Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa60p catalytic subunit. It is found in higher eukayotes and displays a substrate specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either LEUCINE; LYSINE; PHENYALANINE; ISOLEUCINE; or TRYPTOPHANE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.

Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. (1/222)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of how this natural diversity is being used to develop commercially attractive, recombinant processes for the large-scale production of PHAs.  (+info)

Pregnenolone esterification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A potential detoxification mechanism. (2/222)

While studying the effect of steroids on the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that pregnenolone was converted into the acetate ester. This reaction was identified as a transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the 3beta-hydroxyl group of pregnenolone. The corresponding enzyme, acetyl-CoA:pregnenolone acetyltransferase (APAT) is specific for Delta5- or Delta4-3beta-hydroxysteroids and short-chain acyl-CoAs. The apparent Km for pregnenolone is approximately 0.5 microm. The protein associated with APAT activity was partially purified and finally isolated from an SDS/polyacrylamide gel. Tryptic peptides were generated and N-terminally sequenced. Two peptide sequences allowed the identification of an open reading frame (YGR177c, in the S. cerevisiae genome database) translating into a 62-kDa protein of hitherto unknown function. This protein encoded by a gene known as ATF2 displays 37% identity with an alcohol acetyltransferase encoded by the yeast gene ATF1. Disruption of ATF2 led to the complete elimination of APAT activity and consequently abolished the esterification of pregnenolone. In addition, a toxic effect of pregnenolone linked to the disruption of ATF2 was observed. Pregnenolone toxicity is more pronounced when the atf2-Delta mutation is introduced in a yeast strain devoid of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, PDR5 and SNQ2. Our results suggest that Atf2p (APAT) plays an active role in the detoxification of 3beta-hydroxysteroids in association with the efflux pumps Pdr5p and Snq2p.  (+info)

A functional 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway gene cluster is linked to the initial dibenzo-p-dioxin pathway genes in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (3/222)

The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact operon. The enzymatic activities of some proteins encoded by these genes were analyzed in the strain RW1 and, after hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli. The first three ORFs of the locus, designated dxnC, ORF2, and fdx3, specify a protein with a low homology to bacterial siderophore receptors, a polypeptide representing no significant homology to known proteins, and a putative ferredoxin, respectively. dxnD encodes a 69-kDa phenol monooxygenase-like protein with activity for the turnover of 4-hydroxysalicylate, and dxnE codes for a 37-kDa protein whose sequence and activity are similar to those of known maleylacetate reductases. The following gene, dxnF, encodes a 33-kDa intradiol dioxygenase which efficiently cleaves hydroxyquinol, yielding maleylacetate, the ketoform of 3-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate. The heteromeric protein encoded by dxnGH is a 3-oxoadipate succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) transferase, whereas dxnI specifies a protein exhibiting marked homology to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases (thiolases). The last ORF of the sequenced fragment codes for a putative transposase. DxnD, DxnF, DxnE, DxnGH, and DxnI (the activities of most of them have also been detected in strain RW1) thus form a complete 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway. A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself.  (+info)

Origin of gene overlap: the case of TCP1 and ACAT2. (4/222)

The human acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 gene, ACAT2, codes for a thiolase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism. The human T-complex protein 1 gene, TCP1, encodes a molecular chaperone of the chaperonin family. The two genes overlap by their 3'-untranslated regions, their coding sequences being located on opposite DNA strands in a tail-to-tail orientation. To find out how the overlap might have arisen in evolution, the homologous genes of the zebrafish, the African toad, caiman, platypus, opossum, and wallaby were identified. In each species, standard or long polymerase chain reactions were used to determine whether the ACAT2 and TCP1 homologs are closely linked and, if so, whether they overlap. The results reveal that the overlap apparently arose during the transition from therapsid reptiles to mammals and has been retained for >200 million years. Part of the overlapping untranslated region shows remarkable sequence conservation. The overlap presumably arose during the chromosomal rearrangement that brought the two unrelated and previously separated genes together. One or both of the transposed genes found by chance signals that are necessary for the processing of their transcripts to be present on the noncoding strand of the partner gene.  (+info)

Development and characterization of a gene expression reporter system for Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (5/222)

A gene expression reporter system (pHT3) for Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was developed by using the lacZ gene from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurogenes EM1 as the reporter gene. In order to test the reporter system, promoters of three key metabolic pathway genes, ptb (coding for phosphotransbutyrylase), thl (coding for thiolase), and adc (coding for acetoacetate decarboxylase), were cloned upstream of the reporter gene in pHT3 in order to construct vectors pHT4, pHT5, and pHTA, respectively. Detection of beta-galactosidase activity in time course studies performed with strains ATCC 824(pHT4), ATCC 824(pHT5), and ATCC 824(pHTA) demonstrated that the reporter gene produced a functional beta-galactosidase in C. acetobutylicum. In addition, time course studies revealed differences in the beta-galactosidase specific activity profiles of strains ATCC 824(pHT4), ATCC 824(pHT5), and ATCC 824(pHTA), suggesting that the reporter system developed in this study is able to effectively distinguish between different promoters. The stability of the beta-galactosidase produced by the reporter gene was also examined with strains ATCC 824(pHT4) and ATCC 824(pHT5) by using chloramphenicol treatment to inhibit protein synthesis. The data indicated that the beta-galactosidase produced by the lacZ gene from T. thermosulfurogenes EM1 was stable in the exponential phase of growth. In pH-controlled fermentations of ATCC 824(pHT4), the kinetics of beta-galactosidase formation from the ptb promoter and phosphotransbutyrylase formation from its own autologous promoter were found to be similar.  (+info)

A biosynthetic thiolase in complex with a reaction intermediate: the crystal structure provides new insights into the catalytic mechanism. (6/222)

BACKGROUND: Thiolases are ubiquitous and form a large family of dimeric or tetrameric enzymes with a conserved, five-layered alphabetaalphabetaalpha catalytic domain. Thiolases can function either degradatively, in the beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids, or biosynthetically. Biosynthetic thiolases catalyze the biological Claisen condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA to form acetoacetyl-CoA. This is one of the fundamental categories of carbon skeletal assembly patterns in biological systems and is the first step in a wide range of biosynthetic pathways, including those that generate cholesterol, steroid hormones, and various energy-storage molecules. RESULTS: The crystal structure of the tetrameric biosynthetic thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera has been determined at 2.0 A resolution. The structure contains a striking and novel 'cage-like' tetramerization motif, which allows for some hinge motion of the two tight dimers with respect to each other. The protein crystals were flash-frozen after a short soak with the enzyme's substrate, acetoacetyl-CoA. A reaction intermediate was thus trapped: the enzyme tetramer is acetylated at Cys89 and has a CoA molecule bound in each of its active-site pockets. CONCLUSIONS: The shape of the substrate-binding pocket reveals the basis for the short-chain substrate specificity of the enzyme. The active-site architecture, and in particular the position of the covalently attached acetyl group, allow a more detailed reaction mechanism to be proposed in which Cys378 is involved in both steps of the reaction. The structure also suggests an important role for the thioester oxygen atom of the acetylated enzyme in catalysis.  (+info)

Aberrant oxidation of the cholesterol side chain in bile acid synthesis of sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x knockout mice. (7/222)

Peroxisomal beta-oxidation plays an important role in the metabolism of a wide range of substrates, including various fatty acids and the steroid side chain in bile acid synthesis. Two distinct thiolases have been implicated to function in peroxisomal beta-oxidation: the long known 41-kDa beta-ketothiolase identified by Hashimoto and co-workers (Hijikata, M., Ishii, N., Kagamiyama, H., Osumi, T., and Hashimoto, T. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8151-8158) and the recently discovered 60-kDa SCPx thiolase, that consists of an N-terminal domain with beta-ketothiolase activity and a C-terminal moiety of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2, a lipid carrier or transfer protein). Recently, gene targeting of the SCP2/SCPx gene has shown in mice that the SCPx beta-ketothiolase is involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of 2-methyl-branched chain fatty acids like pristanic acid. In our present work we have investigated bile acid synthesis in the SCP2/SCPx knockout mice. Specific inhibition of beta-oxidation at the thiolytic cleavage step in bile acid synthesis is supported by our finding of pronounced accumulation in bile and serum from the knockout mice of 3alpha,7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-27-nor-5beta-cholestane-24-one (which is a known bile alcohol derivative of the cholic acid synthetic intermediate 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-24-keto-cholestano yl-coenzyme A). Moreover, these mice have elevated concentrations of bile acids with shortened side chains (i.e. 23-norcholic acid and 23-norchenodeoxycholic acid), which may be produced via alpha- rather than beta-oxidation. Our results demonstrate that the SCPx thiolase is critical for beta-oxidation of the steroid side chain in conversion of cholesterol into bile acids.  (+info)

Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation disorders and 58 kDa sterol carrier protein X (SCPx). Activity measurements in liver and fibroblasts using a newly developed method. (8/222)

Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) plays a crucial role in the peroxisomal oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. To investigate whether patients with an unresolved defect in peroxisomal beta-oxidation are deficient for SCPx, we developed a novel and specific assay to measure the activity of SCPx in both liver and fibroblast homogenates. The substrate used in the assay, 3alpha, 7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-24-keto-5beta-cholestanoy l-CoA (24-keto-THC-CoA), is produced by preincubating the enoyl-CoA of the bile acid intermediate THCA with a lysate from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing human D-bifunctional protein. After the preincubation period, liver or fibroblast homogenate is added plus CoASH, and the production of choloyl-CoA is determined by HPLC. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the finding of a full deficiency in fibroblasts from an SCPx knock-out mouse. In addition to SCPx activity measurements in fibroblasts from patients with a defect in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of unresolved etiology, we studied the stability and activity of SCPx in fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome, which lack functional peroxisomes. We found that SCPx is not only stable in the cytosol, but displays a higher activity in fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome than in control fibroblasts. Furthermore, in all patients studied with a defect in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of unknown origin, SCPx was found to be normally active, indicating that human SCPx deficiency remains to be identified.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Evaluation of Peroxisomal and Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes in n-Alkane-Assimilating Diploid Yeast, Candida tropicalis. AU - Ueda, Mitsuyoshi. AU - Kanayama, Naoki. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The n-alkane-assimilating diploid yeast, Candida tropicalis, possesses two acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (Thiolase I) isozymes encoded by one allele: peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is encoded by both CT-T1A and CT-T1B. To clarify the function of peroxisomal and cytosolic Thiolase Is, the site-directed mutation leading Thiolase I ΔC6 without a putative C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal was introduced on CT-T1A locus in the ct-t1bΔ-null mutant. The C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I was active and solely present in the cytosol. Although the ct-t1aΔ/t1bΔ-null mutants showed mevalonate auxotrophy, the mutants having the C-terminus-truncated Thiolase I did not require mevalonate for growth, as did the strains having cytosolic Thiolase I. These ...
CR382138.PE377 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(751782..752987) FT /transl_table=12 FT /locus_tag=DEHA2F08712g FT /old_locus_tag=DEHA0F09603g FT /old_locus_tag=DEHA-IPF8377 FT /old_locus_tag=DEHA-CDS3172.1 FT /product=DEHA2F08712p FT /note=similar to uniprot,P41338 Saccharomyces cerevisiae FT YPL028W ERG10 Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (acetoacetyl- FT CoA thiolase) cytosolic enzyme that transfers an acetyl FT group from one acetyl-CoA molecule to another forming FT acetoacetyl-CoA FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:DEHA2F08712g FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:CAG89081 FT /db_xref=GOA:Q6BM30 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002155 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR016039 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020610 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020613 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020615 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020616 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR020617 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:Q6BM30 FT /protein_id=CAG89081.1 FT /translation=MSSVYIVSTARTPIGAFQGGLSSLTYSDLGSHAVHAALKKVPQIK FT ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_0221 (SAUSA300_RS01160); symbol: pflA; product: pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme
ACAT1 antibody (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) for IP, WB. Anti-ACAT1 pAb (GTX30683) is tested in Human, Mouse, Hamster samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The United States is undergoing profound change in its moral, ethical, and spiritual climate. The gradual movement away from objective truth and toward what has…
Looking for online definition of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in the Medical Dictionary? acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase explanation free. What is acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase? Meaning of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase medical term. What does acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase mean?
Beta ketothiolase deficiency or 2M3HBA is a rare genetic condition. 2M3HBA results from a mutation (error) in a persons DNA. 2M3HBA is considered an organic acid condition because it leads to a buildup of harmful amounts of organic acids in the body. Protein in the food we eat is broken down into amino acids, or building blocks. We typically eat more protein than needed; therefore we often have more amino acids than we need. Enzymes (special proteins) breakdown the extra amino acids into organic acids and ammonia, and then harmless products our body can get rid of. If one of the enzymes needed is missing or not working correctly, the amino acid is not broken all the way down and builds up in our system as organic acids. Although organic acids are only mild acids, both organic acids and ammonia can damage our bodies if too much builds up. In this case the enzyme, 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl, is unable to break down the amino acid, isoleucine.. Signs of 2M3HBA typically begin to show during ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Beta ketothiolase deficiency
The ACAT1 gene is associated with autosomal recessive beta-ketothiolase deficiency (aka mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency) (MedGen UID: 280689).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In the present report we describe a method for the complete purification of native sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (SCP-2/thiolase) from normal rat liver peroxisomes. The isolation procedure is based on the alteration in chromatographic properties of the enzyme in the presence of low concentrations of CoA. The purified preparation of SCP-2/thiolase consisted of 58- and 46-kDa polypeptides. Peroxisomes prepared freshly from normal rat liver contained three SCP-2/thiolase isoforms, separable by conventional chromatography. Immunochemical, molecular sieving, and chemical cross-linking experiments indicated that these isoforms represent thiolytically active homo- and heterodimeric combinations of the 46- and 58-kDa subunits (2 x 58, 58-46, and 2 x 46-kDa proteins). (C) 2000 Academic Press ...
CheckOrphan is a non-profit organization located in Basel, Switzerland and Santa Cruz, California that is dedicated to rare, orphan and neglected diseases. CheckOrphan offers users an interactive and dynamic platform for all these diseases. This strategy allows visitors to be updated daily on all the latest news and interact with people internationally. This is essential, because due to the nature of these diseases, there is not a large concentration of individuals within any given proximity ...
In enzymology, formate C-acetyltransferase (pyruvate formate lyase, PFL) (EC is an enzyme. Pyruvate formate lyase is found in Escherichia coli and other organisms. It helps regulate anaerobic glucose metabolism. Using radical non-redox chemistry, it catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and coenzyme-A into formate and acetyl-CoA. The reaction occurs as follows: This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:formate C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include pyruvate formate-lyase, pyruvic formate-lyase, and formate acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pyruvate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and butanoate metabolism. As of late 2007, 8 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1CM5, 1H16, 1H17, 1H18, 1MZO, 1QHM, 2PFL, and 3PFL. Pyruvate formate lyase ...
3-ketothiolase deficiency (3KTD) [MIM:203750]: An inborn error of isoleucine catabolism characterized by intermittent ketoacidotic attacks associated with unconsciousness. Some patients die during an attack or are mentally retarded. Urinary excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, triglylglycine, butanone is increased. It seems likely that the severity of this disease correlates better with the environmental or acquired factors than with the ACAT1 genotype. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:1346617, ECO:0000269,PubMed:1715688, ECO:0000269,PubMed:7728148, ECO:0000269,PubMed:9744475}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry ...
Looking for online definition of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in the Medical Dictionary? 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase explanation free. What is 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase? Meaning of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase medical term. What does 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase mean?
The enzyme 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC was purified from rat spleen approx. 1500-fold in 1.6% yield. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 0.317 +/- 0.089 mumol/min per mg of protein (mean +/- S.D., n = 6). The Km for the substrate acetyl-CoA was 137 +/- 13 microM and the pH optimum was about 8. Incubation of the purified enzyme was 1-O-[3H]octadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine followed by electrophoresis resulted in the incorporation of radioactivity into a protein of Mr 29,000. The enzyme was most active towards 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as substrate, 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-glycero-3-phosphocholine being a poor substrate. In addition, the enzyme preferred acetyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA as substrate.. ...
PubMed journal article Identification of three novel frameshift mutations (83delAT, 754insCT, and 435 + 1G to A) of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase gene in two Swiss patients with CRM-negative beta-ketothiolase deficienc were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Significant increases in levels of cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products are detected in the hippocampus undergoing degeneration after excitotoxicity induced by the potent glutamate analog, kainate (KA), but until now, it is unclear whether the cholesterol is in the free or esterified form. The present study was carried out to examine the expression of the enzyme involved in cholesteryl ester biosynthesis, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesteryl esters after KA excitotoxicity. A 1000-fold greater basal mRNA level of ACAT1 than ACAT2 was detected in the normal brain. ACAT1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the hippocampus at 1 and 2 weeks after KA injections, at a time of glial reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed ACAT1 labeling of oligodendrocytes in the white matter and axon terminals in hippocampal CA fields of normal rats, and loss of staining in neurons but increased immunoreactivity of oligodendrocytes, in areas affected by KA. Gas chromatography-mass
Catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which acetyl-CoA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
Mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation (mFAO) plays a central role in mammalian energy metabolism. Multiple severe diseases are associated with defects in this pathway. Its kinetic structure is characterized by a complex wiring of which the functional implications have hardly been explored. Repetitive cycles of reversible reactions, each cycle shortening the fatty acid by two carbon atoms, evoke competition between intermediates of different chain lengths for a common set of promiscuous enzymes (enzymes with activity towards multiple substrates). In our validated kinetic model of the pathway, substrate overload causes a steep and detrimental flux decline. Here, we unravel the underlying mechanism and the role of enzyme promiscuity in it. Comparison of alternative model versions elucidated the role of promiscuity of individual enzymes. Promiscuity of the last enzyme of the pathway, medium-chain ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (MCKAT), was both necessary and sufficient to elicit the flux decline. ...
Wissenschaftler der finnischen Universität Oulu und des Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin haben neue Wege zur Medikamentenentwicklung gegen die afrikanische Schlafkrankheit und andere von Parasiten übertragene, tropische Erkrankungen aufgezeigt. Grundlage dafür sind Strukturuntersuchungen an einem als Thiolase bezeichneten Enzym. Thiolase spielt eine wichtige Rolle im Lipid-Stoffwechsel krankheitsübertragender Parasiten. Die Struktur des Biomoleküls haben die Forscher an der MX-Beamline des Elektronenspeicherrings BESSY II des HZB untersucht.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
InChI=1S/C25H40N7O18P3S/c1-13(33)8-16(35)54-7-6-27-15(34)4-5-28-23(38)20(37)25(2,3)10-47-53(44,45)50-52(42,43)46-9-14-19(49-51(39,40)41)18(36)24(48-14)32-12-31-17-21(26)29-11-30-22(17)32/h11-12,14,18-20,24,36-37H,4-10H2,1-3H3,(H,27,34)(H,28,38)(H,42,43)(H,44,45)(H2,26,29,30)(H2,39,40,41)/t14-,18-,19-,20?,24-/m1/ ...
マクロファージのアシルC0A:コレステロールアシルトランスフェラーゼ1 (ACAT1)欠損マウスの皮膚黄色腫、動脈硬化病変形成におけるインフラマソームの役割についての検討 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and Automated Purification of Acetoacetyl CoA Thiolase from Sunflower Cotyledon. AU - Dyer, James H.. AU - Becker, James. AU - Geraldo, Victor. AU - Giron, Mario. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - In the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons, two distinguishable thiolase activities have been identified: acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT), specifically active during oxidation of short chain acetoacetyl CoA, and 3-oxoacyl CoA thiolase (OACT), active towards short, medium, and long-chain acyl CoAs. The purpose of this research was to optimize the purification of the AACT expressed in bacteria. Escherischia coli (E. coli) with the full-length sunflower AACT cDNA cloned into the expression vector pBAD-His B was induced for production of the AACT using 0.2% arabinose. Optimizing the conditions for protein purification is often an extremely empirical process requiring several iterations of a basic protocol each with specific changes. This iterative process was simplified ...
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Pex mutants are defective in peroxisome assembly. In the pex20-1 mutant strain of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica , the peroxisomal matrix protein thiolase is mislocalized exclusively to the cytosol, whereas the import of other peroxisomal proteins is unaffected. The PEX20 gene was isolated by functional complementation of the pex20-1 strain and encodes a protein, Pex20p, of 424 amino acids (47,274 D). Despite its role in the peroxisomal import of thiolase, which is targeted by an amino-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal-2 (PTS2), Pex20p does not exhibit homology to Pex7p, which acts as the PTS2 receptor. Pex20p is mostly cytosolic, whereas 4-8% is associated with high-speed (200,000 g ) pelletable peroxisomes. In the wild-type strain, all newly synthesized thiolase is associated with Pex20p in a heterotetrameric complex composed of two polypeptide chains of each protein. This association is independent of PTS2. Pex20p is required for both the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and its ...
Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Bhullar, B., Murthy, T. V., Zhu, C., Berger, M. F., Camargo, A. A., Kelley, F., McCarron, S., Jepson, D., Richardson, A., Raphael, J., Moreira, D., Taycher, E., Zuo, D., Mohr, S., Kane, M. F., Williamson, J., Simpson, A., Bulyk, M. L., Harlow, E., Marsischky, G., Kolodner, R. D., LaBaer, J. (2007). Approaching a complete repository of sequence-verified protein-encoding clones for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome Res 17:536-543.17322287 ...
This pathway mainly shows the oxidation of fatty acids. The fatty acid oxidation takes place in mitochondria in animals. This is the reverse of fatty acid biosynthesis and utilises CoA as acyl carrier. The four main enzymes involved in the degradation of fatty acids are acyl-CoA oxidase (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), Enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase. Each cycle of activities of these enzymes removes 2-carbon units in the form of acetyl-CoA. This cycle of activities can continue until the fatty acid chain is degraded to 4-carbon acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetoacetyl-CoA can then be cleaved to 2 acetyl-CoAs by the reverse action of the enzyme acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase.. This pathway may provide a carbon source in the form of acetyl-CoA for mitochondrial TCA cycle and other biosynthesis pathways. The enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase are absent in Plasmodium falciparum. There is no biochemical evidence of this pathway taking place in ...
The β-oxidation of valproic acid (VPA; 2-n-propylpentanoic acid) was investigated in vitro in intact rat liver mitochondria incubated with 3H-labelled VPA. The metabolism of [4,5-3H2]VPA and [2-3H]VPA was studied by analysing the different acyl-CoA intermediates formed by reverse-phase HPLC with radiochemical detection. Valproyl-CoA, Δ2(E)-valproyl-CoA,3-hydroxyvalproyl-CoA and 3-oxovalproyl-CoA (labelled and non-labelled) were determined using continuous on-line radiochemical and UV detection. The formation of these intermediates was investigated using the two tritiated precursors in respiratory states 3 and 4. Valproyl-CoA was present at highest concentrations under both conditions. Two distinct labelled peaks were found, which were identified as 3H2O and [4,5-3H2]3-oxo-VPA. The formation of 3H2O strongly suggested that VPA underwent complete β-oxidation and that [4,5-3H2]3-oxo-VPA was formed by hydrolysis of the corresponding thioester. The hypothesis that 3-oxovalproyl-CoA undergoes ...
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PubMed journal article: Heregulin-beta is especially potent in activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in nontransformed human mammary epithelial cells. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation. Two thiolase genes (thlA and thlB) have been cloned and sequenced from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, showing high homology to each other and to thiolases of PHA-synthesizing bacteria. The thlA gene is identical to the gene already cloned and sequenced from strain ATCC 824 (Stim- Herndon et al., 1995, Gene 154: 81-85). Using primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis a transcriptional start site was identified 102 bp upstream of the thlA start codon. This site was preceded by a region that exhibits high similarity to the s70 consensus promoter sequences of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Regulation of thlA and thlB was studied at the transcriptional level to elucidate the specific function of each gene. Non-radioactive primer extension analysis using fluorescein-labelled oligonucleotides and Northern blot analysis revealed high levels of thlA transcripts in acid- and ...
Begin Log,. Dr. Hayfield: How long have you been connected to SCP-1884-B?. SCP-1884-A: As long as I can remember. Wherever I have been, Luana has been there with me, even if only in my mind.. Dr. Hayfield: Where did SCP-1884-B come from?. SCP-1884-A: When I was still very young, I asked my mother the same question. She would not tell me. She said she did not want to frighten me.. Dr. Hayfield: Have your blindness and physical abnormalities been present since birth?. SCP-1884-A: Yes. Luana has always been my eyes. She feels the ground so I can walk. She helps me hold things. In my old age, there have been times she has carried me. I am very grateful to her.. Dr. Hayfield: What were the events that led to the incident at the hotel?. SCP-1884-A: That may take some time to explain.. Dr. Hayfield: Thats perfectly fine. Please proceed.. SCP-1884-A: When I was eight years old, men came to our house asking to buy me and Luana. My parents were upset. They always tried to hide us and keep us a secret, ...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
ATOC agreed a five year, £13 million deal with Fujitsu to refresh, enhance and streamline the hardware and applications technology used by RJIS, so that it could be supported until at least 2014. It also had to have the capacity to handle an increase in workload, largely driven by a massive growth in online sales (25% year-on-year) and greater use of Ticket-on-Departure vending-style machines used to collect ticket.
Plasmid pEB2-DsRed-Express from Dr. Philippe Cluzels lab contains the insert DsRed-Express and is published in Nat Methods. 2018 Jan;15(1):47-51. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4509. Epub 2017 Nov 20. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to explore the genetic features of a family with 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MHBDD) which may provide the basis for the diagnosis and genetic counseling. METHOD Clinical data of the proband was collected, total RNA and genomic DNA were extracted from the peripheral blood. The whole coding region of the ACAT1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR. 5 noncoding region of the ACAT1 gene and all 6 exons and flanking intron regions of the HADH2 gene were amplified by PCR. All amplification products were directly sequenced and compared with the reference sequence. RESULT (1) The patient was a one-year-old boy who presented with psychomotor retardation and astasia when he was admitted to the hospital. Biochemical test revealed slight hyperlactatemia (3.19 mmol/L) and magnetic resonance imaging showed delayed myelination. 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency was suggested by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (2) There was no mutation in the
Trimetazidine is used for the treatment of angina pectoris, and works as an anti-ischemic metabolic agent. The utilization of myocardial glucose improves through the inhibition of long-chain-3-ketacyl CoA thiolase activity, reducing fatty acid oxidation and stimulating the oxidation of glucose. High rates of fatty acid oxidation can be detrimental during spells of angina due to…
Deposition date: 2016-03-07 Original release date: 2017-03-02. Authors: Singarapu, Kiran; Ummanni, Ramesh. Citation: Singarapu, Kiran; Ahuja, Ashish; Potula, Purushotam; Ummanni, Ramesh. Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Sterol Carrier Protein 2 Like 2 (SCP2L2) Reveal the Insecticide Specific Structural Characteristics of SCP2 Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Biochemistry 55, 4919-4927 (2016).. Assembly members: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1. T2 - Report of mutations in 3 children from India. AU - Phadke, S. R.. AU - Gupta, N.. AU - Girisha, K. M.. AU - Kabra, M.. AU - Maeda, M.. AU - Vidal, E.. AU - Moser, A.. AU - Steinberg, S.. AU - Puri, R. D.. AU - Verma, I. C.. AU - Braverman, N.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by stippled epiphyses and rhizomelic shortening of the long bones. We report 3 subjects of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata from India and the PEX7 mutations identified in them. The common PEX7-L292X allele, whose high frequency is due to a founder effect in the northern European Caucasian population, was not identified in these patients. Instead, 2 novel alleles are described, including 64_65delGC, which was present on a single PEX7 haplotype and could represent a common allele in the Indian population.. AB - Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a rare ...
HADHA - HADHA (untagged)-Human hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit (HADHA), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a condition that impairs the normal development of many parts of the body. The major features of this disorder include skeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, and respiratory problems.. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is characterized by shortening of the bones in the upper arms and thighs (rhizomelia). Affected individuals also have a specific bone abnormality called chondrodysplasia punctata, which affects the growth of the long bones and can be seen on x-rays. People with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata often develop joint deformities (contractures) that make the joints stiff and painful.. Distinctive facial features are also seen with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. These include a prominent forehead, widely set eyes (hypertelorism), a sunken appearance of the middle of the face (midface hypoplasia), a small nose with upturned nostrils, and full cheeks. Additionally, almost all affected individuals ...
A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially plants. Examples demonstrate the isolation, characterization, and expression of the genes involved in the production of PHB and PHA polymers. Genes encoding the enzymes in the PHB and PHA synthetic pathway (beta-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase and PHB polymerass or PHA polymerase) from Zoogloea ramigera strain I-16-M, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Nocardia salmonicolur, and P. olevorans were identified or isolated and expressed in a non-PHB producing organism, E. coli. Specific modifications to the polymers include variation in the chain length of the polymers and incorporation of different monomers into the polymers to produce co-polymers with different physical properties.
In biochemical protein targeting, a peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) is a region of the peroxisomal protein that receptors recognize and bind to. It is responsible for specifying that proteins containing this motif are localised to the peroxisome. All peroxisomal proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and must be directed to the peroxisome. The first step in this process is the binding of the protein to a receptor. The receptor then directs the complex to the peroxisome. Receptors recognize and bind to a region of the peroxisomal protein called a peroxisomal targeting signal, or PTS. Peroxisomes consist of a matrix surrounded by a specific membrane. Most peroxisomal matrix proteins contain a short sequence, usually three amino acids at the extreme carboxy tail of the protein, that serves as the PTS. The prototypic sequence (many variations exist) is serine-lysine-leucine (-SKL in the one letter amino acid code). This motif, and its variations, is known as the PTS1, and the receptor is ...
Item #: SCP-827. Object Class: Safe. Special Containment Procedures: Site 827 has been established at the location of SCP-827s discovery. For the purposes of the Foundation, SCP-827 has been outfitted with a specialized cell reactor that allows for introduction of samples and removal of their products. Personnel actively interacting with SCP-827 are to wear full Level-C or higher Hazmat gear.. Samples introduced into SCP-827 require approval of project director. Samples from only one individual at a time are to be introduced to ensure there is no genetic cross-contamination. All samples are to be screened for genetic chimerism. In the event that more than one distinct genetic sample is introduced to SCP-827, the sample is to be removed using procedure 827-Hari and incinerated.. Tissue from the central nervous system is not to be used in SCP-827 tests following Incident 827-██.. Description: SCP-827 is a semi-solid mass of biologically active human stem cells. SCP-827 is capable of ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Glenmax PEB DM. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
... which then catalyzes the reaction between 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate and coenzyme A to form glycine and acetyl-CoA. The encoded ... Glycine C-acetyltransferase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GCAT gene. The degradation of L-threonine to glycine ... "Entrez Gene: Glycine C-acetyltransferase". Jacquot C, Lanco X, Carbonnelle D, Sevestre O, Tomasoni C, Briad G, Juget M, Roussis ...
lacA encodes β-galactoside transacetylase (LacA), an enzyme that transfers an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to thiogalactoside. ... Finally, lacA encodes Galactoside acetyltransferase. It would be wasteful to produce enzymes when no lactose is available or if ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial, also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1". Abdelkreem E, Harijan RK, Yamaguchi S, Wierenga RK, Fukao T (October 2019 ... a mitochondrially localized enzyme that catalyzes the reversible formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA ...
... acetyl CoA:alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase (type C; MIM 252930); and N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (type D; MIM 252940 ...
... inhibits choline acetyltransferase acting as a neurotoxin. It competes with acetyl-CoA. PubChem. "Phenylacetyl ... Phenylacetyl-CoA (C29H42N7O17P3S) is a form of acetyl-CoA formed from the condensation of the thiol group from coenzyme A with ... Phenylacetyl-CoA combines with water and quinone to produce phenylglyoxylyl-CoA and quinol via a phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase ... ATP + phenylacetate + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + phenylacetyl-CoA This reaction is catalyzed by phenylacetate-CoA ligase. ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... It regulates through the ratio of acetyl-CoA versus CoA. Increased concentration of acetyl-CoA activates PDK. Acetyl-CoA is ... The cytosolic acetyl-CoA can also condense with acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) which is the ... Acetyl-CoA can be carboxylated in the cytosol by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, giving rise to malonyl-CoA, a substrate required for ...
... but is also converted into N-acetylserotonin by serotonin N-acetyltransferase with acetyl-CoA. Hydroxyindole O- ... which allows the lone pair on the amine to attack acetyl-CoA, forming a tetrahedral intermediate. The thiol from coenzyme A ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... Melatonin metabolites generated from redox reactions include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine ...
N-acetyltransferases modify proteins by transferring acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to the N-termini of protein substrates. The ... N-acetyltransferase 80 (also known as NAT6 or FUS2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAA80 gene. It acetylates the ... "Entrez Gene: N-acetyltransferase 6 (GCN5-related)". Drazic A, Aksnes H, Marie M, Boczkowska M, Varland S, Timmerman E, et al. ( ... Naa80 is a member of the GNAT family of acetyltransferases. It has an overall fold similar to the other N-terminal ...
... formation requires two enzymes: phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase. acetyl-CoA + phosphate → acetyl- ... Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. This acetyl-CoA is then ... phosphate + CoA acetyl-phosphate + ADP → acetate + ATP Acetic acid can also undergo a dismutation reaction to produce methane ... It is mainly utilized by organisms in the form of acetyl coenzyme A. Intraperitoneal injection of sodium acetate (20 or 60 mg ...
Szutowicz A, Bielarczyk H, Jankowska-Kulawy A, Pawełczyk T, Ronowska A (August 2013). "Acetyl-CoA the key factor for survival ... The problem with this therapy is that choline acetyltransferase is largely blocked by the blood-brain barrier. PTD-ChAT is a ... It is normal in aging for circadian rhythms to deteriorate as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) fluctuations change in pattern ... Alzheimer's typically involves a decline in the activity of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, as well as a ...
Acetate formation requires two enzymes: phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase. acetyl-CoA + phosphate → acetyl- ... NAD+ Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. This acetyl-CoA is then ... pyruvate + CoAacetyl-CoA + formate Succinate is formed in E. coli in several steps. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolysis ... This two-step reaction requires the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE). acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ → acetaldehyde + NAD+ + CoA ...
"Acetyl coenzyme A: salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from Papaver somniferum plant cell cultures: The enzyme catalyzing the ... an esterification of the hydroxyl group previously reduced in the conversion of salutaridine to salutaridinol with acetyl-CoA. ... This step is mediated by the enzyme salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase. The second step is a ring closure achieved by a ... "Molecular characterization of the salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase involved in morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy Papaver ...
The C13 alcohol is then acetylated by an acetyltransferase (AT1) using acetyl-CoA. Another cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP82X1) ... A methyltransferase heterodimer (OMT2:OMT3) catalyzes a SAM-mediated O-methylation on C4′. The O-acetyl group is then cleaved ...
... (EC, MshD) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:desacetylmycothiol O-acetyltransferase. ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction desacetylmycothiol + acetyl-CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA ... encoding the acetyltransferase producing mycothiol in actinomycetes". Archives of Microbiology. 178 (5): 331-7. doi:10.1007/ ... from Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows structural homology to the GNAT family of N-acetyltransferases". Protein Science. 12 (9 ...
... lysine S-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include: acetyl-CoA:dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA: ... acetyl-CoA S-acetyltransferase, lipoate acetyltransferase, lipoate transacetylase, lipoic acetyltransferase, lipoic acid ... dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase) gene. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl) ... This involves the transformation of pyruvate from glycolysis into acetyl-CoA which is then used in the citric acid cycle to ...
In yeast, acetyl-CoA synthetase delivers acetyl-CoA to histone acetyltransferases for histone acetylation. Without correct ... Longrightarrow Acetyl-CoA} A c e t y l − C o A ⟹ F A s {\displaystyle Acetyl-CoA\Longrightarrow FAs} Acetyl-CoA from the ... CoA <=> AMP + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA Once acetyl-CoA is formed it can be used in the TCA cycle in aerobic respiration to ... Acetyl Co-A can also be used in fatty acid synthesis, and a common function of the synthetase is to produce acetyl Co-A for ...
Glucose is converted to acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which produces acetyl-CoA from glucose-derived ... The process is aided by factors known as histone acetyltransferases (HATs). HAT molecules facilitate the transfer of an acetyl ... Glucose availability affects the intracellular pool of acetyl-CoA, a central metabolic intermediate that is also the acetyl ... group from a molecule of acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) to the NH3+ group on lysine. When a lysine is to be deacetylated, ...
... "acetyl-CoA:heparan-α-D-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase" and "acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase") is an ... acetyl-CoA + heparan sulfate α-D-glucosaminide ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + heparan sulfate N-acetyl-α-D- ... Pohlmann R, Klein U, Fromme HG, von Figura K (1981). "Localisation of acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase in ... deficiency of acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase in skin fibroblasts". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75 (10): ...
CoA + vinorine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and 16-epivellosimine, whereas its two products are CoA ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acyl-CoA:16-epivellosimine O-acetyltransferase (cyclizing). This enzyme ... In enzymology, a vinorine synthase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + 16- ...
HATs acetylate by converting the lysine side group of amino acids with the addition of an acetyl group from an acetyl CoA ... Swank MW, Sweatt JD (May 2001). "Increased histone acetyltransferase and lysine acetyltransferase activity and biphasic ... Acetylation involves the replacement of a hydrogen with an acetyl group. In a biological context, acetylation is most often ... The acetylation reaction is most often catalyzed by enzymes that contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. HATs are ...
... the enzyme serine acetyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of acetyl group from acetyl-CoA onto L-serine to yield O-acetyl-L- ... The following reaction step, catalyzed by the enzyme O-acetyl serine (thiol) lyase, replaces the acetyl group of O-acetyl-L- ... glutamate is acetylated by transferring the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA at the N-α position; this prevents spontaneous ... The acetyl group of acetylornithine is removed by the enzyme acetylornithinase (AO) or ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT), and ...
... of transcription as well as its assistance of RNA polymerase II in transcription elongation through chromatin and acetyl-CoA ... This gene encodes a component of the six subunit elongator complex, a histone acetyltransferase complex that associates ... Furthermore, Elp4 is needed for histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity which makes DNA more accessible for transcription. The ... "Elongator is a histone H3 and H4 acetyltransferase important for normal histone acetylation levels in vivo". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
All members of this family contain a MYST region of about 240 amino acids with a canonical acetyl-CoA-binding site and a C2HC- ... K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KAT8 gene. The MYST family of histone ... Neal KC, Pannuti A, Smith ER, Lucchesi JC (Jan 2000). "A new human member of the MYST family of histone acetyl transferases ... Taipale M, Rea S, Richter K, Vilar A, Lichter P, Imhof A, Akhtar A (Aug 2005). "hMOF histone acetyltransferase is required for ...
... producing acetyl-CoA. This irreversible reaction traps the acetyl-CoA within the mitochondria (the acetyl-CoA can only be ... The E2 subunit, or dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase, for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is generally composed of three domains ... is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. Acetyl-CoA ... Finally, the C-terminal (catalytic) domain catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups and acetyl-CoA synthesis. The E3 subunit, ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:glyoxylate C-acetyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, carboxymethyl- ... CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, H2O, and glyoxylate, whereas its two products are (S)-malate and CoA. This ... it is thought to convert citramalyl-CoA into pyruvate and acetyl-CoA. Without this conversion, itaconyl-CoA, a precursor to ... Upon binding, the acetyl-CoA molecule forms a J-shape inserted into the binding pocket, by an intramolecular hydrogen bond ...
Acetyl-CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase - an enzyme involved in floral scent production in Clarkia breweri. Plant J 14: 297- ... They are CoA-dependent enzymes that transfer acylated moieties (RC(O)R') of an acyl-activated CoA thioester donor to an ... B: Benzyl alcohol O-acetyltransferase (BEAT), an acetyltransferase from the California wild flower Clarkia breweri, also known ... These are benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol O-benzoyltransferase (PtBEBT) that produces benzyl benzoate from benzoyl-CoA and benzyl ...
Biochemical characterization of 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-P:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in rat spleen". J. Biol. Chem. 261 ( ... Other names in common use include 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-P:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, and alkylacetylglycerophosphate ... Lee TC, Malone B, Snyder F (1986). "A new de novo pathway for the formation of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols, precursors of ... The enzyme alkylacetylglycerophosphatase (EC catalyzes the reaction 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + H2O ...
N-Acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines and aromatic amines ... These studies claim that ABT is a more potent inhibitor of N-acetyltransferase 2 compared with N-acetyltransferase 1. Strong JM ... This reaction is known as an acetylation reaction, that refers to the process of introducing an acetyl group (resulting in an ... Procainamide is metabolized in the liver to acecainide by N-acetyltransferase, an enzyme that is genetically determined. ...
... is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme ... catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... DTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose acyltransferase (EC, TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase, WECD, RFFC) ... rightleftharpoons } CoA + dTDP-4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose TDP-4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose takes part in ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetoacetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, ... acetyl-CoA + H2O + acetoacetyl-CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + CoA The 3 ... This results in shunting of excess acetyl-CoA into the ketone synthesis pathway via HMG-CoA, leading to the development of ... 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA acetoacetyl-CoA-lyase, (CoA-acetylating), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthetase, 3-hydroxy-3 ...
He also demonstrated that generation of acetyl-CoA at the gene promoter regions by nuclear acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) ... which known as a histone acetyltransferase. KAT2A gains a new function and acts as a histone H3 succinyltransferase to regulate ... gene expression by locally catalyzing succinyl-CoA generated by α-KGDH. ...
CoA + O-acetyl-L-serine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and L-serine, whereas its two products are CoA ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:L-serine O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include SATase, ... In enzymology, a serine O-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + L- ... More specifically, its role is to catalyse the activation of L-serine by acetyl-CoA.This entry refers to the N-terminus of the ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... CoA + polysialic acid acetylated on O-7 or O-9 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and alpha-2,8-linked ... In enzymology, a polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... Higa HH, Varki A (1988). "Acetyl-coenzyme A:polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase from K1-positive Escherichia coli. The enzyme ...
Because oxaloacetate is crucial for entry of acetyl-CoA into the TCA cycle, the rapid production of acetyl-CoA from fatty acid ... 3-Hydroxyisovaleryl CoA is likely detoxified by carnitine acetyltransferase producing 3HIA-carnitine, which is transported ... This metabolic pathway is as follows: butyrate→butyryl-CoA→crotonyl-CoA→β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA→poly-β-hydroxybutyrate→D-β-(D-β- ... Metabolic impairment diverts methylcrotonyl CoA to 3-hydroxyisovaleryl CoA in a reaction catalyzed by enoyl-CoA hydratase (22, ...
... acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2) gene Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. ... Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic, also known as cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, is an enzyme that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2". Human ACAT2 genome location and ACAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Ohta T, Takata K, Katsuren K, Fukuyama S (Jun 2004). "The influence of the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene (−77G→A ...
CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and ribosomal-protein L- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:ribosomal-protein-L-alanine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also ... alanine, whereas its two products are CoA and ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:D-glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the primary amine in glucosamide-6-phosphate, ... The Acetyl-CoA bounded to the enzyme is shown in light pink, and the product still bound to the catalytic site is shown in ... The reaction proceeds with the restoration of the carbonyl by removing the CoA as a leaving group, such that now the acetyl ...
... (NAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines, ... In reaction one acetyl-CoA initially binds to the enzyme and acetylates Cys68. In reaction two, after acetyl-CoA is released, ... and can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without CoA. N-acetyltransferases are cytosolic enzymes found in the ... The C-terminus helps bind acetyl CoA and differs among NATs including prokaryotic homologues. NAT1 and NAT2 have different but ...
In enzymology, a monoterpenol O-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:monoterpenol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also called menthol ... the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and monoterpenol, whereas its two products are CoA and monoterpenol acetate ... a monoterpenol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + a monoterpenol acetate ester Thus, ...
8-O-acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetylneuraminate-7- or 8-O-acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetylneuraminate-7- and/or 8-O ... acetyl-CoA:N-acetylneuraminate-9(7)-O-acetyltransferase, N-acetylneuraminate O7-(or O9-)acetyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA:N- ... CoA + N-acetyl-7-O(or 9-O)-acetylneuraminate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and N-acetylneuraminate, ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:N-acetylneuraminate 7-O(or 9-O)-acetyltransferase. Other names in common ...
4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase, acetyl CoA-arylamine N-acetyltransferase, 2-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase, arylamine ... In enzymology, an arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + an ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... N-acetyltransferase, p-aminosalicylate N-acetyltransferase, serotonin acetyltransferase, and serotonin N-acetyltransferase. As ...
CoA + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and alpha-D-glucosamine 1 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme ... whereas its two products are CoA and N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
... complex that specifically catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the N-terminal primary amino group of ... a central acetyl CoA-binding region, and C-terminal segments that are similar to the corresponding regions in Naa50, another Nα ... acetyltransferases and point to hNaa10p as the post-translational actin N(alpha)-acetyltransferase". Molecular & Cellular ... Xu H, Jiang B, Meng L, Ren T, Zeng Y, Wu J, Qu L, Shou C (June 2012). "N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein inhibits apoptosis ...
Other names in common use include D-tryptophan acetyltransferase, and acetyl-CoA-D-tryptophan-alpha-N-acetyltransferase. Zenk ... N-acetyl-D-tryptophan Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and D-tryptophan, whereas its two products are CoA ... In enzymology, a D-tryptophan N-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:D-tryptophan N-acetyltransferase. ...
6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + ... 6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase (EC, PseH) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:UDP ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + UDP-2,4-bis(acetamido)-2,4,6- ... UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine+N-acetyltransferase+ at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... by the pre-synaptic neuron and ACh is synthesized by combining with acetyl-CoA through the action of choline acetyltransferase ...
... acetyl-CoA and histone) must bind to form a ternary complex with the enzyme before catalysis can occur. Acetyl-CoA binds first ... The basic mechanism catalyzed by HATs involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the ε-amino group of a target ... are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to ... There is a seven-stranded β-sheet that is surrounded by α-helices as well as a loop that is involved in acetyl-CoA substrate ...
CoA + N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and N-acetylneuraminate, whereas ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:N-acetylneuraminate 4-O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... Substrate and intracellular localization of bovine acetyl-coenzyme A: N-acetylneuraminate-7- and 8-O-acetyltransferase]". Hoppe ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + N-acetylneuraminate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
... acetyl-CoA synthase EC (butirosin acyl-carrier protein)-L-glutamate ligase EC 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA ligase ... EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC Choline acetyltransferase EC Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ... Glutarate-CoA ligase EC Cholate-CoA ligase EC Oxalate-CoA ligase EC Malate-CoA ligase EC ... Acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) EC Biotin-CoA ligase EC 4-coumarate-CoA ligase EC Acetate-CoA ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:taxan-10beta-ol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also called acetyl ... CoA + taxuyunnanin C Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and 10-desacetyltaxuyunnanin C, whereas its two ... In enzymology, a 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... Menhard B, Zenk MH (1999). "Purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: 10-hydroxytaxane O-acetyltransferase from ...
... likewise binds to HTATIP, a histone acetyl transferase that regulates the expression of various genes involved in gene ... Nordentoft I, Jørgensen P (August 2003). "The acetyltransferase 60 kDa trans-acting regulatory protein of HIV type 1- ... a Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase); h) transporter gene ARNT (binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon receptor to aid in its ...
In biological organisms, acetyl groups are commonly transferred from acetyl-CoA to other organic molecules. Acetyl-CoA is an ... For example, on the DNA level, histone acetylation by acetyltransferases (HATs) causes an expansion of chromatin architecture, ... Acetyl-CoA is also created during the second stage of cellular respiration, pyruvate decarboxylation, by the action of pyruvate ... The acetyl moiety is a component of many organic compounds, including acetic acid, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, acetyl- ...
... (EC, FgaAT) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:fumigaclavine B O- ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + fumigaclavine B ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + ... Fumigaclavine+B+O-acetyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC ...
... which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. Transferases are also utilized during translation. In this case, an amino acid chain is ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiency (or SCOT deficiency) leads to a buildup of ketones.Ketones are created upon ... ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ...
CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, acetyl-CoA, and two products, CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA C ... acetyl coenzyme A thiolase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetyltransferase, and thiolase II. This enzyme ... In enzymology, an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 acetyl-CoA ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ...
Acetyl-CoA: lyso-platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase activity in neutrophils from asthmatic and normal subjects. ... Dive into the research topics of Acetyl-CoA: lyso-platelet-activating factor acetyltransferase activity in neutrophils from ...
acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript.. ... It converts a molecule called 2-methyl-acetoacetyl-CoA into two smaller molecules, propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, that can be ... The enzyme converts a molecule called acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA, which can be used to produce energy. In ... Structure and expression of the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase-encoding gene. Gene. 1991 Dec 30;109(2):285-90. ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA): alpha-glucosamide N -acetyltransferase. MPS type III-D ... Furthermore, it suggests that this enzyme belongs to a new structural class of proteins that transport the activated acetyl ... 12q14 (Sanfilippo syndrome): The diagnosis requires a specific lysosomal enzyme assay for glucosamine (N -acetyl)-6-sulfatase ( ...
... succinyl-CoA. rxn00423. Cysteine and methionine metabolism. Serine O-acetyltransferase. Acetyl-CoA + l-serine ,= CoA + O-acetyl ... our FSEOF simulation identified the enzyme serine O-acetyltransferase (catalysing the formation of serine from CoA and O-acetyl ... Succinate-CoA ligase (ADP forming). ATP + CoA + succinate =, ADP + phosphate + ...
... this is also known as acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (ACAT). Afterward, acetoacetyl-CoA is converted to HMG-CoA via the ... and then broken down into acetyl CoA via beta-oxidation. Two acetyl-CoA molecules are converted into acetoacetyl-CoA via the ... and acetoacetate is converted back to acetyl-CoA via the enzyme beta-ketoacyl-CoA transferase. Acetyl-CoA goes through the ... Due to decreased activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, decreasing malonyl CoA, which disinhibits Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase ...
beta-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase;. 4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase;. acetyl CoA-arylamine N-acetyltransferase;. 2- ... naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase;. arylamine acetyltransferase;. indoleamine N-acetyltransferase;. N-acetyltransferase ( ... Wide specificity for aromatic amines, including serotonin; also catalyses acetyl-transfer between arylamines without CoA.. ... Further studies on anthranilate N-acetyltransferase and the metabolism of N-acetylanthranilic acid in Aerobacter aerogenes. ...
View Goat Polyclonal anti-Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody (NBP1-30052). Validated Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr ... from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.; CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine.; ... Alternate Names for Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody. *acetyl CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase ... Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody Summary. Immunogen. Native choline acetyltransferase purifed from human placenta ...
Acetyl CoA: ⍺-glucosaminide acetyltransferase - Lysosomal enzyme deficient in MPS III-C.. Adenoids: The collection of lymphatic ... MPS III-C: Caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acetyl CoA: α-glucosaminide acetyltransferase. 7 ... MPS III-D: Caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl glucosamine 6-sulfatase. ...
CMS1A, CMS1A2, choline acetyltransferase, acetyl CoA, choline O-acetyltransferase. Host Species. Rabbit. ... ChAT catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. ...
Cloning and characterization of acetyl-CoA:LYSO-PAF acetyltransferase. . J. Biol. Chem. ... The acetyltransferases were also predicted based on known information about binding sites of these enzymes. The score indicates ... LPCAT2 gene and protein sequence is homologous to other lysine acetyltransferases. About 50-70% homology is required to ... Analysis of the relatedness of LPCAT2 to commonly known lysine acetyltransferases (KATs). Using R Statistical Programming ...
... lividans Acetyl-CoA Synthetase that Block Acetylation of Its Active Site Lysine In Vitro by the Protein Acetyltransferase (Pat ... acyl-CoA synthetases) family of metabolic enzymes, with acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) being the paradigm in the field. Here we ... Lividans Acetyl-CoA Synthetase That Block Acetylation of Its Active Site Lysine In Vitro by the Protein Acetyltransferase (Pat ... A strong case has been made for RLA control exerted by homologues of the Salmonella enterica protein acetyltransferase (SePat) ...
... in NAA synthesis in neuronal mitochondria by addition of glutamate-derived aspartate to an acetyl group derived from acetyl-CoA ... in a reaction catalysed by L-aspartate-N-acetyltransferase.[81] Conversely, NAA has been postulated to serve as a reservoir of ...
M00579 Phosphate acetyltransferase-acetate kinase pathway, acetyl-CoA => acetate [PATH:T30489_00430 T30489_00620 T30489_00720 ... M00307 Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:T30489_00010 T30489_00020 T30489_00620 T30489_01200 T30489_01100]. ... M00086 beta-Oxidation, acyl-CoA synthesis [PATH:T30489_00061 T30489_00071 T30489_01212 T30489_01100]. M00087 beta-Oxidation [ ... M00525 Lysine biosynthesis, acetyl-DAP pathway, aspartate => lysine [PATH:T30489_00300 T30489_01230 T30489_01100]. M00526 ...
acetaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating). R00238 acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. ... succinyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase. R01295 benzoate,[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (4- ... benzoyl-CoA,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2,3-epoxydizing). R09556 2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoyl-CoA (3Z)-6-oxohex-3-enoyl-CoA- ... Benzoyl-CoA degradation, benzoyl-CoA =, 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA [PATH:rn00362]. M00547 Benzene/toluene degradation, benzene =, ...
Cortisol O-Acetyltransferase Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Enzyme substrate (biology), Acetyl-CoA, Cortisol, Coenzyme A ... Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Enzyme substrate (biology), Malonyl-CoA, Coenzyme A, Transferase, Acyltransferase ...
Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Enzyme substrate (biology), Acetyl-CoA, Coenzyme A, ... Glycerophospholipid Acyltransferase (CoA-Dependent) Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Enzyme substrate (biology), ...
Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase is directly activated by p38 kinase. 1999 Nixon, A. B ... Dephosphorylation of protein (Acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase) in microsome preps by ...
enoyl-CoA hydratase. 66. SEQF2963,KV804687.1. OFK78110.1 jb [NA] [AA] 1188/395. 25932-24745. acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase. ... enoyl-CoA hydratase. 68. SEQF2963,KV804687.1. OFK78112.1 jb [NA] [AA] 1104/367. 27533-26430. UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine 2- ... bifunctional biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] synthetase/biotin operon repressor. 136. SEQF2963,KV804746.1. OFK78332.1 jb [NA ... 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. 65. SEQF2963,KV804687.1. OFK78109.1 jb [NA] [AA] 777/258. 24743-23967. ...
... catalyzed by acetyl CoA-dependent arylamine acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, may play an important role in the intricate series ... catalyzed by acetyl CoA-dependent arylamine acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, may play an important role in the intricate series ... Human acetyltransferase polymorphisms Mutat Res. 1997 May 12;376(1-2):61-70. doi: 10.1016/s0027-5107(97)00026-2. ... Two independently regulated and kinetically distinct human acetyltransferases are now known to exist, namely NAT1 and NAT2. ...
Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. Model: iECO103_1326. Reaction:. 2.0 accoa_c ⇌ aacoa_c + coa_c ... BioCyc: META:ACETYL-COA-ACETYLTRANSFER-RXN *Reactome Reaction: R-ATH-73916, R-ATH-74181, R-BTA-73916, R-BTA-74181, R-BTA- ...
... acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and benzoyl-CoA reductase. These results suggest that the microbial response to anthropogenic ... of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes (Egland et al., 1997) was detected in GoM315 and GoM278, but not GoM023, the site farthest from ... bss and benzoyl-CoA reductase) of compounds such as butyrate, benzoate, toluene, and alkanoic acids (Table S1 in Supplementary ...
In the cytoplasm, acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase ( ... Acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized in the cytoplasm from acetyl-CoA and choline through the catalytic action of the enzyme ... choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Acetyl-CoA is synthesized in mitochondria, which are present in large numbers in the nerve ...
Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase. 26. SEQF2033,AEJQ02000001.1. SEQF2033_00026 jb [NA] [AA] 1344/447. 23593-22250. Putative short- ... Acetate CoA-transferase subunit alpha. 29. SEQF2033,AEJQ02000001.1. SEQF2033_00029 jb [NA] [AA] 897/298. 25200-26096. HTH-type ... Acetate CoA-transferase subunit beta. 28. SEQF2033,AEJQ02000001.1. SEQF2033_00028 jb [NA] [AA] 654/217. 24926-24273. ... 2-succinylbenzoate--CoA ligase. 116. SEQF2033,AEJQ02000003.1. SEQF2033_00116 jb [NA] [AA] 543/180. 70790-70248. hypothetical ...
acetyl-CoA + alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate <=> CoA + H(+) + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate. ...
Pyruvate, generated in the course of degradation of sugars and sugar acids, is further oxidized to acetyl-CoA in the reactions ... dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) (THTE_2674), and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) (THTE_2676). ... acetate could be formed under the action of putative ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (THTE_2996), as it was shown for few ... catalyzing the NADH-dependent reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde (Toth et al., 1999), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (THTE_ ...
... macroautophagy and cellular acetyl-CoA metabolism 1 ... Endoplasmic reticulum acetyltransferases Atase1 and Atase2 ...
Accepted name: glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. Reaction: acetyl-CoA + D-glucosamine = CoA + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Other name ... s): glucosamine acetylase; glucosamine acetyltransferase. Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. Links ...
SR-A1 and LOX-1 and induces acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase-mediated lipid deposition, which leads to foam cell formation and ...
Transfer of an acetyl group (CH3CO-) from one compound to another; such reactions, usually involving formation of acetyl-CoA, ... Comparison of protein acetyltransferase action of crtaase with the prototypes of HAT ... Transfer of an acetyl group (CH3CO-), from one compound to another; such reactions, usually involving formation of acetyl-CoA, ... by aspirin through a transacetylation reaction are examples of nonenzymatic protein acetylation independent of acetyl CoA.. ...
  • In enzymology, an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2 acetyl-CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, acetyl-CoA, and two products, CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase. (
  • The enzyme converts a molecule called acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA, which can be used to produce energy. (
  • 12q14 (Sanfilippo syndrome): The diagnosis requires a specific lysosomal enzyme assay for glucosamine ( N -acetyl)-6-sulfatase (GNS) activity. (
  • Although it is the primary site that produces ketone bodies, the liver does not use ketone bodies because it lacks the necessary enzyme beta ketoacyl-CoA transferase. (
  • Afterward, acetoacetyl-CoA is converted to HMG-CoA via the enzyme HMG-CoA synthase. (
  • Once they reach extrahepatic tissues, beta-hydroxybutyrate is converted to acetoacetate via the enzyme beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and acetoacetate is converted back to acetyl-CoA via the enzyme beta-ketoacyl-CoA transferase. (
  • glucosaminide acetyltransferase - Lysosomal enzyme deficient in MPS III-C. (
  • A strong case has been made for RLA control exerted by homologues of the Salmonella enterica protein acetyltransferase (SePat) enzyme on the broadly distributed AMP-forming CoA ligase (a.k.a. acyl-CoA synthetases) family of metabolic enzymes, with acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) being the paradigm in the field. (
  • Here we investigate why the Acs homologue in Streptomyces lividans (SlAcs) is poorly acetylated in vitro by the S. lividans protein acetyltransferase (SlPat) enzyme. (
  • The product of this gene is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and it encodes cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. (
  • In metazoans, the predominant source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA is the essential enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY). (
  • 10-DAB is also one of the key intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway of Taxol and is converted into baccatin III by the enzyme 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10- O -acetyltransferase (DBAT). (
  • Acetylcholine is formed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase , an axoplasmic enzyme, from acetyl-CoA and choline. (
  • Outer mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferase, minor ethanol-inducible enzyme involved in transpor. (
  • N-acetyltransferase 2 enzyme . (
  • N-acetyltransferase is a phase II detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolize aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke, and carcinogens. (
  • In its acetyl form, coenzyme … The enzymes involved in acetyl-CoA formation from pyruvate and in acetate formation from acetyl-CoA were investigated: These data indicate that acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP forming) represents a typical archaeal property rather than an enzyme specific for hyperthermophiles. (
  • The enzyme contains biotin and adds a CO2 (resulting in a carboxyl group) to the methyl end of acetyl CoA. (
  • The deficient enzyme in Sanfilippo syndrome C, or MPS IIIC, is an acetyltransferase that catalyzes the conversion of alpha-glucosaminide residues to N-acetylglucosaminide in the presence of acetyl-CoA.For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Sanfilippo syndrome, see MPS IIIA ( OMIM ). (
  • Acetylcholine is synthesized from the compounds choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase in some neurons. (
  • An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. (
  • Steady-state kinetic experiments demonstrate that the enzyme utilizes a ping-pong kinetic mechanism in which the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA is initially transferred to an enzyme nucleophile before subsequent transfer to homoserine to form the final product, O-acetylhomoserine. (
  • Direct evidence for the formation of an acetyl-enzyme intermediate was obtained using rapid-quench labeling studies. (
  • which is catalyzed by the enzyme glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. (
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway to LEUCINE, forming isopropyl malate from acetyl-CoA and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid. (
  • Evaluation from PHT-427 the pleiotropic ramifications of herbicide level of resistance alleles over the complete life-cycle of the weed varieties offers only been completed to day for three mutant alleles from the nuclear gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) that endow level of resistance to herbicides focusing on this enzyme in the diploid (2n = 14 [9]) lawn weed Huds. (
  • Abdelkreem E, Harijan RK, Yamaguchi S, Wierenga RK, Fukao T. Mutation update on ACAT1 variants associated with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency. (
  • The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. (
  • 2016) show that oncogenic tyrosine kinases can promote glycolysis by phosphorylating and stabilizing the tetrameric form of mitochondrial acetyl-coA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1). (
  • In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. (
  • Beta-ketothiolase deficiency (mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, MAT or T2 deficiency) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of isoleucine and ketone body metabolism due to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) gene mutations. (
  • Carnitine acetyl-CoA transferase present in both mitochondria and peroxisomes, transfers activated a. (
  • AF525684_1 putative mitochondrial/peroxisomal carnitine acetyl transferase. (
  • In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). (
  • The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzymecomplex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), andprovides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. (
  • The PDHcomplex is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvatedehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase(E3). (
  • Introduction The pyruvate dehydrogenase activator dichloroacetate (DCA) is a small molecule that has been used in humans for decades as a treatment for acquired and congenital forms of lactacidosis by shifting pyruvate metabolism from cytoplasmic lactate production to oxidative production of acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria [1]. (
  • Kano M, Fukao T, Yamaguchi S, Orii T, Osumi T, Hashimoto T. Structure and expression of the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase-encoding gene. (
  • Cytosolic acetyl-CoA is crucial for lipid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and gene regulation. (
  • We also explore the direct interaction of ACLY with protein acetyltransferases as a means of gene regulation. (
  • Mao J, Chirala SS, Wakil SJ: Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 gene: presence of three promoters and heterogeneity at the 5'-untranslated mRNA region. (
  • MPS IIIA ( 252900 )results from a defect in the heparan sulfate sulfatase gene SGSH (17q25.3), type IIIB ( 252920 )from a defect in the N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminidase gene NAGLU (17q21), type IIIC ( 252930 ) from a defect in the acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase gene HGSNAT (8p11.1), and type IIID ( 252940 ) from a defect in the N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase gene GNS (12q14). (
  • We finally added the expression of a yeast acetyltransferase gene ATF1 and could then confirm also ( Z )-11-hexadecenyl acetate release from the plant. (
  • Knock-down of the plastid-encoded acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene uncovers functions in metabolism and development. (
  • Fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aqueolei was co-expressed with SpCas9 in R. toruloides IFO0880 and a panel of gene overexpressions and Cas9-mediated gene deletions were explored to increase the fatty alcohol production. (
  • The present study was designed to investigate the effects of isoflavone genistein exposure at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 μM on the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene expression in the estrogen receptor positive DLD-1 human colon cancer cell line. (
  • LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene expressions were evaluated by reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. (
  • Genistein induced an increase of LDL receptor gene expression and later decrease of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in DLD-1 cells. (
  • These findings provide direct evidence on the role of genistein in regulating LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene expression in colon cancer. (
  • The acetylation of cyclooxygenase [8] and other cellular proteins [9] by aspirin through a transacetylation reaction are examples of nonenzymatic protein acetylation independent of acetyl CoA. (
  • This review sets out what we know about the broader substrate specificity and regulation of acetyl- ases and goes on to compare acetylation with the process of phosphorylation. (
  • It is also known that the histone acetyltransferase p300 can induce PCK1 acetylation in cells, but whether that is a direct or indirect function was not known. (
  • Decreased histone H4R3 symmetric methylation is followed by increased nuclear acetylation of H4K5, and is rescued by pharmacological inhibition of histone acetyltransferases. (
  • During acetylation, Acetyl Co-A is attached to toxins to make them less harmful and easy to excrete. (
  • You will further uncover a bit about the function of coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA is a thioester between the acyl group carrier, acetic acid and a thiol, coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA, as a carrier of acyl groups, is an essential cofactor in the posttranslational acetylation reactions of histone and nonhistone proteins catalyzed by HATs. (
  • Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which regulates the rate of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland, catalyzes the acetylation of 5HT to N-acetylserotonin (NAS). (
  • The N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes are responsible for acetylation. (
  • In Haemophilus influenzae, acylation is accomplished via an acetyl-CoA-dependent acetylation catalyzed by homoserine transacetylase. (
  • The first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. (
  • A. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase. (
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (to get mutant alleles carrying an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution in codon 1781 that endows herbicide level of resistance. (
  • Polymerization regulates the catalytic activity of CTPS (10C12), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (13), and glutamine synthetase (14), but its function is definitely less clear for many enzymes, including IMPDH. (
  • Acetyl CoA is produced during metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. (
  • Endoplasmic reticulum acetyltransferases Atase1 and Atase2 differentially regulate reticulophagy, macroautophagy and cellular acetyl-CoA metabolism " was published in April in the journal Communications Biology . (
  • UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. (
  • Fatty alcohols, a fatty acid derivative widely used in the production of detergents and surfactants, can be produced microbially with the expression of a heterologous fatty acyl-CoA reductase. (
  • The fatty alcohol titer of fatty acyl-CoA reductase-expressing R. toruloides was significantly improved through the deletion of LRO1 , or the deletion of DGA1 combined with overexpression of ACC1 and ACL1 . (
  • Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membrane and the main pathway through which proliferating cells gain cholesterol is de novo synthesis of endogenous cholesterol regulated by the activity of 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase. (
  • A loss of LDL receptor in tumors is expected to remove feedback inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, stimulating endogenous mevalonate pathway [ 10 ]. (
  • Other names in common use include acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, beta-acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase, 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase [misleading], 3-oxothiolase, acetyl coenzyme A thiolase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, acetyl-CoA:N-acetyltransferase, and thiolase II. (
  • this is also known as acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (ACAT). (
  • In this reaction acetyl-Coenzyme A ( which is a two-carbon molecule) is produced from pyruvate ( three-carbon molecule, produced from glycolysis). (
  • coenzyme A carries acetyl to the citric acid cycle. (
  • When an acetyl group is added to the tail of CoA, the whole molecule becomes known as acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). (
  • Transfer of an acetyl group (CH 3 CO−) in a chemical reaction. (
  • Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA. (
  • Catalysis of the reaction: L-serine + acetyl-CoA = O-acetyl-L-serine + CoA. (
  • Lipoic acid can act simply as an oxidizing agent, or it can simultaneously take part in two reactions-a redox reaction and the shift of an acetyl group by transesterification. (
  • The correct answer is Link reaction ( formation of acetyle CoA from pyruvate). (
  • Solvent kinetic isotope effect studies yielded inverse effects of 0.75 on V and 0.74 on V/K(CoA) on the reverse reaction and effects of 1.2 on V and 1.7 on V/K(homoserine) on the forward reaction. (
  • While acetyl CoA can be synthesized via pyruvate or amino acids, it can also be formed by the breakdown of acyl-CoA. (
  • After the formation of Pyruvate through the glycolysis pathway, it may enter into different … In humans, CoA biosynthesis requires cysteine, pantothenate, and adenosine triphosphate. (
  • Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. (
  • In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the genes hsaD (2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid hydrolase) and nat (arylamine N-acetyltransferase) are essential for survival inside of host macrophages. (
  • Conjugation of primary amino and hydroxylamino groups with acetate, catalyzed by acetyl CoA-dependent arylamine acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, may play an important role in the intricate series of metabolic pathways that produce or prevent toxicity following exposure to homo- and heterocyclic arylamine and hydrazine xenobiotics. (
  • Butanoyl-CoA Acetate. (
  • Changes in the functioning of the NAT1 and NAT2 genes (genetic polymorphisms) can affect the body's capacity to add an acetyl group to the above toxins. (
  • Fatty acids are brought into the mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) and then broken down into acetyl CoA via beta-oxidation. (
  • In mitochondria the acetyl-coA combined with choline and with the help of choline acetyltransferase formed acetylcholine. (
  • Acetyl-CoA formation occurs inside or outside the cell mitochondria. (
  • Acetyl-CoA goes through the citric acid cycle, and after oxidative phosphorylation, produces 22 ATP per molecule. (
  • In contrast to glucose, ketone bodies thus bypass cytoplasmic glycolysis and directly enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl-CoA. (
  • Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. (
  • Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase belongs to the thiolase family of enzymes. (
  • Thiolase are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketoacyl-CoA. (
  • Metabolic engineering is applied on the acetyl-CoA transportation system, but not the key enzymes in beta-oxidation. (
  • The NAT enzymes are also called arylamine N-acetyltransferases. (
  • N acetyltransferase deficiency occurs as a result of low levels of NAT enzymes in the body. (
  • Moreover, further research is required to characterise LPCAT2 as a protein acetyltransferase. (
  • Ghosh B, Barbosa E, Singh I: Molecular cloning and sequencing of human palmitoyl-CoA ligase and its tissue specific expression. (
  • Choline acetylase catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. (
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine. (
  • AF525683_1 putative cytosolic carnitine acetyltransferase [Candida albican. (
  • Two overexpression targets ( ACL1 and ACC1 , improving cytosolic acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production, respectively) and two deletion targets (the acyltransferases DGA1 and LRO1 ) resulted in significant (1.8 to 4.4-fold) increases to the fatty alcohol titer in culture tubes. (
  • FitzPatrick DR, Hill A, Tolmie JL, Thorburn DR, Christodoulou J: The molecular basis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. (
  • Sacksteder KA, Morrell JC, Wanders RJ, Matalon R, Gould SJ: MCD encodes peroxisomal and cytoplasmic forms of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase and is mutated in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency. (
  • A case of 2-methylacetoacetyl CoA thiolase deficiency with coincidental chromosome abnormalities. (
  • Mps3c Is also known as sanfilippo syndrome c, mps iiic, acetyl-coa:alpha-glucosaminide n-acetyltransferase deficiency. (
  • It converts a molecule called 2-methyl-acetoacetyl-CoA into two smaller molecules, propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, that can be used to produce energy. (
  • Comment: Produces two acetyl-CoA from acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA. (
  • TBNAT was found to be able to utilize not just acetyl-CoA, but also n-propionyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, although at a lower rate. (
  • HMG-CoA lyase then converts HMG-CoA to acetoacetate. (
  • Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate are almost exclusively synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA that results from the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. (
  • However, both MCAs and DCAs may be degraded to acetyl-CoA by beta-oxidation, resulting in a limited DCA yield. (
  • Acetyl-CoA can be transported into the mitochondrion for the TCA cycle by carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), by which the energy generation and beta-oxidation are connected. (
  • Further understanding of beta-oxidation and the acetyl-CoA transportation system in Candida tropicalis is reached through examination of fermentation data by metabolic flux analysis. (
  • b. all produce carbon … Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In the third step, dihydrolipoyl transacetylase also catalyzes the CoA-SH addition to the two-carbon molecule, with the sulfur from CoA-SH attacking the sulfur-bound carbon. (
  • After uptake of CCs into phagosomes cholesterol is normally moved in the lysosome via the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) transporter towards the endoplasmic reticulum where acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase catalyzes the forming of cholesteryl esters. (
  • The specific activity of TBNAT was tested against a broad range of acyl-CoA cofactors using hydralazine as a substrate. (
  • The nature of the recognition of acetyl-lysine by the P/CAF bromodomain is similar to that of acetyl-CoA by histone acetyltransferase. (
  • The epigenetic writers are DNA methyltransferases, histone lysine methyltransferases and histone acetyltransferases. (
  • In this paper, we present a method to reconstruct the metabolic pathway by inhibiting the acetyl-CoA transportation system. (
  • A new de novo pathway for the formation of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols, precursors of platelet activating factor. (
  • such reactions, usually involving formation of acetyl-CoA, occur notably in the initiation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the transfer of an acetyl group to oxaloacetate to form citrate. (
  • Two independently regulated and kinetically distinct human acetyltransferases are now known to exist, namely NAT1 and NAT2. (
  • The metabolite acetyl-CoA is necessary in almost all organic life. (
  • Decarboxylases ethylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase, a potentially toxic metabolite, to form butyryl-CoA, suggesting it might be involved in metabolite proofreading. (
  • Nearly all known histone-acetyltransferase (HAT)-associated transcriptional co-activators contain bromodomains, which are approximately 110-amino-acid modules found in many chromatin-associated proteins. (
  • The encoded protein has a characteristic MYST domain containing an acetyl-CoA-binding site, a chromodomain typical of proteins which bind histones, and a C2HC-type zinc finger. (
  • The NATs transfer a molecule called acetyl CoA to the toxins to make them less harmful and to eliminate them easily from the body. (
  • Conversion of diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA to triacylglycerol. (
  • Fatty alcohols are natively produced in many organisms as a component of natural waxes by reduction of fatty acids or fatty acyl-CoA by carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) or fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs), respectively [ 1 ]. (
  • A bifunctional aminoglycoside acetyltransferase/phosphotransferase conferring tobramycin resistance provides an efficient selectable marker for plastid transformation. (
  • has similarity to Yat1p, which is a carnitine acetyltransferase associa. (
  • There are many different starting molecules from which to form acetyl-CoA. (
  • Acetyl-CoA is important because it can be used to generate large amounts of energy in the TCA cycle and subseuquent oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Type of study/level of facts Beneficial 3.The very structure regarding serine acetyltransferase (SAT) using cysteine destined inside the serine subsite of the productive web site signifies that each H154 as well as H189 are generally within just hydrogen-bonding long distance on the cysteine thiol [Olsen, M. Third. (
  • Insofar the MekB and CgHle structures suggest dividing the homoserine transacetylase family into subfamilies, namely genuine acetyl transferases and acetyl esterases with MekB and CgHle as constituting members of the latter. (