A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.

Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway. (1/91)

A recent study indicated that Bacillus subtilis catabolizes acetoin by enzymes encoded by the acu gene cluster (F. J. Grundy, D. A. Waters, T. Y. Takova, and T. M. Henkin, Mol. Microbiol. 10:259-271, 1993) that are completely different from those in the multicomponent acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system (AoDH ES) encoded by aco gene clusters found before in all other bacteria capable of utilizing acetoin as the sole carbon source for growth. By hybridization with a DNA probe covering acoA and acoB of the AoDH ES from Clostridium magnum, genomic fragments from B. subtilis harboring acoA, acoB, acoC, acoL, and acoR homologous genes were identified, and some of them were functionally expressed in E. coli. Furthermore, acoA was inactivated in B. subtilis by disruptive mutagenesis; these mutants were impaired to express PPi-dependent AoDH E1 activity to remove acetoin from the medium and to grow with acetoin as the carbon source. Therefore, acetoin is catabolized in B. subtilis by the same mechanism as all other bacteria investigated so far, leaving the function of the previously described acu genes obscure.  (+info)

Three distinct phases of isoprene formation during growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. (2/91)

During growth on a glucose-tryptone medium, Bacillus subtilis 6051 (Marburg strain) exhibited three phases of isoprene (2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene) formation, corresponding to (i) glucose catabolism and secretion of acetoin, (ii) catabolism of acetoin, and (iii) the early stages of sporulation. These results establish an experimental system for studying the biological role of isoprene formation.  (+info)

Characterization of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YAL060W gene product. Disruption and induction of the gene. (3/91)

The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome project in 1996 showed that almost 60% of the potential open reading frames of the genome had no experimentally determined function. Using a conserved sequence motif present in the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases, we found several potential alcohol dehydrogenase genes with no defined function. One of these, YAL060W, was overexpressed using a multicopy inducible vector, and its protein product was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was found to be a homodimer that, in the presence of NAD(+), but not of NADP, could catalyze the stereospecific oxidation of (2R,3R)-2, 3-butanediol (K(m) = 14 mm, k(cat) = 78,000 min(-)(1)) and meso-butanediol (K(m) = 65 mm, k(cat) = 46,000 min(-)(1)) to (3R)-acetoin and (3S)-acetoin, respectively. It was unable, however, to further oxidize these acetoins to diacetyl. In the presence of NADH, it could catalyze the stereospecific reduction of racemic acetoin ((3R/3S)- acetoin; K(m) = 4.5 mm, k(cat) = 98,000 min(-)(1)) to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-butanediol, respectively. The substrate stereospecificity was determined by analysis of products by gas-liquid chromatography. The YAL060W gene product can therefore be classified as an NAD-dependent (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH). S. cerevisiae could grow on 2,3-butanediol as the sole carbon and energy source. Under these conditions, a 3. 5-fold increase in (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity was observed in the total cell extracts. The isoelectric focusing pattern of the induced enzyme coincided with that of the pure BDH (pI 6.9). The disruption of the YAL060W gene was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. The disrupted strain could also grow on 2,3-butanediol, although attaining a lesser cell density than the wild-type strain. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity of the YAL060W gene product, we propose the name of BDH for this gene. The corresponding enzyme is the first eukaryotic (2R, 3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase characterized of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family.  (+info)

An operon for a putative ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in acetoin utilization of Bacillus subtilis. (4/91)

The ytrABCDEF operon of Bacillus subtilis was deduced to encode a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system. YtrB and YtrE could be the ABC subunits, and YtrC and YtrD are highly hydrophobic and could form a channel through the cell membrane, while YtrF could be a periplasmic lipoprotein for substrate binding. Expression of the operon was examined in cells grown in a minimal medium. The results indicate that the expression was induced only early in the stationary phase. The six ytr genes form a single operon, transcribed from a putative sigma(A)-dependent promoter present upstream of ytrA. YtrA, which possesses a helix-turn-helix motif of the GntR family, acts probably as a repressor and regulates its own transcription. Inactivation of the operon led to a decrease in maximum cell yield and less-efficient sporulation, suggesting its involvement in the growth in stationary phase and sporulation. It is known that B. subtilis produces acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then reuses it later during stationary phase and sporulation. When either the entire ytr operon or its last gene, ytrF, was inactivated, the production of acetoin was not affected, but the reuse of acetoin became less efficient. We suggest that the Ytr transport system plays a role in acetoin utilization during stationary phase and sporulation.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis ccpA gene mutants specifically defective in activation of acetoin biosynthesis. (5/91)

A large number of carbon source utilization pathways are repressed in Bacillus subtilis by the global regulator CcpA, which also acts as an activator of carbon excretion pathways during growth in media containing glucose. In this study, CcpA mutants defective in transcriptional activation of the alsSD operon, which is involved in acetoin biosynthesis, were identified. These mutants retained normal glucose repression of amyE, encoding alpha-amylase, and acsA, encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, and normal activation of ackA, which is involved in acetate excretion; in these ccpA mutants the CcpA functions of activation of the acetate and acetoin excretion pathways appear to be separated.  (+info)

Analysis of acetoin and diacetyl in bacterial culture supernatants by gas-liquid chromatography. (6/91)

The acetoin and diacetyl contents of culture supernatants of Voges-Proskauer-positive "viridans" streptotocci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, were determined by a gas liquid chromatographic procedure, in which supernatants were extracted with diethyl ether and diacetyl was measured on columns of 10% (wt/wt) polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) at 73 C. Acetoin was converted to diacetyl, before analysis, by a simple oxidation procedure with ferric chloride and without a distillation step. Streptococcal culture supernatants were shown by this method to contain only acetoin; supernatants of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus contained both acetoin and diacetyl.  (+info)

Mutagenesis at asp27 of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis. Effect on its ability to form acetoin and acetolactate. (7/91)

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is one of several enzymes that require thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) and a bivalent cation as essential cofactors. The three-dimensional structure of PDC from Zymomonas mobilis (ZMPDC) shows that Asp27 (D27) is close to ThDP in the active site, and mutagenesis of this residue has suggested that it participates in catalysis. The normal product of the PDC reaction is acetaldehyde but it is known that the enzyme can also form acetoin as a by-product from the hydroxyethyl-ThDP reaction intermediate. This study focuses on the role of D27 in the production of acetoin and a second by-product, acetolactate. D27 in ZMPDC was altered to alanine (D27A) and this mutated protein, the wild-type, and two other previously constructed PDC mutants (D27E and D27N) were expressed and purified. Determination of the kinetic properties of D27A showed that the affinity of D27A for ThDP is decreased 30-fold, while the affinity for Mg2+ and the Michaelis constant for pyruvate were similar to those of the wild-type. The time-courses of their reactions were investigated. Each mutant has greatly reduced ability to produce acetaldehyde and acetoin compared with the wild-type PDC. However, the effect of these mutations on acetaldehyde production is greater than that on acetoin formation. The D27A mutant can also form acetolactate, whereas neither of the other mutants, nor the wild-type PDC, can do so. In addition, acetaldehyde formation and/or release are reversible in wild-type ZMPDC but irreversible for the mutants. The results are explained by a mechanism involving thermodynamic and geometric characteristics of the intermediates in the reaction.  (+info)

Regulation of the acetoin catabolic pathway is controlled by sigma L in Bacillus subtilis. (8/91)

Bacillus subtilis grown in media containing amino acids or glucose secretes acetate, pyruvate, and large quantities of acetoin into the growth medium. Acetoin can be reused by the bacteria during stationary phase when other carbon sources have been depleted. The acoABCL operon encodes the E1alpha, E1beta, E2, and E3 subunits of the acetoin dehydrogenase complex in B. subtilis. Expression of this operon is induced by acetoin and repressed by glucose in the growth medium. The acoR gene is located downstream from the acoABCL operon and encodes a positive regulator which stimulates the transcription of the operon. The product of acoR has similarities to transcriptional activators of sigma 54-dependent promoters. The four genes of the operon are transcribed from a -12, -24 promoter, and transcription is abolished in acoR and sigL mutants. Deletion analysis showed that DNA sequences more than 85 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site are necessary for full induction of the operon. These upstream activating sequences are probably the targets of AcoR. Analysis of an acoR'-'lacZ strain of B. subtilis showed that the expression of acoR is not induced by acetoin and is repressed by the presence of glucose in the growth medium. Transcription of acoR is also negatively controlled by CcpA, a global regulator of carbon catabolite repression. A specific interaction of CcpA in the upstream region of acoR was demonstrated by DNase I footprinting experiments, suggesting that repression of transcription of acoR is mediated by the binding of CcpA to the promoter region of acoR.  (+info)

NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth …
Methanol is an attractive alternative non-food feedstock for industrial fermentations that can be used instead of sugar-based raw materials. Here, the thermophilic and methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 was metabolically engineered to produce the platform chemical (R)-acetoin from methanol at 50 °C
Updated DNA Sequences ===================== SCU12980 U12980 U00091 103683bp linear PLN 23-JAN-2004 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I left arm sequence. two alcohol/sorbitol; S.cerevisiae Ycr28p homolog; FLO9; GDH3; SEO1; Seo1p: putative membrane protein; YAL066W; Yal066wp; YAL065C; Yal065cp; YAL064W-B; Yal064w-bp; Flo9p: Putative cell wall protein involved in flocculation; YAL063C; Yal063cp; Gdh3p: NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase homolog; YAL061W; Yal061wp; YAL060W; Yal060wp; ECM1; Ecm1p; CNE1; Cne1p: calnexin homolog; YAL058C-A; Yal058c-ap; YAL056W; Yal056wp; YAL055W; Yal055wp; ACS1; Acs1p: acetyl CoA synthetase; YAL053W; Yal053wp; YAF1; Yaf1p: CYP1-like transcription factor with zinc finger motif; YAL049C; Yal049cp; YAL048C; Yal048cp; SPI6; Spi6p; YAL046C; Yal046cp; YAL045C; Yal045cp; GCV3; Gcv3p: H-protein subunit of the glycine cleavage system; PTA1; Pta1p: Pre-tRNA processing involved protein; YAL043C-A; Yal043c-ap; YAL042W; Yal042wp; CDC24; Cdc24p: putative calcium binding protein; CLN3; ...
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Acetoin (AC) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) as highly promising bio-based platform chemicals have received more attentions due to their wide range of applications. However, the non-efficient substrate conversion and mutually transition between AC and 2,3-BD in their natural producing strains not only led to a low selectivity but also increase the difficulty of downstream purification. Therefore, synthetic engineering of more suitable strains should be a reliable strategy to selectively produce AC and 2,3-BD, respectively. In this study, the respective AC (alsS and alsD) and 2,3-BD biosynthesis pathway genes (alsS, alsD, and bdhA) derived from Bacillus subtilis 168 were successfully expressed in non-natural AC and 2,3-BD producing Corynebacterium crenatum, and generated recombinant strains, C. crenatum SD and C. crenatum SDA, were proved to produce 9.86 g L−1 of AC and 17.08 g L−1 of 2,3-BD, respectively. To further increase AC and 2,3-BD selectivity, the AC reducing gene (butA) and lactic acid
NAD-dependent (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase, catalyzes oxidation of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to (3R)-acetoin, oxidation of meso-butanediol to (3S)-acetoin, and reduction of ...
Acor Orthopaedic is a manufacturer of custom and retail orthopedic products and a converter of EVA, PE and PU foam products serving a variety of markets.
Source: ThinkstockAcorda Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: ACOR) is watching its shares slide on Monday after the company gave an update on a recent clinical study. Essentially, the company announced that its Milestone clinical study did not show sufficient efficacy to support further development of dalfampridine to improve post-stroke difficulties (PSWD). The primary outcome measure of the […]
Acorda Therapeutics Inc (NASDAQ: ACOR), a biopharmaceutical company that develops therapies for neurological disorders, on Tuesday announced that ...
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: ACOR) today announced its financial results for the second quarter ended June 30, 2012....ACOR
Yılmaz, Sezai; Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Ara, Cengiz; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Işık, Burak; Aydın, Cemalettin; Özgör, Dinçer; Dirican, Abuzer; Barut, Bora; Ünal, Bülent; Pişkin, Turgut; Ateş, Mustafa; Kutlu, Ramazan; Toprak, Hüseyin İlksen; Kırımlıoğlu, Saime Hale; Aladağ, Murat; Harputoğlu, Muhsin Murat Muhip; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Karabiber, Hamza; Yalçın, Kendal; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kırımlıoğlu, Vedat (Hepatogastroenterology, 2013) ...
Yılmaz, Sezai; Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Ara, Cengiz; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Işık, Burak; Aydın, Cemalettin; Özgör, Dinçer; Dirican, Abuzer; Barut, Bora; Ünal, Bülent; Pişkin, Turgut; Ateş, Mustafa; Kutlu, Ramazan; Toprak, Hüseyin İlksen; Kırımlıoğlu, Saime Hale; Aladağ, Murat; Harputoğlu, Muhsin Murat Muhip; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Karabiber, Hamza; Yalçın, Kendal; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kırımlıoğlu, Vedat (Hepatogastroenterology, 2013) ...
Clever Polimer ve Yapı Kimyasalları A.Ş. inşaat ve mimari detay çözümlerinde uygulanan su yalıtımı, endüstriyel zemin kaplama ve koruyucu boya alanındaki her çeşit prepolimer ve nihai ürünlerin tasarımını ve üretimini Gebze/Türkiye üretim tesislerinde gerçekleştirmektedir.... ...
K00004 BDH; (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase / meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.4 1.1.1.- 1.1.1.303] K07535 badH; 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K08317 hcxA; hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase A [EC:1.1.1.-] K18369 adh2; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K19954 adh1; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K19955 adh2; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K21416 acoA; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.1.1.-] K21416 acoA; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.1.1.-] K21417 acoB; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.1.1.-] K21417 acoB; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.1.1.-] K22230 iolU; scyllo-inositol 2-dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.-] K23257 yvgN; methylglyoxal/glyoxal reductase [EC:1.1.1.283 1.1.1 ...
pyruvate decarboxylase ^ CO2. a-acetolactate/acetaldehyde-TPP. ,CO2. CO2 diacetyl reductase diacetyl -^ ^ ► acetoin reductase / % . NADH+H NAD. acetoin reductase c. NADH+H. NAD 2,3-butanediol catalyzed by a-acetolactate synthase and requiring high concentrations of pyruvate. The a-acetolactate is unstable in the presence of oxygen and is finally decarboxylated, nonenzy-matically, to form diacetyl. It is important to note that diacetyl is not necessarily the terminal end-product of the pathway. Further reduction of diacetyl can also occur, forming acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, compounds that contribute no flavor or aroma to the product.. Following the addition of the culture, the mix is incubated at 21°C to 22°C for twelve to sixteen hours. At the end of the fermentation, when the titratable acidity has reached 0.85% to 0.90% and the pH has decreased to about 4.5, the product is cooled to 2°C and agitated to break up the coagulum. Salt is usually added, and, if desired, butter granules or ...
Acid and base environmental stress respones were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived |5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4.095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acide upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine
1GEG: Crystal structure of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase in a complex with NAD+ and inhibitor mercaptoethanol at 1.7 A resolution for understanding of chiral substrate recognition mechanisms.
This report covers the key technological and market trends in the 1,4-Butanediol market and further lays out an analysis of the factors influencing the supply/demand for 1,4-Butanediol, and the opportunities/challenges faced by industry participants. It also acts as an essential tool to companies active across the value chain and to the new entrants by enabling them to capitalize the opportunities and develop business strategies.. Browse Detail Report With TOC @ http://www.hexareports.com/report/global-1-4-butanediol-market-outlook-2016-2021/details. 1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. This colorlessviscous liquid is derived from butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of the chain. It is one of four stableisomers of butanediol.. Global 1,4-Butanediol Market Outlook 2016-2021, has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global 1,4-Butanediol market collected from ...
Définitions de 1 4 butanediol, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de 1 4 butanediol, dictionnaire analogique de 1 4 butanediol (anglais)
Kadın Hastalıkları ve Doğum Uzmanı Prof. Dr. Ömer Tarık YALÇIN numarası, adresi gibi çeşitli bilgilere bu sayfadan ulaşabilir, Prof. Dr. Ömer Tarık YALÇIN hakkında bilgi sahibi olabilirsiniz.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1t62.1. Crystal structure of protein EF3133 from Enterococcus faecalis V583, Pfam DUF984
Figure 6 shows the impact of mutations in individual protease genes/operons on biofilm formation in vitro. The relative capacity to form a biofilm was assessed using a microtiter plate assay as previously described (Beenken et al. 2003) using FPR3757, its sarA mutant, and its sarA mutant carrying mutations in the indicated protease genes. Single asterisks indicate significance by comparison to the parent strain. Double asterisks indicate significance by comparison to the sarA mutant. As a control, biofilm formation was also assessed in LAC, its sarA mutant, and derivatives of thesarA mutant unable to produce aureolysin (Saur), unable to produce any extracellular protease (SP), or unable to produce any extracellular protease other than those encoded by the spl operon (SPspl+). Single asterisk indicates statistical significance by comparison to the sarA mutant. Double asterisks indicate significance by comparison to the Saur mutant. ...
Learn more about Butanediol (Bd) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Butanediol (Bd)
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: ACOR) today announced that the MILESTONE clinical study did not show sufficient efficacy to support further development of dalfampridine to improve post-stroke walking difficulties (PSWD)....ACOR
HONG KONG--(Marketwire - May 17, 2012) - Today, www.BrightonMarkets.com announced new reports highlighting Acorda Therapeutics Inc (NASDAQ: ACOR) and Pharmacyclics, Inc. (NASDAQ: PCYC). Gain market insight with full analysis and research downloads available at www.BrightonMarkets.com/index.php?coa=ACOR&cob=PCYC. Economic fundamentals leading into 2012 have set a generally positive pace with GDP growth likely...
Dünyanın dört bir köşesinde, en zorlu iklimler ve en farklı inşaat alanlarında, Xypex Crystalline Teknolojisi binlerce uygulamada kullanılarak test edilmiş ve kendini ispatlamıştır. Günümüzde Xypex, kendi alanında mükemmeliyet standartlarını belirliyor ve her geçen gün daha fazla beton uygulamasında bir kriter olarak gösterilmeye ve kullanılmaya devam ediyor ...
Shares of Acorda Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ:ACOR) have hit a five month low, after documents posted on the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations Website show that some agency investigators have questioned whether Acordas proposed MS treatment Fampridine-SR should be approved.
1,3- பியூட்டேன்டையால் (1,3-Butanediol) என்பது C4H10O2 என்ற மூலக்கூற்று வாய்ப்பாடு கொண்ட ஒரு கரிம வேதியியல் ஆல்ககால் ஆகும். இவ்வேதிச் சேர்மம் 1,3 பியூட்டைலின் கிளைக்கால், பியூட்டேன்-1,3 டையால் அல்லது 1,3-ஈரைதராக்சிபியூட்டேன் என்ற பெயர்களாலும் அறியப்படுகிறது. 1,3- பியூட்டேன்டையால், பொதுவாக உணவு மணமூட்டும் முகவர்களில் ஒரு கரைப்பானாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. சில பாலியூரிதீன் மற்றும் ...
Eren Danışmanlık, iso dosyası, iso dosyası çorlu, Yalçın, iso çorlu, çorlu iso, kalite yönetimi çorlu, kalite çorlu, çorlu danışman, çorlu kurumsal, kurusal danışmanlık çorlu, iso nasıl alınır, iso belgelendirme fiyatları, CE Çorlu, CE corlu, ce tekirdağ, ce çerkezköy, iş adamları çorlu, iso9001 çorlu, marka tescil çorlu, Kalite, iso, 9001, tse, marka tescili, patent, iş güvenliği, ohsas 18001, gıda güvenliği, iso 22000, çevre yönetim sistemi, iso 14001, kalite yönetim sistemi, logo, danışmanlık, hyb, hizmet yeterlilik belgesi, ce, çorlu danışmanlık firmaları, tekirdağ danışmanlık firmaları, çorlu kalite belgelendirme firmaları, tekirdağ kalite belgelendirme firmaları, iç tetkik eğitimi, iso 9001, tüv, türkak, tüv çorlu, kalite belgesi çorlu
Hakan Çebi, Ertuğrul Akşahin, Halil Yalçın Yüksel, Levent Çelebi, Cem Nuri Aktekin, Onur Hapa, Hasan Hilmi Muratlı, Ali Biçimoğlu. ...
Cite this article as: Yalçınkaya M, Bagatur E. The congress was a great success: Yes, but what about research?. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2020; 54(1): 1-3.. ...
Tan E, Akıncı A, Ayvaz G, Erbaş T, Ertaş M, Güç O, Hepgüler S, Kiraz S, Oşar SZ, Öztürk Ş, Özyalçın N.S, Palaoğlu S, Uyar M, Ünal S, Yalçın Ş; SNAPS Multidisciplinary Neuropathic Pain Study Group. ...
Ms. Brosh talks about the type of interpersonal interaction that was most useful. She cautions against advice giving like try yoga or be thankful for everything that you have and you will come out of your depression. What was helpful was somebody taking her seriously and listening to her experience especially her thoughts about suicide. As you listen to the interview she is clearly changed by the depression and has adapted to it. Her main deterrent to suicide was the impact it would have on the people she loved, but we also hear how tenuous that connection can be during severe depression. We learn that one of the thoughts that would keep her going if she got depressed again would be the idea that she knows she will come out the other side. Terry Gross asks her about treatment and whether any kind of therapy or medication that alleviates some of it? She clarifies that she is about 60% recovered. Despite some initial concerns about medication she found that it (bupropion) was very helpful ...
Following treatment with the mutagen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, three mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of these mutants was strongly attenuated, and the mutants produced less lactate than the parental strain. The kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase of strain CNRZ 483 and the mutants revealed differences in the affinity of the enzyme for pyruvate, NADH, and fructose-1,6-diphosphate. When cultured aerobically, strain CNRZ 483 transformed 2.3% of glucose to acetoin and produced no diacetyl or 2,3-butanediol. Under the same conditions, mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 transformed 42.0, 78.9, and 75.8%, respectively, of glucose to C4 compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol). Anaerobically, strain CNRZ 483 produced no C4 compounds, while mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 transformed 2.0, 37.0, and 25.8% of glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In
One research study found that in the past, c-type cytochromes in Pelobacter species had not been detected even though close relatives in the Geobacteraceae family have many c-type cytochromes present. Careful study of the entire completed genome sequence of Pelobacter carbinolicus found 14 open reading frames that encode for c-type cytochromes. It was found that three c-type cytochrome genes were expressed during iron reduction, which suggests that these particular proteins may play a role in electron transfer to iron. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of acetoin-fermenting Pelobacter carbinolicus protein cells showed three heme-staining bands. In addition, many of the c-type cytochromes that genetic studies have realized are required for optimal iron reduction in G. sulfurreducens were not present in the P. carbinolicus genome. The results from this study suggest more in depth studies of the functions of c-type cytochromes may possibly be beneficial for further ...
One research study found that in the past, c-type cytochromes in Pelobacter species had not been detected even though close relatives in the Geobacteraceae family have many c-type cytochromes present. Careful study of the entire completed genome sequence of Pelobacter carbinolicus found 14 open reading frames that encode for c-type cytochromes. It was found that three c-type cytochrome genes were expressed during iron reduction, which suggests that these particular proteins may play a role in electron transfer to iron. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of acetoin-fermenting Pelobacter carbinolicus protein cells showed three heme-staining bands. In addition, many of the c-type cytochromes that genetic studies have realized are required for optimal iron reduction in G. sulfurreducens were not present in the P. carbinolicus genome. The results from this study suggest more in depth studies of the functions of c-type cytochromes may possibly be beneficial for further ...
Lambic beer production processes are characterized by a temporal succession of well-adapted microbial species. Temporal metagenomic analysis of a Belgian, traditional, lambic beer production process, which was examined microbiologically and metabolomically before, confirmed that the microbial diversity is limited. Moreover, it allowed to link the consumption and production of certain compounds to specific microbial groups or species. Fermentation characteristics, such as the conversion of malic acid into lactic acid and acetoin production, were retrieved and could be attributed to specific microorganisms, namely Pediococcus damnosus and Acetobacter species, respectively. Traits previously ascribed to brewery-specific Dekkera bruxellensis strains were confirmed during the lambic beer production process examined multiphasically; in particular, the higher production of 4-ethylguaiacol compared to 4-ethylphenol was further shown by mass spectrometric analysis. Moreover, the absence of phenolic acid
The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor associated with S. haemolyticus.[3][5][13][14] Biofilm formation increases antibiotic resistance[5][13][14] and often leads to persistent infections.[15][16] S. haemolyticus biofilms are not polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) dependent, and the lack of the ica operon (the gene cluster that encodes the production of PIA) can be used to distinguish S. haemolyticus isolates from other CoNS species.[3][12][14] Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment assays with NaIO4, proteinase K, or DNase result in 38%, 98%, and 100% detachment, respectively. The high level of detachment associated with DNase treatment has led several authors to suggest a cell-to-surface and/or cell-to-cell adhesion function for extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation also appears to be influenced by the presence of glucose and NaCl. Biofilm ...
2,3-Butanediol fermentation is anaerobic fermentation of glucose with 2,3-butanediol as one of the end products. The overall stoichiometry of the reaction is 2 pyruvate + NADH --> 2CO2 + 2,3-butanediol. Butanediol fermentation is typical for the facultative anaerobes Klebsiella and Enterobacter and is tested for using the Voges-Proskauer (VP) test. The metabolic function of 2,3-butanediol is not known, although some have speculated that it was an evolutionary advantage for these microorganisms to produce a neutral product thats less inhibitory than other partial oxidation products and doesnt reduce the pH as much as mixed acids. . 2,3-butanediol fermentation produces smaller amounts of acid than mixed acid fermentation, and butanediol, ethanol, CO2 and H2 are the end products. While equal amounts of CO2 and H2 are created during mixed acid fermentation, butanediol fermentation produces more than twice the amount of CO2 because the gases are not produced only by formate hydrogen lyase like they ...
Licorice, which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. Structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. An examination of the effectiveness of licorice phenolics obtained in this study on vancomycin-resistant strains Enterococcus faecium FN-1 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201 revealed that licoricidin showed the most potent antibacterial effects against both of E. faecalis and E. faecium with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.9 × 10−5 M. 8-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl)-wighteone, isoangustone A, 3-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-kievitone, glyasperin C, and one of the new 3-methyl-2-phenylbenzofuran named
General Information: Pelobacter carbinolicus DSM 2380 was isolated from mud in Venice, Italy. Iron- and sulfur-reducing bacterium. Pelobacter carbinolicus is commonly isolated from marine and freshwater sediments, and sewage sludge. This organism can make up a significant portion of the anaerobic microbial community in these environments. Pelobacter carbinolicus is also able to grow using iron and sulfur as terminal electron acceptors. This organism is closely related to the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas spp. and iron-reducing Geobacter spp.. ...
Candida parapsilosis ATCC ® 22019™ Designation: CBS 604 [CCRC 20515, DBVPG 6150, DMS 5784, IBL 2545, IFO 1396, IGC 2545, JCM 1785, NCYC 601, NRRL Y-12969, UCD 61-27] Application: Assay of itraconzaole Assay of ketoconazole Control strain for identification Degrades hydroxybenzoate Degrades phenol Produces (S)-1,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Produces lipase Quality control Quality control strain Susceptibility disc testing Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibility testing Ref Ref
Some of the more common and easily measured volatile compounds of wine were determined for three different fermentation temperatures. Maximum, minimum, and average are given for over 30 fermentations at each temperature [(50, 70, 91°F) or (10, 21, 33°C)] for two years. Volatile acidity and acetic acid were compared and found to be equivalent for all practical purposes. Total volatile esters increase at the middle temperatures, as do acetaldehyde, isoamyl, and active amyl alcohols. Acetic acid decreases in the middle fermentation temperature range. Isobutanol does not vary greatly with fermentation temperature. Ethanol decreases with increasing fermentation temperature. Both levo and meso 2,3-butanediol increase with increasing temperature of fermentation. Acetoin also increases greatly at the higher fermentation temperatures.. ...
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A biological method for the conversion of L-glutamate to 1,4-butanediol that involves a decarboxylation step and avoids production of 4-hydroxybutyrate as an intermediate is described. The method includes: (a) conversion of L-glutamate to L-glutamate 5- phosphate; (b) conversion of L-glutamate 5 -phosphate to L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde; (c) conversion of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to 5-hydroxy-L-norvaline;(d) conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-norvaline to 5-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate; (e) conversion of 5-hydroxy-2- oxopentanoate to 4-hydroxybutanal; and (f) the conversion of 4-hydroxybutanal to 1,4- butanediol.
A 72-hour toxicity test was carried out to determine growth inhibition effects of 2-Oxepanone, polymer with 1,4-butanediol on the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The study was carried aout according to OECD guideline no. 201. Test solutions were created by diluting a stock solution of the test substance in growth media. The duration of exposure was 72 hours and test solutions were kept on a shaking table at 21-24 ± 2°C throughout. Illumination was approximately 100 µE m-2 s-1.m. Six replicates were used for the control and three for the test solutions. The pH was measured at test initiation and also at test termination. Samples for analytical determination of test concentration were also taken from the highest and lowest concentrations at this time. These samples were analysed separately at a non-GLP laboratory. The 72-hour ErC50 of 165 mg/L was found for the response variable average specific growth rate when exposed to 2-oxepanone, polymer with 1,4-butanediol. The 72-hour NOEC ...
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1,2-Butanediol, 2-butoxy-, 1-acetate | C10H20O4 | CID 109225 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Member Of The P24 Family Involved In ER To Golgi Transport; Similar To Emp24p And Erv25p; Role In Misfolded Protein Quality Control; Forms A Heterotrimeric Complex With Erp1p, Emp24p, And Erv25p; Localized To COPII-coated Vesicles; ERP2 Has A Paralog, ERP4, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Putative FAD Transporter; Required For Uptake Of FAD Into Endoplasmic Reticulum; Involved In Cell Wall Maintenance; FLC2 Has A Paralog, YOR365C, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Pages 259-265 Mehmet ERGİN, Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN, Mehmet AYRANCI, Yücel YAVUZ, Özcan YAVAŞİ, Mustafa SERİNKEN, Tarık ACAR, Mücahit AVCİL, Behçet AL, Atıf BAYRAMOĞLU, Hasan Mansur DURGUN, Yalçın GÖLCÜK, İbrahim ARZIMAN, Zerrin Defne DÜNDAR ...
Anıl İnevi, Müge; Yaman, Sena; Arslan Yıldız, Ahu ; Meşe, Gülistan ; Yalçın Özuysal, Özden ; Tekin, Hüseyin Cumhur ; Özçivici, Engin ...
Acetoin is an intermediate. Diacetyl and acetoin are two compounds that give butter its characteristic taste. Because of this, ... The yeast then absorbs the diacetyl, and reduces the ketone groups to form acetoin and 2,3-butanediol.[citation needed] Beer ... That notice also solicited input regarding exposure and health effects of acetoin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and furfural. Two ... manufacturers of artificial butter flavoring, margarines or similar oil-based products typically add diacetyl and acetoin ( ...
Strains of this species produce acetoin, a chemical found in many food products and fragrances. MEYER, S. A.; BROWN, R. E.; ... Romano, P; Suzzi, G; Zironi, R; Comi, G (Jun 1993). "Biometric Study of Acetoin Production in Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and ...
Bertagnolli BL, Hager LP (January 1993). "Role of flavin in acetoin production by two bacterial pyruvate oxidases". Archives of ...
Diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-pentanedione are used for buttery flavoring. Camphor and cyclohexanone are used for minty flavoring ... acetoin, 2,3-pentanedione, cyclohexanone, benzaldehyde, cresol, butyraldehyde, and isoamyl acetate. Sugars are frequently used ...
Its biosynthesis involves amination of acetoin, the latter derived from pyruvate. It exhibits potential nootropic and ...
It produces H2S from thiosulfate but does not produce acetoin or indole. It's catalase and cytochrome oxidase positive with no ...
Xiao Z, Wang X, Huang Y, Huo F, Zhu X, Xi L, Lu JR (December 2012). "Thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by ... Geckil H, Barak Z, Chipman DM, Erenler SO, Webster DA, Stark BC (October 2004). "Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol ...
α-Acetolactic acid can also be decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel ...
... is a species of bacteria that ferments 2,3-butanediol and acetoin. It is Gram-negative, strictly ...
It also tests positive for acetoin production, arginine, dihydrolase, benzidine, catalase, hemolysis, and lipase; it tests ...
Gabriel, M. A.; Ilbawi, M.; Al-Khalidi, U. A. S. (1972-03-15). "The oxidation of acetoin to CO2 in intact animals and in liver ... Specifically, he researched riboflavin biosynthesis, acetoin metabolism in mammals, acetyl-coA metabolism in liver supernatant ...
... and acetoin are two compounds that give butter its characteristic taste. Because of this, manufacturers of artificial ... That notice also solicited input regarding exposure and health effects of acetoin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and furfural.[20] ... The yeast then absorbs the diacetyl, and reduces the ketone groups to form acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. ... Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, ...
Together with the acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases and the acetoin utilization proteins, the histone deacetylases form an ... Leipe DD, Landsman D (Sep 1997). "Histone deacetylases, acetoin utilization proteins and acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases are ... as HDAC homologs have been found in bacteria in the form of Acetoin utilization proteins (AcuC) proteins. Within the Class I ...
Members of this group are esculin positive, 6.5% salt negative, sorbitol negative and produce acetoin. Isolates from the S. ...
Acetoin and Diacetyl by Wine Making Lactic Acid Bacteria". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 49:7 (7): 2147-2157. doi: ...
The yeasts also help keep levels low by consuming diacetyl and reducing it to acetoin and butylene glycol. Diacetyl production ... The main products of malolactic fermentation are lactic acid, diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and various esters. The amount ... Acetoin and Diacetyl by Wine Making Lactic Acid Bacteria" Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 49(7), 2147-2157, 1985 Jan ...
Acetoin is produced by several species and is further reduced to 2,3-butanediol by Clostridium beijerinckii. Clostridium ...
This strain grows best between 18 and 25℃.This strain can ferment citrate into acetoin and diacetyl. Most strains of this ...
Tests used to identify S. pseudintermedius specifically include DNase, hyaluronidase, coagulase, catalase, and acetoin ...
Like members of the S. mitis group, they are negative for acetoin production and mannitol and sorbitol fermentation. The S. ... S. salivarius group organisms are positive for acetoin production and are esculin positive but are negative for arginine ... Isolates in this group are negative for acetoin production, arginine, esculin, and mannitol and are sorbitol fermentation ... They do not hydrolyze arginine but are positive for acetoin production, esculin hydrolysis, and mannitol and sorbitol ...
The Voges-Proskauer test detects whether a bacterium is producing the product acetoin from the digestion of glucose. Mycolic ...
Voges-Proskauer /ˈfoʊɡəs ˈprɒskaʊ.ər/ or VP is a test used to detect acetoin in a bacterial broth culture. The test is ...
Other names in common use include L-butanediol dehydrogenase, L-BDH, and L(+)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (L-acetoin forming ... acetoin + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S,S)-butane-2,3-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are ... acetoin, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of ...
... may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that ... acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because ...
They are non-sporulating and catalase-negative The majority of specimens test positive for the production of acetoin (Vogues- ...
2-acetoin + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, and two products, (R)-2-acetoin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate carboxy-lyase [(R)-2-acetoin-forming]. Other ...
The majority of Streptococcus anginosus strains produce acetoin from glucose, ferment lactose, trehalose, salicin, and sucrose ...
In sensory terms, 1,1-diethoxyethane and other acetals, acetoin, and sotolon are the main compounds formed from acetaldehyde in ...
A 2017 study found a variety of flavoring initiated inflammatory cytokines in lung cell cultures, of which acetoin and maltol ... Common e-cig flavoring agents on this list include, but are not limited to: diacetyl, acetoin, 2,3-pentanedione (buttery ...
... has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) (R)-acetoin (CHEBI:15686) is a acetoin ( ... CHEBI:15686 - (R)-acetoin. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. The Voges- ... The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin. Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as an external energy store by a ... The conversion of acetoin into acetyl-CoA is catalysed by the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, following a mechanism largely ... Proskauer test is a commonly used microbiological test for acetoin production. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ...
In enzymology, an acetoin racemase (EC 5.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-acetoin ⇌ {\displaystyle ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoin racemase. This enzyme is also called acetylmethylcarbinol racemase. This ... rightleftharpoons } (R)-acetoin This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
... for enhanced acetoin accumulation by ,i,Bacillus subtilis,/i, 168. The optimal physiological conditions support maximum acetoin ... Increasing ALS and ALDC enzyme activities led to efficient utilization of pyruvate towards acetoin accumulation and about 80% ... Acetoin is widely used as flavor agent and serves as a precursor for chemical synthesis. Here we focused on identifying the ... accumulation by minimizing byproduct (acetate and butanediol) synthesis and a maximum of 75% enhancement in acetoin yield could ...
"Acetoin Dehydrogenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.5. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acetoin Dehydrogenase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Acetoin Dehydrogenase" by people in Profiles. ...
... and acetoin (NMAM 2558) is efficiently recovered when the concen ... methods for the determination of diacetyl and acetoin have been ... Separate sampling and analytical methods for the determination of diacetyl and acetoin have been developed to assess workplace ... These methods were acceptable for monitoring and identifying exposures to diacetyl and acetoin present in the butter flavoring ... Method development for the determination of diacetyl and acetoin at a microwave popcorn plant.. ...
To further improve acetoin production, a total of six different genes or operons were expressed in the acetoin producing ... Methanol-based acetoin production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus E. B. Drejer, D. T. C. Chan, C. Haupka, V. F ... To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microbial production of acetoin from methanol. ... methanolicus MGA3 increased acetoin titers 1.6-fold up to 0.42 ± 0.01 g L−1 which corresponds to 0.07 g g−1 methanol. This ...
Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under ... from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. ... One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3- ... Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the metabolism of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol Appl Environ ...
The report generally describes acetoin acetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Acetoin Acetate market ... Acetoin acetate market forecast. 6. ACETOIN ACETATE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Acetoin acetate prices in Europe. 6.2. Acetoin acetate ... Acetoin acetate prices in North America. 6.4. Acetoin acetate prices in other regions. 7. ACETOIN ACETATE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Acetoin acetate application spheres, downstream products. 3. ACETOIN ACETATE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. ACETOIN ACETATE PATENTS ...
1993) Identification of genes involved in the utilization of acetate and acetoin in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 10:259- ... 1993) Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Bacillus subtilis ccpA Gene Mutants Specifically Defective in Activation of Acetoin Biosynthesis. Andrew J. Turinsky, Tessa R. ... 1994) Catabolite regulation of Bacillus subtilis acetate and acetoin utilization genes by CcpA. J. Bacteriol. 176:4527-4533. ...
Acetoin is used as an external energy store by a number of fermentive bacteria. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ... Acetoin is used as a food flavoring (in baked goods) and a fragrance. Acetoin is a sweet, buttery, and creamy tasting compound ... Acetoin. Description. Acetoin, also known as dimethylketol or 2,3-butanolone, belongs to the class of organic compounds known ... acetoin has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder celiac disease. Acetoin is a colorless or pale yellow to green ...
127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) Market 2018-2023 report by Gen Consulting. Global acetoin ... 6.1 Global Acetoin Sales Volume by Type (2013-2018). 6.2 Global Acetoin Revenue by Type (2013-2018). 6.3 Global Acetoin Price ... 10.1 Global Acetoin Market Size Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.1 Global Acetoin Sales Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.2 Global Acetoin ... 5.1 Global Acetoin Sales & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.2 Global Acetoin Revenue & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.3 Price ...
Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol ... Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain Biotechnol Biofuels. 2017 Mar 14;10 ... Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio- ... The interaction with the non-depletable electron acceptor led to an acetoin formation with a yield of 79% of the theoretical ...
... acetoin was the only volatile eliciting significant attraction. Hence, acetoin might play a key role in governing the crabs ... Interestingly, acetoin is a fermentation product that in a blend seems to be involved in governing the attraction of vinegar ... Five odorants (acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, styrene) occurred in both arenga and coconut samples, while 13 ... However, the only attractive single odorant turned out to be acetoin, which attracted 79% of the tested animals (Fig. 2A). This ...
Solid dimer is converted to liquid monomer on melting, dissolution or distillation. Gradually reverts to dimer on standing. Praske, E.; Crounse, J. D.; Bates, K. H.; Kurten, T.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Wennberg, P. O. Atmospheric Fate of Methyl Vinyl Ketone: Peroxy Radical Reactions with NO and HO2. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119 (19), 4562-4572.. Liu, J.; Liu, M.; He, C.; Song, H.; Chen, F. Effect of thermal treatment on the flavor generation from Maillard reaction of xylose and chicken peptide. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 64 (1), 316-325.. ...
Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin.. M C ... Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. The ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ...
α-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin ... At 55°C, 7.7 g/L of acetoin and 14.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen ... Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a ... XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the ...
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When cultured aerobically, strain CNRZ 483 transformed 2.3% of glucose to acetoin and produced no diacetyl or 2,3-butanediol. ... lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase ... of glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In contrast to the parental strain, the NADH balance showed that the mutants ... acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol). Anaerobically, strain CNRZ 483 produced no C4 compounds, while mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 ...
In this study, cellular carbon fluxes in the acetoin producer CGR6 were further redirected toward acetoin synthesis using ... Finally, the optimal engineered strain CGS11 produced a titer of 102.45 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.419 g/g glucose at a rate ... The optical purity of the resulting (3R)-acetoin surpassed 95%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of ... Over the past decades, intense efforts have been devoted to the production of acetoin through green biotechniques. However, ...
Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol ... Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio- ... Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain. Förster, A. H.; Beblawy, S.; ... Electrode-assisted fermentation, Escherichia coli, Bulk chemicals, Acetoin, Metabolic engineering. Nachgewiesen in. Web of ...
Catalyzes the irreversible reduction of 2,3-butanediol to (S)-acetoin in the presence of NADH (Potential). ... Probable diacetyl reductase [(R)-acetoin forming] 2 MRALAYFGKGNIRFTNHLKEPHIVAPDELVIDIEWCGICGTDLHEYTDGPIFFPEDGHTH ...
Acetoin. 2558pdf icon. ACETOIN. Acetone. 1300pdf icon. KETONES I. Acetone. 2549pdf icon. VOLATILE ORGANIC CPDS (Screening). ...
... *By Hillary in E-Liquid Reviews, Safe Vaping ... Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl, best e liquids, Diacetyl, diacetyl free, diacetyl free e juice, eliquids ... 1 - Kais Virgin Vapors Customer Service Team confirmed there is no Diacetyl, diacetyl analogs, Acetoin, Acetyl Propionyl, 2, ... I would like to know if the e-liquids produced by Indigo vapor are Diacetyl, Acetoin, and/or Acetyl Propionyl Free. I do not ...
Synthesis of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol by Engineered Escherichia coli. In Synthesis of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol by ... Synthesis of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol by Engineered Escherichia coli. / Nielsen, D. R.; Yoon, S. H.; Prather, K. J. ... Synthesis of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol by Engineered Escherichia coli. 2009.. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/ ... Nielsen, D. R. ; Yoon, S. H. ; Prather, K. J. / Synthesis of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol by Engineered Escherichia coli. ...
ACETOIN PROPYLENEGLYCOL KETAL FLAVORING AGENT OR ADJUVANT 977164-02-5 ALPHA-ACETOLACTATE DECARBOXYLASE ENZYME PREPARATION FROM ...
We supply acetoin CAS:513-86-0 and we manufacture and produce Acetylmethylcarbinol from China, Contact us for your requirements ... China premium quality and best price acetoin CAS:513-86-0 bulk Supplier, Acetylmethylcarbinol manufacturer and 3-Hydroxybutan-2 ... China supplier of acetoin CAS:513-86-0,Acetylmethylcarbinol factory,3-Hydroxybutan-2-one manufacturer and acetoin producer, ... acetoin. 1-ethoxy-2-methyl-1-methylselanyl-propene. Dimethylketol. Acetylmethylcarbinol. 3-hydroxy-2-oxobutane. 3-Hydroxybutan- ...
Synthesis of (3R)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis *Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy ... Rights & permissionsfor article Synthesis of (3,i,R,/i,)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered ,i, ...
  • Owing to its neutral nature, production and excretion of acetoin during exponential growth prevents over-acidification of the cytoplasm and the surrounding medium that would result from accumulation of acidic metabolic products, such as acetic acid and citric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • At ratios comparable to workplace scenarios, the mixtures or diacetyl alone, but not acetic acid or acetoin, cause airway epithelial necrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The optimal physiological conditions support maximum acetoin accumulation by minimizing byproduct (acetate and butanediol) synthesis and a maximum of 75% enhancement in acetoin yield could be achieved. (hindawi.com)
  • acetoin acetate manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Furthermore, acetoin acetate prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report also focuses on acetoin acetate consumers by providing data on companies that use it. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Acetoin Acetate (CAS 4906-24-5) Market Research Report 2018 contents were prepared and placed on the website in April, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that Acetoin Acetate (CAS 4906-24-5) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • in these ccpA mutants the CcpA functions of activation of the acetate and acetoin excretion pathways appear to be separated. (asm.org)
  • In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific understanding and the technological development leading to the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol have undergone four periods, evident from the number of the main publications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol. (nih.gov)
  • Enantioselective enzymatic synthesis of the α-hydroxy ketone (R)-acetoin from meso-2,3-butanediol. (dechema-dfi.de)
  • The discovery of a ( S )-selective alcohol dehydrogenase enables a novel production process of ( R )-acetoin from meso -2,3-butanediol. (dechema-dfi.de)
  • Here we focused on identifying the best physiological conditions (initial substrate concentrations, pH, temperature, and agitation) for enhanced acetoin accumulation by Bacillus subtilis 168. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, Bacillus subtilis is used as a model organism for study of acetoin synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. (asm.org)
  • Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • Herein, we de- scribe the synthesis of (S)-phenylacetyl carbinol products with extended reaction scope employing the readily available wild-type ThDP-dependent enzyme acetoin :dichlorophenolindophenol oxidore- ductase (Ao:DCPIP OR) from Bacillus lichenifor- mis. (unife.it)
  • 5. Huang, M., Oppermann-Sanio, F.B. and Steinbuchel, A. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Acetoin has two biological analogues, diacetyl and 2,3-butanediol. (hindawi.com)
  • a butanediol dehydrogenase ( bdh ) is integrated with alsSD operon that leads to production of 2,3-butanediol as major product instead of acetoin. (hindawi.com)
  • NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of BDH2, a gene adjacent to BDH1, whose encoded protein is 51% identical to Bdh1p, does not significantly alter the levels of acetoin or 2,3-butanediol in comparison to the wild-type strain. (nih.gov)
  • Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are two important biorefinery platform chemicals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At 55°C, 7.7 g/L of acetoin and 14.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a total of about 96% of all the volatile products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work has demonstrated the attractive prospect of developing it as an industrial strain in the thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol with improved anti-contamination performance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol can be produced by bacterial fermentation using renewable biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are metabolites of the acetoin metabolic pathway in bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol sometimes coexist in fermentation broth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin is a component of the butanediol cycle (butanediol fermentation) in microorganisms. (uniprot.org)
  • The yeast then absorbs the diacetyl, and reduces the ketone groups to form acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin metabolic pathway, were found to be both moderately thermophilic with the identical optimum temperature of 45°C. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzyme is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components:acetoin oxidoreductase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD. (harvard.edu)
  • acetoin has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder celiac disease. (hmdb.ca)
  • This paper describes the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the anaerobic fermentation of glucose to acetoin. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, cellular carbon fluxes in the acetoin producer CGR6 were further redirected toward acetoin synthesis using several metabolic engineering strategies, including blocking anaplerotic pathways, attenuating key genes of the TCA cycle and integrating additional copies of the alsSD operon into the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol of glucose consumed (90% of the theoretical maximum). (nih.gov)
  • The interaction with the non-depletable electron acceptor led to an acetoin formation with a yield of 79% of the theoretical maximum (0.79 mol acetoin per mol glucose). (nih.gov)
  • lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 mutants producing diacetyl and acetoin from glucose. (semanticscholar.org)
  • lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Previously, we systematically engineered the GRAS microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum to efficiently produce (3 R )-acetoin from glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, the optimal engineered strain CGS11 produced a titer of 102.45 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.419 g/g glucose at a rate of 1.86 g/L/h in a 5 L fermenter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY617-SDN was able to efficiently accumulate 100.2 g/L acetoin from glucose during fed-batch fermentation [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the compounds that gives butter its characteristic flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, manufacturers of partially hydrogenated oils typically add artificial butter flavor - acetoin and diacetyl - (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to the final product, which would otherwise be tasteless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin is widely used as flavor agent and serves as a precursor for chemical synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) is a popular food additive with a pleasant butter-like flavor [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, no report exists on the assessment of these physiological factors and activities of acetoin synthesis enzymes (ALS and ALDC) for acetoin accumulation by B. subtilis . (hindawi.com)
  • Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) is an important flavour compound and is applied in cosmetics, pharmacy and chemical synthesis. (dechema-dfi.de)
  • Protein involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid). (uniprot.org)
  • Protein involved in the synthesis of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). (uniprot.org)
  • China supplier of acetoin CAS:513-86-0,Acetylmethylcarbinol factory,3-Hydroxybutan-2-one manufacturer and acetoin producer, send us your inquiry of 3-hydroxy-2-oxobutane or request COA,MSDS,NMR of 3-hydroxy-2-oxobutane. (innopharmchem.com)
  • Additionally, the effect of change in ALS (acetolactate synthase) and ALDC (acetolactate decarboxylase) activities was evaluated on acetoin accumulation. (hindawi.com)
  • However, no cre site was found in the alsSD operon, which encodes acetolactate synthase and acetolactate decarboxylase, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of acetoin ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The enzymes responsible for the formation of acetoin, acetolactate synthase, and acetolactate decarboxylase are synthesized in detectable amounts only in cells that have reached stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • #1 - Kai's Virgin Vapor's Customer Service Team confirmed there is no Diacetyl, diacetyl analogs, Acetoin, Acetyl Propionyl, 2, 3-Pentanedione, Diethylene Glycol, Ketone, Aldehyde, or Hexane in any of Virgin Vapor's pure organic e-liquids. (best-e-cigarette-guide.com)
  • There have been scientific reports from even the most pro-ecig scientists, including Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos warning vapers that some compound flavors such as vanilla custard (my absolute favorite) may contain minute amounts of Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl, or even Diacetyl. (best-e-cigarette-guide.com)
  • Company spokesperson, Jason Del Giudice told me Halo tests not only for Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl, but also Acetoin, Arsenic, Cadmium, Diethylene Glycol and Nitrosamines. (best-e-cigarette-guide.com)
  • Do Totally Wicked e-liquids contain diacetyl, acetyl propionyl, or acetoin? (totallywicked-eliquid.co.uk)
  • Our quality control system ensures all e-liquids products (UK and international) are free from diacetyl, acetyl propionyl, and acetoin (to established limit of quantification). (totallywicked-eliquid.co.uk)
  • In particular, expression of a gene coding for malic enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus in combination with the isocitrate lyase gene from B. methanolicus MGA3 increased acetoin titers 1.6-fold up to 0.42 ± 0.01 g L −1 which corresponds to 0.07 g g −1 methanol. (rsc.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microbial production of acetoin from methanol. (rsc.org)
  • The Voges-Proskauer test is a commonly used microbiological test for acetoin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, we focus on the systematic evaluation of physiological factors (initial substrate concentration, temperature, pH, and aeration) on growth and acetoin production. (hindawi.com)
  • To further improve acetoin production, a total of six different genes or operons were expressed in the acetoin producing strains to increase supply of the acetoin precursor pyruvate. (rsc.org)
  • The market research gives historical and forecast market size, demand and production forecasts, end-use demand details, price trends, and company shares of the leading acetoin producers to provide exhaustive coverage of the acetoin. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio-based economy. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past decades, intense efforts have been devoted to the production of acetoin through green biotechniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, efficient and economical methods for the production of optically pure acetoin enantiomers are rarely reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among them, the combination of attenuation of citrate synthase and inactivation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase showed a significant synergistic effect on acetoin production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process therefore opens the possibility to achieve easy, efficient, economical and environmentally-friendly production of (3 R )-acetoin via microbial fermentation in the near future. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the enantiomeric excess of the produced acetoin was not reported, and efficient methods for the production of optically pure (3 R )-acetoin were rarely reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin production from petrochemicals such as the expensive chiral 2,3-bantediol or the noxious diacetyl is costly and unsustainable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consequently, (3 R )-acetoin production from renewable substrates via microbial fermentation is highly favored in recent studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to chemical syntheses or fermentations an enzymatic route facilitates enantioselective acetoin production. (dechema-dfi.de)
  • Production of acetoin from sweet sorghum syrup and beet juice via fermentation. (usda.gov)
  • Positive reactions were obtained for acetoin production and citrate assimilation. (cdc.gov)
  • This enzyme, which belongs to the family of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes, catalyses the oxidative-hydrolytic cleavage of acetoin to acetaldehyde and acetyl-CoA in many bacterial strains, both aerobic and anaerobic. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • In this study, CcpA mutants defective in transcriptional activation of the alsSD operon, which is involved in acetoin biosynthesis, were identified. (asm.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of highly enantiomerically enriched (3 R )-acetoin, together with a competitive product yield and productivity, achieved in a simple, green processes without expensive additives or substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the highest acetoin titer ever reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as an external energy store by a number of fermentative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin is a produced via fermentation of wines, dairy products and sugars by fermentive bacteria. (lookchem.com)
  • In enzymology, an acetoin racemase (EC 5.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-acetoin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (R)-acetoin This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, acetoin is considered to be an oxygenated hydrocarbon lipid molecule. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetoin is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetoin Dehydrogenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Acetoin, also known as dimethylketol or 2,3-butanolone, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyloins. (hmdb.ca)
  • By analyzing volatiles of coconuts and arenga fruit, we identified five compounds, including acetoin, which are present in both food sources. (biologists.org)
  • In a behavioral screen performed in the crabs' habitat, a beach on Christmas Island, we found that of 15 tested fruit compounds, acetoin was the only volatile eliciting significant attraction. (biologists.org)
  • Diacetyl and acetoin are two compounds that give butter its characteristic taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. (asm.org)
  • When protective measures were recommended by NIOSH personnel and implemented by the popcorn processing facility, the methods were then used to determine the effectiveness of these changes, which showed that diacetyl and acetoin concentrations had been reduced significantly to 0.97 and 2.3 mg/m3, respectively, while the concentration of nonanone fell to levels below the detection limit (LOD). (cdc.gov)
  • The experimental sampling constants at 40 degrees C were statistically lower at 5 % RH, but had no statistical difference at 80 % RH compared to at 25 degrees C. Overall, quantitative, selective, and sensitive dynamic and passive sampling methods were developed around the 2012 ACGIH TLV (10 ppb) for diacetyl in the presence of similar concentrations of acetoin and 2,3-pentanedione. (cdc.gov)
  • Since it can be obtained from biomass and possesses reactive carbonyl and hydroxyl moieties, the United States Department of Energy designated acetoin as one of 30 promising platform chemicals that were given priority for development and utilization in 2004 [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin is a yellowish liquid with a bland, woody, yogurt odor and a fatty creamy "tub" butter taste. (lookchem.com)
  • These methods were acceptable for monitoring and identifying exposures to diacetyl and acetoin present in the butter flavoring mixture used at popcorn processing facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, in the initial site visit the method was used to determine that maximum workers exposures to diacetyl (462.6 mg/m3), acetoin (59.1 mg/m3), and nonanone (0.45 mg/m3) occurred as the butter flavoring was added to the mixing kettle. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of this, manufacturers of artificial butter flavoring , margarines or similar oil -based products typically add diacetyl and acetoin (along with beta-carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because it would otherwise be relatively tasteless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid) signaling pathway (e.g. transport and signal transduction) that regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and cellular signaling (e.g. seed dormancy, seed maturation, vegetative growth and responses to various environmental stimuli such as stomatal closure during drought). (uniprot.org)
  • Protein involved in the degradation of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). (uniprot.org)
  • Separate sampling and analytical methods for the determination of diacetyl and acetoin have been developed to assess workplace exposures at a popcorn processing facility have been described. (cdc.gov)
  • Development of air sampling and analytical methods for acetoin, diacetyl, and 2,3-pentanedione. (cdc.gov)