Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Coenzyme ACoenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Acetyl-CoA Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Arbacia: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)GlyoxylatesMalonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.CobamidesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.CitratesMultienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Mevalonic AcidSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Harpagophytum: A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE. Members contain harpagoside.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.

Melatonin biosynthesis: the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A resolution suggests a catalytic mechanism. (1/885)

Conversion of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin, the precursor of the circadian neurohormone melatonin, is catalyzed by serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) in a reaction requiring acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA). AANAT is a globular protein consisting of an eight-stranded beta sheet flanked by five alpha helices; a conserved motif in the center of the beta sheet forms the cofactor binding site. Three polypeptide loops converge above the AcCoA binding site, creating a hydrophobic funnel leading toward the cofactor and serotonin binding sites in the protein interior. Two conserved histidines not found in other NATs are located at the bottom of the funnel in the active site, suggesting a catalytic mechanism for acetylation involving imidazole groups acting as general acid/base catalysts.  (+info)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in inactive muscle during and after maximal exercise in men. (2/885)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl-group accumulation were examined in the inactive deltoid muscle in response to maximal leg exercise in men. Seven subjects completed three consecutive 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling, with 4-min rest intervals between bouts. Biopsies of the deltoid were obtained before exercise, after bouts 1 and 3, and after 15 min of rest recovery. Inactive muscle lactate (LA) and pyruvate (PYR) contents increased more than twofold (P < 0.05) after exercise (bout 3) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased PYR accumulation secondary to LA uptake by the inactive deltoid was associated with greater PDHa, which progressively increased from 0.71 +/- 0.23 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 at rest to a maximum of 1.83 +/- 0.30 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 after bout 3 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (1.63 +/- 0.24 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1; P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine accumulations were unaltered. Increased PDHa allowed and did not limit the oxidation of LA and PYR in inactive human skeletal muscle after maximal exercise.  (+info)

Replenishment and depletion of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. Indication of pyruvate carboxylation. (3/885)

The effects of various substrates on the concentrations of free amino acids, citric acid cycle intermediates and acylcarnitines were studies in perfused hindquarter of rat in presence of glucose and insulin in order to assess regulatory mechanisms of the level of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. 1. Acetate and acetoacetate effected a significant increase in the level of citrate cycle intermediates and accumulation of acetylcarnitine. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the level of alanine. The concentration of AMP was significantly elevated. 2. Muscle mitochondria fixed 14CO2 in the presence of pyruvate. The products were identified as malate or citrate when whole and disintegrated mitochondria were used respectively. The fixation was greatly stimulated by acetylcarnitine. 3. Acetylcarnitine inhibited the production of pyruvate from malate by muscle mitochondria. 4. Perfusion with 2-oxoisocaproate and 2-oxoisovalerate promoted increases in the level of citric cycle intermediates, a drop in both alanine and glutamate, and accumulation of branched-chain acylcarnitines. 2-Oxoisocaproate also caused a reduction of alanine released from the muscle. 5. Perfusion with leucine and valine did not change the concentration of citric acid cycle intermediates, but elevated glutamate and still more the concentration of alanine. 6. It is concluded that citric cycle intermediate level in the perfused resting muscle is modified by a) conditions which change the concentration of acetyl-CoA and thereby modify the rate of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation of malate via malic enzyme b) conditions which change the concentration of pyruvate cause changes in alanine and cycle intermediates in the same direction via transamination reactions c) conditions which change the concentrations of 2-oxoacids which are converted to cycle intermediates via oxidation.  (+info)

The role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an enzymatic methylation reaction. Methylation of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase by the methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. (4/885)

This paper focuses on how a methyl group is transferred from a methyl-cobalt(III) species on one protein (the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP)) to a nickel iron-sulfur cluster on another protein (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase). This is an essential step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The results described here strongly indicate that transfer of methyl group to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase occurs by an SN2 pathway. They also provide convincing evidence that oxidative inactivation of Co(I) competes with methylation. Under the conditions of our anaerobic assay, Co(I) escapes from the catalytic cycle one in every 100 turnover cycles. Reductive activation of the CFeSP is required to regenerate Co(I) and recruit the protein back into the catalytic cycle. Our results strongly indicate that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP is required for reductive activation. They support the hypothesis that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP does not participate directly in the methyl transfer step but provides a conduit for electron flow from physiological reductants to the cobalt center.  (+info)

The structural basis of ordered substrate binding by serotonin N-acetyltransferase: enzyme complex at 1.8 A resolution with a bisubstrate analog. (5/885)

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase, a member of the GNAT acetyltransferase superfamily, is the penultimate enzyme in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin, the circadian neurohormone. Comparison of the structures of the substrate-free enzyme and the complex with a bisubstrate analog, coenzyme A-S-acetyltryptamine, demonstrates that acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binding is accompanied by a large conformational change that in turn leads to the formation of the serotonin-binding site. The structure of the complex also provides insight into how the enzyme may facilitate acetyl transfer. A water-filled channel leading from the active site to the surface provides a pathway for proton removal following amine deprotonation. Furthermore, structural and mutagenesis results indicate an important role for Tyr-168 in catalysis.  (+info)

Amino acid biosynthesis in the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica. (6/885)

Biosynthesis of proteinogenic amino acids in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica was explored by using biosynthetically directed fractional 13C labeling with a mixture of 90% unlabeled and 10% uniformly 13C-labeled glycerol. The resulting 13C-labeling patterns in the amino acids were analyzed by two-dimensional 13C,1H correlation spectroscopy. The experimental data provided evidence for a split pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis, with 56% of the total Ile originating from threonine and pyruvate via the threonine pathway and 44% originating from pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A via the pyruvate pathway. In addition, the diaminopimelate pathway involving diaminopimelate dehydrogenase was shown to lead to lysine biosynthesis and an analysis of the 13C-labeling pattern in tyrosine indicated novel biosynthetic pathways that have so far not been further characterized. For the 17 other proteinogenic amino acids, the data were consistent with data for commonly found biosynthetic pathways. A comparison of our data with the amino acid metabolisms of eucarya and bacteria supports the theory that pathways for synthesis of proteinogenic amino acids were established before ancient cells diverged into archaea, bacteria, and eucarya.  (+info)

Melatonin, its precursors, and synthesizing enzyme activities in the human ovary. (7/885)

The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and its precursors, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and N-acetylserotonin, was demonstrated in extracts of human ovary using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorometric detection. In addition, activities of two melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were found in human ovary homogenates. The apparent Michaelis constants for the substrates of NAT and HIOMT in the human ovary were similar to those reported for the pineal glands of humans and other mammals. These findings strongly suggest that the human ovary, like the pineal gland, may synthesize melatonin from serotonin by the sequential action of NAT and HIOMT.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase, BltD, from Bacillus subtilis. (8/885)

Overexpression of the BltD gene in Bacillus subtilis causes acetylation of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. BltD is co-regulated with another gene, Blt, which encodes a multidrug export protein whose overexpression facilitates spermidine export [Woolridge, Vazquez-Laslop, Markham, Chevalier, Gerner and Neyfakh (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8864-8866]. Here we show that BltD acetylates both spermidine and spermine at primary propyl amine moieties, with spermine being the preferred substrate. In the presence of saturating concentrations of acetyl CoA, BltD rapidly acetylates spermine at both the N1 and N12 positions. The Km (app) values for spermine, spermidine and N1-acetylspermine are +info)

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Western blotting results of adipogenesis-specific markers.Representative image of 3 repeats and quantification of (A) PPARγ, (B) C/EBPα, and (C) Acetyl CoA ca
Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 10-13%; ATP, 21-24%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. ...
Looking for online definition of acetyl coenzyme A in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl coenzyme A explanation free. What is acetyl coenzyme A? Meaning of acetyl coenzyme A medical term. What does acetyl coenzyme A mean?
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha protein (ab79625). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
1R57: Structure of an acetyl-CoA binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus representing a novel subfamily of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase-like proteins.
The main function of Acetyl-CoA is to carry acyl groups or thioesters. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, an important part of cholesterol and ketone synthesis. It can also be found as a vital reagent in the synthesis of fatty acids and sterols, as well as the oxidation of fatty acids as well as the breaking down of many amino acids. [2] Acetyl-CoA is well known as the junction between Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle as well as an essential component in balancing between carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Acetyl-CoA has also been a central metabolite that is involved in many metabolic transformations within the cell. The acetyl group of the acetyl-CoA is used to oxidize via the TCA cycle to reduce NAD+ and FAD to NADH and FADH2, respectively. These products are then used to fuel ATP production through the electron transport train. In May 2011, Ling Cai et al. found that Acetyl-Coa functioned as a carbon-source rheostat that signals the initiation of the cellular growth program by promoting the ...
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60 download hunger and public action (wider studies in development of column-oriented function agents. By the tag-based download hunger and public action the proteome is less overseas converted to the Platform of lower nutrient studies, acetyl-CoA-dependent as work programs. now while the download hunger and public action (wider of used and knockdown citations expressed in the heavy tomorrow originates random, it much draws nt a spirit of the optimistic targeted steps enrolled.
72-89-9:C23H38N7O17P3S, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, Acetyl CoA, Acetyl coenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, S-acetilcoenzima A, S-Acetyl coenzyme A, S-Acetylcoenzym A, S-acetylcoenzyme A
Background this activity may be independent of acetylation activity. Acetylates alpha-tubulin with a slow enzymatic rate, due to a catalytic site that is not optimized for acetyl transfer. Enters the microtubule through each...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
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Definition of Acetyl CoA-deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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Accepted name: N-terminal methionine Nα-acetyltransferase NatF. Reaction: acetyl-CoA + an N-terminal-L-methionyl-[transmembrane protein] = an N-terminal-Nα-acetyl-L-methionyl-[transmembrane protein] + CoA. Other name(s): NAA60 (gene name). Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:N-terminal-Met-Lys/Ser/Val/Leu/Gln/Ile/Tyr/Thr-[transmembrane protein] Met-Nα-acetyltransferase. Comments: N-terminal-acetylases (NATs) catalyse the covalent attachment of an acetyl moiety from acetyl-CoA to the free α-amino group at the N-terminus of a protein. This irreversible modification neutralizes the positive charge at the N-terminus, makes the N-terminal residue larger and more hydrophobic, and prevents its removal by hydrolysis. NatF is found only in higher eukaryotes, and is absent from yeast. Unlike other Nat systems the enzyme is located in the Golgi apparatus. It faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, and specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins whose N termini face the cytosol. NatF targets ...
ATP-citrate synthase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine (By similarity).
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psd:DSC_00690 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (GenBank) acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MSDLYPVDPAFARQARVDAATYARDYKASIEQPEAFWKQVAQRLDWIKAPTRIKDVSFDV DDFHIQWFADGELNASVNCLDRQLEARGDKIALLFEPDSPDSESYGVTYRQLHARVCRLA NALRSLGVAKGDRVTIYLPMIPDAAVAMLACARIGAVHSVVFGGFAPNSIADRVADCASK LIITADEGLRGSRKIPLKANVDAALKLPGTSSVETVLVVRHTGGPVDMQAPRDRWFHDVV DSQPDTCEPERMNAEDPLFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLLWAAYTHELVFDLKEDDIY WCTADVGWVTGHSYIVYGPLANGATSLVFEGVPSYPDNSRFWQVVDKHRVSLFYTAPTAI RALMREGDGPVRKTSRKTLRVLGTVGEPINPEAWRWYYEVVGDSRCPIVDTWWQTETGGH MITPLPGATALKPGSATVPFFGVQPAVVDANGVELEGQAEGNLVIKDSWPGQMRTVYGDH QRFIDTYFRTYPGTYFTGDGCRRDADGYYWITGRVDDVINVSGHRIGTAEVESALVSHPK VAEAAVVGFPHDLKGQGIYAYVTLVAGEQPTEELRKELIAHVRKEIGPIASPDHLQWAPG LPKTRSGKIMRRILRKIAENAPDQLGDTSTLADPSVVDSLVSERKVR ...
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] ...

Background: Nε-acetyl L-α lysine is an unusual acetylated di-amino acid synthesized and accumulated by certain halophiles under osmotic stress. Osm

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അസെറ്റോയിൻ 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, C4H8O2 എന്ന തന്മാത്രാസൂത്രമുള്ള നിറമില്ലാത്ത അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇളം മഞ്ഞ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ പച്ച കലർന്ന മഞ്ഞ നിറമുള്ള ആസ്വാദ്യമായ വെണ്ണയുടെ മണമുള്ള ദ്രാവകമാണ്. ബാക്ടീരിയ ഇത് ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. [1] ...
Rationale: Insulin resistant subjects and type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by a decreased metabolic flexibility: a reduced capability to switch from fat oxidation in the basal state to carbohydrate oxidation in the insulin-stimulated state. This metabolic inflexibility is an early hallmark in the development of diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that a low carnitine availability may limit acetylcarnitine formation, thereby reducing metabolic flexibility. Thus, when substrate flux in the muscle is high, acetyl-CoA concentrations increase, leading to inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and thereby reducing glucose oxidation. The conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetylcarnitine relieves this acetyl-CoA pressure on PDH. To provide more direct insight into the effect of carnitine in preventing metabolic inflexibility and insulin resistance and to further explore the mechanism of action is the focus of this research. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity to form acetylcarnitine may rescue ...
metabolism definition process biology britannica cell transport flow chart worksheet acetyl coenzyme compound release molecule an the only solution across membrane
Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes t
Synonyms for acetyl chloride in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetyl chloride. 1 synonym for acetyl chloride: ethanoyl chloride. What are synonyms for acetyl chloride?
ppu:PP_4487 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA-I; acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MPAPERFAGTGVPNYYQRRMAFVALVQLQTVPYKNNYYTEVTQMSAAPLYPVRPEVAATT LTDEATYKAMYQQSVINPDGFWREQAQRIDWIKPFTKVKQTSFDDHHVDIKWFADGTLNV SSNCLDRHLEERGDQLAIIWEGDDPSEHRNITYRELHEQVCKFANALRGQDVHRGDVVTI YMPMIPEAVVAMLACARIGAIHSVVFGGFSPEALAGRIIDCKSKVVITADEGVRGGRRTP LKANVDLALTNPETSSVQKIIVCKRTGGDIAWHQHRDIWYEDLMKVASSHCAPKEMGAEE ALFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLVYAALTHERVFDYRPGEVYWCTADVGWVTGHSYIV YGPLANGATTLLFEGVPNYPDITRVSKIVDKHKVNILYTAPTAIRAMMAEGQAAVEGADG SSLRLLGSVGEPINPEAWNWYYKTVGKERCPIVDTWWQTETGGILISPLPGATGLKPGSA TRPFFGVVPALVDNLGNLIDGAAEGNLVILDSWPGQSRSLYGDHDRFVDTYFKTFRGMYF TGDGARRDEDGYYWITGRVDDVLNVSGHRMGTAEIESAMVAHSKVAEAAVVGVPHDIKGQ GIYVYVTLNAGIEASEQLRLELKNWVRKEIGPIASPDVIQWAPGLPKTRSGKIMRRILRK IATGEYDALGDISTLADPGVVQHLIDTHKAMNLASA ...
Acetyl-L-carnitine HCL is a mitochondrial metabolite that facilitates the movement of fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy and is also used to generate acetyl coenzyme A. ...
For yall reading comments: a single fatty acid makes 9 acetyl coa whereas one glucose creates 2 acetyl coa. I couldnt find info about protein but dietary restriction studies attribute reduction of protein to be even more important than reduction of carbs or fat for longevity. Pronably because with protein the igf spike stops the autophagy and not because it makes too much acetyl coa! Hope that helps and we all find more truth!. ...
Acetyl L-Carnitine HCL is a potent super nutrient that supports the body in the same manner as L-Carnitine, but also has the ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Acetyl L- Carnitine HCL supports mental sharpness by stimulating acetlycho
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NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water.... View full details ...
To test this pathway, we traced the metabolic fate of [U-14C]Thr in mESCs with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 14C was incorporated into Gly and Glu, indicating that Thr was used to synthesize these amino acids (Fig. 2B). In contrast, MEFs incubated with [U-14C]Thr did not exhibit Thr catabolism (fig. S2A). We also traced the fate of [U-13C]Thr in mESCs with LC-MS/MS metabolomics (fig. S2, B to F, and table S1). mESCs used Thr to synthesize acetyl-CoA-derived tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (Fig. 2, C and D). At steady state, [U-13C]Thr contributed ~20% of the citrate via acetyl-CoA, whereas [U-13C]glucose contributed ~35% via acetyl-CoA (+2 isotopomer). Thus, Thr contributes significantly to the acetyl-CoA pool in mESCs (Fig. 2D). [U-13C]Thr-derived Gly also donated its 13C-methyl group to ultimately generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) and SAM (+1 isotopomer), whereas [U-13C]Ser-derived Gly contributed little to the synthesis of these metabolites (Fig. 2, C and ...
Mechanism of Transfer of the Methyl Group from (6S)-Methyltetrahydrofolate to the Corrinoid/Iron-Sulfur Protein Catalyzed by the Methyltransferase from Clostridium thermoaceticum: A Key Step in the Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway of Acetyl-CoA ...
Acetone also arises in small amounts as a biologically inert side product. Ketone body production is regulated primarily by availability of acetyl CoA. If mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is high, hepatic beta-oxidation will occur at a high rate, and so will synthesis of ketone bodies from the resulting acetyl CoA. The rate of ketone body production increases in starvation. ...
With this in mind, it can be seen that the reason for producing ketone bodies is not to generate a molecule that can cross the cell membrane into the blood, but to generate a molecule with special properties, lacking in fatty acids or acetyl CoA, that allows its use by the brain in life-threatening circumstances.. Of less importance, but worth mentioning, is the fact that citrate is used as an export form of acetyl CoA (when there is sufficient oxaloacetate available), a surrogate role it plays in any case in the transfer of acetyl CoA across the mitochondrial membrane for fatty acid synthesis. So it is not necessary to export acetyl CoA, and perhaps preferable to it keep intracellular.. A more detailed account of this is available at NCBI bookshelf online in Berg et al. sections 30.2 and 30.3. ...
Acetyl forms of amino acids are directly taken into the brain, and Carnitine is no exception. This is where the majority of actions take place, with the Acetyl form used to treat memory related illness and neuropathies.. The body can convert Acetyl L Carnitine into L Carnitine and visa versa, however, if you are wanting weight loss, best use L-Carnitine alone and if you are treating any brain related disorders, use the Acetyl form.. Acetyl L Carnitine is used for age related memory loss, Alzheimers disease, late life depression, cataracts, pain due to diabetes type 2 and pain associated with drugs that are used to treat HIV AIDS.. In Alzheimers disease, this amino acid seems to work best with reducing rapid onset Alzheimers disease presenting in those under 65 years of age. Also great for muscle function, Acetyl L Carnitine is vital for health of the heart muscle and also reduces prostate inflammation. Useful also for increasing aged related testosterone decline.. Acetyl-L-Carnitine by Seeking ...
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Lysine acetylation refers to addition of an acetyl moiety to the epsilon‐amino group of a lysine residue and is important for regulating protein functions in various organisms from bacteria to humans
Goodridge AG (November 1972). "Regulation of the activity of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by palmitoyl coenzyme A and citrate ... Numa S, Ringelmann E, Lynen F (December 1965). "[On inhibition of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase by fatty acid-coenzyme A compounds]". ... Majerus PW, Kilburn E (November 1969). "Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. The roles of synthesis and degradation in regulation of ... Coenzyme A now enters the enzyme and another intermediate is formed which consists of AMP-long chain fatty acid-Coenzyme A. ( ...
acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase. *N-Acetylglutamate synthase. *Choline acetyltransferase. * ... "Entrez Gene: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional ... acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, ...
Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase. To acetyl-CoA. *Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Aldehydes. *Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
... (acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain) is a gene that provides instructions for making an enzyme ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fatty acid synthesis/. Fatty acid synthase. *Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase ... 1993). "Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency". PMID 20301597.. *^ Gregersen N, Andresen BS, Bross P, Winter V ... Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency can be caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. More than 30 ACADM gene ...
acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase. *N-Acetylglutamate synthase. *Choline acetyltransferase. * ... acetyl-CoA metabolic process. • metabolism. • positive regulation of cellular metabolic process. • oxidation-reduction process ... Its main function is to catalyze the synthesis of palmitate (C16:0, a long-chain saturated fatty acid) from acetyl-CoA and ... They are synthesized by a series of decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Following ...
This enzyme participates in citrate cycle (tca cycle). Gergely J, Hele P, Ramakrishnan CV (1952). "Succinyl and acetyl coenzyme ... Other names in common use include succinyl-CoA acylase, succinyl coenzyme A hydrolase, and succinyl coenzyme A deacylase. ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2) gene Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. ... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2". Human ACAT2 genome location and ACAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, also known as cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is ... Matsumoto K, Fujiwara Y, Nagai R, Yoshida M, Ueda S (Feb 2008). "Expression of two isozymes of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol ...
Diaz FJ, Meary A, Arranz MJ, Ruaño G, Windemuth A, de Leon J (December 2009). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene. Acetyl-CoA ... Rosa G, Manco M, Vega N, Greco AV, Castagneto M, Vidal H, Mingrone G (November 2003). "Decreased muscle acetyl-coenzyme A ... acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta". Widmer J, Fassihi KS, Schlichter SC, Wheeler KS, Crute BE, King N, Nutile-McMenemy N, Noll ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha". Abu-Elheiga L, Jayakumar A, Baldini A, Chirala SS, Wakil SJ (April 1995). "Human acetyl- ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 also known as ACC-alpha or ACCa is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACA gene. Acetyl-CoA ... Diaz FJ, Meary A, Arranz MJ, Ruaño G, Windemuth A, de Leon J (December 2009). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene ... Yoon S, Lee MY, Park SW, Moon JS, Koh YK, Ahn YH, Park BW, Kim KS (September 2007). "Up-regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase enzyme. This gene encodes an enzyme operative in the ... 3-Ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisomal also known as acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1". Bout A, Hoovers JM, Bakker E, Mannens MM, Geurts van Kessel A, Westerveld A, Tager JM, ... 1987). "Human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase deficiency". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (8): 2494-6. doi:10.1073/ ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1". Kano, M; Fukao, T; Yamaguchi, S; Orii, T; Osumi, T; Hashimoto, T (30 December 1991). " ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... Ge, J; Zhai, W; Cheng, B; He, P; Qi, B; Lu, H; Zeng, Y; Chen, X (September 2013). "Insulin induces human acyl-coenzyme A: ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase enzyme. The ACAA2 gene encodes a 41.9 kDa protein that ... Cao W, Liu N, Tang S, Bao L, Shen L, Yuan H, Zhao X, Lu H (Jun 2008). "Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 attenuates the ... 3-Ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial also known as acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2". Abe H, Ohtake A, Yamamoto S, Satoh Y, Takayanagi M, Amaya Y, Takiguchi M, Sakuraba H, ...
Coenzyme Q10 Argireline (also known as acetyl hexapeptide-3). This peptide relaxes facial muscles to prevent wrinkles and fine ...
Tan X, Loke HK, Fitch S, Lindahl PA (2005). "The tunnel of acetyl-coenzyme a synthase/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase regulates ... Hegg EL (October 2004). "Unraveling the structure and mechanism of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase". Acc. Chem. Res. 37 (10): 775-83 ... Lindahl PA (2009). "Nickel-Carbon Bonds in Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthases/Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases". In Sigel, Helmut; Sigel ... CODH can form a monofunctional enzyme, as is the case in Rhodospirillum rubram, or can form a cluster with acetyl-CoA synthase ...
Peptides, such as acetyl hexapeptide-3 (Argireline), Matryxil, and copper peptides. Coenzyme Q10 --> MitoQ Anti-oxidants are ...
Jetten MS; Stams AJ; Zehnder AJ (October 1989). "Isolation and characterization of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase from ...
Coenzyme A‎; 23:20 . . (0)‎ . . ‎. Kristenfdz. (talk , contribs)‎ (changed Coenzyme A to coenzyme A) (Tag: Visual edit) ... m Acetyl-CoA‎; 14:09 . . (+15)‎ . . ‎. Edgar181. (talk , contribs)‎ (Reverted edits by 2405:204:A50F:B99A:0:0:1B4E:28A4 (talk) ... m Coenzyme A‎; 23:25 . . (-50)‎ . . ‎. Kristenfdz. (talk , contribs)‎ (changed fatty acid synthesis sentence) (Tag: Visual edit ... Acetyl-CoA‎; 09:37 . . (-15)‎ . . ‎. 2405:204:a50f:b99a::1b4e:28a4. (talk)‎ (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...
Higa HH, Varki A (1988). "Acetyl-coenzyme A:polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase from K1-positive Escherichia coli. The enzyme ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.136) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... responsible for the O-acetyl plus phenotype and for O-acetyl form variation". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (18): 8872-8. PMID 2897964. ...
At the end of glycolysis, PEP is converted to pyruvate, which is converted to acetyl-coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA), which enters the ... Smith, Thomas E. (1970). "Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Competitive regulation by acetyl-coenzyme A and ... The main allosteric activators of PEP carboxylase are acetyl-CoA and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP). Both molecules are ... It is also noteworthy that the negative effectors aspartate competes with the positive effector acetyl-CoA, suggesting that ...
This enzyme is also called acetyl coenzyme A: 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase. Menhard B, Zenk MH (1999). "Purification ... and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase from cell suspension cultures of Taxus ... In enzymology, a 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.163) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:taxan-10beta-ol O-acetyltransferase. ...
... acetyl coenzyme A:DAC acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:DAC acetyltransferase, CPC acetylhydrolase, acetyl-CoA:DAC O- ... S; Matsumoto, H; Matsuda, A; Sugiura, H; Komatsu, K; Ichikawa, S (1992). "Purification of acetyl coenzyme A: ... "Cloning and disruption of the cefG gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A: deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase from Acremonium ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:deacetylcephalosporin-C O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use ...
... this cleaves the coenzyme and releases nicotinamide and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The sirtuins mainly seem to be involved in ... The coenzyme NAD+ is not itself currently used as a treatment for any disease. However, it is being studied for its potential ... The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent - it accepts electrons from other molecules ... This means the coenzyme can continuously cycle between the NAD+ and NADH forms without being consumed. In appearance, all forms ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:malonate CoA-transferase. This enzyme is also called malonate coenzyme A ... In enzymology, a malonate CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + malonate ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetate + malonyl-CoA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and malonate, ...
It is also known as the reductive acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) pathway. This pathway enables these organisms to use hydrogen ... Paul A. Lindahl "Nickel-Carbon Bonds in Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthases/Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases" Met. Ions Life Sci. 2009, ... the formyl group is reduced to a methyl group and then combined with the carbon monoxide and Coenzyme A to produce acetyl-CoA. ... The former catalyzes the reduction of the CO2 and the latter combines the resulting CO with a methyl group to give acetyl-CoA. ...
doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)76696-2. Lenz R, Zenk MH (1995). "Acetyl coenzyme A:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from papaver ... In enzymology, a salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.150) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in ... the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and salutaridinol, whereas its two products are CoA and 7-O- ...
Methanogenesis involves a range of coenzymes that are unique to these archaea, such as coenzyme M and methanofuran.[119] Other ... The Crenarchaeota also use the reverse Krebs cycle while the Euryarchaeota also use the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway.[124] ... DiMarco AA; Bobik TA; Wolfe RS (1990). "Unusual coenzymes of methanogenesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59: 355-94. doi:10.1146/ ... two unusual coenzymes, 3. results of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. To emphasize this difference, Woese, Otto Kandler and ...
Acetyl-l-carnitine alpha lipoic acid benefits side effects... (http://www.raysahelian.com/acetyl-l-carnitine.html) ... Pantothenic Acid in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A... (http://coenzyme-a.com/acne_vulgaris.html) ...
Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, R ... Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, R ... Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. P Gornicki, J Podkowinski, L A Scappino, J DiMaio, E Ward, and ... cDNA fragments encoding part of wheat (Triticum aestivum) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC; EC 6.4.1.2) were cloned by PCR using ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Acetyl-coenzyme A pronunciation, Acetyl-coenzyme A translation, English dictionary definition of Acetyl-coenzyme A. n. See ... Define Acetyl-coenzyme A. Acetyl-coenzyme A synonyms, ... Acetyl-coenzyme A - definition of Acetyl-coenzyme A by The Free ... redirected from Acetyl-coenzyme A). Also found in: Medical. a·ce·tyl-Co·A. (ə-sēt′l-kō′ā′, ăs′ĭ-tl-). n.. See acetyl coenzyme A ... These acids are made from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is also the starting material for biosynthesis of waxes, ...
ACAS stands for Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme). ACAS is defined as Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme) somewhat ... How is Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase (enzyme) abbreviated? ... In addition, the expression of acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase 2 ( ... S.v. "ACAS." Retrieved February 26 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Acetyl_Coenzyme-A-Synthetase-(enzyme)-(ACAS).html ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved February 26 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Acetyl_Coenzyme-A-Synthetase-( ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human, Mouse ... Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y]. See all Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase primary antibodies. ... Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase antibody [EP687Y] (ab45174) at 1/2000 dilution + A431 cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. Goat ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase is highly expressed in lipogenic tissues such as liver, adipose, and lactating mammary gland, and ...
ACETYL COENZYME *A. C23 H38 N7 O17 P3 S. ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. Kaminishi, T., Takemoto, C., Uchikubo-Kamo, T., Terada, T., ... Crystal structure of TTHA1209 in complex with acetyl coenzyme A. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2CY2/pdb ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha antibody (ab72046) : Western blot protocols, ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, Acs combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... "Regulation of acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli.". Kumari S., Beatty C.M., Browning D.F., Busby S.J., Simel E.J. ...
A Multisubunit Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase from Soybean Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... 1994) Wheat acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: cDNA and protein structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:6860-6864. ... A Multisubunit Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase from Soybean. Sergei Reverdatto, Vadim Beilinson, Niels C. Nielsen ... 1974) Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase system of Escherichia coli: purification and properties of the biotin carboxylase, carboxyl ...
Browse our Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies. We offer Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies for use in common ... Alternate Names for Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies. anti-Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta antibody, anti-ACACB ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, AcsA combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetaseAdd BLAST. 650. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a heterohexamer composed of biotin carboxyl carrier protein (AccB), biotin carboxylase (AccC) and two ... on its carrier protein (BCCP) and then the CO(2) group is transferred by the carboxyltransferase to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl- ...
Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A supply in Saccharomyces cerevisiae:. Title Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A ...
... This coenzyme plays a huge role in intermediary metabolism, in which cells synthesize, break down or use ... Selected acetyl coenzyme A links: © 1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should ...
The Activity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Rat Brain* ROGER E. KELLEY, Jr.; ROGER E. KELLEY, Jr. ... ROGER E. KELLEY, CLIFFE D. JOEL; The Activity of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Rat Brain. Biochem Soc Trans 1 March 1973; 1 ...
Involvement of iclR and rpoS in the induction of acs, the gene for acetyl coenzyme A synthetase of Escherichia coli K-12.. Shin ... Two independent pathways in Escherichia coli convert acetate to acetyl CoA: reversal of acetate production by ... phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, and the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) pathway that scavenges acetate. We investigated ...
Title: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation ... Accepted Manuscript: Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ... AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetases were previously thought to function only in the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA.« less ... aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant ...
Coenzyme A. The business end, the -SH group where the acetyl group attaches, is shown in red. The fragment from ADP is shown ... Acetyl Coenzyme A. In the 1930s-early 1940s, four German-born biochemists, Fritz Lipmann, Hans Krebs, Feodor Lynen and Konrad ... In the Citric Acid Cycle, these C2 fragments are reacted with CoA, to form acetyl-CoA. The acetyl residue is then transported ... This means that the acetyl group can be easily transferred to other molecules, and so acetyl-CoA is used as a universal ...
Find out information about acetyl coenzyme A. C23H39O17N7P3S A coenzyme, derived principally from the metabolism of glucose and ... fatty acids, that takes part in many biological acetylation reactions;... Explanation of acetyl coenzyme A ... acetyl coenzyme A. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia. acetyl coenzyme A. [ə‚sed·əl ‚kō′en‚zīm ′ā] (biochemistry) C ... Acetyl coenzyme A , Article about acetyl coenzyme A by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/acetyl+ ...
Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (Acs) activates acetate to acetyl coenzyme A through an acetyladenylate intermediate; two other ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ... Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia ...
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → ... Showing Protein Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial (HMDBP00042). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details ... Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → ...
Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation. Julia C. Mackall, M. Daniel ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ... Changes in mammary-gland acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase associated with lactogenic differentiation ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) is the first committed enzyme of fatty acid synthesis pathway. The inhibition of ACC is ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) is the first committed enzyme of fatty acid synthesis pathway. The inhibition of ACC is ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases Biotin carboxylase Soraphen A Drug resistance Molecular dynamics simulation ... Shen Y, Volrath SL, Weatherly SC, Elich TD, Tong L (2004) A mechanism for the potent inhibition of eukaryotic acetyl-coenzyme A ...
Lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase are coexpressed with sterol regulatory element binding ... Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase / metabolism*. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism*. Cell Division. DNA-Binding Proteins / ... including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), major biosynthetic enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. The ...
  • Abu-Elheiga L, Matzuk MM, Abo-Hashema KA, Wakil SJ (2001) Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. (springer.com)
  • malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA: step 1/1. (abcam.com)
  • The ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl CoA to yield malonyl CoA is a primary reaction that occurs during de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The second step results in the transfer of the carboxyl from carboxybiotin to acetyl CoA to form malonyl CoA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses of fatty acid synthesis mutants and acc1-7-1 indicate that the continued synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the enzymatic product of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is required for an essential pathway which is independent from de novo synthesis of fatty acids. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Such pan Acc2KO homozygotes exhibit reduced total acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity in skeletal muscle, reduced heart size, decreased cardiac malonyl CoA levels, and a slight increase in energy expenditure (increased oxygen consumption during the dark cycle). (jax.org)
  • Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for ACACB / Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Carboxylase 2 / Beta and biotin. (chromocyte.com)
  • The Acc2 flox allele has loxP sites flanking the biotin-binding motif exon (and the preceding exon) of the acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase beta ( Acacb or Acc2) locus. (jax.org)
  • A targeting vector was designed to insert a frt -flanked kanamycin cassette and a loxP site downstream of the biotin-binding domain exon, as well as a loxP site upstream of the preceding exon of the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 ( Acacb or Acc2) locus. (jax.org)
  • the hepatic-TG DNL index was also associated with expression of the hepatic lipogenic genes acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1), and changes in the expression of these genes were also closely reflected by the VLDL-TG DNL index. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in human Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase. (abcam.com)
  • Together, these data support a sequential mechanism in which AcCoA and H3 bind to the Rtt109-Vps75 complex without obligate order, followed by the direct attack of the unprotonated epsilon-amino group on AcCoA, transferring the acetyl group to H3 lysine residues. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis of Spiro[chroman-2-4'-piperidin]-4-one Derivatives as Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitors" Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 19:949-953 (2009). (patents.com)