A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 5.4.99.3.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Most species are perennials, native primarily to tropical America. They have creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and leaves in clusters at the base of the plant or borne on branched stems. The fruit is a capsule containing many seeds, or a one-seeded winged structure.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Amino acids and chains of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.

Construction of an L-isoleucine overproducing strain of Escherichia coli K-12. (1/174)

The genes for a threonine deaminase that is resistant to feedback inhibition by L-isoleucine and for an active acetohydroxyacid synthase II were introduced by a plasmid into a L-threonine-producing recombinant strain of Escherichia coli K-12. Analysis of culture broth of the strain using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that alpha, beta-dihydroxy-beta-methylvalerate (DHMV) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate (KMV), the third and the fourth intermediates in the L-isoleucine biosynthetic pathway from L-threonine, respectively, accumulated in the medium in amounts comparable to that of L-isoleucine. The ratio of accumulated L-isoleucine:DHMV:KMV were approximately 2:1:1. The concentration of accumulated L-isoleucine increased by twofold after the additional introduction of the genes for dihyroxyacid dehydratase (DH) and transaminase-B (TA-B), and the intermediates no longer accumulated. The resultant strain TVD5 accumulated 10 g/l of L-isoleucine from 40 g/l of glucose.  (+info)

Effect of mutagenesis at serine 653 of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase on the sensitivity to imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides. (2/174)

Resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides can occur by mutations in acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 4.1.3.18). Changing serine 653 to asparagine is known to cause insensitivity to imidazolinones but not to sulfonylureas. Here, S-653 of the Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme was mutated to alanine, threonine and phenylalanine. The purified mutated enzymes resemble wild-type in their enzymatic properties. The threonine and phenylalanine mutants are imidazolinone-resistant and the latter is also slightly sulfonylurea-resistant. The alanine mutant remains sensitive to both herbicides. The results suggest that the beta-hydroxyl group is not required for imidazolinone binding and that the size of the side-chain determines resistance.  (+info)

Targeted manipulation of maize genes in vivo using chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. (3/174)

Site-specific heritable mutations in maize genes were engineered by introducing chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. Two independent targets within the endogenous maize acetohydroxyacid synthase gene sequence were modified in a site-specific fashion, thereby conferring resistance to either imidazolinone or sulfonylurea herbicides. Similarly, an engineered green fluorescence protein transgene was site-specifically modified in vivo. Expression of the introduced inactive green fluorescence protein was restored, and plants containing the modified transgene were regenerated. Progeny analysis indicated Mendelian transmission of the converted transgene. The efficiency of gene conversion mediated by chimeric oligonucleotides in maize was estimated as 10(-4), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than frequencies reported for gene targeting by homologous recombination in plants. The heritable changes in maize genes engineered by this approach create opportunities for basic studies of plant gene function and agricultural trait manipulation and also provide a system for studying mismatch repair mechanisms in maize.  (+info)

A tool for functional plant genomics: chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides cause in vivo gene-specific mutations. (4/174)

Self-complementary chimeric oligonucleotides (COs) composed of DNA and modified RNA residues were evaluated as a means to (i) create stable, site-specific base substitutions in a nuclear gene and (ii) introduce a frameshift in a nuclear transgene in plant cells. To demonstrate the creation of allele-specific mutations in a member of a gene family, COs were designed to target the codon for Pro-196 of SuRA, a tobacco acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene. An amino acid substitution at Pro-196 of ALS confers a herbicide-resistance phenotype that can be used as a selectable marker in plant cells. COs were designed to contain a 25-nt homology domain comprised of a five-deoxyribonucleotide region (harboring a single base mismatch to the native ALS sequence) flanked by regions each composed of 10 ribonucleotides. After recovery of herbicide-resistant tobacco cells on selective medium, DNA sequence analyses identified base conversions in the ALS gene at the codon for Pro-196. To demonstrate a site-specific insertion of a single base into a targeted gene, COs were used to restore expression of an inactive green fluorescent protein transgene that had been designed to contain a single base deletion. Recovery of fluorescent cells confirmed the deletion correction. Our results demonstrate the application of a technology to modify individual genetic loci by catalyzing either a base substitution or a base addition to specific nuclear genes; this approach should have great utility in the area of plant functional genomics.  (+info)

Expression vectors for Methanococcus maripaludis: overexpression of acetohydroxyacid synthase and beta-galactosidase. (5/174)

A series of integrative and shuttle expression vectors was developed for use in Methanococcus maripaludis. The integrative expression vectors contained the Methanococcus voltae histone promoter and multiple cloning sites designed for efficient cloning of DNA. Upon transformation, they can be used to overexpress specific homologous genes in M. maripaludis. When tested with ilvBN, which encodes the large and small subunits of acetohydroxyacid synthase, transformants possessed specific activity 13-fold higher than that of the wild type. An expression shuttle vector, based on the cryptic plasmid pURB500 and the components of the integrative vector, was also developed for the expression of heterologous genes in M. maripaludis. The beta-galactosidase gene from Escherichia coli was expressed to approximately 1% of the total cellular protein using this vector. During this work, the genes for the acetohydroxyacid synthase (ilvBN) and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) were sequenced from a M. maripaludis genomic library.  (+info)

Deletion of the pyc gene blocks clavulanic acid biosynthesis except in glycerol-containing medium: evidence for two different genes in formation of the C3 unit. (6/174)

The beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid is formed by condensation of a pyruvate-derived C3 unit with a molecule of arginine. A gene (pyc, for pyruvate converting) located upstream of the bls gene in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a 582-amino-acid protein with domains recognizing pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate that shows 29.9% identity to acetohydroxyacid synthases. Amplification of the pyc gene resulted in an earlier onset and higher production of clavulanic acid. Replacement of the pyc gene with the aph gene did not cause isoleucine-valine auxotrophy in the mutant. The pyc replacement mutant did not produce clavulanic acid in starch-asparagine (SA) or in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) complex medium, suggesting that the pyc gene product is involved in the conversion of pyruvate into the C3 unit of clavulanic acid. However, the beta-lactamase inhibitor was still formed at the same level as in the wild-type strain in defined medium containing D-glycerol, glutamic acid, and proline (GSPG medium) as confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and paper chromatography. The production of clavulanic acid by the replacement mutant was dependent on addition of glycerol to the medium, and glycerol-free GSPG medium did not support clavulanic acid biosynthesis, suggesting that an alternative gene product catalyzes the incorporation of glycerol into clavulanic acid in the absence of the Pyc protein. The pyc replacement mutant overproduces cephamycin.  (+info)

Fermentative metabolism of Bacillus subtilis: physiology and regulation of gene expression. (7/174)

Bacillus subtilis grows in the absence of oxygen using nitrate ammonification and various fermentation processes. Lactate, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol were identified in the growth medium as the major anaerobic fermentation products by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactate formation was found to be dependent on the lctEP locus, encoding lactate dehydrogenase and a putative lactate permease. Mutation of lctE results in drastically reduced anaerobic growth independent of the presence of alternative electron acceptors, indicating the importance of NADH reoxidation by lactate dehydrogenase for the overall anaerobic energy metabolism. Anaerobic formation of 2,3-butanediol via acetoin involves acetolactate synthase and decarboxylase encoded by the alsSD operon. Mutation of alsSD has no significant effect on anaerobic growth. Anaerobic acetate synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A requires phosphotransacetylase encoded by pta. Similar to the case for lctEP, mutation of pta significantly reduces anaerobic fermentative and respiratory growth. The expression of both lctEP and alsSD is strongly induced under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic lctEP and alsSD induction was found to be partially dependent on the gene encoding the redox regulator Fnr. The observed fnr dependence might be the result of Fnr-induced arfM (ywiD) transcription and subsequent lctEP and alsSD activation by the regulator ArfM (YwiD). The two-component regulatory system encoded by resDE is also involved in anaerobic lctEP induction. No direct resDE influence on the redox regulation of alsSD was observed. The alternative electron acceptor nitrate represses anaerobic lctEP and alsSD transcription. Nitrate repression requires resDE- and fnr-dependent expression of narGHJI, encoding respiratory nitrate reductase. The gene alsR, encoding a regulator potentially responding to changes of the intracellular pH and to acetate, is essential for anaerobic lctEP and alsSD expression. In agreement with its known aerobic function, no obvious oxygen- or nitrate-dependent pta regulation was observed. A model for the regulation of the anaerobic fermentation genes in B. subtilis is proposed.  (+info)

Mutagenesis studies on the sensitivity of Escherichia coli acetohydroxyacid synthase II to herbicides and valine. (8/174)

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 4.1.3.18, also known as acetolactate synthase) isoenzyme II from Escherichia coli is inhibited by sulphonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides, although it is much less sensitive than the plant enzyme. This isoenzyme is also unusual in that it is not inhibited by valine. Mutating S100 (Ser(100) in one-letter amino acid notation) of the catalytic subunit to proline increases its sensitivity to sulphonylureas, but not to imidazolinones. Mutating P536 to serine, as found in the plant enzyme, had little effect on the properties of the enzyme. Mutating E14 of the regulatory subunit to glycine, either alone or in combination with the H29N (His(29)-->Asn) change, did not affect valine-sensitivity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetohydroxyacid synthase. T2 - A proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. AU - Mendel, Sharon. AU - Elkayam, Tsiona. AU - Sella, Carmen. AU - Vinogradov, Valery. AU - Vyazmensky, Maria. AU - Chipman, David M.. AU - Barak, Zeev. PY - 2001/3/16. Y1 - 2001/3/16. N2 - Valine inhibition of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) plays an important role in regulation of biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in bacteria. Bacterial AHASs are composed of separate catalytic and regulatory subunits; while the catalytic subunits appear to be homologous with several other thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes, there has been no model for the structure of the small, regulatory subunits (SSUs). AHAS III is one of three isozymes in Escherichia coli. Its large subunit (encoded by ilvI) by itself has 3-5% activity of the holoenzyme and is not sensitive to inhibition by valine. The SSU (encoded by ilvH) associates with the large subunit and is required for ...
The first case of field evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide resistance in the model plant, mouse-ear cress, was reported in winter wheat fields in Westmoreland County, Virginia. A putative resistant (R) mouse-ear population was assessed for ALS resistance relative to a putative susceptible (S) and a susceptible lab population Columbia (C). Results indicated that the R population needed 23 to >2400 fold rate of thifensulfuron relative to S or C population, and it has evolved cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SU), triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides (TP), and sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinones (SCT). Further studies sequenced the whole genome for four field populations, representing two locations and two resistance levels (high and low) per location, to characterize the genetic mechanism of ALS resistance. The results revealed that all populations contained mutations in the ALS gene at the Pro197 site, although the Pro was substituted by Phe in one location and Thr in the ...
1OZH: The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual intermediate.
Resistance to acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides has been reported in over 90 weedy species, including wild sunflower biotypes, since the herbicides were developed in 1982. The AHAS gene family in sunflower, consisting of three paralogs AHAS1 , AHAS2, and AHAS3, has been targeted for inducing herbicide resistance. A polymorphism identified in an elite sunflower line bred for resistance to the class of AHAS-inhibiting herbicides - sulfonylureas (SU) allowed development of a genotyping assay to be used in marker assisted selection (MAS). The expression level of the AHAS gene family was assayed in eight selected sunflower tissues. Diversity of the AHAS gene family was assessed among wild and domesticated sunflowers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered in the SU resistant sunflower. Development of a SNP assay, using fluorescently probed acyclo-dNTPs, facilitated genotypic determination. Non-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR ...
K04072 adhE; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.10 1.1.1.1] K00656 E2.3.1.54; formate C-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.54] K01641 E2.3.3.10; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:2.3.3.10] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01653 E2.2.1.6S; acetolactate synthase I/III small subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01575 alsD; acetolactate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.5] K00004 BDH; (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase / meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.4 1.1.1.- 1.1.1.303] K03366 butA; meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / (S,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.- 1.1.1.76 1.1.1.304 ...
The acetolactate synthase enzyme (ALS) plays a key role in the biochemical pathways of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. The application of ALS-inhibiting herbicides blocks this synthesis pathway. Lack of the aforementioned amino acids interferes with protein synthesis, causing the plant to die off.This gene encodes a modified acetolactate synthase, which confers tolerance to several acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides such as, for example, sulfonylurea ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
BASF released the first herbicide tolerant wheat in 2007 in Canada commercially known as Clearfield wheat. Clearfield wheat is a product of mutation breeding developed to survive the presence of imidazolinone herbicide which blocks the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). AHAS is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched amino acids essential for plant growth. Based on the results of the field trials in the U.S., Clearfield is almost similar to the parental line in terms of vigor, time to maturity, seed production (yield), disease resistance, and tendency to weediness8 ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the common target of ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and target-site ALS mutations are the main mechanism of resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In this study, ALS1 and ALS2 genes with full lengths of 2004 bp and 1998 bp respectively were cloned in individual plants of susceptible (S) or resistant (R) flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) populations. Two ALS mutations of Pro-197-Thr and/or Trp-574-Leu were identified in plants of three R biotypes (HB24, HB30 and HB42). In order to investigate the function of ALS isozymes in ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance, pHB24 (a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2), pHB42 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a wild type ALS2) and pHB30 (a Trp-574-Leu mutation in ALS1 and a Pro-197-Thr mutation in ALS2) subpopulations individually homozygous for different ALS mutations were generated. Individuals of pHB30 had mutations in each isozyme of ALS and had higher resistance than pHB24 and pHB42 populations containing ...
Soybean 305423 was developed through particle bombardment and contains gm-fad2-1 and gm-hra expression cassettes, conferring a high oleic acid profile and tolerance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. Levels of the GM-HRA protein in soybean 305423 have been sufficiently analysed. Soybean 305423 differs from the conventional counterpart in the seed fatty acid profile and for the presence of the GM-HRA protein. It is agronomically equivalent to non-GM reference soybeans. The safety assessment of GM-HRA identified no concerns regarding potential toxicity and allergenicity. There are no indications that the overall allergenicity of soybean 305423 has changed. Nutritional assessment on soybean 305423 oil and derived food products did not identify concerns on human health and nutrition. There are no concerns regarding the use of feeding stuffs derived from soybean 305423. There are no indications of an ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors tolerance,Coleoptera resistance,Glufosinate tolerance,Glyphosate tolerance,Lepidoptera ...
Flumetsulam (CDX-F0080), CAS98967-40-9, is a high purity and quality chemical. Used as pesticide, reference material, acetolactate synthase inhibitor.
Strain Information. E. coli K-12 MG1655. Description. Genotype: F- lambda- ilvG- rfb-50 rph-1. Serotype: OR:H48:K- This strain was sequenced by the Blattner laboratory because it approximates wild-type E. coli and has been maintained as a laboratory strain with minimal genetic manipulation, having only been cured of the temperate bacteriophage lambda and F plasmid by means of ultraviolet light and acridine orange, respectively. (Blattner, et al. 1997). The mutations listed in the genotype are present in most K-12 strains and were probably acquired early in the history of the laboratory strain. A frameshift at the end of rph results in decreased pyrE expression and a mild pyrimidine starvation, such that the strain grows 10 to 15% more slowly in pyrimidine-free medium than in medium containing uracil (Jensen 1993). The ilvG- mutation is a frameshift that knocks out acetohydroxy acid synthase II (Lawther, et al. 1982). The rfb-50 mutation is an IS5 insertion that results in the absence of ...
The stacked maize line DP-Ø9814Ø-6, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and DAS-59122-7 was obtained through the traditional cross breading of each of the parental organisms to produce a maize that expresses each of the cry1F, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1, gat4621, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, and acetohydroxyacid synthase genes. The expression of these genes are expected to confer resistance to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, and tolerant to glufosinate, Sulfonylurea and glyphosate herbicide ...
A slow maturing Clearfield® Plus vehicle for the early starter, there are residue concerns from previous season imidazolinone herbicide use.
Through the use of maize-common bean-mixtures the root space is effectively used and higher total yields can be generated. Simultaneously the protein content of the silage increases significantly. In what way the substrate can be used in dairy cattle feed as well as in biogas plants, is currently being researched by the Thünen Institute (Braunschweig, Germany). The ingredient phasin could be problematic here, but first common bean varieties are available on the market where the phasin content is reduced by 20 times. In addition to the advantages mentioned, the common bean as a legume is able to improve the nitrogen utilization of pure maize cultivation. On the one hand, in the case of nitrogen excess, an additional intake can be made by the common bean, while in the case of deficient situations, the nitrogen fixation of the legume takes effect.. ...
The Less Favoured Areas (LFAs) Directive (75/268) which was introduced in 1975, was the first common European instrument of regional agricultural structural policy. LFAs are areas where agriculture is hampered by permanent natural handicaps. The major objectives were to ensure the continuation of farming, thereby maintaining a minimum population level and preserving scenic landscapes and environmentally valuable habitats. In the Netherlands, the LFA measure is used as an additional payment, to compensate farmers for negative economic effects due to the conservation of these natural handicaps. It was not implemented as a stand alone policy, but is linked to measures aiming at active nature and landscape conservation management. In this paper, the effects will be examined of the regulations aiming at the conservation of natural handicaps on farm businesses within LFAs, when comparing them to farm businesses outside LFAs, where these regulations and handicaps do not exist. The main data source that was
Knowing the signs of RSV can help keep babies healthy and out of the hospital (COLUMBUS, Ohio) - Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is the most common cause of hospitalization among children under the age of one year. It is often mistaken for the common cold, but experts say recognizing the difference is crucial to detecting and treating RSV.. Most babies recover on their own, but some develop severe symptoms that can be life-threatening, said Octavio Ramilo, MD, division chief of Infectious Diseases at Nationwide Childrens Hospital. The first common sign of RSV is that they wont take their bottle, and then parents may also notice that their baby is breathing more rapidly than normal.. Ramilo says that at Nationwide Childrens Hospital alone there were about 600 babies hospitalized for RSV last year and more than a thousand infants with the virus were brought to the emergency room.. Parents and caregivers can help prevent RSV in babies by washing their hands often, disinfecting hard ...
Unknown Great-Great-Great-Grandfather. A WikiTree profile needs to be created before the DNA features can be used for this person. If no information about them is known but they are the first common direct line ancestor of two test-takers create a placeholder profile with the name Unknown and one very roughly-estimated date ...
Baron S., Peleg Y., Grunwald J., Morgenstern D., Elad N., Peretz M., Albeck S., Levin Y., Welch J. T., DeWeerd K. A., Schwarz A., Burstein Y., Diskin R., Shakked Z. & Zimhony O. (2018). Expression of a recombinant, 4 -Phosphopantetheinylated, active M-tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I in E-coli. PLoS One. 2018 Sept , 13 (9). ...
ethylene; Ein2; germination; RbohD; submergence; hypoxia; post-submergence recovery; legumes; plant water relations; shoot to root ratio; Lotus japonicus; leaf greenness; leaf desiccation; stomatal conductance; aerenchyma; auxin; rice (Oryza sativa); root; waterlogging; leaf gas exchange; waterlogging tolerance; organic compound; plant growth; Physalis peruviana L.; anaerobiosis; anoxia; Arabidopsis; flooding; rice; development; apoplastic barrier; barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL); lignin; Oryza glumaepatula; O. rufipogon; rice (O. sativa); suberin; wild rice; acetolactate synthase; ethanol fermentation; imidazolinones; mode of action; aerobic fermentation; Oryza sativa; Submergence; Activity of antioxidant enzymes; Chlorophyll content; phytoglobin; VII Ethylene Response Factor; PRT6 N-degron pathway of proteolysis; Solanum tuberosum; Solanum lycopersicum; Solanum dulcamara; coleoptile; root hypoxia; oxygen sensing; jasmonate; root meristem; abiotic stress; RNA-seq; transcription factor; ...
a more natural means can be exported to that country. Because more than 1,000 varieties of a number of crops have already been developed through this technique and grown worldwide over the last 50 years, consumer acceptance of such crops is not an issue. Once Canadas approval is obtained, the rice can be freely exported to all foreign markets. Natural genetic change was used to develop Clearfield rice, which is resistant to the chemical group of herbicides called imidazolinones. These herbicides are new and have significant advantages. The imidazolinone herbicides target a biological mechanism specific to plants. This target, termed the AHAS enzyme, is involved in the production of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. Plants require the continued production of these amino acids to survive. Imidazolinones work as herbicides because they block the AHAS enzyme, preventing the production of the amino acids. Without these amino acids, the weeds whither and die.. The AHAS enzyme is one of ...
Our previous studies revealed that the staphylococcal protein Gcp is essential for bacterial growth; however, the essential function of Gcp remains undefined. In this study, we demonstrated that Gcp plays an important role in the modulation of the br
111411DNATriticum aestivum 1tgctgtggcc aacccaggtg ttacagttgt tgacattgat ggtgatggta gtttcctcat 60gaacattcag gagttggcgt tgatccgcat tgagaacctc ccagtgaagg tgatgatatt 120gaacaaccag catctgggaa tggtggtgca gtgggaggat aggttttaca aggccaatcg 180ggcgcacaca taccttggca acccagaaaa tgagagtgag atatatccag attttgtgac 240gattgctaaa ggattcaacg ttccagcagt tcgagtgacg aagaagagcg aagtcactgc 300agcaatcaag aagatgcttg agaccccagg gccatacttg ttggatatca tagtcccgca 360tcaggagcac gtgctgccta tgatcccaaa cggtggtgct ttcaaggaca t 4112168PRTTriticum aestivum 2Ala Gln Tyr Tyr Thr Tyr Lys Arg Pro Arg Gln Trp Leu Ser Ser Ser1 5 10 15Gly Leu Gly Ala Met Gly Phe Gly Leu Pro Ala Ala Ala Gly Ala Ala 20 25 30Val Ala Asn Pro Gly Val Thr Val Val Asp Ile Asp Gly Asp Gly Ser 35 40 45Phe Leu Met Asn Ile Gln Glu Leu Ala Leu Ile Arg Ile Glu Asn Leu 50 55 60Pro Val Lys Val Met Ile Leu Asn Asn Gln His Leu Gly Met Val Val65 70 75 80Gln Trp Glu Asp Arg Phe Tyr Lys Ala Asn Arg Ala His Thr Tyr Leu 85 90 95Gly Asn Pro Glu Asn Glu Ser Glu Ile Tyr Pro Asp ...
Classical Mendelian experiments were conducted to determine the genetics and inheritance of quinclorac and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance in a biotype of Galium spurium. Plants were screened with the formulated product of either quinclorac or the ALS-inhibitor, thifensulfuron, at the field dose of 125 or 6 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1 respectively. Segregation in the F2 generation indicated that quinclorac resistance was a single, recessive nuclear trait, based on a 1:3 segregation ratio [resistant:susceptible (R:S)]. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to a single, dominant nuclear trait, segregating in the F2 generation in a 3:1 ratio (R:S). The genetic models were confirmed by herbicide screens of F1 and backcrosses between the F1 and the S parent. F2 plants that survived quinclorac treatment set seed and the resulting F3 progeny were screened with either herbicide. Quinclorac-treated F3 plants segregated in a 1:0 ratio (R:S), hence F2 progenitors were homozygous for ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1t9d. Crystal Structure Of Yeast Acetohydroxyacid Synthase In Complex With A Sulfonylurea Herbicide, Metsulfuron methyl
Roseburg Resources , 541-679-3311, plans to apply urea 46-0-0 fertilizer to 2,289.9 acres near Walton. See ODF notification 2018-781-13020, call Brian Peterson at 541-935-2283 with questions.. • Heidi Sause & Phil Davidson c/o Heidi Sause, 503-799-4245, plans to hire Strata Forestry, 541-726-0845, to spray 143.6 acres near Warthen Road with aminopyralid and metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, imazapyr & metsulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, triclopyr with ester, Crop Oil Concentrate and/or MSO Concentrate. See ODF notification 2018-781-12879, call Brian Peterson at 541-935-2283 with questions.. • James Fallon, 541-222-0846, plans to hire Straight Line Services, which shares a phone number with Applebee Aviation, 503-647-0404, to spray 88.2 acres near Dorena Lake with aminopyralid and metsulfuron methyl, glyphosate, imazapyr & metsulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, triclopyr with ester, Crop Oil Concentrate and/or MSO Concentrate. See ODF notification 2018-771-12683, call Tim Meehan at ...
Optimum GAT soybean is a genetically modified (GM) soybean containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043) that was produced by integration of the coding sequences of the GAT4601 and GM-HRA proteins. In planta expression of these proteins confers tolerance to glyphosate and sulfonylurea/imidazolinone herbicides, respectively. This paper reports the results from a subchronic rat feeding study conducted with 356043 soybeans. Dehulled/defatted toasted meal and toasted ground hulls were prepared from soybeans from untreate plants (356043), herbicide-treated plants (356043 + Gly/SU), non-transgenic isoline control (091), and three commercial non-transgenic reference varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Individual diets conforming to standard certified rodent chow formulation (Purina Rodent LabDiet 5002) were prepared with 20% meal (w/w) and 1.5% hulls (w/w). Diets were fed to young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) for at least 93 days. Compared with rats fed the isoline control or conventional ...
The Sfmbt2 gene represented an entrée into a new imprinted domain, whose extent was unknown. Our analysis has revealed that it comprises a single coding gene, with a spliced antisense transcript that is transcribed from the first common intron and is also imprinted; this latter is likely a lincRNA [9], and its imprinted expression may reflect open/closed chromatin states of the parental alleles. No other genes tested within 4.3 Mb of Sfmbt2 display monoalleic expression in placenta, and published data from another study indicates that no genes in this domain are imprinted in e9.5 somatic tissues [5]. A recent computational analysis supported placental imprinting of Sfmbt2, using criteria heavily dependent on the two histone marks, H3K4Me3 and H3K27Me3, mentioned above [13]. No other genes within the domain examined in our study passed the computational test in this study, although one could argue that the criteria chosen for the machine learning exercise may have been biased.. The CpG island ...
What are AHAs? AHAs are alpha hydroxy acids - a class of chemical compounds that can be either naturally occurring or synthetic. Many are derived from organic s
Phytic acid offers multifunctional benefits to skin and is comparable to, and yet milder, than AHAs. However, it can pose challenges to formulatorsmdash;some solutions to which are given here.
1FC4: Three-dimensional structure of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase from Escherichia coli complexed with a PLP-substrate intermediate: inferred reaction mechanism.
Sect. 1. The Legislative authority of this state, shall be vested in a general assembly, which shall consist of a Senate, and house of Representatives, both to be elected by the people.. Sect. 2. The General Assembly may, within two years after their first meeting, and shall, in the year eighteen hundred and twenty, and every subsequent term of five years, cause an enumeration to be made, of all the white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years. The number of Representatives shall, at the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed by the General Assembly, and apportioned among the several counties, according to the number of white male inhabitants, above twenty-one years of age in each; and shall enver be less than twenty-five nor greater than thirty-six, until the number of white male inhabitants above twenty-one years of age, shall be twenty-two thousand; and after that event, at such ratio, that the whole number of Representatives shall never be less than thirty-six, nor ...
Komunikasyon , Komunyon , Invocations , Mga Panalangin , arb. Salat) Upang makita ang sarili na nagsasagawa ng sapilitan na mga panalangin {arb. Fardh) sa isang panaginip ay nangangahulugang pagtanggap ng isang mataas na ranggo ng appointment, espirituwal na pagsulong, pamunuan, namumuno sa mga tao, naghahatid ng isang mensahe, nagsasagawa ng tungkulin, nagbabayad ng dues, pag-on sa tiwala ng isang tao o kasiya-siyang sapilitan na mga gawa at nagtatamasa kapayapaan. Kung nakikita ng isang tao ang kanyang sarili sa isang panaginip na isinasagawa ang isa sa limang sapilitan na mga dalangin, na gumanap ng wastong pagkalipol at wastong nakumpleto ang pagsunod ng tamang kalagayan, pagyuko at pagyuko, na nakatayo nang may paggalang at kabanalan at nakaharap sa Kaaba, ito nangangahulugan na magsasagawa siya ng isang relihiyosong tungkulin o dadalo sa taunang paglalakbay sa Mecca. Nangangahulugan din ito na aalisin niya ang kanyang sarili sa isang hindi makatarungang gawa na siya ay nahulog at magsisi, ...
The flower petals of carnation SHD-27531-4 have a modified colour, a shade of purple (red-purple flowers), whereas the parental variety has pink flowers. The altered colour results from the expression of two newly introduced genes from Petunia x hybrida and Viola hortensis, respectively. The genes encode the enzymes dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) that enable biosynthesis of the anthocyanins (pigments) delphinidin and cyanidin in the flower petals. Carnation SHD-27531-4 also contains a mutated herbicide tolerance gene from Nicotiana tabacum, encoding the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), used to facilitate the selection of GM plantlets during the genetic transformation process ...
Addition of L-valine (50 to 200 mM) to glucose minimal medium had no effect on the growth of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 but inhibited the growth of the derived valine production strain VAL1 [13032 DeltailvA DeltapanBC(pJCilvBNCD)] in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to explore this strain-specific valine effect, genomewide expression profiling was performed using DNA microarrays, which showed that valine caused an increased ilvBN mRNA level in VAL1 but not in the wild type. This unexpected result was confirmed by an increased cellular level of the ilvB protein product, i.e., the large subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), and by an increased AHAS activity of valine-treated VAL1 cells. The conclusion that valine caused the limitation of another branched-chain amino acid was confirmed by showing that high concentrations of L-isoleucine could relieve the valine effect on VAL1 whereas L-leucine had the same effect as valine. The valine-caused isoleucine ...
My research explores the abiotic fate of agrochemicals in the aquatic environment. I am currently interested specifically in the photochemical fate of herbicides identified by the USGS as emerging agrochemicals. We have examined the photochemistry of imazethapyr, an imidazolinone herbicide in aqueous solution as a function of pH, NOM (natural organic matter) concentration, and wavelength of light. We have also examined the photochemisry of imazethapyr when it is sorbed to plant (corn or soybean) waxes. We are currently funded by the National Science Foundation to extend this work to the entire family of imidazolinone herbicides (see Research tab). We are also still working on the the photochemistry of compounds such as nicosulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, and flumetsulam ...
I did a research of my DNA from my Fathers side via the Genographic Project of National Geographic. (UPDAYE: heres the maternal DNA report). The results may be surprising for some of the Bulgarian historians and scientists. I am copying some of them below, plus a map of the movement of my grand-grand-grand…parents to the Balkans.. My Y-chromosome results identify me as a member of haplogroup I1b.. The genetic markers that define my ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow my lineage to present day, ending with P37.2, the defining marker of haplogroup I1, and also with the marker M26 (I1b2).. If you look at the map highlighting my ancestors route (see below), you will see that members of haplogroup I1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , M89 , M170 , P37.2 Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of ...
I did a research of my DNA from my Fathers side via the Genographic Project of National Geographic. (UPDAYE: heres the maternal DNA report). The results may be surprising for some of the Bulgarian historians and scientists. I am copying some of them below, plus a map of the movement of my grand-grand-grand…parents to the Balkans.. My Y-chromosome results identify me as a member of haplogroup I1b.. The genetic markers that define my ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow my lineage to present day, ending with P37.2, the defining marker of haplogroup I1, and also with the marker M26 (I1b2).. If you look at the map highlighting my ancestors route (see below), you will see that members of haplogroup I1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , M89 , M170 , P37.2 Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of ...
稀有鮈鲫(Gobiocypris rarus)是我国特有的一种小型鲤科鱼类,隶属鲤形目(Cypriniformes)鲤科(Cyprinidae),仅分布于四川省汉源县、石棉县、都江堰市、双流县、彭州市等地。从1990年开始,中国科学院水生生物研究所以培育鱼类实验动物为目的对其进行了大量的生物学研究,证实了它是培育鱼类实验动物的理想对象,并从饲养管理、品系培育等方面开展实验动物化研究。目前,通过全同胞兄妹交配已近交至第22代,按照实验动物近交系的定义,稀有鮈鲫的近交系已经建立,但需要对其进行遗传质量检测,鉴定近交系。本研究参照哺乳类实验动物的遗传质量监测的方法,从外部形态、骨骼、免疫、生化、分子五个方面对近交系的遗传纯度进行检测,以期获得近交系的遗传背景,建立品系鉴定的方法。 1. ...
Broadly, two categories of mechanisms operate. The first one involves target site resistance that includes alterations in the herbicide binding site and over-production of the target site. The second category includes non-target site resistance where reduced uptake and enhanced metabolism of the herbicide as well as its sequestration leads to development of resistance. Target site resistances include amino acid substitutions in or around the binding site as in case of AC Case and ALS inhibitors. Most widespread cases of resistances include resistance to inhibitors of photo systems I and II, acetolactate synthase (ALS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (AC Case), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), carotenoid synthesis, EPSP synthase and mitosis inhibitors. Resistance may also occur due to limitations in translocation of the herbicide molecules to the target site due to their degradation by enzymes. One such group of enzymes include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Resistance could also be due to more ...
Annual bluegrass is the most problematic winter annual weed in managed turfgrass. Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides are effective for annual bluegrass control, but reliance on this mode of action can select for herbicide-resistant biotypes. Two annual bluegrass biotypes not controlled with ALS-inhibiting herbicides were reported at golf courses in South Carolina and Georgia. Research was initiated at Clemson University to verify the level of resistance of these biotypes to ALS inhibitors. Two ALS-susceptible (S) and suspected resistant (SCr, GAr) annual bluegrass biotypes were established in a greenhouse. Dose-response experiments were conducted on mature annual bluegrass plants using trifloxysulfuron, foramsulfuron, and bispyribac-sodium, all ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Additionally, a rapid diagnostic ALS activity assay was optimized and conducted using the same herbicides. For dose-response experiments, the rate of herbicide that reduced shoot biomass 50% (I50) values for the S ...
Annual bluegrass is the most problematic winter annual weed in managed turfgrass. Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides are effective for annual bluegrass control, but reliance on this mode of action can select for herbicide-resistant biotypes. Two annual bluegrass biotypes not controlled with ALS-inhibiting herbicides were reported at golf courses in South Carolina and Georgia. Research was initiated at Clemson University to verify the level of resistance of these biotypes to ALS inhibitors. Two ALS-susceptible (S) and suspected resistant (SCr, GAr) annual bluegrass biotypes were established in a greenhouse. Dose-response experiments were conducted on mature annual bluegrass plants using trifloxysulfuron, foramsulfuron, and bispyribac-sodium, all ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Additionally, a rapid diagnostic ALS activity assay was optimized and conducted using the same herbicides. For dose-response experiments, the rate of herbicide that reduced shoot biomass 50% (I50) values for the S ...
Sorghum acreage is declining throughout the United States because management options and yield have not maintained pace with maize improvements. The most extreme difference has been the absence of herbicide technology development for sorghum over the past twenty years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of resistance, type of inheritance, and causal mutation of wild sorghums that are resistant to either acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides or acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. ACCase-inhibiting herbicides used in this study were aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) family members fluazifop-P and quizalofop-P along with cyclohexanedione (CHD) family members clethodim and sethoxydim. The level of resistance was very high for APP herbicides but low to nonexistent to CHD herbicides. With genetic resistance to APP herbicides, the resistance factors, the ratio of resistance to susceptible, were greater than 54 to 64 for homozygous individuals ...
ZHANG, Lele et al. Herbicides cross resistance of a tribenuron-methyl resistant Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. population in wheat field. Chilean J. Agric. Res. [online]. 2017, vol.77, n.1, pp.65-70. ISSN 0718-5839. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392017000100008.. Shepherds purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris [L.] Medik.) is a troublesome dicot weed that occurs in major wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production areas in China. Tribenuron-methyl failed to control shepherds purse in some fields in Runan County, Henan Province. This study aimed to establish the cross-resistance pattern of a resistant (R) population and explore the potential target-site and non-target-site based resistance mechanisms. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene sequencing revealed a single nucleotide change of CCT to CGT resulting in the Pro to Arg substitution at amino acid position 197 in resistant individuals. Compared with the susceptible (S) population, R population displayed high level resistance to ...
ylation is one of the main regulators of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase complex and stearoyl-ACP-desaturase in increasing the oleic acid level between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. Tenera) low and high oleic acid varieties. This study utilised advanced proteomic techniques to isolate, detect and identify chromoplast-based phosphorylated proteins associated with the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Sub-organelle isolation using differential centrifugation enriched the chromoplast fraction that contained the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes before their protein extraction. Gel-based and non-gel based mass spectrometry techniques were then employed to separate and improve the identification of key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. Protein expression was analysed using isobaric labelling strategy. Five key enzymes, namely the β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), β-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrogenase (EC 4.2.1.58 and 4.2.1.59), 3-enoyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.3.19), β-ketoacyl-ACP ...
All the PZA or POA analogs studied here were found to inhibit FASI in the cell-free assay, albeit modestly for the nonsubstituted lead compounds PZA and POA. Moreover, the inhibition was concentration and structure dependent, being affected by either substitution at the 5 position or ester or N-alkyl group. 5-Cl-POE and 5-F-POE, as well as the 5-Cl-PZA analogs, were found to be potent inhibitors of purified FASI. The potency of FASI inhibition, however, was strongly dependent upon the structure of the derivative, with substitution at the 5 position of the POA nucleus having the most profound effect on activity. These observations correlate with tests of the susceptibility of mycobacteria to these compounds, i.e., increased inhibition of FASI in our in vitro studies was consistent with lower observed MICs (9). This enhancement could be further modulated by structural variation of the ester or N-alkyl groups in a manner consistent with our previously published results on the inhibition of growth ...
Butamax suggests that a broad construction is most consistent with the intrinsic evidence and skill in the art, namely, an enzyme that is structurally similar to acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase or ketol acid reductoisomerase [KARI] enzymes 1 known by the EC number 1.1.1.86 2 and that converts acetolactate to 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate. (D.I. 492 at 9) Under this construction, to determine whether an enzyme literally meets the claim term, a skilled artisan would: (1) compare the enzymes amino acid sequence to the sequences of known KARI enzymes having EC number 1.1.1.86 (D.I. 492 at 10; [p. 599] D.I. 494 at ¶ 45); and (2) test the enzyme for activity using a standard KARI assay, e.g., the assay described in a 1969 reference by Arfin & Umbarger 3 (D.I. 492 at 10; D.I. 495 at ¶¶ 41-43). According to Butamax, [t]his two prong analysis, consistent with the intrinsic evidence, allows a skilled artisan to come to a conclusion that an enzyme literally meets the KARI claim element. (D.I. 492 ...
Your Y-chromosome results identify you as a member of haplogroup R1b.. The genetic markers that define your ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow your lineage to present day ending with M343, the defining marker of Haplogroup R1b. If you look at the map highlighting your ancestors route, you will see that members of haplogroup R1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , P143 , M89 , L15 , M9 , M45 , M207 , M173 , M343. (Less is known about some markers than others. What is known about your journey is reflected below.). Today, roughly 70 percent of the men in southern England belong to haplogroup R1b. In parts of Spain and Ireland, that number exceeds 90 percent.. Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us ...
Your Y-chromosome results identify you as a member of haplogroup R1b.. The genetic markers that define your ancestral history reach back roughly 60,000 years to the first common marker of all non-African men, M168, and follow your lineage to present day ending with M343, the defining marker of Haplogroup R1b. If you look at the map highlighting your ancestors route, you will see that members of haplogroup R1b carry the following Y-chromosome markers:. M168 , P143 , M89 , L15 , M9 , M45 , M207 , M173 , M343. (Less is known about some markers than others. What is known about your journey is reflected below.). Today, roughly 70 percent of the men in southern England belong to haplogroup R1b. In parts of Spain and Ireland, that number exceeds 90 percent.. Whats a haplogroup, and why do geneticists concentrate on the Y chromosome in their search for markers? For that matter, whats a marker?. Each of us carries DNA that is a combination of genes passed from both our mother and father, giving us ...
There are no federally recognized HIPAA certification standards for covered entities (CE) and business associates (BA) and its unlikely one will be. However, that doesnt stop larger CEs from requiring some form of certification to demonstrate compliance with HIPAA and proof that BAs have implemented sound information security programs. The Health Information Trust Alliance (HITRUST) published its first common security framework (CSF) in March 2009 with the goal of focusing on information security as a core pillar of the broad adoption of health information systems and exchanges. Larger CEs, primarily large health plans, now require their BAs to become HITRUST certified.
Involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Catalyzes an alkyl-migration followed by a ketol-acid reduction of (S)-2-acetolactate (S2AL) to yield (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate. In the isomerase reaction, S2AL is rearranged via a Mg-dependent methyl migration to produce 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-ketobutyrate (HMKB). In the reductase reaction, this 2-ketoacid undergoes a metal-dependent reduction by NADPH to yield (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate.
AHAs (alpha-hydroxy acids) and BHAs (beta-hydroxy acids) have been gaining traction in the field of skin exfoliation. They have been hailed for their ability to blur fine lines, combat acne, and erase dark spots. But what do they do? And how should you use them? Tropika Club finds out more:
The two figures below are plots of representative Spinach and FAP fluorescence over time (from two replicates). The figures compare the fluorescence of three new T7Lac promoters with the wild-type T7Lac promoter, when either 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI) or Malachite Green (MG) was added. DFHBI is a specific fluorogen that binds to Spinach and MG is a specific fluorogen that binds to FAP. Therefore, we assume that there is a positive correlation between fluorescence values and the amount of either RNA and proteins in bacteria. All fluorescence values are normalized by the corresponding OD600 readings. Please refer to the Time-Lapse protocol in the Protocols page for the full experimental details ...
The two figures below are plots of representative Spinach and FAP fluorescence over time (from two replicates). The figures compare the fluorescence of three new T7Lac promoters with the wild-type T7Lac promoter, when either 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI) or Malachite Green (MG) was added. DFHBI is a specific fluorogen that binds to Spinach and MG is a specific fluorogen that binds to FAP. Therefore, we assume that there is a positive correlation between fluorescence values and the amount of either RNA and proteins in bacteria. All fluorescence values are normalized by the corresponding OD600 readings. Please refer to the Time-Lapse protocol in the Protocols page for the full experimental details ...
Kreisberg, JF; Ong, NT; Krishna, A; Joseph, TL; Wang, J; Ong, C; Ooi, HA; Sung, JC; Siew, CC; Chang, GC; +8 more... Biot, F; Cuccui, J; Wren, BW; Chan, J; Sivalingam, SP; Zhang, LH; Verma, C; Tan, P; (2013) Growth Inhibition of Pathogenic Bacteria by Sulfonylurea Herbicides. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57 (3). pp. 1513-7. ISSN 0066-4804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02327-12 Full text not available from this repository ...
Buy and view Chlorimuron ethyl, low-toxicity sulfonylurea herbicide, 90982-32-4, MSDS. Click to view prices and info for Chlorimuron ethyl on TOKU-E
Heres the lowdown on five skin acids, including salicylic, glycolic, lactic and more. If youve ever wondered which is best for each skin type, consider this yo...
Alpha and Beta hydroxyl acids also known as AHAs and BHAs respectively, are very popular in anti-aging skin care products. These products actually do
ALS inhibitors: Acetolactate synthase (ALS; also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is part of the first step in the ... When resistance appeared farmers turned to a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase. Once again, ryegrass in ... Zhou Q, Liu W, Zhang Y, Liu KK (Oct 2007). "Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides". Pesticide ... Imazamox, an imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor ...
Lrp alternatively activates and represses the expression of acetolactate synthase's (ALS) several isoenzymes. Lrp, in E. coli, ...
α-Acetolactic acid is produced from two molecules of pyruvic acid by acetolactate synthase. α-Acetolactic acid can also be ... α-Acetolactic acid (α-acetolactate) is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the branched chain amino acids valine and leucine. ... decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel, W. H. (1995). "Carbohydrate ...
... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular ... The binding of FAD at this site in acetolactate synthase and the binding of ADP at a cognate site in OXC are thought to play ... Maestri O, Joset F (August 2000). "Regulation by external pH and stationary growth phase of the acetolactate synthase from ... Oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase is structurally homologous to acetolactate synthase found in plants and other microorganisms, but OXC ...
These are broad-spectrum herbicides that kill plants weeds or pests by inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase. In the ...
It functions via the inhibitition of acetolactate synthase enzyme, which catalyses the first step in biosynthesis of the ... "The Sulfonylurea Herbicide Sulfometuron Methyl Is an Extremely Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Acetolactate Synthase in ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase), acetohydroxy ... It begins with the condensation of two equivalents of pyruvate catalyzed by acetohydroxy acid synthase yielding α-acetolactate ... Anthranilate synthase is regulated by the gene products of trpE and trpG. trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to ... Anthranilate synthase is also regulated by feedback inhibition: tryptophan is a co-repressor to the TrpR repressor. The ...
Hoegrass was mostly replaced by a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase, again helped by poor application ...
... specifically via acetolactate synthase inhibition. Compounds in this class include amidosulfuron, azimsulfuron, bensulfuron- ... Duggleby RG, McCourt JA, Guddat LW (2008). "Structure and mechanism of inhibition of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase". Plant ...
... such as the sulfonylureas inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched- ... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS PharmSci. 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003. PMID 11741224. Loo JA, ...
Specifically, the RNAs are upstream of genes that encode a predicted acetolactate synthase, which is involved in the synthesis ...
Some populations of tall waterhemp have been reported resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibiting (ALS) herbicides and the ...
... the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase ...
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, using ZFN-assisted gene targeting, two herbicide-resistant genes (tobacco acetolactate synthase SuRA ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibition is a frequent mode of action in many of the most widely used herbicides, with target ...
Acetolactate synthase Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase α-Isopropylmalate synthase α-Isopropylmalate ...
2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase EC 2.2.1.6: acetolactate synthase EC 2.2.1.7: 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase EC 2.2. ... 2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ...
... may refer to: Acetolactate synthase, a protein Avian Hazard Advisory System, a bird avoidance model developed by the ...
"Entrez Gene:ILVBL ilvB (bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like". "Acetolactate synthase, chloroplastic (P17597) < InterPro < ... The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... Acetolactate synthase, also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, is an enzyme specifically involved in the conversion of ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular ...
EC 2.2.1.2 Acetolactate synthase EC 2.2.1.6 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC 2.2. ... Thiazole synthase EC 2.8.1.11: Molybdopterin synthase sulfurtransferase EC 2.8.1.12: Molybdopterin synthase EC 2.8.1.13: tRNA- ... Trans-feruloyl-CoA synthase EC 6.2.1.35: ACP-SH:acetate ligase EC 6.2.1.36: 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthase EC 6.2.1.37: 3- ... Biotin synthase EC 2.8.1.7: Cysteine desulfurase EC 2.8.1.8: Lipoyl synthase EC 2.8.1.9: Molybdenum cofactor sulfurtransferase ...
... thromboxane-a synthase MeSH D08.811.399.520.100 - 2-acetolactate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.250 - chorismate mutase MeSH ... riboflavin synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.825 - spermidine synthase MeSH D08.811.913.225.912 - spermine synthase MeSH D08.811. ... acetolactate synthase MeSH D08.811.913.200.650 - transaldolase MeSH D08.811.913.200.825 - transketolase MeSH D08.811.913.225. ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 - nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.750 ...
Acetolactate synthase. *Acyl CoA dehydrogenase. *Apoptosis-inducing factor. *Butyryl CoA dehydrogenase. *Cryptochrome ...
Acetolactate synthase EC 2.2.1.6. *2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase EC 2.2.1.9 ... EC 2.9.1.2: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA(Sec):L-selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase ... EC 6.2.1.38: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase ...
Huseby, N.E., Christensen, T.B., Olsen, B.R. and Størmer, F.C. (1971). "The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter ... Barak, Z., Chipman, D.M. and Gollop, N. (1987). "Physiological implications of the specificity of acetohydroxy acid synthase ... Størmer, F.C., Solberg, Y. and Hovig, T. (1969). "The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter aerogenes. Molecular ...
... such as the sulfonylureas inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched- ... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS pharmSci. 2 (1): E8. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003. PMID 11741224.. ...
... camelliol C synthase EC 5.4.99.39: beta-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.40: alpha-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.41: lupeol synthase EC ... 2-acetolactate mutase EC 5.4.99.4: 2-methyleneglutarate mutase EC 5.4.99.5: chorismate mutase EC 5.4.99.6: now EC 5.4.4.2 EC ... shionone synthase EC 5.4.99.47: parkeol synthase EC 5.4.99.48: achilleol B synthase EC 5.4.99.49: glutinol synthase EC 5.4. ... alpha-seco-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.53: marneral synthase EC 5.4.99.54: beta-seco-amyrin synthase EC 5.4.99.55: delta-amyrin ...
Homocysteine → Methionine (methionine synthase) Proline -(CH2)3- Glutamic Acid → Glutamate-5-semialdehyde → Proline (γ-glutamyl ... Hydroxyethyl-TPP + Pyruvate → α-acetolactate → Valine Leucine§. (CH3)2-CH-CH2- Hydroxyethyl-TPP + Pyruvate → α-ketobutyrate → ... Hydroxyethyl-TPP + Pyruvate → α-acetolactate → Isoleucine Methionine§. CH3-S-(CH2)2- ...
Smith S (December 1994). "The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes". 》FASEB Journal》 8 (15): ... "Improved performances and control of beer fermentation using encapsulated alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase and modeling". 》 ...
ALS inhibitors: Acetolactate synthase (ALS; also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is part of the first step in the ... Zhou Q, Liu W, Zhang Y, Liu KK (Oct 2007). "Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides". Pesticide ... When resistance appeared farmers turned to a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase. Once again, ryegrass in ... Imazamox, an imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor ...
... such as the sulfonylureas inhibit the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched- ... application to nitric oxide synthase". AAPS PharmSci. 2 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1208/ps020108. PMC 2751003 . PMID 11741224.. ...
... the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase ...
... is a member of the Fold Type II family, also known as the tryptophan synthase family. Though threonine ... Squires CH, Levinthal M, De Felice M (November 1981). "A role for threonine deaminase in the regulation of alpha-acetolactate ... ammonia-lyase does not possess substrate tunneling like tryptophan synthase does, it contains much conserved homology. ...
11-diene synthase EC 4.2.3.25: S-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.26: R-linalool synthase EC 4.2.3.27: isoprene synthase EC 4.2.3.28 ... acetolactate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.6: aconitate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.7: benzoylformate decarboxylase EC 4.1.1.8: oxalyl-CoA ... d-cadinene synthase EC 4.2.3.14: pinene synthase EC 4.2.3.15: myrcene synthase EC 4.2.3.16: (4S)-limonene synthase EC 4.2.3.17 ... chorismate synthase EC 4.2.3.6: trichodiene synthase EC 4.2.3.7: pentalenene synthase EC 4.2.3.8: casbene synthase EC 4.2.3.9: ...
"Entrez Gene:ILVBL ilvB (bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like". "Acetolactate synthase, chloroplastic (P17597) < InterPro < ... The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... Acetolactate synthase, also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, is an enzyme specifically involved in the conversion of ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular ...
acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit. YP_009585.1. *EC 2.2.1.6. *with IlvB catalyzes the formation of 2-acetolactate from ... acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit. Locus tag. DVU0361. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... YP_009585.1 acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough]. See identical proteins and ... DVU0361 acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2793500, updated on ...
... providing one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides, b) applying said one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides to a ... comprising providing one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides, applying said one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides ... comprising one or more mutations in the acetolactate synthase gene such that resistance to one or more acetolactate synthase ... resistant to acetolactate synthase herbicides based on the presence of one or more mutations that confer acetolactate synthase ...
acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit. YP_399158.1. *EC 2.2.1.6. *catalyzes the formation of 2-acetolactate from pyruvate; ... acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit. Locus tag. Synpcc7942_0139. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. ... Synpcc7942_0139 acetolactate synthase 3 catalytic subunit [ Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 ] Gene ID: 3773479, discontinued ...
acetolactate synthase. File:Acetolactase Synthase.png. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase ... The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like".. *↑ Dailey FE, Cronan JE (February 1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required ... acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1385 (2): 401-19. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(98) ...
sll1981, An acetolactate synthase homologue of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, functions as L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase. ... Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases. Chipman, D., Barak, Z., Schloss ... Synonyms: AHAS, ALS, Acetohydroxy-acid synthase catalytic subunit, Acetolactate synthase catalytic subunit, mitochondrial, SMR1 ... Nucleotide sequence of the yeast ILV2 gene which encodes acetolactate synthase. Falco, S.C., Dumas, K.S., Livak, K.J. Nucleic ...
Acetolactate synthase small subunit (ilvH), Acetolactate synthase large subunit (ilvI). *Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP ... Acetolactate synthase small subunit (ilvH), Acetolactate synthase large subunit (ilvI). *Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP ... Acetolactate synthase (Fragment). candidate division WOR-1 bacterium RIFOXYB2_FULL_36_35 ... sp,O85293,ILVI_BUCAP Acetolactate synthase large subunit OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. Schizaphis graminum (strain Sg) OX= ...
The Crystal Structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae Acetolactate Synthase with Enzyme-bound Cofactor and with an Unusual ... Description: Acetolactate synthase, catabolic protein , Length: 566 No structure alignment results are available for 1OZF.A, ... The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactors. ...
The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) are thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes that ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) are thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes that ... The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual ...
Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and photosystem II inhibiting herbicides was confirmed in a population of ... 2015, The Author(s). Main Conclusion: This is a first report of an Ala-205-Phe substitution in acetolactate synthase conferring ... A new amino acid substitution (Ala-205-Phe) in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting ... in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, 243(1), 149-159. http://dx.doi. ...
Kawai K, Kaku K, Izawa N, Shimizu T, Fukuda A, Tanaka Y (2007) A novel mutant acetolactate synthase gene from rice cells, which ... Okuzaki A, Shimizu T, Kaku K, Kawai K, Toriyama K (2007) A novel mutated acetolactate synthase gene conferring specific ... Selectable Tolerance to Herbicides by Mutated Acetolactate Synthase Genes Integrated into the Chloroplast Genome of Tobacco. ... To this end, we developed a novel vector system for chloroplast transformation with acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS catalyzes ...
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. Although the functional contribution of ALS to ... The first common enzyme in the pathway, acetolactate synthase (ALS, EC 2.2.1.6; also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, AHAS ... Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1385 ... Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2007;89(2):89-96.View ArticleGoogle ...
Prohexadione Calcium for Turfgrass Management and Poa annua Control and Molecular Assessment of the Acetolactate Synthase Gene ... Our final objective launched experiments characterizing possible resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting ...
... gracilis acetolactate synthase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. ... had a much higher affinity for this enzyme than pyruvate and markedly inhibited the formation of acetolactate from pyruvate. ... Acetolactate synthase from mitochondria of Euglena gracilis was markedly activated by ATP and feedback-inhibited by valine and ... Arfin S. M., Koziell D. A. 1973; Acetolactate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. I. Purification and allosteric properties. ...
우리는 TP 유도체 화합물의 골격을 이루고 있는 벤젠 고리를 pyrimidine 고리로 치환시킨 새로운 3 종류의 sulfonamide 유도체(TPP)를 합성하고, 보리에서 추출한 acetolactate synthase (ALS ... 우리는 TP 유도체 화합물의 골격을 이루고 있는 벤젠 고리를 pyrimidine 고리로 치환시킨 새로운 3 종류의 sulfonamide 유도체(TPP)를 합성하고, 보리에서 추출한 acetolactate synthase (ALS ... 새로운 Sulfonamide 유도체의 합성과 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) 저해 원문보기. Synthesis of Sulfonamide Derivatives as New Herbicidal Compounds ... We have synthesized three classes of a new sulfonamide derivative (TPP) as Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, in which the ...
Safeners as Corn Seedling Protectants against Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors. Milhomme, Henri / Roux, Christophe / Bastide, ...
... acetolactate synthase; [39] pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; [40] pyruvate formate lyase; [41] alcohol dehydrogenase; [42] ... 2000) V-Type H+-ATPase/synthase from a thermophilic eubacterium, Thermus thermophilus. Subunit structure and operon. J Biol ... to drive ATP synthesis by a sodium-dependent F1F0-type ATP synthase (SI Appendix, Figs. S16B and S17). For glucose fermentation ... citrate synthase; [65] fumarate reductase; [66] aconitase; [67] isocitrate dehydrogenase; [68] Fe-Fe hydrogenase; [69] V-ATPase ...
The first case of field evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide resistance in the model plant, mouse-ear cress ... Characterization and Management of Acetolactate Synthase Inhibiting Herbicide Resistant Mouse-Ear Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) ...
Specifically, acetolactate synthase catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetolactate, acetohydroxy acid reductoisomerase ... 1) the CUP1 promoter (SEQ ID NO:31), acetolactate synthase coding region from Bacillus subtilis (AlsS; SEQ ID NO:32; protein ... This plasmid comprised the following genes, budB encoding acetolactate synthase from Klebsiella pneumoniae (SEQ ID NO:1), ilvC ... A preferred yeast strain expressing an isobutanol pathway has acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity in the cytosol and has ...
Acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18). 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3). pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) ...
The trichome-specific acetolactate synthase NtALS1 gene, is involved in acylsugar biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L ...
Additional index words: Acetolactate synthase, herbicide resistance.. Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase; COC, crop oil ... Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18); fb, followed by; POST, postemergence; PPI, preplant incorporated; PRE ... Abstract: Three studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to determine whether acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant common ... Abbreviations: ALS, acetolactase synthase (EC 4.1.3.18); DAT, days after treatment; POST, postemergence. ...
... acetolactate decarboxylase) activities was evaluated on acetoin accumulation. Increasing ALS and ALDC enzyme activities led to ... Additionally, the effect of change in ALS (acetolactate synthase) and ALDC ( ... Additionally, the effect of change in ALS (acetolactate synthase) and ALDC (acetolactate decarboxylase) activities was ... Acetolactate Synthase Assay. For preparation of crude lysates, a single colony of BS7431 and BS7432 was transferred into 10 mL ...
ALS inhibitors: the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is the first step in ... When resistance appeared farmers turned to a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase. Once again, ryegrass in ... Imazamox, an imidazolinone manufactured by BASF for postemergence application that is an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor ... "Action mechanisms of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 89 (2): 89-96. doi: ...
... acetolactate synthase, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxyacid dehydratase, isopropylmalate synthase and isomerase, ... 1. Acetolactate synthase 2. Acetohydroxy acid isomemoreductase 3. Dihydroxyacid dehydratase 4. Valine aminotransferase ... Glycine synthase is used as enzyme in the conversion of N5, or N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. In this reaction, carbon ...
Chemical control of California arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) resistant to acetolactate synthase and photosystem II ...
Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is ... The isoleucine and valine biosynthetic enzyme acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p) is an attractive antifungal drug target, since the ... Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is ...
Tribenuron-methyl induces male sterility through anther-specific inhibition of acetolactate synthase leading to autophagic cell ... Tribenuron-methyl induces male sterility through anther-specific inhibition of acetolactate synthase leading to autophagic cell ... Tribenuron-methyl induces male sterility through anther-specific inhibition of acetolactate synthase leading to autophagic cell ... of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely ...
Acetolactate synthase large subunit IlvG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh) ... Acetolactate synthase large subunit IlvG UniProtKBInterProInteractive Modelling. 547 aa; Sequence (Fasta) Identical sequences: ...
Palavras-chave : Acetolactate synthase; cytochrome P450; mutation; resistance; shepherds purse. · texto em Inglês · Inglês ( ... This is the first report of the acetolactate synthase Pro197Arg mutation in shepherds purse. ... Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene sequencing revealed a single nucleotide change of CCT to CGT resulting in the Pro to Arg ...
  • DVU0361 acetolactate synthase 1 regulatory subunit [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. (nih.gov)
  • ILVI_BUCAP Acetolactate synthase large subunit OS=Buchnera aphidicola subsp. (uniprot.org)
  • Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). (canada.ca)
  • 4. The sorghum hybrid of claim 1, wherein said sorghum hybrid germplasm that confers resistance to inhibition by one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides comprises an acetolactate synthase gene, wherein said gene comprises one or more amino acid substitutions from the group consisting of Val 531 Ile and Trp 545 Leu. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The sorghum hybrid of claim 1, wherein said sorghum hybrid germplasm that confers resistance to inhibition by one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides comprises mutations in the acetolactate synthase gene as found in ATCC No. PTA-7999. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The sorghum hybrid of claim 8, wherein said acetolactate synthase gene as found in ATCC No. PTA-7999 is introduced into said sorghum hybrid by introgression. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The trichome-specific acetolactate synthase NtALS1 gene, is involved in acylsugar biosynthesis in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. (springer.com)
  • Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene sequencing revealed a single nucleotide change of CCT to CGT resulting in the Pro to Arg substitution at amino acid position 197 in resistant individuals. (scielo.cl)
  • To synchronize DSB induction and delivery of the HDR template, we transformed a Cas9 expression construct and GT vector harboring the HDR template with guide RNAs ( gRNA s) targeting the rice acetolactate synthase ( ALS ) gene either separately or sequentially into rice calli. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Arabidopsis CSR1 gene codes for the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6), also known as acetolactate synthase, which catalyzes the first step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Bartlem D, Lambein I, Okamoto T, Itaya A, Uda Y, Kijima F, Tamaki Y, Nambara E, Naito S (2000) Mutation in the threonine synthase gene results in an over-accumulation of soluble methionine in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • Lack of the aforementioned amino acids interferes with protein synthesis, causing the plant to die off.This gene encodes a modified acetolactate synthase, which confers tolerance to several acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides such as, for example, sulfonylurea. (cbd.int)
  • The herbicide tolerance trait is conferred by a single point mutation modification of the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene such that this enzyme, the target of imidazolinone herbicides, is no longer affected by imazamox and imazethapyr. (gc.ca)
  • We targeted the acetolactate synthase gene (als) that converts pyruvate to acetolactate, to eliminate the production of acetoin and 2, 3-butanodial. (usda.gov)
  • The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and micro-organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In New Mexico, there are currently two confirmed cases of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes: a kochia ( Kochia scoparia ) biotype resistant to herbicides inhibiting acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, also known as acetolactate synthase or ALS) and, more recently, a Palmer amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri ) biotype resistant to glyphosate (Heap, 2009). (nmsu.edu)
  • We have synthesized three classes of a new sulfonamide derivative (TPP) as Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, in which the benzene ring in TP skeleton was converted to substituted pyrimidyl ring and examined their inhibitory activities on barley for ALS. (kisti.re.kr)
  • Identification and evaluation of novel acetolactate synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents. (nature.com)
  • Charest PJ, Hattori J, DeMoor J, Iyer VN, Miki BL (1990) In vitro study of transgenic tobacco expressing Arabidopsis wild type and mutant acetohydroxyacid synthase genes. (springer.com)
  • Acetolactate synthase is catalytic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of various amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of growth of E. gracilis by threonine and the relief of this inhibition by valine are explained by these characteristic properties of E. gracilis acetolactate synthase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It inhibits acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme activity, a key enzyme involved in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis ( Schloss, 1990 ), which results in the inhibition of plant growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mithen, Richard 2005-11-29 00:00:00 Isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid leucine, and thus primary metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • In Arabidopsis, the functionally similar enzyme, methythiolalkylmalate synthase (MAM), is an important enzyme in the elongation of methionine prior to glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis, as part of secondary metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides inhibit the enzyme common to the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. (sare.org)
  • In this case, acetolactase synthase is a transketolase, which moves back and forth, having both catabolic and anabolic forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the present invention provides for sorghum plants, plant tissues and plant seeds that contain altered acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes and proteins that are resistant to inhibition by herbicides that normally inhibit the activity of the ALS protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2015. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.). BMC Genomics (10.1186/s12864-015-2084-1). (wsu.edu)
  • Acetolactate synthase from mitochondria of Euglena gracilis was markedly activated by ATP and feedback-inhibited by valine and, to a lesser extent, by other branched-chain amino acids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The isoleucine and valine biosynthetic enzyme acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p) is an attractive antifungal drug target, since the isoleucine and valine biosynthetic pathway is not present in mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ilv2Delta mutants do not survive in vivo, Cryptococcus neoformans ilv2 mutants are avirulent, and both S. cerevisiae and Cr. (duke.edu)
  • The acetolactate synthase enzyme (ALS) plays a key role in the biochemical pathways of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. (cbd.int)
  • 1. A sorghum hybrid wherein said sorghum hybrid germplasm confers resistance to inhibition by one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides at levels of said one or more herbicides that would normally inhibit the growth of a sorghum hybrid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The sorghum hybrid of claim 1, wherein said resistance to inhibition by one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides is introduced into said sorghum hybrid germplasm by introgression. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our final objective launched experiments characterizing possible resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides in annual bluegrass. (openthesis.org)
  • The first case of field evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide resistance in the model plant, mouse-ear cress, was reported in winter wheat fields in Westmoreland County, Virginia. (vt.edu)
  • The biochemical and molecular basis of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides was investigated in eight resistant (R) and three susceptible (S) wild radish populations. (bioone.org)
  • 1OZH: The crystal structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual intermediate. (rcsb.org)
  • Group 9 (Legacy G) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Enolpyruvyl Shikimate Phosphate Synthase (Inhibition of EPSP synthase). (weedscience.org)
  • Acetolactate synthase, also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, is an enzyme specifically involved in the conversion of pyruvate to acetolactate: 2 CH3COCO2− → −O2CC(OH)(CH3)COCH3 + CO2 The reaction uses thiamine pyrophosphate in order to link the two pyruvate molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetolactate synthesis, also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, is an enzyme specifically involved in the chemical reaction involving the conversion of two pyruvate molecules to an acetolactate molecule and carbon dioxide. (wikidoc.org)
  • 2-Oxobutyrate, a substrate converted to acetohydroxybutyrate, had a much higher affinity for this enzyme than pyruvate and markedly inhibited the formation of acetolactate from pyruvate. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Amir R, Hacham Y, Galili G (2002) Cystathionine gamma-synthase and threonine synthase operate in concert to regulate carbon flow towards methionine in plants. (springer.com)
  • 2012. Camelina mutants resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides. (wsu.edu)
  • The United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service(USDA/APHIS) has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking non-regulated status for soybean designated as transformation event 356043, which has been genetically engineered for tolerance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pioneer's 356043 soybean has been genetically engineered to express modified glyphosate acetyltransferase (GAT46014) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) proteins. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • This is the first report of the acetolactate synthase Pro197Arg mutation in shepherd's purse. (scielo.cl)
  • Cytocidal amino acid starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetolactate synthase (ilv2{Delta}) mutants is influenced by the carbon source and rapamycin. (duke.edu)
  • Description Penoxsulam is an acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicide . (brakesband.com)
  • Acetolactate and acetoin synthesis in ripening peas. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sulfonylureas inhibit the plant enzyme, acetolactate synthase, resulting in impaired branch chain amino acid synthesis, and are generally more potent herbicides than the phenylureas. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, the effect of change in ALS (acetolactate synthase) and ALDC (acetolactate decarboxylase) activities was evaluated on acetoin accumulation. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. The sorghum hybrid of claim 1, wherein said one or more acetolactate synthase herbicides are from a group consisting of sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimides and, and pyrimidinylthiobenzoates. (freepatentsonline.com)