Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Acetoin Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.ButanonesButylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
(1/91) Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway.

A recent study indicated that Bacillus subtilis catabolizes acetoin by enzymes encoded by the acu gene cluster (F. J. Grundy, D. A. Waters, T. Y. Takova, and T. M. Henkin, Mol. Microbiol. 10:259-271, 1993) that are completely different from those in the multicomponent acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system (AoDH ES) encoded by aco gene clusters found before in all other bacteria capable of utilizing acetoin as the sole carbon source for growth. By hybridization with a DNA probe covering acoA and acoB of the AoDH ES from Clostridium magnum, genomic fragments from B. subtilis harboring acoA, acoB, acoC, acoL, and acoR homologous genes were identified, and some of them were functionally expressed in E. coli. Furthermore, acoA was inactivated in B. subtilis by disruptive mutagenesis; these mutants were impaired to express PPi-dependent AoDH E1 activity to remove acetoin from the medium and to grow with acetoin as the carbon source. Therefore, acetoin is catabolized in B. subtilis by the same mechanism as all other bacteria investigated so far, leaving the function of the previously described acu genes obscure.  (+info)

(2/91) Three distinct phases of isoprene formation during growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

During growth on a glucose-tryptone medium, Bacillus subtilis 6051 (Marburg strain) exhibited three phases of isoprene (2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene) formation, corresponding to (i) glucose catabolism and secretion of acetoin, (ii) catabolism of acetoin, and (iii) the early stages of sporulation. These results establish an experimental system for studying the biological role of isoprene formation.  (+info)

(3/91) Characterization of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YAL060W gene product. Disruption and induction of the gene.

The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome project in 1996 showed that almost 60% of the potential open reading frames of the genome had no experimentally determined function. Using a conserved sequence motif present in the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases, we found several potential alcohol dehydrogenase genes with no defined function. One of these, YAL060W, was overexpressed using a multicopy inducible vector, and its protein product was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was found to be a homodimer that, in the presence of NAD(+), but not of NADP, could catalyze the stereospecific oxidation of (2R,3R)-2, 3-butanediol (K(m) = 14 mm, k(cat) = 78,000 min(-)(1)) and meso-butanediol (K(m) = 65 mm, k(cat) = 46,000 min(-)(1)) to (3R)-acetoin and (3S)-acetoin, respectively. It was unable, however, to further oxidize these acetoins to diacetyl. In the presence of NADH, it could catalyze the stereospecific reduction of racemic acetoin ((3R/3S)- acetoin; K(m) = 4.5 mm, k(cat) = 98,000 min(-)(1)) to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-butanediol, respectively. The substrate stereospecificity was determined by analysis of products by gas-liquid chromatography. The YAL060W gene product can therefore be classified as an NAD-dependent (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH). S. cerevisiae could grow on 2,3-butanediol as the sole carbon and energy source. Under these conditions, a 3. 5-fold increase in (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity was observed in the total cell extracts. The isoelectric focusing pattern of the induced enzyme coincided with that of the pure BDH (pI 6.9). The disruption of the YAL060W gene was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. The disrupted strain could also grow on 2,3-butanediol, although attaining a lesser cell density than the wild-type strain. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity of the YAL060W gene product, we propose the name of BDH for this gene. The corresponding enzyme is the first eukaryotic (2R, 3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase characterized of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family.  (+info)

(4/91) An operon for a putative ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in acetoin utilization of Bacillus subtilis.

The ytrABCDEF operon of Bacillus subtilis was deduced to encode a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system. YtrB and YtrE could be the ABC subunits, and YtrC and YtrD are highly hydrophobic and could form a channel through the cell membrane, while YtrF could be a periplasmic lipoprotein for substrate binding. Expression of the operon was examined in cells grown in a minimal medium. The results indicate that the expression was induced only early in the stationary phase. The six ytr genes form a single operon, transcribed from a putative sigma(A)-dependent promoter present upstream of ytrA. YtrA, which possesses a helix-turn-helix motif of the GntR family, acts probably as a repressor and regulates its own transcription. Inactivation of the operon led to a decrease in maximum cell yield and less-efficient sporulation, suggesting its involvement in the growth in stationary phase and sporulation. It is known that B. subtilis produces acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then reuses it later during stationary phase and sporulation. When either the entire ytr operon or its last gene, ytrF, was inactivated, the production of acetoin was not affected, but the reuse of acetoin became less efficient. We suggest that the Ytr transport system plays a role in acetoin utilization during stationary phase and sporulation.  (+info)

(5/91) Bacillus subtilis ccpA gene mutants specifically defective in activation of acetoin biosynthesis.

A large number of carbon source utilization pathways are repressed in Bacillus subtilis by the global regulator CcpA, which also acts as an activator of carbon excretion pathways during growth in media containing glucose. In this study, CcpA mutants defective in transcriptional activation of the alsSD operon, which is involved in acetoin biosynthesis, were identified. These mutants retained normal glucose repression of amyE, encoding alpha-amylase, and acsA, encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, and normal activation of ackA, which is involved in acetate excretion; in these ccpA mutants the CcpA functions of activation of the acetate and acetoin excretion pathways appear to be separated.  (+info)

(6/91) Analysis of acetoin and diacetyl in bacterial culture supernatants by gas-liquid chromatography.

The acetoin and diacetyl contents of culture supernatants of Voges-Proskauer-positive "viridans" streptotocci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, were determined by a gas liquid chromatographic procedure, in which supernatants were extracted with diethyl ether and diacetyl was measured on columns of 10% (wt/wt) polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) at 73 C. Acetoin was converted to diacetyl, before analysis, by a simple oxidation procedure with ferric chloride and without a distillation step. Streptococcal culture supernatants were shown by this method to contain only acetoin; supernatants of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus contained both acetoin and diacetyl.  (+info)

(7/91) Mutagenesis at asp27 of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis. Effect on its ability to form acetoin and acetolactate.

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is one of several enzymes that require thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) and a bivalent cation as essential cofactors. The three-dimensional structure of PDC from Zymomonas mobilis (ZMPDC) shows that Asp27 (D27) is close to ThDP in the active site, and mutagenesis of this residue has suggested that it participates in catalysis. The normal product of the PDC reaction is acetaldehyde but it is known that the enzyme can also form acetoin as a by-product from the hydroxyethyl-ThDP reaction intermediate. This study focuses on the role of D27 in the production of acetoin and a second by-product, acetolactate. D27 in ZMPDC was altered to alanine (D27A) and this mutated protein, the wild-type, and two other previously constructed PDC mutants (D27E and D27N) were expressed and purified. Determination of the kinetic properties of D27A showed that the affinity of D27A for ThDP is decreased 30-fold, while the affinity for Mg2+ and the Michaelis constant for pyruvate were similar to those of the wild-type. The time-courses of their reactions were investigated. Each mutant has greatly reduced ability to produce acetaldehyde and acetoin compared with the wild-type PDC. However, the effect of these mutations on acetaldehyde production is greater than that on acetoin formation. The D27A mutant can also form acetolactate, whereas neither of the other mutants, nor the wild-type PDC, can do so. In addition, acetaldehyde formation and/or release are reversible in wild-type ZMPDC but irreversible for the mutants. The results are explained by a mechanism involving thermodynamic and geometric characteristics of the intermediates in the reaction.  (+info)

(8/91) Regulation of the acetoin catabolic pathway is controlled by sigma L in Bacillus subtilis.

Bacillus subtilis grown in media containing amino acids or glucose secretes acetate, pyruvate, and large quantities of acetoin into the growth medium. Acetoin can be reused by the bacteria during stationary phase when other carbon sources have been depleted. The acoABCL operon encodes the E1alpha, E1beta, E2, and E3 subunits of the acetoin dehydrogenase complex in B. subtilis. Expression of this operon is induced by acetoin and repressed by glucose in the growth medium. The acoR gene is located downstream from the acoABCL operon and encodes a positive regulator which stimulates the transcription of the operon. The product of acoR has similarities to transcriptional activators of sigma 54-dependent promoters. The four genes of the operon are transcribed from a -12, -24 promoter, and transcription is abolished in acoR and sigL mutants. Deletion analysis showed that DNA sequences more than 85 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site are necessary for full induction of the operon. These upstream activating sequences are probably the targets of AcoR. Analysis of an acoR'-'lacZ strain of B. subtilis showed that the expression of acoR is not induced by acetoin and is repressed by the presence of glucose in the growth medium. Transcription of acoR is also negatively controlled by CcpA, a global regulator of carbon catabolite repression. A specific interaction of CcpA in the upstream region of acoR was demonstrated by DNase I footprinting experiments, suggesting that repression of transcription of acoR is mediated by the binding of CcpA to the promoter region of acoR.  (+info)

*  Butanediol fermentation
2004). "Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol in recombinant Enterobacter aerogenes carrying Vitreoscilla hemoglobin ...
*  Acetoin
... is a chiral molecule. The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin. Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as ... In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. The Voges- ... The conversion of acetoin into acetyl-CoA is catalysed by the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, following a mechanism largely ... Proskauer test is a commonly used microbiological test for acetoin production. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ...
*  Acetoin racemase
In enzymology, an acetoin racemase (EC 5.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-acetoin ⇌ {\displaystyle ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoin racemase. This enzyme is also called acetylmethylcarbinol racemase. This ... rightleftharpoons } (R)-acetoin This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases ...
*  Acetoin dehydrogenase
... (EC 2.3.1.190, acetoin dehydrogenase complex, acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system, AoDH ES) is an enzyme ... Acetoin dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetoin + CoA + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetaldehyde ... "Identification and molecular characterization of the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 aco operon genes involved in acetoin catabolism ...
*  Diacetyl reductase ((S)-acetoin forming)
... (EC 1.1.1.304, (S)-acetoin dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with systematic name (S)- ... acetoin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (S)-acetoin + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Different from EC 1.1.1.303, diacetyl reductase ((R)-acetoin forming). Giovannini, P.P.; Medici, A.; Bergamini, C.M.; Rippa, M ... acetoin) reductase from Enterobacter aerogenes". Eur. J. Biochem. 198: 327-332. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16019.x. PMID ...
*  Diacetyl reductase ((R)-acetoin forming)
... (EC 1.1.1.303, (R)-acetoin dehydrogenase) is an enzyme with systematic name (R)- ... acetoin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (R)-acetoin + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... This enzyme is different from EC 1.1.1.304, diacetyl reductase ((S)-acetoin forming). Heidlas, J.; Tressl, R. (1990). " ...
*  Acetoin-ribose-5-phosphate transaldolase
In enzymology, an acetoin-ribose-5-phosphate transaldolase (EC 2.2.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3- ... from DL-acetoin and D-ribose 5-phosphate by a transketolase mutant of Bacillus pumilus". Agric. Biol. Chem. 47: 1545-1553. doi: ...
*  Diacetyl
Acetoin is an intermediate. Diacetyl and acetoin are two compounds that give butter its characteristic taste. Because of this, ... The yeast then absorbs the diacetyl, and reduces the ketone groups to form acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. Beer sometimes undergoes ... That notice also solicited input regarding exposure and health effects of acetoin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and furfural. Two ... Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, ...
*  Voges-Proskauer test
Voges-Proskauer /ˈfoʊɡəs ˈprɒskaʊ.ər/ or VP is a test used to detect acetoin in a bacterial broth culture. The test is ... Alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide are chemicals that detect acetoin. Procedure: First, add the alpha-naphthol; then, add ...
*  Hanseniaspora guilliermondii
Strains of this species produce acetoin, a chemical found in many food products and fragrances. MEYER, S. A.; BROWN, R. E.; ... Romano, P; Suzzi, G; Zironi, R; Comi, G (Jun 1993). "Biometric Study of Acetoin Production in Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and ...
*  Pyruvate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Bertagnolli, B.L.; Hager, L.P. (1993). "Role of flavin in acetoin production by two bacterial pyruvate oxidases". Arch. Biochem ...
*  Tetramethylpyrazine
Its biosynthesis involves amination of acetoin, the latter derived from pyruvate. It exhibits potential nootropic and ...
*  Viridans streptococci
Like members of the S. mitis group, they are negative for acetoin production and mannitol and sorbitol fermentation. The S. ... Members of this group are esculin positive and sorbitol negative and produce acetoin. Historically, S. bovis had been divided ... S. salivarius group organisms are positive for acetoin production and are esculin positive but are negative for arginine ... Isolates in this group are negative for acetoin production, arginine, esculin, and mannitol and are sorbitol fermentation ...
*  Acetolactic acid
α-Acetolactic acid can also be decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel ...
*  Pelobacter propionicus
... is a species of bacteria that ferments 2,3-butanediol and acetoin. It is Gram-negative, strictly ...
*  Staphylococcus haemolyticus
It also tests positive for acetoin production, arginine, dihydrolase, benzidine, catalase, hemolysis, and lipase; it tests ...
*  Histone deacetylase
Together with the acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases and the acetoin utilization proteins, the histone deacetylases form an ... Leipe DD, Landsman D (Sep 1997). "Histone deacetylases, acetoin utilization proteins and acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases are ...
*  Diagnostic microbiology
The Voges-Proskauer test detects whether a bacterium is producing the product acetoin from the digestion of glucose.[citation ...
*  Diacetyl reductase
... is the name of two acetoin forming enzymes: Diacetyl reductase ((R)-acetoin forming) Diacetyl reductase ((S ...
*  S,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase
Other names in common use include L-butanediol dehydrogenase, L-BDH, and L(+)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (L-acetoin forming ... acetoin + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S,S)-butane-2,3-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are ... acetoin, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of ...
*  Artificial butter flavoring
... may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that ... acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because ...
*  Streptococcus ferus
They are non-sporulating and catalase-negative The majority of specimens test positive for the production of acetoin (Vogues- ...
*  Acetolactate decarboxylase
2-acetoin + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, and two products, (R)-2-acetoin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate carboxy-lyase [(R)-2-acetoin-forming]. Other ...
*  Streptococcus anginosus
The majority of Streptococcus anginosus strains produce acetoin from glucose, ferment lactose, trehalose, salicin, and sucrose ...
*  1,1-Diethoxyethane
In sensory terms, 1,1-diethoxyethane and other acetals, acetoin, and sotolon are the main compounds formed from acetaldehyde in ...
Plus it  Plus it
Acetoin also increases greatly at the higher fermentation temperatures.. *Copyright 1967 by the American Society for Enology ...
more infohttp://www.ajevonline.org/content/18/3/157
Acetoin - Substance Information - ECHA  Acetoin - Substance Information - ECHA
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substance's physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The 'Hazard classification' and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/de/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.007.432
Acetoin Acetate (CAS 4906-24-5) Market Research Report 2018  Acetoin Acetate (CAS 4906-24-5) Market Research Report 2018
The report generally describes acetoin acetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Acetoin Acetate market ... Acetoin acetate market forecast. 6. ACETOIN ACETATE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Acetoin acetate prices in Europe. 6.2. Acetoin acetate ... Acetoin acetate prices in North America. 6.4. Acetoin acetate prices in other regions. 7. ACETOIN ACETATE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Acetoin acetate application spheres, downstream products. 3. ACETOIN ACETATE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. ACETOIN ACETATE PATENTS ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/acetoin_acetate_4906-24-5_market_research_report.html
Acetoin - Wikipedia  Acetoin - Wikipedia
Acetoin is a chiral molecule. The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin. Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as ... In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. The Voges- ... The conversion of acetoin into acetyl-CoA is catalysed by the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, following a mechanism largely ... Proskauer test is a commonly used microbiological test for acetoin production. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetoin
Global Acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) Market 2018-2023 : ReportsnReports  Global Acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) Market 2018-2023 : ReportsnReports
127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) Market 2018-2023 report by Gen Consulting. Global acetoin ... 6.1 Global Acetoin Sales Volume by Type (2013-2018). 6.2 Global Acetoin Revenue by Type (2013-2018). 6.3 Global Acetoin Price ... 10.1 Global Acetoin Market Size Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.1 Global Acetoin Sales Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.2 Global Acetoin ... 5.1 Global Acetoin Sales & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.2 Global Acetoin Revenue & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.3 Price ...
more infohttps://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1575345-global-acetoin-cas-513-86-0-market-2018-2023.html
Acetoin racemase - Wikipedia  Acetoin racemase - Wikipedia
In enzymology, an acetoin racemase (EC 5.1.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-acetoin ⇌ {\displaystyle ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoin racemase. This enzyme is also called acetylmethylcarbinol racemase. This ... rightleftharpoons } (R)-acetoin This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetoin_racemase
Bacillus subtilis ccpA Gene Mutants Specifically Defective in Activation of Acetoin Biosynthesis | Journal of Bacteriology  Bacillus subtilis ccpA Gene Mutants Specifically Defective in Activation of Acetoin Biosynthesis | Journal of Bacteriology
1993) Identification of genes involved in the utilization of acetate and acetoin in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 10:259- ... 1993) Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Bacillus subtilis ccpA Gene Mutants Specifically Defective in Activation of Acetoin Biosynthesis. Andrew J. Turinsky, Tessa R. ... 1994) Catabolite regulation of Bacillus subtilis acetate and acetoin utilization genes by CcpA. J. Bacteriol. 176:4527-4533. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/182/19/5611?ijkey=e41b04bf6586cb5271929b11265de706026006a1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
513-86-0 - 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone, monomer + dimer, 95% - Acetoin - Acetyl methyl carbinol - A13752 - Alfa Aesar  513-86-0 - 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone, monomer + dimer, 95% - Acetoin - Acetyl methyl carbinol - A13752 - Alfa Aesar
Solid dimer is converted to liquid monomer on melting, dissolution or distillation. Gradually reverts to dimer on standing. Praske, E.; Crounse, J. D.; Bates, K. H.; Kurten, T.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Wennberg, P. O. Atmospheric Fate of Methyl Vinyl Ketone: Peroxy Radical Reactions with NO and HO2. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119 (19), 4562-4572.. Liu, J.; Liu, M.; He, C.; Song, H.; Chen, F. Effect of thermal treatment on the flavor generation from Maillard reaction of xylose and chicken peptide. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 64 (1), 316-325.. ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/A13752/
Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. |...  Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. |...
Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin.. M C ... Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. The ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/175/12/3863?ijkey=d0029459d1d9337bedc15ea2b3f0b19b6e7c70c0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
ACETOIN ACETATE, Natural - NEW	  ACETOIN ACETATE, Natural - NEW
Aurochemicals is a leading manufacturer of natural flavor and fragrance ingredients worldwide. Aurochemicals produces high quality ingredients, with a strong focus on research and development and superior customer service.
more infohttps://www.aurochemicals.com/product/acetoin-acetate-natural-new/
Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain  Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain
Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol ... Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio- ... Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain. Förster, A. H.; Beblawy, S.; ... Electrode-assisted fermentation, Escherichia coli, Bulk chemicals, Acetoin, Metabolic engineering. Nachgewiesen in. Web of ...
more infohttps://publikationen.bibliothek.kit.edu/1000069023
Isolation and properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 mutants producing diacetyl and...  Isolation and properties of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 mutants producing diacetyl and...
When cultured aerobically, strain CNRZ 483 transformed 2.3% of glucose to acetoin and produced no diacetyl or 2,3-butanediol. ... lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase ... of glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In contrast to the parental strain, the NADH balance showed that the mutants ... acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol). Anaerobically, strain CNRZ 483 produced no C4 compounds, while mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Isolation-and-properties-of-Lactococcus-lactis-sub-Boumerdassi-Monnet/897bdc7ed0ff2d2e37f20f7bb1195ee9c9c89532
Where to Buy ECig E-Liquids That Are Diacetyl, Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl Free  Where to Buy ECig E-Liquids That Are Diacetyl, Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl Free
... *By Hillary in E-Liquid Reviews, Safe Vaping ... Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl, best e liquids, Diacetyl, diacetyl free, diacetyl free e juice, eliquids ... 1 - Kai's Virgin Vapor's Customer Service Team confirmed there is no Diacetyl, diacetyl analogs, Acetoin, Acetyl Propionyl, 2, ... I would like to know if the e-liquids produced by Indigo vapor are Diacetyl, Acetoin, and/or Acetyl Propionyl Free. I do not ...
more infohttp://best-e-cigarette-guide.com/safe-vaping/where-to-buy-ecig-e-liquids-that-are-diacetyl-acetoin-and-acetyl-propionyl-free/
Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS Organics™ 500g; Glass bottle Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture...  Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS Organics™ 500g; Glass bottle Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture...
Glass bottle Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS... ... Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS Organics™ 500g; ... Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS Organics™ ... Acetoin, 96%, may exist as mixture of monomer and dimer, ACROS Organics™ ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.co.uk/shop/products/acetoin-96-may-exist-as-mixture-monomer-dimer-acros-organics/10435081
S)-Selectivity in Phenylacetyl Carbinol Synthesis Using the Wild- Type Enzyme Acetoin:Dichlorophenolindophenol Oxidoreductase...  S)-Selectivity in Phenylacetyl Carbinol Synthesis Using the Wild- Type Enzyme Acetoin:Dichlorophenolindophenol Oxidoreductase...
S)-Selectivity in Phenylacetyl Carbinol Synthesis Using the Wild- Type Enzyme Acetoin:Dichlorophenolindophenol Oxidoreductase ... S)-Selectivity in Phenylacetyl Carbinol Synthesis Using the Wild- Type Enzyme Acetoin:Dichlorophenolindophenol Oxidoreductase ... carbinol products with extended reaction scope employing the readily available wild-type ThDP-dependent enzyme acetoin : ... carbinol products with extended reaction scope employing the readily available wild-type ThDP-dependent enzyme acetoin : ...
more infohttps://iris.unife.it/handle/11392/2356993
Substances Added to Food <em>(formerly...  Substances Added to Food <em>(formerly...
ACETOIN PROPYLENEGLYCOL KETAL FLAVORING AGENT OR ADJUVANT 977164-02-5 ALPHA-ACETOLACTATE DECARBOXYLASE ENZYME PREPARATION FROM ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/?set=FoodSubstances
Fermentation | Free Full-Text | Process Development for Enhanced 2,3-Butanediol Production by Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365  Fermentation | Free Full-Text | Process Development for Enhanced 2,3-Butanediol Production by Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365
Keywords: Paenibacillus polymyxa; butanediol; acetoin; glycerol; optimization Paenibacillus polymyxa; butanediol; acetoin; ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2311-5637/3/2/18
Detection of chronic kidney disease and disease progression - Technion Research and Development Foundation Ltd.  Detection of chronic kidney disease and disease progression - Technion Research and Development Foundation Ltd.
The abundance of ethylene glycol and acetoin remained relatively constant up to stage 3 CKD, and showed a significant increase ... 4 shows the variations in average abundance that could be observed for nine breath VOCs (ethylene glycol, acetoin, styrene, ... acetoin and a combination thereof; wherein the VOC indicative of stage 5 CKD is selected from the group consisting of ethylene ... acetoin, styrene, toluene, isoprene, acetone, 2,2,6-trimethyl-octane, 2-butanone, and 2,4-dimethyl-heptane. Each possibility ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/9689826.html
nature.com search  nature.com search
Synthesis of (3R)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis *Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy ... Rights & permissionsfor article Synthesis of (3,i,R,/i,)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered ,i, ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Jianming%20Liu%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=2a754965-af6b-42dc-a148-b43d8754b037
  • Acetoin, also known as 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, with the molecular formula is C4H8O2, is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to its neutral nature, production and excretion of acetoin during exponential growth prevents overacidification of the cytoplasm and the surrounding medium that would result from accumulation of acidic metabolic products, such as acetic acid and citric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, CcpA mutants defective in transcriptional activation of the alsSD operon, which is involved in acetoin biosynthesis, were identified. (asm.org)
  • Once superior carbon sources are exhausted, and the culture enters stationary phase, acetoin can be used to maintain the culture density. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, acetoin was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 5.79% by 2023, according to a new report published by Gen Consulting Company. (reportsnreports.com)