Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Sulfonylurea Compounds2-Acetolactate Mutase: An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 5.4.99.3.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Pontederiaceae: A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Most species are perennials, native primarily to tropical America. They have creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and leaves in clusters at the base of the plant or borne on branched stems. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds, or a one-seeded winged structure.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Capsella: A plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Cardiidae: A family of bivalve MOLLUSKS with heart-shaped shells, commonly known as cockles. Unlike most BIVALVES, cockles are hermaphroditic.Selenious Acid: A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.

Construction of an L-isoleucine overproducing strain of Escherichia coli K-12. (1/174)

The genes for a threonine deaminase that is resistant to feedback inhibition by L-isoleucine and for an active acetohydroxyacid synthase II were introduced by a plasmid into a L-threonine-producing recombinant strain of Escherichia coli K-12. Analysis of culture broth of the strain using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that alpha, beta-dihydroxy-beta-methylvalerate (DHMV) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate (KMV), the third and the fourth intermediates in the L-isoleucine biosynthetic pathway from L-threonine, respectively, accumulated in the medium in amounts comparable to that of L-isoleucine. The ratio of accumulated L-isoleucine:DHMV:KMV were approximately 2:1:1. The concentration of accumulated L-isoleucine increased by twofold after the additional introduction of the genes for dihyroxyacid dehydratase (DH) and transaminase-B (TA-B), and the intermediates no longer accumulated. The resultant strain TVD5 accumulated 10 g/l of L-isoleucine from 40 g/l of glucose.  (+info)

Effect of mutagenesis at serine 653 of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase on the sensitivity to imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides. (2/174)

Resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides can occur by mutations in acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 4.1.3.18). Changing serine 653 to asparagine is known to cause insensitivity to imidazolinones but not to sulfonylureas. Here, S-653 of the Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme was mutated to alanine, threonine and phenylalanine. The purified mutated enzymes resemble wild-type in their enzymatic properties. The threonine and phenylalanine mutants are imidazolinone-resistant and the latter is also slightly sulfonylurea-resistant. The alanine mutant remains sensitive to both herbicides. The results suggest that the beta-hydroxyl group is not required for imidazolinone binding and that the size of the side-chain determines resistance.  (+info)

Targeted manipulation of maize genes in vivo using chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. (3/174)

Site-specific heritable mutations in maize genes were engineered by introducing chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. Two independent targets within the endogenous maize acetohydroxyacid synthase gene sequence were modified in a site-specific fashion, thereby conferring resistance to either imidazolinone or sulfonylurea herbicides. Similarly, an engineered green fluorescence protein transgene was site-specifically modified in vivo. Expression of the introduced inactive green fluorescence protein was restored, and plants containing the modified transgene were regenerated. Progeny analysis indicated Mendelian transmission of the converted transgene. The efficiency of gene conversion mediated by chimeric oligonucleotides in maize was estimated as 10(-4), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than frequencies reported for gene targeting by homologous recombination in plants. The heritable changes in maize genes engineered by this approach create opportunities for basic studies of plant gene function and agricultural trait manipulation and also provide a system for studying mismatch repair mechanisms in maize.  (+info)

A tool for functional plant genomics: chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides cause in vivo gene-specific mutations. (4/174)

Self-complementary chimeric oligonucleotides (COs) composed of DNA and modified RNA residues were evaluated as a means to (i) create stable, site-specific base substitutions in a nuclear gene and (ii) introduce a frameshift in a nuclear transgene in plant cells. To demonstrate the creation of allele-specific mutations in a member of a gene family, COs were designed to target the codon for Pro-196 of SuRA, a tobacco acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene. An amino acid substitution at Pro-196 of ALS confers a herbicide-resistance phenotype that can be used as a selectable marker in plant cells. COs were designed to contain a 25-nt homology domain comprised of a five-deoxyribonucleotide region (harboring a single base mismatch to the native ALS sequence) flanked by regions each composed of 10 ribonucleotides. After recovery of herbicide-resistant tobacco cells on selective medium, DNA sequence analyses identified base conversions in the ALS gene at the codon for Pro-196. To demonstrate a site-specific insertion of a single base into a targeted gene, COs were used to restore expression of an inactive green fluorescent protein transgene that had been designed to contain a single base deletion. Recovery of fluorescent cells confirmed the deletion correction. Our results demonstrate the application of a technology to modify individual genetic loci by catalyzing either a base substitution or a base addition to specific nuclear genes; this approach should have great utility in the area of plant functional genomics.  (+info)

Expression vectors for Methanococcus maripaludis: overexpression of acetohydroxyacid synthase and beta-galactosidase. (5/174)

A series of integrative and shuttle expression vectors was developed for use in Methanococcus maripaludis. The integrative expression vectors contained the Methanococcus voltae histone promoter and multiple cloning sites designed for efficient cloning of DNA. Upon transformation, they can be used to overexpress specific homologous genes in M. maripaludis. When tested with ilvBN, which encodes the large and small subunits of acetohydroxyacid synthase, transformants possessed specific activity 13-fold higher than that of the wild type. An expression shuttle vector, based on the cryptic plasmid pURB500 and the components of the integrative vector, was also developed for the expression of heterologous genes in M. maripaludis. The beta-galactosidase gene from Escherichia coli was expressed to approximately 1% of the total cellular protein using this vector. During this work, the genes for the acetohydroxyacid synthase (ilvBN) and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) were sequenced from a M. maripaludis genomic library.  (+info)

Deletion of the pyc gene blocks clavulanic acid biosynthesis except in glycerol-containing medium: evidence for two different genes in formation of the C3 unit. (6/174)

The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid is formed by condensation of a pyruvate-derived C3 unit with a molecule of arginine. A gene (pyc, for pyruvate converting) located upstream of the bls gene in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a 582-amino-acid protein with domains recognizing pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate that shows 29.9% identity to acetohydroxyacid synthases. Amplification of the pyc gene resulted in an earlier onset and higher production of clavulanic acid. Replacement of the pyc gene with the aph gene did not cause isoleucine-valine auxotrophy in the mutant. The pyc replacement mutant did not produce clavulanic acid in starch-asparagine (SA) or in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) complex medium, suggesting that the pyc gene product is involved in the conversion of pyruvate into the C3 unit of clavulanic acid. However, the beta-lactamase inhibitor was still formed at the same level as in the wild-type strain in defined medium containing D-glycerol, glutamic acid, and proline (GSPG medium) as confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and paper chromatography. The production of clavulanic acid by the replacement mutant was dependent on addition of glycerol to the medium, and glycerol-free GSPG medium did not support clavulanic acid biosynthesis, suggesting that an alternative gene product catalyzes the incorporation of glycerol into clavulanic acid in the absence of the Pyc protein. The pyc replacement mutant overproduces cephamycin.  (+info)

Fermentative metabolism of Bacillus subtilis: physiology and regulation of gene expression. (7/174)

Bacillus subtilis grows in the absence of oxygen using nitrate ammonification and various fermentation processes. Lactate, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol were identified in the growth medium as the major anaerobic fermentation products by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactate formation was found to be dependent on the lctEP locus, encoding lactate dehydrogenase and a putative lactate permease. Mutation of lctE results in drastically reduced anaerobic growth independent of the presence of alternative electron acceptors, indicating the importance of NADH reoxidation by lactate dehydrogenase for the overall anaerobic energy metabolism. Anaerobic formation of 2,3-butanediol via acetoin involves acetolactate synthase and decarboxylase encoded by the alsSD operon. Mutation of alsSD has no significant effect on anaerobic growth. Anaerobic acetate synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A requires phosphotransacetylase encoded by pta. Similar to the case for lctEP, mutation of pta significantly reduces anaerobic fermentative and respiratory growth. The expression of both lctEP and alsSD is strongly induced under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic lctEP and alsSD induction was found to be partially dependent on the gene encoding the redox regulator Fnr. The observed fnr dependence might be the result of Fnr-induced arfM (ywiD) transcription and subsequent lctEP and alsSD activation by the regulator ArfM (YwiD). The two-component regulatory system encoded by resDE is also involved in anaerobic lctEP induction. No direct resDE influence on the redox regulation of alsSD was observed. The alternative electron acceptor nitrate represses anaerobic lctEP and alsSD transcription. Nitrate repression requires resDE- and fnr-dependent expression of narGHJI, encoding respiratory nitrate reductase. The gene alsR, encoding a regulator potentially responding to changes of the intracellular pH and to acetate, is essential for anaerobic lctEP and alsSD expression. In agreement with its known aerobic function, no obvious oxygen- or nitrate-dependent pta regulation was observed. A model for the regulation of the anaerobic fermentation genes in B. subtilis is proposed.  (+info)

Mutagenesis studies on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase II to herbicides and valine. (8/174)

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 4.1.3.18, also known as acetolactate synthase) isoenzyme II from Escherichia coli is inhibited by sulphonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides, although it is much less sensitive than the plant enzyme. This isoenzyme is also unusual in that it is not inhibited by valine. Mutating S100 (Ser(100) in one-letter amino acid notation) of the catalytic subunit to proline increases its sensitivity to sulphonylureas, but not to imidazolinones. Mutating P536 to serine, as found in the plant enzyme, had little effect on the properties of the enzyme. Mutating E14 of the regulatory subunit to glycine, either alone or in combination with the H29N (His(29)-->Asn) change, did not affect valine-sensitivity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetohydroxyacid synthase. T2 - A proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. AU - Mendel, Sharon. AU - Elkayam, Tsiona. AU - Sella, Carmen. AU - Vinogradov, Valery. AU - Vyazmensky, Maria. AU - Chipman, David M.. AU - Barak, Zeev. PY - 2001/3/16. Y1 - 2001/3/16. N2 - Valine inhibition of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) plays an important role in regulation of biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in bacteria. Bacterial AHASs are composed of separate catalytic and regulatory subunits; while the catalytic subunits appear to be homologous with several other thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes, there has been no model for the structure of the small, regulatory subunits (SSUs). AHAS III is one of three isozymes in Escherichia coli. Its large subunit (encoded by ilvI) by itself has 3-5% activity of the holoenzyme and is not sensitive to inhibition by valine. The SSU (encoded by ilvH) associates with the large subunit and is required for ...
1OZH: The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual intermediate.
Resistance to acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides has been reported in over 90 weedy species, including wild sunflower biotypes, since the herbicides were developed in 1982. The AHAS gene family in sunflower, consisting of three paralogs AHAS1 , AHAS2, and AHAS3, has been targeted for inducing herbicide resistance. A polymorphism identified in an elite sunflower line bred for resistance to the class of AHAS-inhibiting herbicides - sulfonylureas (SU) allowed development of a genotyping assay to be used in marker assisted selection (MAS). The expression level of the AHAS gene family was assayed in eight selected sunflower tissues. Diversity of the AHAS gene family was assessed among wild and domesticated sunflowers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered in the SU resistant sunflower. Development of a SNP assay, using fluorescently probed acyclo-dNTPs, facilitated genotypic determination. Non-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR ...
K04072 adhE; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.10 1.1.1.1] K00656 E2.3.1.54; formate C-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.54] K01641 E2.3.3.10; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:2.3.3.10] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01653 E2.2.1.6S; acetolactate synthase I/III small subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01575 alsD; acetolactate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.5] K00004 BDH; (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase / meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.4 1.1.1.- 1.1.1.303] K03366 butA; meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / (S,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.- 1.1.1.76 1.1.1.304 ...
BASF released the first herbicide tolerant wheat in 2007 in Canada commercially known as Clearfield wheat. Clearfield wheat is a product of mutation breeding developed to survive the presence of imidazolinone herbicide which blocks the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). AHAS is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched amino acids essential for plant growth. Based on the results of the field trials in the U.S., Clearfield is almost similar to the parental line in terms of vigor, time to maturity, seed production (yield), disease resistance, and tendency to weediness8 ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the common target of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and target-site ALS mutations are the main mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, ALS1 and ALS2 genes with full lengths of 2004 bp and 1998 bp respectively were cloned in individual plants of susceptible (S) or resistant (R) flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) populations. Two ALS mutations of Pro-197-Thr and/or Trp-574-Leu were identified in plants of three R biotypes (HB24, HB30 and HB42). In order to investigate the function of ALS isozymes in ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance, pHB24 (a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2), pHB42 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2) and pHB30 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS2) subpopulations individually homozygous for different ALS mutations were generated. Individuals of pHB30 had mutations in each isozyme of ALS and had higher resistance than pHB24 and pHB42 populations containing ...
Soybean 305423 was developed through particle bombardment and contains gm-fad2-1 and gm-hra expression cassettes, conferring a high oleic acid profile and tolerance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. Levels of the GM-HRA protein in soybean 305423 have been sufficiently analysed. Soybean 305423 differs from the conventional counterpart in the seed fatty acid profile and for the presence of the GM-HRA protein. It is agronomically equivalent to non-GM reference soybeans. The safety assessment of GM-HRA identified no concerns regarding potential toxicity and allergenicity. There are no indications that the overall allergenicity of soybean 305423 has changed. Nutritional assessment on soybean 305423 oil and derived food products did not identify concerns on human health and nutrition. There are no concerns regarding the use of feeding stuffs derived from soybean 305423. There are no indications of an ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors tolerance,Coleoptera resistance,Glufosinate tolerance,Glyphosate tolerance,Lepidoptera ...
Strain Information. E. coli K-12 MG1655. Description. Genotype: F- lambda- ilvG- rfb-50 rph-1. Serotype: OR:H48:K- This strain was sequenced by the Blattner laboratory because it approximates wild-type E. coli and has been maintained as a laboratory strain with minimal genetic manipulation, having only been cured of the temperate bacteriophage lambda and F plasmid by means of ultraviolet light and acridine orange, respectively. (Blattner, et al. 1997). The mutations listed in the genotype are present in most K-12 strains and were probably acquired early in the history of the laboratory strain. A frameshift at the end of rph results in decreased pyrE expression and a mild pyrimidine starvation, such that the strain grows 10 to 15% more slowly in pyrimidine-free medium than in medium containing uracil (Jensen 1993). The ilvG- mutation is a frameshift that knocks out acetohydroxy acid synthase II (Lawther, et al. 1982). The rfb-50 mutation is an IS5 insertion that results in the absence of ...
The stacked maize line DP-Ø9814Ø-6, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7 was obtained through the traditional cross breading of each of the parental organisms to produce a maize that expresses each of the cry1F, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1, gat4621, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, and acetohydroxyacid synthase genes. The expression of these genes are expected to confer resistance to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, and tolerant to glufosinate, Sulfonylurea and glyphosate herbicide ...
The Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) Directive (75/268) which was introduced in 1975, was the first common European instrument of regional agricultural structural policy. LFAs are areas where agriculture is hampered by permanent natural handicaps. The major objectives were to ensure the continuation of farming, thereby maintaining a minimum population level and preserving scenic landscapes and environmentally valuable habitats. In the Netherlands, the LFA measure is used as an additional payment, to compensate farmers for negative economic effects due to the conservation of these natural handicaps. It was not implemented as a stand alone policy, but is linked to measures aiming at active nature and landscape conservation management. In this paper, the effects will be examined of the regulations aiming at the conservation of natural handicaps on farm businesses within LFAs, when comparing them to farm businesses outside LFAs, where these regulations and handicaps do not exist. The main data source that was
Knowing the signs of RSV can help keep babies healthy and out of the hospital (COLUMBUS, Ohio) - Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is the most common cause of hospitalization among children under the age of one year. It is often mistaken for the common cold, but experts say recognizing the difference is crucial to detecting and treating RSV.. "Most babies recover on their own, but some develop severe symptoms that can be life-threatening," said Octavio Ramilo, MD, division chief of Infectious Diseases at Nationwide Childrens Hospital. "The first common sign of RSV is that they wont take their bottle, and then parents may also notice that their baby is breathing more rapidly than normal.". Ramilo says that at Nationwide Childrens Hospital alone there were about 600 babies hospitalized for RSV last year and more than a thousand infants with the virus were brought to the emergency room.. Parents and caregivers can help prevent RSV in babies by washing their hands often, disinfecting hard ...
Baron S., Peleg Y., Grunwald J., Morgenstern D., Elad N., Peretz M., Albeck S., Levin Y., Welch J. T., DeWeerd K. A., Schwarz A., Burstein Y., Diskin R., Shakked Z. & Zimhony O. (2018). Expression of a recombinant, 4 -Phosphopantetheinylated, active M-tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I in E-coli. PLoS One. 2018 Sept , 13 (9). ...
a more natural means can be exported to that country. Because more than 1,000 varieties of a number of crops have already been developed through this technique and grown worldwide over the last 50 years, consumer acceptance of such crops is not an issue. Once Canadas approval is obtained, the rice can be freely exported to all foreign markets. Natural genetic change was used to develop Clearfield rice, which is resistant to the chemical group of herbicides called imidazolinones. These herbicides are new and have significant advantages. The imidazolinone herbicides target a biological mechanism specific to plants. This target, termed the AHAS enzyme, is involved in the production of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. Plants require the continued production of these amino acids to survive. Imidazolinones work as herbicides because they block the AHAS enzyme, preventing the production of the amino acids. Without these amino acids, the weeds whither and die.. The AHAS enzyme is one of ...
Our previous studies revealed that the staphylococcal protein Gcp is essential for bacterial growth; however, the essential function of Gcp remains undefined. In this study, we demonstrated that Gcp plays an important role in the modulation of the br
111411DNATriticum aestivum 1tgctgtggcc aacccaggtg ttacagttgt tgacattgat ggtgatggta gtttcctcat 60gaacattcag gagttggcgt tgatccgcat tgagaacctc ccagtgaagg tgatgatatt 120gaacaaccag catctgggaa tggtggtgca gtgggaggat aggttttaca aggccaatcg 180ggcgcacaca taccttggca acccagaaaa tgagagtgag atatatccag attttgtgac 240gattgctaaa ggattcaacg ttccagcagt tcgagtgacg aagaagagcg aagtcactgc 300agcaatcaag aagatgcttg agaccccagg gccatacttg ttggatatca tagtcccgca 360tcaggagcac gtgctgccta tgatcccaaa cggtggtgct ttcaaggaca t 4112168PRTTriticum aestivum 2Ala Gln Tyr Tyr Thr Tyr Lys Arg Pro Arg Gln Trp Leu Ser Ser Ser1 5 10 15Gly Leu Gly Ala Met Gly Phe Gly Leu Pro Ala Ala Ala Gly Ala Ala 20 25 30Val Ala Asn Pro Gly Val Thr Val Val Asp Ile Asp Gly Asp Gly Ser 35 40 45Phe Leu Met Asn Ile Gln Glu Leu Ala Leu Ile Arg Ile Glu Asn Leu 50 55 60Pro Val Lys Val Met Ile Leu Asn Asn Gln His Leu Gly Met Val Val65 70 75 80Gln Trp Glu Asp Arg Phe Tyr Lys Ala Asn Arg Ala His Thr Tyr Leu 85 90 95Gly Asn Pro Glu Asn Glu Ser Glu Ile Tyr Pro Asp ...
Classical Mendelian experiments were conducted to determine the genetics and inheritance of quinclorac and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance in a biotype of Galium spurium. Plants were screened with the formulated product of either quinclorac or the ALS-inhibitor, thifensulfuron, at the field dose of 125 or 6 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1 respectively. Segregation in the F2 generation indicated that quinclorac resistance was a single, recessive nuclear trait, based on a 1:3 segregation ratio [resistant:susceptible (R:S)]. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to a single, dominant nuclear trait, segregating in the F2 generation in a 3:1 ratio (R:S). The genetic models were confirmed by herbicide screens of F1 and backcrosses between the F1 and the S parent. F2 plants that survived quinclorac treatment set seed and the resulting F3 progeny were screened with either herbicide. Quinclorac-treated F3 plants segregated in a 1:0 ratio (R:S), hence F2 progenitors were homozygous for ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1t9d. Crystal Structure Of Yeast Acetohydroxyacid Synthase In Complex With A Sulfonylurea Herbicide, Metsulfuron methyl
Optimum GAT soybean is a genetically modified (GM) soybean containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043) that was produced by integration of the coding sequences of the GAT4601 and GM-HRA proteins. In planta expression of these proteins confers tolerance to glyphosate and sulfonylurea/imidazolinone herbicides, respectively. This paper reports the results from a subchronic rat feeding study conducted with 356043 soybeans. Dehulled/defatted toasted meal and toasted ground hulls were prepared from soybeans from untreate plants (356043), herbicide-treated plants (356043 + Gly/SU), non-transgenic isoline control (091), and three commercial non-transgenic reference varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Individual diets conforming to standard certified rodent chow formulation (Purina Rodent LabDiet 5002) were prepared with 20% meal (w/w) and 1.5% hulls (w/w). Diets were fed to young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) for at least 93 days. Compared with rats fed the isoline control or conventional ...
The Sfmbt2 gene represented an entrée into a new imprinted domain, whose extent was unknown. Our analysis has revealed that it comprises a single coding gene, with a spliced antisense transcript that is transcribed from the first common intron and is also imprinted; this latter is likely a lincRNA [9], and its imprinted expression may reflect open/closed chromatin states of the parental alleles. No other genes tested within 4.3 Mb of Sfmbt2 display monoalleic expression in placenta, and published data from another study indicates that no genes in this domain are imprinted in e9.5 somatic tissues [5]. A recent computational analysis supported placental imprinting of Sfmbt2, using criteria heavily dependent on the two histone marks, H3K4Me3 and H3K27Me3, mentioned above [13]. No other genes within the domain examined in our study passed the computational test in this study, although one could argue that the criteria chosen for the machine learning exercise may have been biased.. The CpG island ...
1FC4: Three-dimensional structure of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase from Escherichia coli complexed with a PLP-substrate intermediate: inferred reaction mechanism.
The flower petals of carnation SHD-27531-4 have a modified colour, a shade of purple (red-purple flowers), whereas the parental variety has pink flowers. The altered colour results from the expression of two newly introduced genes from Petunia x hybrida and Viola hortensis, respectively. The genes encode the enzymes dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) that enable biosynthesis of the anthocyanins (pigments) delphinidin and cyanidin in the flower petals. Carnation SHD-27531-4 also contains a mutated herbicide tolerance gene from Nicotiana tabacum, encoding the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), used to facilitate the selection of GM plantlets during the genetic transformation process ...
Addition of L-valine (50 to 200 mM) to glucose minimal medium had no effect on the growth of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 but inhibited the growth of the derived valine production strain VAL1 [13032 DeltailvA DeltapanBC(pJCilvBNCD)] in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to explore this strain-specific valine effect, genomewide expression profiling was performed using DNA microarrays, which showed that valine caused an increased ilvBN mRNA level in VAL1 but not in the wild type. This unexpected result was confirmed by an increased cellular level of the ilvB protein product, i.e., the large subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), and by an increased AHAS activity of valine-treated VAL1 cells. The conclusion that valine caused the limitation of another branched-chain amino acid was confirmed by showing that high concentrations of L-isoleucine could relieve the valine effect on VAL1 whereas L-leucine had the same effect as valine. The valine-caused isoleucine ...
My research explores the abiotic fate of agrochemicals in the aquatic environment. I am currently interested specifically in the photochemical fate of herbicides identified by the USGS as emerging agrochemicals. We have examined the photochemistry of imazethapyr, an imidazolinone herbicide in aqueous solution as a function of pH, NOM (natural organic matter) concentration, and wavelength of light. We have also examined the photochemisry of imazethapyr when it is sorbed to plant (corn or soybean) waxes. We are currently funded by the National Science Foundation to extend this work to the entire family of imidazolinone herbicides (see "Research" tab). We are also still working on the the photochemistry of compounds such as nicosulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, and flumetsulam ...
稀有鮈鲫(Gobiocypris rarus)是我国特有的一种小型鲤科鱼类,隶属鲤形目(Cypriniformes)鲤科(Cyprinidae),仅分布于四川省汉源县、石棉县、都江堰市、双流县、彭州市等地。从1990年开始,中国科学院水生生物研究所以培育鱼类实验动物为目的对其进行了大量的生物学研究,证实了它是培育鱼类实验动物的理想对象,并从饲养管理、品系培育等方面开展实验动物化研究。目前,通过全同胞兄妹交配已近交至第22代,按照实验动物近交系的定义,稀有鮈鲫的近交系已经建立,但需要对其进行遗传质量检测,鉴定近交系。本研究参照哺乳类实验动物的遗传质量监测的方法,从外部形态、骨骼、免疫、生化、分子五个方面对近交系的遗传纯度进行检测,以期获得近交系的遗传背景,建立品系鉴定的方法。 1. ...
Broadly, two categories of mechanisms operate. The first one involves target site resistance that includes alterations in the herbicide binding site and over-production of the target site. The second category includes non-target site resistance where reduced uptake and enhanced metabolism of the herbicide as well as its sequestration leads to development of resistance. Target site resistances include amino acid substitutions in or around the binding site as in case of AC Case and ALS inhibitors. Most widespread cases of resistances include resistance to inhibitors of photo systems I and II, acetolactate synthase (ALS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (AC Case), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), carotenoid synthesis, EPSP synthase and mitosis inhibitors. Resistance may also occur due to limitations in translocation of the herbicide molecules to the target site due to their degradation by enzymes. One such group of enzymes include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Resistance could also be due to more ...
Annual bluegrass is the most problematic winter annual weed in managed turfgrass. Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides are effective for annual bluegrass control, but reliance on this mode of action can select for herbicide-resistant biotypes. Two annual bluegrass biotypes not controlled with ALS-inhibiting herbicides were reported at golf courses in South Carolina and Georgia. Research was initiated at Clemson University to verify the level of resistance of these biotypes to ALS inhibitors. Two ALS-susceptible (S) and suspected resistant (SCr, GAr) annual bluegrass biotypes were established in a greenhouse. Dose-response experiments were conducted on mature annual bluegrass plants using trifloxysulfuron, foramsulfuron, and bispyribac-sodium, all ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Additionally, a rapid diagnostic ALS activity assay was optimized and conducted using the same herbicides. For dose-response experiments, the rate of herbicide that reduced shoot biomass 50% (I50) values for the S ...
Sorghum acreage is declining throughout the United States because management options and yield have not maintained pace with maize improvements. The most extreme difference has been the absence of herbicide technology development for sorghum over the past twenty years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of resistance, type of inheritance, and causal mutation of wild sorghums that are resistant to either acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides or acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. ACCase-inhibiting herbicides used in this study were aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) family members fluazifop-P and quizalofop-P along with cyclohexanedione (CHD) family members clethodim and sethoxydim. The level of resistance was very high for APP herbicides but low to nonexistent to CHD herbicides. With genetic resistance to APP herbicides, the resistance factors, the ratio of resistance to susceptible, were greater than 54 to 64 for homozygous individuals ...
BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats) is one of the most common and troublesome weeds in the USA. Palmer amaranth resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors is widespread in the USA, as in Arkansas. The cross-resistance patterns and mechanism of resistance are not known. Experiments were conducted to determine cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors and identify target-site mutations in 20 Palmer amaranth localities from 13 counties in Arkansas.. RESULTS: All Palmer amaranth localities tested had plants cross-resistant to imazethapyr, flumetsulam, primisulfuron, pyrithiobac and trifloxysulfuron. The dose of trifloxysulfuron that caused 50% control was 21-56-fold greater for resis- tant accessions than for susceptible ones. All but three resistant plants analyzed had one or two relative copies of ALS; one plant had seven relative copies. All resistant plants tested (18 localities) carried the Trp574Leu mutation, which is known to confer broad resistance to ALS inhibitors, ...
ZHANG, Lele et al. Herbicides cross resistance of a tribenuron-methyl resistant Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. population in wheat field. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2017, vol.77, n.1, pp.65-70. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392017000100008.. Shepherds purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris [L.] Medik.) is a troublesome dicot weed that occurs in major wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production areas in China. Tribenuron-methyl failed to control shepherds purse in some fields in Runan County, Henan Province. This study aimed to establish the cross-resistance pattern of a resistant (R) population and explore the potential target-site and non-target-site based resistance mechanisms. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene sequencing revealed a single nucleotide change of CCT to CGT resulting in the Pro to Arg substitution at amino acid position 197 in resistant individuals. Compared with the susceptible (S) population, R population displayed high level resistance to ...
All the PZA or POA analogs studied here were found to inhibit FASI in the cell-free assay, albeit modestly for the nonsubstituted lead compounds PZA and POA. Moreover, the inhibition was concentration and structure dependent, being affected by either substitution at the 5 position or ester or N-alkyl group. 5-Cl-POE and 5-F-POE, as well as the 5-Cl-PZA analogs, were found to be potent inhibitors of purified FASI. The potency of FASI inhibition, however, was strongly dependent upon the structure of the derivative, with substitution at the 5 position of the POA nucleus having the most profound effect on activity. These observations correlate with tests of the susceptibility of mycobacteria to these compounds, i.e., increased inhibition of FASI in our in vitro studies was consistent with lower observed MICs (9). This enhancement could be further modulated by structural variation of the ester or N-alkyl groups in a manner consistent with our previously published results on the inhibition of growth ...
Butamax suggests that a broad construction is most consistent with the intrinsic evidence and skill in the art, namely, "an enzyme that is structurally similar to acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase or ketol acid reductoisomerase ["KARI"] enzymes 1 known by the EC number 1.1.1.86 2 and that converts acetolactate to 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate." (D.I. 492 at 9) Under this construction, to determine whether an enzyme literally meets the claim term, a skilled artisan would: (1) compare the enzymes amino acid sequence to the sequences of known KARI enzymes having EC number 1.1.1.86 (D.I. 492 at 10; [p. 599] D.I. 494 at ¶ 45); and (2) test the enzyme for activity using a standard KARI assay, e.g., the assay described in a 1969 reference by Arfin & Umbarger 3 (D.I. 492 at 10; D.I. 495 at ¶¶ 41-43). According to Butamax, "[t]his two prong analysis, consistent with the intrinsic evidence, allows a skilled artisan to come to a conclusion that an enzyme literally meets the KARI claim element." (D.I. 492 ...
Your Y-chromosome results identify you as a member of haplogroup R1b.. The genetic markers that define your ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow your lineage to present day ending with M343, the defining marker of Haplogroup R1b. If you look at the map highlighting your ancestors route, you will see that members of haplogroup R1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , P143 , M89 , L15 , M9 , M45 , M207 , M173 , M343. (Less is known about some markers than others. What is known about your journey is reflected below.). Today, roughly 70 percent of the men in southern England belong to haplogroup R1b. In parts of Spain and Ireland, that number exceeds 90 percent.. Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us ...
Your Y-chromosome results identify you as a member of haplogroup R1b.. The genetic markers that define your ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow your lineage to present day ending with M343, the defining marker of Haplogroup R1b. If you look at the map highlighting your ancestors route, you will see that members of haplogroup R1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , P143 , M89 , L15 , M9 , M45 , M207 , M173 , M343. (Less is known about some markers than others. What is known about your journey is reflected below.). Today, roughly 70 percent of the men in southern England belong to haplogroup R1b. In parts of Spain and Ireland, that number exceeds 90 percent.. Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us ...
There are no federally recognized HIPAA certification standards for covered entities (CE) and business associates (BA) and its unlikely one will be. However, that doesnt stop larger CEs from requiring some form of certification to demonstrate compliance with HIPAA and proof that BAs have implemented sound information security programs. The Health Information Trust Alliance (HITRUST) published its first common security framework (CSF) in March 2009 with the goal of focusing on information security as a core pillar of the broad adoption of health information systems and exchanges. Larger CEs, primarily large health plans, now require their BAs to become HITRUST certified.
Involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Catalyzes an alkyl-migration followed by a ketol-acid reduction of (S)-2-acetolactate (S2AL) to yield (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate. In the isomerase reaction, S2AL is rearranged via a Mg-dependent methyl migration to produce 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-ketobutyrate (HMKB). In the reductase reaction, this 2-ketoacid undergoes a metal-dependent reduction by NADPH to yield (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate.
Kreisberg, JF; Ong, NT; Krishna, A; Joseph, TL; Wang, J; Ong, C; Ooi, HA; Sung, JC; Siew, CC; Chang, GC; +8 more... Biot, F; Cuccui, J; Wren, BW; Chan, J; Sivalingam, SP; Zhang, LH; Verma, C; Tan, P; (2013) Growth Inhibition of Pathogenic Bacteria by Sulfonylurea Herbicides. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57 (3). pp. 1513-7. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02327-12 Full text not available from this repository ...
Buy and view Chlorimuron ethyl, low-toxicity sulfonylurea herbicide, 90982-32-4, MSDS. Click to view prices and info for Chlorimuron ethyl on TOKU-E
Alpha and Beta hydroxyl acids also known as AHAs and BHAs respectively, are very popular in anti-aging skin care products. These products actually do
WSSA scientists say a significant contributing factor in the evolution of herbicide resistance is the repeated use of a single chemical in the absence of other control methods. To stress the vital importance of a more varied, integrated approach, the society adopted a comprehensive, multiyear initiative focused on education. The first training materials were launched in 2011, beginning with a module on herbicide resistance in agronomic crops. The newest additions to WSSAs online training resources address other environments where herbicide resistance management is imperative. Aquatic: WSSA partnered with the Aquatic Plant Management Society (APMS) to develop educational materials on herbicide resistance in lakes, waterways and other aquatic environments. Three online lessons describe aquatic plant control, herbicide selection and effective ways to manage specific scenarios. A free white paper developed by APMS on herbicide resistance stewardship is also available for download. "All of the ...
Herbicide resistance is a growing threat to the sustainability of agricultural systems. This publication describes the scope, mechanisms, types, factors affecting, and prevention and management of herbicide resistance
Overview - an active ingredient derived from fruit acids - may be naturally occurring or synthetic - common AHAs include: | glycolic acid from sugar cane | lactic acid from milk | citric acid from citrus fruits - less common AHAs include: | malic acid from apples | tartaric acid from wine - helps exfoliate the top
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Melissa says…Ive been using an night cream with glycolic acid and I noticed that my skin is actually brighter, clearer, and softer. Ive been using this product for years and I still love it but I worry that it may be too good to be true. Are there any risks associated with alpha hydroxy acid
Melissa says…Ive been using an night cream with glycolic acid and I noticed that my skin is actually brighter, clearer, and softer. Ive been using this product for years and I still love it but I worry that it may be too good to be true. Are there any risks associated with alpha hydroxy acid
This unparalleled scrub masque is formulated with a complex of fresh fruit enzymes and acids. It effectively works in exfoliating dead skin cells, optimizing the cellular renewal performance and deeply cleanses the pores, thus revealing a softer.
Learn more about Aging Skin at Grand Strand Medical Center Uses Principal Proposed Natural Treatments Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) Antioxidants ...
Predictions based on evolutionary theory suggest that the adaptive value of evolved herbicide resistance alleles may be compromised by the existence of fitness costs. There have been many studies quantifying the fitness costs associated with novel herbicide resistance alleles, reflecting the importance of fitness costs in determining the evolutionary dynamics of resistance. However, many of these studies have incorrectly defined resistance or used inappropriate plant material and methods to measure fitness. This review has two major objectives. First, to propose a methodological framework that establishes experimental criteria to unequivocally evaluate fitness costs. Second, to present a comprehensive analysis of the literature on fitness costs associated with herbicide resistance alleles. This analysis reveals unquestionable evidence that some herbicide resistance alleles are associated with pleiotropic effects that result in plant fitness costs. Observed costs are evident from herbicide ...
image: doctorbendds.com. The first common issue of dental problems in children is teething. The first tooth of your baby will appear between the ages of five and seven months. This process is involving the teeth where those will move and break through the gums. This teething process will cause your baby to experience discomfort. You do not need to worry since this process is quite normal. When your children suffer from teething issue they will experience drooling, chewing, and having swollen gums. Commonly, teething will not cause colds, high fever, or diarrhea. If you notice your children experience more symptoms than the normal symptoms above, you should bring your child to doctor. You need to pay attention since there are many parents who mistake other medical problems with the cause of teething.. Next, nursing caries issue is also known as dental problems in children. This problem occurs if the children are sleeping with bottles of milk or juice. Nursing caries usually occur at the children ...
image: doctorbendds.com. The first common issue of dental problems in children is teething. The first tooth of your baby will appear between the ages of five and seven months. This process is involving the teeth where those will move and break through the gums. This teething process will cause your baby to experience discomfort. You do not need to worry since this process is quite normal. When your children suffer from teething issue they will experience drooling, chewing, and having swollen gums. Commonly, teething will not cause colds, high fever, or diarrhea. If you notice your children experience more symptoms than the normal symptoms above, you should bring your child to doctor. You need to pay attention since there are many parents who mistake other medical problems with the cause of teething.. Next, nursing caries issue is also known as dental problems in children. This problem occurs if the children are sleeping with bottles of milk or juice. Nursing caries usually occur at the children ...
ALS inhibitors: the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is the first step in ... When resistance appeared farmers turned to a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase. Once again, ryegrass in ... Imazamox, an imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor ... "Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 89 (2): 89-96. doi: ...
"Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ... The binding of FAD at this site in acetolactate synthase and the binding of ADP at a cognate site in OXC are thought to play ... Oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase is structurally homologous to acetolactate synthase found in plants and other microorganisms, but OXC ... Oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase is hypothesized to be evolutionarily related to acetolactate synthase, a TPP-dependent enzyme ...
Lrp alternatively activates and represses the expression of acetolactate synthase's (ALS) several isoenzymes. Lrp, in E. coli, ...
α-Acetolactic acid is produced from two molecules of pyruvic acid by acetolactate synthase. α-Acetolactic acid can also be ... α-Acetolactic acid (α-acetolactate) is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the branched chain amino acids valine and leucine. ... decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel, W. H. (1995). "Carbohydrate ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase), acetohydroxy ... It begins with the condensation of two equivalents of pyruvate catalyzed by acetohydroxy acid synthase yielding α-acetolactate ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ... In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly ...
Hoegrass was mostly replaced by a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase, again helped by poor application ...
It functions via the inhibitition of acetolactate synthase enzyme, which catalyses the first step in biosynthesis of the ... "The Sulfonylurea Herbicide Sulfometuron Methyl Is an Extremely Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Acetolactate Synthase in ...
... and chlorsulfuron are broad-spectrum herbicides that kill plants weeds or pests by inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase ...
... such as the sulfonylureas inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched- ... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS PharmSci. 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003 . PMID 11741224. Loo JA, ...
... may refer to: Acetolactate synthase, a protein Avian Hazard Advisory System, a bird avoidance model developed by the ...
Tall waterhemp have been reported resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibiting (ALS) herbicides and the triazines, with some ...
... the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, using ZFN-assisted gene targeting, two herbicide-resistant genes (tobacco acetolactate synthase SuRA ...
... an immunological assay Acetolactate synthase, an enzyme Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron radiation facility Advanced Low- ...
Acetolactate synthase Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase α-Isopropylmalate synthase α-Isopropylmalate ...
2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase EC 2.2.1.6: acetolactate synthase EC 2.2.1.7: 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase EC 2.2. ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ...
Acetolactate synthase Stanislav Engel et al, "Column flow reactor using acetohydroxyacid synthase I from Escherichia coli as ... There are also biochemical reactions where enzymes such as Acetohydroxyacid Synthase I from E. coli condense pyruvate and ...
The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like". Dailey FE, Cronan JE (February 1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1385 (2): 401-19. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(98) ... The structure of acetolactate synthase that was used for the picture on this page was determined using X-ray diffraction at ...
... thromboxane-a synthase MeSH D08.811.399.520.100 --- 2-acetolactate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.250 --- chorismate mutase MeSH ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 --- spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 --- spermine synthase MeSH ... acetolactate synthase MeSH D08.811.913.200.650 --- transaldolase MeSH D08.811.913.200.825 --- transketolase MeSH D08.811. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ...
Acetolactate synthase. *Acyl CoA dehydrogenase. *Apoptosis-inducing factor. *Butyryl CoA dehydrogenase. *Cryptochrome ...
Acetolactate synthase EC 2.2.1.6. *2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC 2.2.1.9 ... EC 2.9.1.2: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA(Sec):L-selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase ... EC 6.2.1.38: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase ...
Huseby, N.E., Christensen, T.B., Olsen, B.R. and Størmer, F.C. (1971). "The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter ... Barak, Z., Chipman, D.M. and Gollop, N. (1987). "Physiological implications of the specificity of acetohydroxy acid synthase ... Størmer, F.C., Solberg, Y. and Hovig, T. (1969). "The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter aerogenes. Molecular ...
... camelliol C synthase EC 5.4.99.39: beta-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.40: alpha-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.41: lupeol synthase EC ... 2-acetolactate mutase EC 5.4.99.4: 2-methyleneglutarate mutase EC 5.4.99.5: chorismate mutase EC 5.4.99.6: now EC 5.4.4.2 EC ... shionone synthase EC 5.4.99.47: parkeol synthase EC 5.4.99.48: achilleol B synthase EC 5.4.99.49: glutinol synthase EC 5.4. ... alpha-seco-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.53: marneral synthase EC 5.4.99.54: beta-seco-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.55: delta-amyrin ...
... such as the sulfonylureas inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched- ... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS pharmSci. 2 (1): E8. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003. PMID 11741224.. ...
Smith S (December 1994). "The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes". 》FASEB Journal》 8 (15): ... "Improved performances and control of beer fermentation using encapsulated alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase and modeling". 》 ...
Palavras-chave : Acetolactate synthase; cytochrome P450; mutation; resistance; shepherds purse. · texto em Inglês · Inglês ( ... This is the first report of the acetolactate synthase Pro197Arg mutation in shepherds purse. ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene sequencing revealed a single nucleotide change of CCT to CGT resulting in the Pro to Arg ...
A new amino acid substitution (Ala-205-Phe) in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting ... Target-site resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in Amaranthus palmeri from Argentina.. Pest ... A novel Pro197Glu substitution in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors. ... A novel amino acid substitution Trp574Arg in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides ...
keywords = "Acetohydroxyacid synthase, Acetolactate synthase, Allosteric effects, Fold prediction, Valine inhibition",. author ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase: A proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. Sharon Mendel, ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase: A proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. Journal of ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase : A proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. In: Journal of ...
The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like". Dailey FE, Cronan JE (February 1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1385 (2): 401-19. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(98) ... The structure of acetolactate synthase that was used for the picture on this page was determined using X-ray diffraction at ...
acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit. YP_009585.1. *EC 2.2.1.6. *with IlvB catalyzes the formation of 2-acetolactate from ... acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit. Locus tag. DVU0361. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... YP_009585.1 acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough]. See identical proteins and ... DVU0361 acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2793500, updated on ...
... providing one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides, b) applying said one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides to a ... comprising providing one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides, applying said one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides ... comprising one or more mutations in the acetolactate synthase gene such that resistance to one or more acetolactate synthase ... resistant to acetolactate synthase herbicides based on the presence of one or more mutations that confer acetolactate synthase ...
acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit. YP_399158.1. *EC 2.2.1.6. *catalyzes the formation of 2-acetolactate from pyruvate; ... acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit. Locus tag. Synpcc7942_0139. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. ... Synpcc7942_0139 acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit [ Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 ] Gene ID: 3773479, discontinued ...
acetolactate synthase. File:Acetolactase Synthase.png. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase ... The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like".. *↑ Dailey FE, Cronan JE (February 1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1385 (2): 401-19. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(98) ...
Acetolactate synthase small subunit (ilvH), Acetolactate synthase large subunit (ilvI). *Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP ... Acetolactate synthase small subunit (ilvH), Acetolactate synthase large subunit (ilvI). *Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP ... Acetolactate synthase (Fragment). candidate division WOR-1 bacterium RIFOXYB2_FULL_36_35 ... sp,O85293,ILVI_BUCAP Acetolactate synthase large subunit OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX= ...
The Crystal Structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae Acetolactate Synthase with Enzyme-bound Cofactor and with an Unusual ... Description: Acetolactate synthase, catabolic protein , Length: 566 No structure alignment results are available for 1OZF.A, ... The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactors. ...
The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) are thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes that ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) are thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes that ... The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual ...
Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and photosystem II inhibiting herbicides was confirmed in a population of ... 2015, The Author(s). Main Conclusion: This is a first report of an Ala-205-Phe substitution in acetolactate synthase conferring ... A new amino acid substitution (Ala-205-Phe) in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting ... in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, 243(1), 149-159. http://dx.doi. ...
Kawai K, Kaku K, Izawa N, Shimizu T, Fukuda A, Tanaka Y (2007) A novel mutant acetolactate synthase gene from rice cells, which ... Okuzaki A, Shimizu T, Kaku K, Kawai K, Toriyama K (2007) A novel mutated acetolactate synthase gene conferring specific ... Selectable Tolerance to Herbicides by Mutated Acetolactate Synthase Genes Integrated into the Chloroplast Genome of Tobacco. ... To this end, we developed a novel vector system for chloroplast transformation with acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS catalyzes ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. Although the functional contribution of ALS to ... The first common enzyme in the pathway, acetolactate synthase (ALS, EC 2.2.1.6; also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, AHAS ... Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1385 ... Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2007;89(2):89-96.View ArticleGoogle ...
Prohexadione Calcium for Turfgrass Management and Poa annua Control and Molecular Assessment of the Acetolactate Synthase Gene ... Our final objective launched experiments characterizing possible resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting ...
Safeners as Corn Seedling Protectants against Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors. Milhomme, Henri / Roux, Christophe / Bastide, ...
... acetolactate synthase; [39] pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; [40] pyruvate formate lyase; [41] alcohol dehydrogenase; [42] ... 2000) V-Type H+-ATPase/synthase from a thermophilic eubacterium, Thermus thermophilus. Subunit structure and operon. J Biol ... to drive ATP synthesis by a sodium-dependent F1F0-type ATP synthase (SI Appendix, Figs. S16B and S17). For glucose fermentation ... citrate synthase; [65] fumarate reductase; [66] aconitase; [67] isocitrate dehydrogenase; [68] Fe-Fe hydrogenase; [69] V-ATPase ...
Specifically, acetolactate synthase catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetolactate, acetohydroxy acid reductoisomerase ... 1) the CUP1 promoter (SEQ ID NO:31), acetolactate synthase coding region from Bacillus subtilis (AlsS; SEQ ID NO:32; protein ... This plasmid comprised the following genes, budB encoding acetolactate synthase from Klebsiella pneumoniae (SEQ ID NO:1), ilvC ... A preferred yeast strain expressing an isobutanol pathway has acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity in the cytosol and has ...
Acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18). 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3). pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) ...
The trichome-specific acetolactate synthase NtALS1 gene, is involved in acylsugar biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L ...
Additional index words: Acetolactate synthase, herbicide resistance.. Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase; COC, crop oil ... Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18); fb, followed by; POST, postemergence; PPI, preplant incorporated; PRE ... Abstract: Three studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to determine whether acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant common ... Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactase synthase (EC 4.1.3.18); DAT, days after treatment; POST, postemergence. ...
ALS inhibitors: the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is the first step in ... When resistance appeared farmers turned to a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase. Once again, ryegrass in ... Imazamox, an imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor ... "Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 89 (2): 89-96. doi: ...
... acetolactate synthase, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxyacid dehydratase, isopropylmalate synthase and isomerase, ... 1. Acetolactate synthase 2. Acetohydroxy acid isomemoreductase 3. Dihydroxyacid dehydratase 4. Valine aminotransferase ... Glycine synthase is used as enzyme in the conversion of N5, or N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. In this reaction, carbon ...
Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is ... The isoleucine and valine biosynthetic enzyme acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p) is an attractive antifungal drug target, since the ... Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is ...
Acetolactate synthase large subunit IlvG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh) ... Acetolactate synthase large subunit IlvG UniProtKBInterProInteractive Modelling. 547 aa; Sequence (Fasta) Identical sequences: ...
  • 9. The sorghum hybrid of claim 8, wherein said acetolactate synthase gene as found in ATCC No. PTA-7999 is introduced into said sorghum hybrid by introgression. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The trichome-specific acetolactate synthase NtALS1 gene, is involved in acylsugar biosynthesis in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. (springer.com)
  • To synchronize DSB induction and delivery of the HDR template, we transformed a Cas9 expression construct and GT vector harboring the HDR template with guide RNAs ( gRNA s) targeting the rice acetolactate synthase ( ALS ) gene either separately or sequentially into rice calli. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Bartlem D, Lambein I, Okamoto T, Itaya A, Uda Y, Kijima F, Tamaki Y, Nambara E, Naito S (2000) Mutation in the threonine synthase gene results in an over-accumulation of soluble methionine in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • We targeted the acetolactate synthase gene (als) that converts pyruvate to acetolactate, to eliminate the production of acetoin and 2, 3-butanodial. (usda.gov)
  • The modification of fruit colour was carried out through the insertion of a gene coding for phytoene synthase, which is involved in a key step in lycopene synthesis and two RNAi constructs that were designed to suppress endogenous expression of each of lycopene β-cyclase and lycopene ε-cyclase which convert lycopene to other carotenoids. (cbd.int)
  • Additionally the suppression of flowering was carried out through the insertion of an RNAi construct that is intended to suppress endogenous expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, the penultimate step in ethylene biosynthesis. (cbd.int)
  • Susceptibility of acetolactate synthase (ALS) was compared in vitro and in vivo in Anabaena flos-aquae todetermine the mechanism of ALS inhibition by metsulfuron. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Pioneer's 356043 soybean has been genetically engineered to express modified glyphosate acetyltransferase (GAT46014) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) proteins. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Vencill said within a population of ALS-resistant (acetolactate synthase) Palmer amaranth, selection began for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. (uga.edu)
  • Inhibits the EPSP synthase, which leads to depletion of essential aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine). (nap.edu)
  • Bajo un programa de solamente inhibidores ALS consistiendo de tres aplicaciones anuales de herbicidas imidazolinone (imazethapyr o imazamox) en arroz Clearfield continuo, se predijo la aparición de resistencia después de 4 años con un 80% de riesgo en el año 30. (cambridge.org)
  • Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is influenced by the carbon source and rapamycin. (duke.edu)
  • Catalyzes an alkyl-migration followed by a ketol-acid reduction of (S)-2-acetolactate (S2AL) to yield (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate. (uniprot.org)
  • Essential components of the E. faecalis respiratory chain-de-methylmenaquinone, cytochrome bd , fumarate reductase, and F 0 F 1 -ATP synthase are described in the chapter. (asmscience.org)
  • Echinochloa crus-galli resistente a herbicidas se ha esparcido ampliamente en los sistemas de producción de arroz del centro-sur de los Estados Unidos, dejando pocas opciones efectivas de herbicidas para el control de esta maleza. (cambridge.org)