard B, Zenk MH (1999). "Purification ... and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase from cell suspension cultures of Taxus ... In enzymology, a 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.163) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:taxan-10beta-ol O-acetyltransferase. ...
Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A. Adrenergic neurons-noradrenaline. Noradrenaline ( ...
... acetyl coenzyme A:DAC acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:DAC acetyltransferase, CPC acetylhydrolase, acetyl-CoA:DAC O- ... S; Matsumoto, H; Matsuda, A; Sugiura, H; Komatsu, K; Ichikawa, S (1992). "Purification of acetyl coenzyme A: ... "Cloning and disruption of the cefG gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A: deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase from Acremonium ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:deacetylcephalosporin-C O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use ...
... this cleaves the coenzyme and releases nicotinamide and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The sirtuins mainly seem to be involved in ... This means the coenzyme can continuously cycle between the NAD+ and NADH forms without being consumed. In appearance, all forms ... The coenzyme NAD+ was first discovered by the British biochemists Arthur Harden and William John Young in 1906. They noticed ... It acts as a coenzyme in redox reactions, as a donor of ADP-ribose moieties in ADP-ribosylation reactions, as a precursor of ...
... acetyl-L-carnitine, dexpramipexole, and olesoxime). Other drugs with a variety of mechanisms were tested in clinical trials and ... and coenzyme Q); anti-apoptotic drugs (pentoxyfilline, omigapil, and minocycline); and drugs to improve mitochondria function ( ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:malonate CoA-transferase. This enzyme is also called malonate coenzyme A ... In enzymology, a malonate CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + malonate ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetate + malonyl-CoA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and malonate, ...
doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)76696-2. Lenz R, Zenk MH (1995). "Acetyl coenzyme A:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from papaver ... In enzymology, a salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.150) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in ... the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and salutaridinol, whereas its two products are CoA and 7-O- ...
Tuboi S, Kikuchi G (1965). "Enzymic cleavage of malyl-Coenzyme A into acetyl-Coenzyme A and glyoxylic acid". Biochim. Biophys. ... acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (3S)-3-carboxy-3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA, and two products, acetyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3S)-3-carboxy-3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA glyoxylate-lyase (acetyl-CoA-forming). Other ... names in common use include malyl-coenzyme A lyase, and (3S)-3-carboxy-3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA glyoxylate-lyase. This enzyme ...
... coenzyme A into acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH. The conversion is crucial because acetyl-CoA may then be used in the citric acid ... In terms of details, biochemical and structural data for E1 revealed a mechanism of activation of TPP coenzyme by forming the ... To distinguish between this enzyme and the PDC, it is systematically called pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring). The ... After the cofactor TPP decarboxylates pyruvate, the acetyl portion becomes a hydroxyethyl derivative covalently attached to TPP ...
The molecule of colchicine appears finally after addition of acetyl-coenzyme A to deacetylcolchicine. Colchicine may be ...
Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. This acetyl-CoA is then ... acetyl-CoA + phosphate → acetyl-phosphate + CoA acetyl-phosphate + ADP → acetate + ATP Acetic acid can also undergo a ... It is mainly utilized by organisms in the form of acetyl coenzyme A. Intraperitoneal injection of sodium acetate (20 or 60 mg ... as Ac is common symbol for acetyl group CH3CO).The pseudoelement symbol "Ac" is also sometimes encountered in chemical formulas ...
"Diversity of Acetyl-Coenzyme a Carboxylase Mutations in Resistant Lolium Populations: Evaluation Using Clethodim". Plant ...
Acetyl-CoA Beta oxidation Coenzyme A Acyl CoA dehydrogenase Fatty acid metabolism Talley, Jacob T.; Mohiuddin, Shamim S. (2020 ... During one cycle of beta oxidation, Acyl-CoA creates one molecule of Acetyl-CoA, FADH2, and NADH. Acetyl-CoA is then used in ... Acyl-CoA's are susceptible to beta oxidation, forming, ultimately, acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, ... The enzyme acyl-CoA thioesterase takes of the acyl-CoA to form a free fatty acid and coenzyme A. The second step of fatty acid ...
They are amphipathic lipids synthesized from acetyl-coenzyme A via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. The overall molecule is quite ...
Pape ME, Kim KH (May 1988). "Effect of tumor necrosis factor on acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene expression and preadipocyte ... These genes include adipocyte protein (aP2), insulin receptor, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA ...
In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it ... The acetyl group, formally derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is ... acetyl chloride SOCl2 acetic acid (i) LiAlH4, ether (ii) H 3O+ ethanol Acetic acid undergoes the typical chemical reactions of ... The OH group is the main site of reaction, as illustrated by the conversion of acetic acid to acetyl chloride. Other ...
... pentaphosphate are synthesized by yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase". J Bacteriol. 176 (10): 2986-90. doi:10.1128/jb.176.10. ... It is produced from ATP and triphosphate (P3) through the action of acetyl-CoA synthetase. Acetyl-CoA synthetase also produces ...
V. Direct conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetyl-coenzyme A". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 235: 589-94. PMID ... acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NAD(P)H The 4 substrates of this enzyme are 3-oxopropanoate, CoA, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products ... are acetyl-CoA, CO2, NADH, and NADPH. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the ...
In biochemistry, the best-known thioesters are derivatives of coenzyme A, e.g., acetyl-CoA. The most typical route to thioester ... Acetogenesis proceeds via the formation of acetyl-CoA. The biosynthesis of lignin, which comprises a large fraction of the ...
Methanogenesis involves a range of coenzymes that are unique to these archaea, such as coenzyme M and methanofuran.[119] Other ... The Crenarchaeota also use the reverse Krebs cycle while the Euryarchaeota also use the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway.[124] ... DiMarco AA; Bobik TA; Wolfe RS (1990). "Unusual coenzymes of methanogenesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59: 355-94. doi:10.1146/ ... two unusual coenzymes, 3. results of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. To emphasize this difference, Woese, Otto Kandler and ...
acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase. *N-Acetylglutamate synthase. *Choline acetyltransferase. * ... "Entrez Gene: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional ... acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, ...
Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2. There are three different coenzymes required throughout the 5 steps that this complex ... and then transfer the acetyl group to the TPP coenzyme, thus resulting in an intermediate, hydroxylethyl-Tpp*E1, and producing ... acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • glucose metabolic process. • pyruvate metabolic process. • regulation of ... pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) activity. • oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors ...
Ribonucleotide moieties in many coenzymes, such as Acetyl-CoA, NADH, FADH and F420, may be surviving remnants of covalently ... White HB (Mar 1976). "Coenzymes as fossils of an earlier metabolic state". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 7 (2): 101-4. ... bound coenzymes in an RNA world.[9] Although RNA is fragile, some ancient RNAs may have evolved the ability to methylate other ...
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC 2.7.11.4). *BCKDK ...
ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase). *APOA4: apolipoprotein A-IV ...
The citric acid cycle is an 8-step process involving 18 different enzymes and co-enzymes.[6] During the cycle, acetyl-CoA (2 ... When oxygen is present, acetyl-CoA is produced from the pyruvate molecules created from glycolysis. Once acetyl-CoA is formed, ... coenzyme yield ATP yield Source of ATP Glycolysis preparatory phase −2 Phosphorylation of glucose and fructose 6-phosphate uses ... Out of the cytoplasm it goes into the Krebs cycle with the acetyl CoA. It then mixes with CO2 and makes 2 ATP, NADH, and FADH. ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
to acetyl-CoA. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate ... It transfers electrons between Complexes III (Coenzyme Q - Cyt C reductase) and IV (Cyt C oxidase). In humans, cytochrome c is ...
Notably, it is used in fatty acid synthesis, the Krebs cycle, and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme used in up to 4% of enzymatic reactions within all living cells. ... Coenzyme A. coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coenzyme_A&oldid=5360506" ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) Lipid 5[84] 200 (human)[85] Uric acid[edit]. Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant ... Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR). *Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA). *Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) ... "Serum coenzyme Q10 concentrations in healthy men supplemented with 30 mg or 100 mg coenzyme Q10 for two months in a randomised ... Turunen M, Olsson J, Dallner G (January 2004). "Metabolism and function of coenzyme Q". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1660 (1- ...
The electron is eventually used to reduce the co-enzyme NADP with a H+ to NADPH (which has functions in the light-independent ...
... which allows the lone pair on the amine to attack acetyl-CoA, forming a tetrahedral intermediate. The thiol from coenzyme A ... N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK).[46][42] ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ...
acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase. *N-Acetylglutamate synthase. *Choline acetyltransferase. * ... The basic mechanism catalyzed by HATs involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the ε-amino group of a target ... acetyl-CoA and histone) must bind to form a ternary complex with the enzyme before catalysis can occur. Acetyl-CoA binds first ... are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to ...
... it is hypothesized that N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ... N-acetyl cysteine reverses many models of mitochondrial dysfunction.[20] In the case of mood disorders, specifically bipolar ...
ACCase inhibitors: Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) is part of the first step of lipid synthesis. Thus, ACCase inhibitors ... a family of herbicides that inhibit an enzyme called acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.[58] ...
ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... The donor is often a coenzyme. Some of the most important discoveries relating to transferases occurred as early as the 1930s. ... Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of ... Cysteine synthase, for example, catalyzes the formation of acetic acids and cysteine from O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen ...
"N-ACETYL-L-CYSTEINE Product Information" (PDF). Sigma. Sigma-aldrich. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014. ... "N-Acetyl-L-cysteine , C5H9NO3S - PubChem". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.. ... Acetylcysteine is the N-acetyl derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine, and is a precursor in the formation of the antioxidant ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine is soluble in water and alcohol, and practically insoluble in chloroform and ether.[52] ...
Its active form is a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl ... A coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. Vitamin B2. Riboflavin. A precursor of coenzymes called FAD and FMN, ... A coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions in metabolism. Vitamin B7. Biotin. A coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, needed for ... It is a critical co-enzyme of four carboxylases: acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from ...
to acetyl-CoA. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate ... Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q ... "Coenzyme Q10". National Cancer Institute.. *. Bonakdar, Robert Alan; Guarneri, Erminia. "Coenzyme Q10". American Family ... "4 Coenzyme Q oxidation reduction reactions in mitochondrial electron transport". In Kagan, V. E.; Quinn, P. J. Coenzyme Q: ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid ... "Acetyl CoA Crossroads". chemistry.elmhurst.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-08.. *^ "Fatty Acids -- Structure of Acetyl CoA". library.med ... Acetyl-CoA can be carboxylated in the cytosol by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, giving rise to malonyl-CoA, a substrate required for ... Increased concentration of acetyl-CoA activates PDK.[19]. *Acetyl-CoA is also an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase.[ ...
Isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. References[edit]. *^ a b c Wilson JM, Fitschen PJ, Campbell B, Wilson GJ, Zanchi N, Taylor ... is converted into acetyl-CoA and thereby contributes to the synthesis of ketones, steroids, fatty acids, and other compounds. ... Isovaleryl-coenzyme A, also known as isovaleryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.[1][2][ ...
... catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ... The enzyme is inhibited by high ratios of ATP:ADP, acetyl-CoA:CoA, and NADH:NAD, as high concentrations of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and ... to acetyl-CoA. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate ... This induces the enzyme to change its conformation, and creates a binding site for the acetyl-CoA. Only when this citroyl-CoA ...
Tong L (August 2005). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery". ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to ... In Escherichia coli, accA encodes the alpha subunit of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase,[6] and accD encodes its beta subunit.[7] ... "accA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit (Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655)". NCBI gene. National Center for ...
NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (complex I)Edit. Complex I or NADH-Q oxidoreductase. The abbreviations are discussed in the text ... as it accepts electrons from multiple acetyl-CoA dehydrogenases.[31][32] In plants, ETF-Q oxidoreductase is also important in ... produce the reduced coenzyme NADH. This coenzyme contains electrons that have a high transfer potential; in other words, they ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ...
He discovered the chemical structure of acetyl-coenzyme A, which was needed for a detailed understanding of the biochemical ... Bucher NL, Overath P, Lynen F (June 1960). "beta-Hydroxy-beta-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, cleavage and condensing ... Initially, Lynen found that acetate activated by Coenzyme A was needed to start the process. ... "Influence of bile acids on the activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. 1. Effect of bile acids ...
HAT molecules facilitate the transfer of an acetyl group from a molecule of acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) to the NH3+ group on ... Acetylation is the process where an acetyl functional group is transferred from one molecule (in this case, acetyl coenzyme A) ... Glucose is converted to acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which produces acetyl-CoA from glucose-derived ... Glucose availability affects the intracellular pool of acetyl-CoA, a central metabolic intermediate that is also the acetyl ...
Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase. To acetyl-CoA. *Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Aldehydes. *Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A transporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 33 member 1 (SLC33A1) is a protein that in humans is ... Jonas MC, Pehar M, Puglielli L (October 2010). "AT-1 is the ER membrane acetyl-CoA transporter and is essential for cell ... "Entrez Gene: Solute carrier family 33 (acetyl-CoA transporter), member 1". Kanamori A, Nakayama J, Fukuda MN, Stallcup WB, ... Hirabayashi Y, Kanamori A, Nomura KH, Nomura K (February 2004). "The acetyl-CoA transporter family SLC33". Pflügers Archiv. 447 ...
Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, R ... Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, R ... Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, and ... cDNA fragments encoding part of wheat (Triticum aestivum) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC; EC 6.4.1.2) were cloned by PCR using ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Acetyl-coenzyme A pronunciation, Acetyl-coenzyme A translation, English dictionary definition of Acetyl-coenzyme A. n. See ... Define Acetyl-coenzyme A. Acetyl-coenzyme A synonyms, ... Acetyl-coenzyme A - definition of Acetyl-coenzyme A by The Free ... redirected from Acetyl-coenzyme A). Also found in: Medical. a·ce·tyl-Co·A. (ə-sēt′l-kō′ā′, ăs′ĭ-tl-). n.. See acetyl coenzyme A ... These acids are made from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is also the starting material for biosynthesis of waxes, ...
ACAS stands for Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme). ACAS is defined as Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme) somewhat ... How is Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme) abbreviated? ... In addition, the expression of acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase 2 ( ... S.v. "ACAS." Retrieved February 26 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Acetyl_Coenzyme-A-Synthetase-(enzyme)-(ACAS).html ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved February 26 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Acetyl_Coenzyme-A-Synthetase-( ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse ... Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y]. See all Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase primary antibodies. ... Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y] (ab45174) at 1/2000 dilution + A431 cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. Goat ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase is highly expressed in lipogenic tissues such as liver, adipose, and lactating mammary gland, and ...
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (phospho S79) antibody [EP1885Y] - BSA and Azide ... Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (phospho S79) antibody [EP1885Y] - BSA and Azide free. See all Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase ... Dot blot analysis of Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (pS79) phospho peptide (lane 1) and Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase non- ... All lanes : Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (phospho S79) antibody [EP1885Y] (ab68191) at 1/5000 dilution. Lane 1 : Wild- ...
ACETYL COENZYME *A. C23 H38 N7 O17 P3 S. ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. Kaminishi, T., Takemoto, C., Uchikubo-Kamo, T., Terada, T., ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2CY2/pdb ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, Acs combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... "Regulation of acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli.". Kumari S., Beatty C.M., Browning D.F., Busby S.J., Simel E.J. ...
A Multisubunit Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase from Soybean Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... 1994) Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:6860-6864. ... A Multisubunit Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase from Soybean. Sergei Reverdatto, Vadim Beilinson, Niels C. Nielsen ... 1974) Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase system of Escherichia coli: purification and properties of the biotin carboxylase, carboxyl ...
Acetyl coenzyme A , C23H38N7O17P3S , CID 444493 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Browse our Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies. We offer Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies for use in common ... Alternate Names for Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies. anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta antibody, anti-ACACB ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, AcsA combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetaseAdd BLAST. 650. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a heterohexamer composed of biotin carboxyl carrier protein (AccB), biotin carboxylase (AccC) and two ... on its carrier protein (BCCP) and then the CO(2) group is transferred by the carboxyltransferase to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl- ...
Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A supply in Saccharomyces cerevisiae:. Title Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A ...
... This coenzyme plays a huge role in intermediary metabolism, in which cells synthesize, break down or use ... Selected acetyl coenzyme A links: © 1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should ...
The Activity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Rat Brain* ROGER E. KELLEY, Jr.; ROGER E. KELLEY, Jr. ... ROGER E. KELLEY, CLIFFE D. JOEL; The Activity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Rat Brain. Biochem Soc Trans 1 March 1973; 1 ...
Involvement of iclR and rpoS in the induction of acs, the gene for acetyl coenzyme A synthetase of Escherichia coli K-12.. Shin ... Two independent pathways in Escherichia coli convert acetate to acetyl CoA: reversal of acetate production by ... phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, and the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) pathway that scavenges acetate. We investigated ...
Title: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation ... Accepted Manuscript: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ... AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetases were previously thought to function only in the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA.« less ... aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant ...
Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA. Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme ... Alternative names acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase subunit alpha; Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase ... General description Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) is a recombinant protein expressed ...
Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit. Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) Alternative name Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl-coenzyme ... Alternative names acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha; Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha; ...
Coenzyme A. The business end, the -SH group where the acetyl group attaches, is shown in red. The fragment from ADP is shown ... Acetyl Coenzyme A. In the 1930s-early 1940s, four German-born biochemists, Fritz Lipmann, Hans Krebs, Feodor Lynen and Konrad ... In the Citric Acid Cycle, these C2 fragments are reacted with CoA, to form acetyl-CoA. The acetyl residue is then transported ... This means that the acetyl group can be easily transferred to other molecules, and so acetyl-CoA is used as a universal ...
Find out information about acetyl coenzyme A. C23H39O17N7P3S A coenzyme, derived principally from the metabolism of glucose and ... fatty acids, that takes part in many biological acetylation reactions;... Explanation of acetyl coenzyme A ... acetyl coenzyme A. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia. acetyl coenzyme A. [ə‚sed·əl ‚kō′en‚zīm ′ā] (biochemistry) C ... Acetyl coenzyme A , Article about acetyl coenzyme A by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/acetyl+ ...
Recombinant Human Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 [PRP-295ENZ]. Recombinant Human Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 [ ... Synonyms: Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase cytosolic, Cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, ACAT2, Acetyl CoA transferase-like ...
Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (Acs) activates acetate to acetyl coenzyme A through an acetyladenylate intermediate; two other ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ...
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → ... Showing Protein Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial (HMDBP00042). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details ... Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → ...
Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation. Julia C. Mackall, M. Daniel ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) is the first committed enzyme of fatty acid synthesis pathway. The inhibition of ACC is ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) is the first committed enzyme of fatty acid synthesis pathway. The inhibition of ACC is ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases Biotin carboxylase Soraphen A Drug resistance Molecular dynamics simulation ... Shen Y, Volrath SL, Weatherly SC, Elich TD, Tong L (2004) A mechanism for the potent inhibition of eukaryotic acetyl-coenzyme A ...
Detection of ligand-induced perturbations affecting the biotinyl group of mammalian acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by using ... Detection of ligand-induced perturbations affecting the biotinyl group of mammalian acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by using ... Neither the protomer nor the polymer of rat mammary-gland acetyl-CoA carboxylase formed precipitin bands with the anti-biotin. ... Selectivity of post-translational modification in biotinylated proteins: the carboxy carrier protein of the acetyl-CoA ...
Lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase are coexpressed with sterol regulatory element binding ... Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase / metabolism*. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism*. Cell Division. DNA-Binding Proteins / ... including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), major biosynthetic enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. The ...
  • In addition, the expression of acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase 2 (categorized as a "Fatty acid oxidation" gene) was three-fold higher in mammary than liver tissue, consistent with its function of activating acetate for use in ruminant lipid synthesis and fuel support (Smith and Prior, 1986). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Involvement of iclR and rpoS in the induction of acs, the gene for acetyl coenzyme A synthetase of Escherichia coli K-12. (nih.gov)
  • Two independent pathways in Escherichia coli convert acetate to acetyl CoA: reversal of acetate production by phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, and the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) pathway that scavenges acetate. (nih.gov)
  • aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. (osti.gov)
  • aciditrophicushad low or undetectable acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase activities but had high acetyl-CoA synthetase activity under all growth conditions tested. (osti.gov)
  • use two enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA, while acetate-forming archaea use a single enzyme, an ADP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase, to synthesize ATP and acetate from acetyl-CoA.Syntrophus aciditrophicusapparently relies on a different approach to conserve energy during acetyl-CoA metabolism, as its genome does not have homologs to the genes for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase. (osti.gov)
  • aciditrophicususes an alternative approach, an AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA. (osti.gov)
  • Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • S-Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase antibody LS-C147274 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to yeast S-Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase. (lsbio.com)
  • Anaerobic" isozyme of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, which is required for growth on fermentable carbon sources such as glucose. (ymdb.ca)
  • ACS2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, essential for growth on glucose. (ymdb.ca)
  • α,β-Unsaturated coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters including acrylyl CoA, methacrylyl CoA, and propiolyl CoA were synthesized by catalysis with acetyl CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1). (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Patel, SS & Walt, DR 1988, ' Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase catalyzed reactions of coenzyme A with α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids ', Analytical Biochemistry , vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 355-360. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Step 2, Figure 2) Coenzyme A now enters the enzyme and another intermediate is formed which consists of AMP-long chain fatty acid-Coenzyme A. (Step 3, Figure 2) At the end of this mechanism two products are released, AMP and acyl coa synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the formation of malonyl CoA from acetyl CoA, a rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Between them, they found that one of the central molecules involved in this process is a coenzyme (a molecule that helps an enzyme), which was named coenzyme A (or CoA for short). (bris.ac.uk)
  • When purified in the presence, but not in the absence, of coenzyme A, the E. coli enzyme activated acetate across a wide range of concentrations in a coenzyme A-dependent manner. (asm.org)
  • The kinetics of change in enzyme activity and enzyme immunotitratable with antibody against avian liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase were determined during the course of lactogenic differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • Therefore the elevated concentration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase appears to result from an increased rate of synthesis of enzyme relative to degradation rather than to activation of a pre-existing form of the enzyme. (biochemj.org)
  • Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) is the first committed enzyme of fatty acid synthesis pathway. (springer.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 20q11.22, which encodes a cytosolic enzyme that produces acetyl-CoA from acetate, for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a screen for mutants that display synthetic lethal interaction with hpr1 Δ, a hyperrecombination mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , we have isolated a novel cold-sensitive allele of the acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase gene, acc1 cs , encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis. (asm.org)
  • In the hpr1 Δ mutant background, acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme activity was reduced about 15-fold and steady-state levels of biotinylated Acc1p and ACC1 mRNA were reduced 2-fold. (asm.org)
  • The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene, ACC1 , encodes a biotin-containing enzyme that synthesizes malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate, with the hydrolysis of ATP ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Partial purification of acetyl coenzyme A-dependent arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the five inbred mouse strains showed one major paraoxon-resistant enzyme in liver cytosol in each of the rapid and slow acetylator mouse strains examined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Partial purification of acetyl coenzyme A-dependent isoniazid N-acetyltransferase activity showed catalysis by a paraoxon-resistant enzyme(s) distinct from the major arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme(s). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The structure of the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-coA carboxylase reveals a zinc-binding motif unique to the bacterial enzyme. (ecmdb.ca)
  • It targets the insects' acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) enzyme, causing a reduction in lipid biosynthesis. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) is a bifunctional enzyme which enables archaea and bacteria to grow autotrophically on CO and hydrogen/carbon dioxide using the Wood-Ljundahl pathway. (scienceexchange.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Alpha (ACACa), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (biomatik.com)
  • Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase , acetyl-CoA acyltransferase , or beta-ketothiolase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HADHB gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme converts a molecule called acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA, which can be used to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MTR7 is the same gene as ACC1, encoding acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (Acc1p), the rate- limiting enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The core of the enzyme is a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, which ideal alignment is disrupted by the aliphatic tail of Acetyl-CoA. (csgid.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the first committed enzyme in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, transcription, and an unusual mechanism of protein polymerization. (pnas.org)
  • Both coenzymes and prosthetic groups are types of the broader group of cofactors, which are any non-protein molecules (usually organic molecules or metal ions) that are required by an enzyme for its activity (IUPAC 1997c). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The expression levels of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type-2 (HCDH), acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT) and elongation factor Tu were down-regulated, and alpha-enolase and creatine kinase were up-regulated in the livers of ketotic cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A-dependent N-acetyltransferase and O-acetyltransferase activities were examined in liver cytosols derived from homozygous rapid acetylator C57BL/6J and A.B6 congenic inbred mouse strains, from homozygous slow acetylator A/J and B6.A congenic inbred mouse strains, and from the (C57BL/6J x A/J)F1 heterozygous acetylator hybrid mouse strain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase 2 were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (biomatik.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase 2 and analogues was observed. (biomatik.com)
  • Recombinant Human Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • N-acetyltransferase adds a molecule called an acetyl group to the sugar glucosamine in a subset of GAGs called heparan sulfate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, theaflavins also inhibited acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activities by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 and reactive oxygen species pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acetyl-coenzyme A transporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 33 member 1 (SLC33A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC33A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin on its carrier protein (BCCP) and then the CO(2) group is transferred by the carboxyltransferase to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. (rcsb.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a heterohexamer composed of biotin carboxyl carrier protein (AccB), biotin carboxylase (AccC) and two subunits each of ACCase subunit alpha (AccA) and ACCase subunit beta (AccD). (rcsb.org)
  • Description N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) by NATs.The Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood. (gentaur.com)
  • Description N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) by NATs.The Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood.For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (gentaur.com)
  • Lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase are coexpressed with sterol regulatory element binding protein and Ki-67 in fetal tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mice deprived of food (but with access to water ad libitum) for 24 hr exhibit a significant reduction in total Acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) levels in several organs, including the heart and muscles, corresponding to a decrease in protein acetylation levels. (medchemexpress.com)
  • However, the same experimental conditions have no major effects on Acetyl-coenzyme A concentrations in the brain and actually increase hepatic Acetyl-coenzyme A and protein acetylation levels. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A synthase (ACS) produces acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by combining CH3 from a methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CH3 -CoFeSP), CO from carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (COdH) and coenzyme A (CoA). (udel.edu)
  • The HADHB protein catalyzes the final step of beta-oxidation, in which 3-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by the thiol group of another molecule of Coenzyme A . The thiol is inserted between C-2 and C-3, which yields an acetyl CoA molecule and an acyl CoA molecule, which is two carbons shorter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes encoding two subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and biotin carboxylase have been cloned from Bacillus subtilis. (illinois.edu)
  • DNA sequencing and RNA blot hybridization studies indicated that the B. subtilis accB homolog which encodes biotin carboxyl carrier protein, is part of an operon that includes accC, the gene encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. (illinois.edu)
  • Each of three copies of the protein binds a single Acetyl-CoA molecule, which electron density is well defined. (csgid.org)
  • Coenzyme is any of a diverse group of small organic , non- protein , freely diffusing molecules that are loosely associated with and essential for the activity of enzymes , serving as carrier molecules that transfer chemical groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This screen yielded a novel cold-sensitive allele of the acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase gene, acc1-200 cs , hereafter referred to as acc1 cs ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Fukao T, Yamaguchi S, Orii T, Hashimoto T. Molecular basis of beta-ketothiolase deficiency: mutations and polymorphisms in the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta polyclonal antibodies and browse our Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • The antibody inactivates and specifically precipitates acetyl-CoA carboxylase from rat mammary tissue as well as that from chicken liver cytosol. (biochemj.org)
  • This antibody detects Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase phosphorylated at serine 79. (abcam.cn)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Alpha (ACACa). (biomatik.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Alpha (ACACa). (biomatik.com)
  • A multisubunit form of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from soybean ( Glycine max ) was characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Maize (Zea mays L.) leaf acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) was purified about 500-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration and blue Sepharose affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. (elsevier.com)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and catabolic pathways. (uniprot.org)
  • An important metabolic agent that transfers acetyl groups to the KREBS CYCLE and to various synthesizing pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The biosynthetic pathways for acetyl-CoA have been published.In the transfer reaction by acetyl-CoA of the C2 acetyl fragment, either the carboxyl group or the methyl group may react (electrophilic vs. nucleophilic reaction, respectively). (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathways leading to acetyl CoA formation are excellent candidates for such primordial metabolism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (beta-ketothiolase) deficiency: one disease - two pathways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On these pathways, four moles of acetyl-CoA are converted into one mole of glucose and two moles of CO₂. (nih.gov)
  • ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO 3 - = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA. (rcsb.org)
  • aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. (osti.gov)
  • two other enzymes, acetate kinase (Ack) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta), activate acetate through an acetyl phosphate intermediate. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, the biotinyl group of the different polymeric forms of the carboxylase ( s ∼30-45S) engendered by phosphate, malonyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA or citrate remained essentially inaccessible, since their activity was minimally affected by the anti-biotin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Coenzymes are also commonly made from nucleotides , such as adenosine triphosphate , the biochemical carrier of phosphate groups, or coenzyme A, the coenzyme that carries acyl groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1. A compound, C 25 H 38 N 7 O 17 P 3 S, that functions as a coenzyme in many biological acetylation reactions and is formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. (interactive-biology.com)
  • Cytosolic Acetyl-coenzyme A is the precursor of multiple anabolic reactions that underlie the synthesis of fatty acids and steroids, as well as specific amino acids including glutamate, proline, and arginine [1] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A Trilithium Salt Trihydrate Application Notes Acetyl coenzyme A is an essential cofactor and carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA is an essential cofactor and carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Histone acetylases (HAT) use Acetyl-CoA as the donor for the acetyl group use in the post-translational acetylation reactions of histone and non-histone proteins. (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase is highly expressed in lipogenic tissues such as liver, adipose, and lactating mammary gland, and its activities are regulated at various levels [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 24;100(13):7515-20. (abcam.com)
  • Neither the protomer nor the polymer of rat mammary-gland acetyl-CoA carboxylase formed precipitin bands with the anti-biotin. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the Citric Acid Cycle, these C 2 fragments are reacted with CoA, to form acetyl-CoA. (bris.ac.uk)
  • In the Citric Acid Cycle, one molecule of acetyl-CoA generates 12 ATPs. (bris.ac.uk)
  • When the acetyl is released, CoA is regenerated, which returns to the Citric Acid Cycle to catalyse another reaction. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. (interactive-biology.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA is the starting compound for the citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle). (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Plays key role in metabolism, as in the transfer of both carbon atoms from the acetyl group to the the citric acid cycle for use in oxidative energy production. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Paramagnetic centers and acetyl-coenzyme A / CO exchange activity of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanothrix soehngenii. (wur.nl)
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A trisodium is the actual molecule through which glycolytic pyruvate enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a key precursor of lipid synthesis, and is the sole donor of the acetyl groups for acetylation. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) is a membrane-impermeant molecule constituted by an acetyl moiety (CH3CO) linked to coenzyme A (CoA), a derivative of vitamin B5 and cysteine, through a thioester bond. (medchemexpress.com)
  • It converts a molecule called 2-methyl-acetoacetyl-CoA into two smaller molecules, propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, that can be used to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These acids are made from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is also the starting material for biosynthesis of waxes, flavonoids, certain amino acids and other compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty Acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. (interactive-biology.com)
  • it is formed by the attachment to coenzyme A of an acetyl group during the oxidation of carbohydrates, fatty acids, or amino acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In most mammalian cells, Acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) is predominantly generated in the mitochondrial matrix by various metabolic circuitries, namely glycolysis, β-oxidation, and the catabolism of branched amino acids. (medchemexpress.com)
  • NDI\010976, an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl\coenzyme A carboxylases (ACC) ACC1 and ACC2, reduces hepatic lipogenesis (DNL) and favorably impacts steatosis, irritation, and fibrosis in pet types of fatty liver organ disease. (neurokinin-receptor.info)
  • The acetyl\coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 are vital enzymes in fatty acidity synthesis and fatty acidity oxidation, respectively. (neurokinin-receptor.info)
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses of fatty acid synthesis mutants and acc1-7-1 indicate that the continued synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the enzymatic product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is required for an essential pathway which is independent from de novo synthesis of fatty acids. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A trisodium (Acetyl-CoA trisodium) is a central metabolic intermediate. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Coenzyme Q-10 (or ubiquinone) is an important ratelimiting nutrient that is a cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the biochemical pathway in cellular respiration from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metabolic energy is derived. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. (wikimedia.org)
  • The only downregulated genes directly linked to lipid metabolism were Srebf1 (which encodes SREBP-1) and Acacb (which encodes acetyl coenzyme A [acetyl-CoA] carboxylase 2 [ACC2], a critical regulator of fatty acyl-CoA partitioning between cytosol and mitochondria). (elsevier.com)
  • The A stood for acetyl, since one of CoA's main jobs is to transfer two-carbon units in the form of acetyl between various biological molecules. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Abu-Elheiga L, Matzuk MM, Abo-Hashema KA, Wakil SJ (2001) Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for ACACB / Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Carboxylase 2 / Beta and biotin. (chromocyte.com)
  • the hepatic-TG DNL index was also associated with expression of the hepatic lipogenic genes acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1), and changes in the expression of these genes were also closely reflected by the VLDL-TG DNL index. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ethanol intake augments Acetyl-coenzyme A levels in hepatic mitochondria [1] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • The ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl CoA to yield malonyl CoA is a primary reaction that occurs during de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The first committed step in FA biosynthesis is carried out by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). (pnas.org)
  • Devoted to naturally occurring metal-carbon bonds, the book sums up recent work in the field, with chapters on organometallic chemistry of B12 coenzymes, cobalamin- and corrinoid-dependent enzymes, nickel-alkyl bond formation in the active site of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and nickel-alkyl bonds in acetyl-coenzyme A synthases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intracellular lipid depletion triggers proteolytic cleavage of SREBP, allowing the amino terminus to enter the nucleus and activate the expression of enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), major biosynthetic enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coenzymes are consumed and recycled continuously in metabolism, with one set of enzymes adding a chemical group to the coenzyme and another set removing it. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each class of group-transfer reaction is carried out by a particular coenzyme, which is the substrate for a set of enzymes that produce it, and a set of enzymes that consume it. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The most important acid is acetic acid, and when it is joined to CoA, the resulting compound is known as acetyl-CoA. (bris.ac.uk)
  • It is a percursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.The acetic acid moiety which is bound by a high-energy bond (free energy 34.3 kJ/mol) to the -SH group of coenzyme A is a precursor to fatty acids, steroids and other naturally occurring compounds, such as terpenes and acetogenins present in plants. (juniperlifesciences.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA is the starting point for the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Huang T, Sun J, Wang Q, Gao J, Liu Y (2015) Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of piperidinylpiperidines and spirochromanones possessing quinoline moieties as acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Svensson RU, Parker SJ, Eichner LJ, Kolar MJ, Wallace M, Brun SN, Lombardo PS, Nostrand JLV, Hutchins A, Vera L (2016) Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase suppresses fatty acid synthesis and tumor growth of non-small-cell lung cancer in preclinical models. (springer.com)
  • Synthesis of Spiro[chroman-2-4'-piperidin]-4-one Derivatives as Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitors" Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 19:949-953 (2009). (patents.com)
  • Citrate is produced in the mitochondria and is used as a substrate by ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which converts citrate to acetyl-CoA, the substrate of ACC. (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of the selective inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by two classes of graminicides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Corominasfaja B, Cuyàs E, Gumuzio J, Boschbarrera J, Leis O, Martin ÁG, Menendez JA (2014) Chemical inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase suppresses self-renewal growth of cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Shen Y, Volrath SL, Weatherly SC, Elich TD, Tong L (2004) A mechanism for the potent inhibition of eukaryotic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by soraphen A, a macrocyclic polyketide natural product. (springer.com)
  • aciditrophicusand recombinantly produced Acs1 catalyzed ATP and acetate formation from acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate. (osti.gov)
  • This reduced coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their substrates (Pollak et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2). (hmdb.ca)
  • Biologically unprecedented nickel-methyl, nickel-carbonyl, and acetyl-nickel intermediates are proposed to occur during catalysis. (udel.edu)
  • CO produced from reduction of carbon dioxide by CODH is transferred to the active site of ACS through an intramolecular tunnel, where it combines with Coenzyme A and a methyl cation to produce acetyl-CoA. (scienceexchange.com)
  • In the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro, the N5-methyl-tetrahydrosarcinapterin (CH3-H4SPT):coenzyme M (CoM) methyltransferase, encoded by the mtr operon, catalyzes the energy-conserving (sodium-pumping) methyl transfer from CH3-H4SPT to CoM during growth on H2/CO2 or acetate. (nih.gov)
  • Coenzyme Q 10 , also known as ubiquinone , ubidecarenone , coenzyme Q , and abbreviated at times to CoQ 10 / ˌ k oʊ ˌ k juː ˈ t ɛ n / , CoQ , or Q 10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coenzyme Q10, also called CoQ10 or Ubiquinone, is a natural substance essential to cellular energy production. (betterlife.com)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Alpha (ACACa). (biomatik.com)
  • Alpha-lipoic acid is a nutritional coenzyme that participates in the energy metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, with a particular role in blood glucose disposal. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • This coenzyme plays a huge role in intermediary metabolism, in which cells synthesize, break down or use nutrient molecules for energy production, growth, etc. (healthboard.com)
  • Coenzymes are therefore continuously recycled as part of metabolism. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We believe that supplying the Krebs Cycle with enough substrates and increasing the Acetyl Coenzyme A (providing sufficient energy to the cell to sustain life) will be able to maintain the cell viable for prolonged periods of time. (thefreedictionary.com)