Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Acetoin Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.ButanonesButylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.KetonesButanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).PropaneMercaptoethanolSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Succimer: A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Polydioxanone: An absorbable suture material used also as ligating clips, as pins for internal fixation of broken bones, and as ligament reinforcement for surgically managed ligament injuries. Its promising characteristics are elasticity, complete biodegradability, and lack of side effects such as infections.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Artificial Cells: Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.

Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway. (1/91)

A recent study indicated that Bacillus subtilis catabolizes acetoin by enzymes encoded by the acu gene cluster (F. J. Grundy, D. A. Waters, T. Y. Takova, and T. M. Henkin, Mol. Microbiol. 10:259-271, 1993) that are completely different from those in the multicomponent acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system (AoDH ES) encoded by aco gene clusters found before in all other bacteria capable of utilizing acetoin as the sole carbon source for growth. By hybridization with a DNA probe covering acoA and acoB of the AoDH ES from Clostridium magnum, genomic fragments from B. subtilis harboring acoA, acoB, acoC, acoL, and acoR homologous genes were identified, and some of them were functionally expressed in E. coli. Furthermore, acoA was inactivated in B. subtilis by disruptive mutagenesis; these mutants were impaired to express PPi-dependent AoDH E1 activity to remove acetoin from the medium and to grow with acetoin as the carbon source. Therefore, acetoin is catabolized in B. subtilis by the same mechanism as all other bacteria investigated so far, leaving the function of the previously described acu genes obscure.  (+info)

Three distinct phases of isoprene formation during growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. (2/91)

During growth on a glucose-tryptone medium, Bacillus subtilis 6051 (Marburg strain) exhibited three phases of isoprene (2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene) formation, corresponding to (i) glucose catabolism and secretion of acetoin, (ii) catabolism of acetoin, and (iii) the early stages of sporulation. These results establish an experimental system for studying the biological role of isoprene formation.  (+info)

Characterization of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YAL060W gene product. Disruption and induction of the gene. (3/91)

The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome project in 1996 showed that almost 60% of the potential open reading frames of the genome had no experimentally determined function. Using a conserved sequence motif present in the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases, we found several potential alcohol dehydrogenase genes with no defined function. One of these, YAL060W, was overexpressed using a multicopy inducible vector, and its protein product was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was found to be a homodimer that, in the presence of NAD(+), but not of NADP, could catalyze the stereospecific oxidation of (2R,3R)-2, 3-butanediol (K(m) = 14 mm, k(cat) = 78,000 min(-)(1)) and meso-butanediol (K(m) = 65 mm, k(cat) = 46,000 min(-)(1)) to (3R)-acetoin and (3S)-acetoin, respectively. It was unable, however, to further oxidize these acetoins to diacetyl. In the presence of NADH, it could catalyze the stereospecific reduction of racemic acetoin ((3R/3S)- acetoin; K(m) = 4.5 mm, k(cat) = 98,000 min(-)(1)) to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-butanediol, respectively. The substrate stereospecificity was determined by analysis of products by gas-liquid chromatography. The YAL060W gene product can therefore be classified as an NAD-dependent (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH). S. cerevisiae could grow on 2,3-butanediol as the sole carbon and energy source. Under these conditions, a 3. 5-fold increase in (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity was observed in the total cell extracts. The isoelectric focusing pattern of the induced enzyme coincided with that of the pure BDH (pI 6.9). The disruption of the YAL060W gene was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. The disrupted strain could also grow on 2,3-butanediol, although attaining a lesser cell density than the wild-type strain. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity of the YAL060W gene product, we propose the name of BDH for this gene. The corresponding enzyme is the first eukaryotic (2R, 3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase characterized of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family.  (+info)

An operon for a putative ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in acetoin utilization of Bacillus subtilis. (4/91)

The ytrABCDEF operon of Bacillus subtilis was deduced to encode a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system. YtrB and YtrE could be the ABC subunits, and YtrC and YtrD are highly hydrophobic and could form a channel through the cell membrane, while YtrF could be a periplasmic lipoprotein for substrate binding. Expression of the operon was examined in cells grown in a minimal medium. The results indicate that the expression was induced only early in the stationary phase. The six ytr genes form a single operon, transcribed from a putative sigma(A)-dependent promoter present upstream of ytrA. YtrA, which possesses a helix-turn-helix motif of the GntR family, acts probably as a repressor and regulates its own transcription. Inactivation of the operon led to a decrease in maximum cell yield and less-efficient sporulation, suggesting its involvement in the growth in stationary phase and sporulation. It is known that B. subtilis produces acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then reuses it later during stationary phase and sporulation. When either the entire ytr operon or its last gene, ytrF, was inactivated, the production of acetoin was not affected, but the reuse of acetoin became less efficient. We suggest that the Ytr transport system plays a role in acetoin utilization during stationary phase and sporulation.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis ccpA gene mutants specifically defective in activation of acetoin biosynthesis. (5/91)

A large number of carbon source utilization pathways are repressed in Bacillus subtilis by the global regulator CcpA, which also acts as an activator of carbon excretion pathways during growth in media containing glucose. In this study, CcpA mutants defective in transcriptional activation of the alsSD operon, which is involved in acetoin biosynthesis, were identified. These mutants retained normal glucose repression of amyE, encoding alpha-amylase, and acsA, encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, and normal activation of ackA, which is involved in acetate excretion; in these ccpA mutants the CcpA functions of activation of the acetate and acetoin excretion pathways appear to be separated.  (+info)

Analysis of acetoin and diacetyl in bacterial culture supernatants by gas-liquid chromatography. (6/91)

The acetoin and diacetyl contents of culture supernatants of Voges-Proskauer-positive "viridans" streptotocci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, were determined by a gas liquid chromatographic procedure, in which supernatants were extracted with diethyl ether and diacetyl was measured on columns of 10% (wt/wt) polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) at 73 C. Acetoin was converted to diacetyl, before analysis, by a simple oxidation procedure with ferric chloride and without a distillation step. Streptococcal culture supernatants were shown by this method to contain only acetoin; supernatants of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus contained both acetoin and diacetyl.  (+info)

Mutagenesis at asp27 of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis. Effect on its ability to form acetoin and acetolactate. (7/91)

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is one of several enzymes that require thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) and a bivalent cation as essential cofactors. The three-dimensional structure of PDC from Zymomonas mobilis (ZMPDC) shows that Asp27 (D27) is close to ThDP in the active site, and mutagenesis of this residue has suggested that it participates in catalysis. The normal product of the PDC reaction is acetaldehyde but it is known that the enzyme can also form acetoin as a by-product from the hydroxyethyl-ThDP reaction intermediate. This study focuses on the role of D27 in the production of acetoin and a second by-product, acetolactate. D27 in ZMPDC was altered to alanine (D27A) and this mutated protein, the wild-type, and two other previously constructed PDC mutants (D27E and D27N) were expressed and purified. Determination of the kinetic properties of D27A showed that the affinity of D27A for ThDP is decreased 30-fold, while the affinity for Mg2+ and the Michaelis constant for pyruvate were similar to those of the wild-type. The time-courses of their reactions were investigated. Each mutant has greatly reduced ability to produce acetaldehyde and acetoin compared with the wild-type PDC. However, the effect of these mutations on acetaldehyde production is greater than that on acetoin formation. The D27A mutant can also form acetolactate, whereas neither of the other mutants, nor the wild-type PDC, can do so. In addition, acetaldehyde formation and/or release are reversible in wild-type ZMPDC but irreversible for the mutants. The results are explained by a mechanism involving thermodynamic and geometric characteristics of the intermediates in the reaction.  (+info)

Regulation of the acetoin catabolic pathway is controlled by sigma L in Bacillus subtilis. (8/91)

Bacillus subtilis grown in media containing amino acids or glucose secretes acetate, pyruvate, and large quantities of acetoin into the growth medium. Acetoin can be reused by the bacteria during stationary phase when other carbon sources have been depleted. The acoABCL operon encodes the E1alpha, E1beta, E2, and E3 subunits of the acetoin dehydrogenase complex in B. subtilis. Expression of this operon is induced by acetoin and repressed by glucose in the growth medium. The acoR gene is located downstream from the acoABCL operon and encodes a positive regulator which stimulates the transcription of the operon. The product of acoR has similarities to transcriptional activators of sigma 54-dependent promoters. The four genes of the operon are transcribed from a -12, -24 promoter, and transcription is abolished in acoR and sigL mutants. Deletion analysis showed that DNA sequences more than 85 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site are necessary for full induction of the operon. These upstream activating sequences are probably the targets of AcoR. Analysis of an acoR'-'lacZ strain of B. subtilis showed that the expression of acoR is not induced by acetoin and is repressed by the presence of glucose in the growth medium. Transcription of acoR is also negatively controlled by CcpA, a global regulator of carbon catabolite repression. A specific interaction of CcpA in the upstream region of acoR was demonstrated by DNase I footprinting experiments, suggesting that repression of transcription of acoR is mediated by the binding of CcpA to the promoter region of acoR.  (+info)

NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth …
Methanol is an attractive alternative non-food feedstock for industrial fermentations that can be used instead of sugar-based raw materials. Here, the thermophilic and methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 was metabolically engineered to produce the platform chemical (R)-acetoin from methanol at 50 °C
Updated DNA Sequences ===================== SCU12980 U12980 U00091 103683bp linear PLN 23-JAN-2004 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I left arm sequence. two alcohol/sorbitol; S.cerevisiae Ycr28p homolog; FLO9; GDH3; SEO1; Seo1p: putative membrane protein; YAL066W; Yal066wp; YAL065C; Yal065cp; YAL064W-B; Yal064w-bp; Flo9p: Putative cell wall protein involved in flocculation; YAL063C; Yal063cp; Gdh3p: NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase homolog; YAL061W; Yal061wp; YAL060W; Yal060wp; ECM1; Ecm1p; CNE1; Cne1p: calnexin homolog; YAL058C-A; Yal058c-ap; YAL056W; Yal056wp; YAL055W; Yal055wp; ACS1; Acs1p: acetyl CoA synthetase; YAL053W; Yal053wp; YAF1; Yaf1p: CYP1-like transcription factor with zinc finger motif; YAL049C; Yal049cp; YAL048C; Yal048cp; SPI6; Spi6p; YAL046C; Yal046cp; YAL045C; Yal045cp; GCV3; Gcv3p: H-protein subunit of the glycine cleavage system; PTA1; Pta1p: Pre-tRNA processing involved protein; YAL043C-A; Yal043c-ap; YAL042W; Yal042wp; CDC24; Cdc24p: putative calcium binding protein; CLN3; ...
Acetoin (AC) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) as highly promising bio-based platform chemicals have received more attentions due to their wide range of applications. However, the non-efficient substrate conversion and mutually transition between AC and 2,3-BD in their natural producing strains not only led to a low selectivity but also increase the difficulty of downstream purification. Therefore, synthetic engineering of more suitable strains should be a reliable strategy to selectively produce AC and 2,3-BD, respectively. In this study, the respective AC (alsS and alsD) and 2,3-BD biosynthesis pathway genes (alsS, alsD, and bdhA) derived from Bacillus subtilis 168 were successfully expressed in non-natural AC and 2,3-BD producing Corynebacterium crenatum, and generated recombinant strains, C. crenatum SD and C. crenatum SDA, were proved to produce 9.86 g L−1 of AC and 17.08 g L−1 of 2,3-BD, respectively. To further increase AC and 2,3-BD selectivity, the AC reducing gene (butA) and lactic acid
NAD-dependent (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase, catalyzes oxidation of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to (3R)-acetoin, oxidation of meso-butanediol to (3S)-acetoin, and reduction of ...
Acor Orthopaedic is a manufacturer of custom and retail orthopedic products and a converter of EVA, PE and PU foam products serving a variety of markets.
Source: ThinkstockAcorda Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: ACOR) is watching its shares slide on Monday after the company gave an update on a recent clinical study. Essentially, the company announced that its Milestone clinical study did not show sufficient efficacy to support further development of dalfampridine to improve post-stroke difficulties (PSWD). The primary outcome measure of the […]
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: ACOR) today announced its financial results for the second quarter ended June 30, 2012....ACOR
Yılmaz, Sezai; Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Ara, Cengiz; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Işık, Burak; Aydın, Cemalettin; Özgör, Dinçer; Dirican, Abuzer; Barut, Bora; Ünal, Bülent; Pişkin, Turgut; Ateş, Mustafa; Kutlu, Ramazan; Toprak, Hüseyin İlksen; Kırımlıoğlu, Saime Hale; Aladağ, Murat; Harputoğlu, Muhsin Murat Muhip; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Karabiber, Hamza; Yalçın, Kendal; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kırımlıoğlu, Vedat (Hepatogastroenterology, 2013) ...
Yılmaz, Sezai; Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Ara, Cengiz; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Işık, Burak; Aydın, Cemalettin; Özgör, Dinçer; Dirican, Abuzer; Barut, Bora; Ünal, Bülent; Pişkin, Turgut; Ateş, Mustafa; Kutlu, Ramazan; Toprak, Hüseyin İlksen; Kırımlıoğlu, Saime Hale; Aladağ, Murat; Harputoğlu, Muhsin Murat Muhip; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Karabiber, Hamza; Yalçın, Kendal; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kırımlıoğlu, Vedat (Hepatogastroenterology, 2013) ...
Clever Polimer ve Yapı Kimyasalları A.Ş. inşaat ve mimari detay çözümlerinde uygulanan su yalıtımı, endüstriyel zemin kaplama ve koruyucu boya alanındaki her çeşit prepolimer ve nihai ürünlerin tasarımını ve üretimini Gebze/Türkiye üretim tesislerinde gerçekleştirmektedir.... ...
K00004 BDH; (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase / meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.4 1.1.1.- 1.1.1.303] K07535 badH; 2-hydroxycyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K08317 hcxA; hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase A [EC:1.1.1.-] K18369 adh2; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K19954 adh1; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K19955 adh2; alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.-] K21416 acoA; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.1.1.-] K21416 acoA; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.1.1.-] K21417 acoB; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.1.1.-] K21417 acoB; acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.1.1.-] K22230 iolU; scyllo-inositol 2-dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.-] K23257 yvgN; methylglyoxal/glyoxal reductase [EC:1.1.1.283 1.1.1 ...
pyruvate decarboxylase ^ CO2. a-acetolactate/acetaldehyde-TPP. ,CO2. CO2 diacetyl reductase diacetyl -^ ^ ► acetoin reductase / % . NADH+H NAD. acetoin reductase c. NADH+H. NAD 2,3-butanediol catalyzed by a-acetolactate synthase and requiring high concentrations of pyruvate. The a-acetolactate is unstable in the presence of oxygen and is finally decarboxylated, nonenzy-matically, to form diacetyl. It is important to note that diacetyl is not necessarily the terminal end-product of the pathway. Further reduction of diacetyl can also occur, forming acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, compounds that contribute no flavor or aroma to the product.. Following the addition of the culture, the mix is incubated at 21°C to 22°C for twelve to sixteen hours. At the end of the fermentation, when the titratable acidity has reached 0.85% to 0.90% and the pH has decreased to about 4.5, the product is cooled to 2°C and agitated to break up the coagulum. Salt is usually added, and, if desired, butter granules or ...
Acid and base environmental stress respones were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived |5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4.095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acide upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine
1GEG: Crystal structure of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase in a complex with NAD+ and inhibitor mercaptoethanol at 1.7 A resolution for understanding of chiral substrate recognition mechanisms.
This report covers the key technological and market trends in the 1,4-Butanediol market and further lays out an analysis of the factors influencing the supply/demand for 1,4-Butanediol, and the opportunities/challenges faced by industry participants. It also acts as an essential tool to companies active across the value chain and to the new entrants by enabling them to capitalize the opportunities and develop business strategies.. Browse Detail Report With TOC @ http://www.hexareports.com/report/global-1-4-butanediol-market-outlook-2016-2021/details. 1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH. This colorlessviscous liquid is derived from butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of the chain. It is one of four stableisomers of butanediol.. Global 1,4-Butanediol Market Outlook 2016-2021, has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global 1,4-Butanediol market collected from ...
Définitions de 1 4 butanediol, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de 1 4 butanediol, dictionnaire analogique de 1 4 butanediol (anglais)
Learn more about Butanediol (Bd) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Butanediol (Bd)
HONG KONG--(Marketwire - May 17, 2012) - Today, www.BrightonMarkets.com announced new reports highlighting Acorda Therapeutics Inc (NASDAQ: ACOR) and Pharmacyclics, Inc. (NASDAQ: PCYC). Gain market insight with full analysis and research downloads available at www.BrightonMarkets.com/index.php?coa=ACOR&cob=PCYC. Economic fundamentals leading into 2012 have set a generally positive pace with GDP growth likely...
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: ACOR) today announced that the MILESTONE clinical study did not show sufficient efficacy to support further development of dalfampridine to improve post-stroke walking difficulties (PSWD)....ACOR
Dünyanın dört bir köşesinde, en zorlu iklimler ve en farklı inşaat alanlarında, Xypex Crystalline Teknolojisi binlerce uygulamada kullanılarak test edilmiş ve kendini ispatlamıştır. Günümüzde Xypex, kendi alanında mükemmeliyet standartlarını belirliyor ve her geçen gün daha fazla beton uygulamasında bir kriter olarak gösterilmeye ve kullanılmaya devam ediyor ...
1,3- பியூட்டேன்டையால் (1,3-Butanediol) என்பது C4H10O2 என்ற மூலக்கூற்று வாய்ப்பாடு கொண்ட ஒரு கரிம வேதியியல் ஆல்ககால் ஆகும். இவ்வேதிச் சேர்மம் 1,3 பியூட்டைலின் கிளைக்கால், பியூட்டேன்-1,3 டையால் அல்லது 1,3-ஈரைதராக்சிபியூட்டேன் என்ற பெயர்களாலும் அறியப்படுகிறது. 1,3- பியூட்டேன்டையால், பொதுவாக உணவு மணமூட்டும் முகவர்களில் ஒரு கரைப்பானாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. சில பாலியூரிதீன் மற்றும் ...
Cite this article as: Yalçınkaya M, Bagatur E. The congress was a great success: Yes, but what about research?. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2020; 54(1): 1-3.. ...
Tan E, Akıncı A, Ayvaz G, Erbaş T, Ertaş M, Güç O, Hepgüler S, Kiraz S, Oşar SZ, Öztürk Ş, Özyalçın N.S, Palaoğlu S, Uyar M, Ünal S, Yalçın Ş; SNAPS Multidisciplinary Neuropathic Pain Study Group. ...
Hakan Çebi, Ertuğrul Akşahin, Halil Yalçın Yüksel, Levent Çelebi, Cem Nuri Aktekin, Onur Hapa, Hasan Hilmi Muratlı, Ali Biçimoğlu. ...
Ms. Brosh talks about the type of interpersonal interaction that was most useful. She cautions against advice giving like "try yoga" or be thankful for everything that you have and you will come out of your depression. What was helpful was somebody taking her seriously and listening to her experience especially her thoughts about suicide. As you listen to the interview she is clearly changed by the depression and has adapted to it. Her main deterrent to suicide was the impact it would have on the people she loved, but we also hear how tenuous that connection can be during severe depression. We learn that one of the thoughts that would keep her going if she got depressed again would be the idea that she knows she will come out the other side. Terry Gross asks her about treatment and whether "any kind of therapy or medication that alleviates some of it?" She clarifies that she is about 60% recovered. Despite some initial concerns about medication she found that it (bupropion) was "very helpful ...
Following treatment with the mutagen N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, three mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of these mutants was strongly attenuated, and the mutants produced less lactate than the parental strain. The kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase of strain CNRZ 483 and the mutants revealed differences in the affinity of the enzyme for pyruvate, NADH, and fructose-1,6-diphosphate. When cultured aerobically, strain CNRZ 483 transformed 2.3% of glucose to acetoin and produced no diacetyl or 2,3-butanediol. Under the same conditions, mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 transformed 42.0, 78.9, and 75.8%, respectively, of glucose to C4 compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol). Anaerobically, strain CNRZ 483 produced no C4 compounds, while mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 transformed 2.0, 37.0, and 25.8% of glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In
One research study found that in the past, c-type cytochromes in Pelobacter species had not been detected even though close relatives in the Geobacteraceae family have many c-type cytochromes present. Careful study of the entire completed genome sequence of Pelobacter carbinolicus found 14 open reading frames that encode for c-type cytochromes. It was found that three c-type cytochrome genes were expressed during iron reduction, which suggests that these particular proteins may play a role in electron transfer to iron. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of acetoin-fermenting Pelobacter carbinolicus protein cells showed three heme-staining bands. In addition, many of the c-type cytochromes that genetic studies have realized are required for optimal iron reduction in G. sulfurreducens were not present in the P. carbinolicus genome. The results from this study suggest more in depth studies of the functions of c-type cytochromes may possibly be beneficial for further ...
Lambic beer production processes are characterized by a temporal succession of well-adapted microbial species. Temporal metagenomic analysis of a Belgian, traditional, lambic beer production process, which was examined microbiologically and metabolomically before, confirmed that the microbial diversity is limited. Moreover, it allowed to link the consumption and production of certain compounds to specific microbial groups or species. Fermentation characteristics, such as the conversion of malic acid into lactic acid and acetoin production, were retrieved and could be attributed to specific microorganisms, namely Pediococcus damnosus and Acetobacter species, respectively. Traits previously ascribed to brewery-specific Dekkera bruxellensis strains were confirmed during the lambic beer production process examined multiphasically; in particular, the higher production of 4-ethylguaiacol compared to 4-ethylphenol was further shown by mass spectrometric analysis. Moreover, the absence of phenolic acid
The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor associated with S. haemolyticus.[3][5][13][14] Biofilm formation increases antibiotic resistance[5][13][14] and often leads to persistent infections.[15][16] S. haemolyticus biofilms are not polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) dependent, and the lack of the ica operon (the gene cluster that encodes the production of PIA) can be used to distinguish S. haemolyticus isolates from other CoNS species.[3][12][14] Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment assays with NaIO4, proteinase K, or DNase result in 38%, 98%, and 100% detachment, respectively. The high level of detachment associated with DNase treatment has led several authors to suggest a cell-to-surface and/or cell-to-cell adhesion function for extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation also appears to be influenced by the presence of glucose and NaCl. Biofilm ...
2,3-Butanediol fermentation is anaerobic fermentation of glucose with 2,3-butanediol as one of the end products. The overall stoichiometry of the reaction is 2 pyruvate + NADH 2CO2 + 2,3-butanediol. Butanediol fermentation is typical for the facultative anaerobes Klebsiella and Enterobacter and is tested for using the Voges-Proskauer (VP) test. The metabolic function of 2,3-butanediol is not known, although some have speculated that it was an evolutionary advantage for these microorganisms to produce a neutral product thats less inhibitory than other partial oxidation products and doesnt reduce the pH as much as mixed acids. . 2,3-butanediol fermentation produces smaller amounts of acid than mixed acid fermentation, and butanediol, ethanol, CO2 and H2 are the end products. While equal amounts of CO2 and H2 are created during mixed acid fermentation, butanediol fermentation produces more than twice the amount of CO2 because the gases are not produced only by formate hydrogen lyase like they ...
Licorice, which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. Structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. An examination of the effectiveness of licorice phenolics obtained in this study on vancomycin-resistant strains Enterococcus faecium FN-1 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201 revealed that licoricidin showed the most potent antibacterial effects against both of E. faecalis and E. faecium with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.9 × 10−5 M. 8-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl)-wighteone, isoangustone A, 3-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-kievitone, glyasperin C, and one of the new 3-methyl-2-phenylbenzofuran named
General Information: Pelobacter carbinolicus DSM 2380 was isolated from mud in Venice, Italy. Iron- and sulfur-reducing bacterium. Pelobacter carbinolicus is commonly isolated from marine and freshwater sediments, and sewage sludge. This organism can make up a significant portion of the anaerobic microbial community in these environments. Pelobacter carbinolicus is also able to grow using iron and sulfur as terminal electron acceptors. This organism is closely related to the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas spp. and iron-reducing Geobacter spp.. ...
Candida parapsilosis ATCC ® 22019™ Designation: CBS 604 [CCRC 20515, DBVPG 6150, DMS 5784, IBL 2545, IFO 1396, IGC 2545, JCM 1785, NCYC 601, NRRL Y-12969, UCD 61-27] Application: Assay of itraconzaole Assay of ketoconazole Control strain for identification Degrades hydroxybenzoate Degrades phenol Produces (S)-1,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Produces lipase Quality control Quality control strain Susceptibility disc testing Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibility testing Ref Ref
Some of the more common and easily measured volatile compounds of wine were determined for three different fermentation temperatures. Maximum, minimum, and average are given for over 30 fermentations at each temperature [(50, 70, 91°F) or (10, 21, 33°C)] for two years. Volatile acidity and acetic acid were compared and found to be equivalent for all practical purposes. Total volatile esters increase at the middle temperatures, as do acetaldehyde, isoamyl, and active amyl alcohols. Acetic acid decreases in the middle fermentation temperature range. Isobutanol does not vary greatly with fermentation temperature. Ethanol decreases with increasing fermentation temperature. Both levo and meso 2,3-butanediol increase with increasing temperature of fermentation. Acetoin also increases greatly at the higher fermentation temperatures.. ...
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A biological method for the conversion of L-glutamate to 1,4-butanediol that involves a decarboxylation step and avoids production of 4-hydroxybutyrate as an intermediate is described. The method includes: (a) conversion of L-glutamate to L-glutamate 5- phosphate; (b) conversion of L-glutamate 5 -phosphate to L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde; (c) conversion of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to 5-hydroxy-L-norvaline;(d) conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-norvaline to 5-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate; (e) conversion of 5-hydroxy-2- oxopentanoate to 4-hydroxybutanal; and (f) the conversion of 4-hydroxybutanal to 1,4- butanediol.
A 72-hour toxicity test was carried out to determine growth inhibition effects of 2-Oxepanone, polymer with 1,4-butanediol on the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The study was carried aout according to OECD guideline no. 201. Test solutions were created by diluting a stock solution of the test substance in growth media. The duration of exposure was 72 hours and test solutions were kept on a shaking table at 21-24 ± 2°C throughout. Illumination was approximately 100 µE m-2 s-1.m. Six replicates were used for the control and three for the test solutions. The pH was measured at test initiation and also at test termination. Samples for analytical determination of test concentration were also taken from the highest and lowest concentrations at this time. These samples were analysed separately at a non-GLP laboratory. The 72-hour ErC50 of 165 mg/L was found for the response variable average specific growth rate when exposed to 2-oxepanone, polymer with 1,4-butanediol. The 72-hour NOEC ...
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1,2-Butanediol, 2-butoxy-, 1-acetate | C10H20O4 | CID 109225 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Member Of The P24 Family Involved In ER To Golgi Transport; Similar To Emp24p And Erv25p; Role In Misfolded Protein Quality Control; Forms A Heterotrimeric Complex With Erp1p, Emp24p, And Erv25p; Localized To COPII-coated Vesicles; ERP2 Has A Paralog, ERP4, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Putative FAD Transporter; Required For Uptake Of FAD Into Endoplasmic Reticulum; Involved In Cell Wall Maintenance; FLC2 Has A Paralog, YOR365C, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Pages 259-265 Mehmet ERGİN, Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN, Mehmet AYRANCI, Yücel YAVUZ, Özcan YAVAŞİ, Mustafa SERİNKEN, Tarık ACAR, Mücahit AVCİL, Behçet AL, Atıf BAYRAMOĞLU, Hasan Mansur DURGUN, Yalçın GÖLCÜK, İbrahim ARZIMAN, Zerrin Defne DÜNDAR ...
K04072 adhE; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.10 1.1.1.1] K00656 E2.3.1.54; formate C-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.54] K01641 E2.3.3.10; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:2.3.3.10] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01652 E2.2.1.6L; acetolactate synthase I/II/III large subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01653 E2.2.1.6S; acetolactate synthase I/III small subunit [EC:2.2.1.6] K01575 alsD; acetolactate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.5] K00004 BDH; (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase / meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.4 1.1.1.- 1.1.1.303] K03366 butA; meso-butanediol dehydrogenase / (S,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase / diacetyl reductase [EC:1.1.1.- 1.1.1.76 1.1.1.304 ...
Looking for online definition of 1,4 butanediol in the Medical Dictionary? 1,4 butanediol explanation free. What is 1,4 butanediol? Meaning of 1,4 butanediol medical term. What does 1,4 butanediol mean?
Objectives: Four diacetyl workers were found to have bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships were investigated.. Methods: 175 workers from a plant producing diacetyl between 1960 and 2003 were investigated. Exposure data were used to model diacetyl exposure. Lung function and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms were compared to a general population sample and respiratory symptoms to an internal reference group.. Results: Workers were potentially exposed to acetoin, diacetyl, acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Historic diacetyl exposure ranged from 1.8 to 351 mg/m3, and from 3 to 396 mg/m3 for specific tasks. Diacetyl workers reported significantly more respiratory symptoms compared to the general population sample (continuous trouble with breathing (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.1), daily cough (PR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), asthma attack (ever) (PR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4), doctor diagnosed asthma ...
Hikmet Geckil is a Turkish academic who received PhD degree in Molecular Biology (with Benjamin C. Stark) at IIT. His research is in the area of genetic engineering. His current affiliation is with the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Inonu University Research in Geckils GE Laboratory is primarily based on the function of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb), the first prokaryotic hemoglobin. Using VHb, Geckils group engineered various bacteria for the purpose of producing industrially important products ranging from microbial fuels butanediol, acetoin to drugs used in Alzheimers and Parkinson disease (e.g., dopa, dopamine) and to asparaginase, an enzyme used in cancer chemotherapy. One of the recent endeavors of his laboratory is to understand the role of mTOR signal complex on the "aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells" also known as Warburg effect, one of the 10 hallmarks of all cancers. Geckil has published in the areas of biochemistry, biomedicine, and biotechnology, and has over 30 ...
Alfa Aesar™ 1,4-Butanediol diacrylate, 85+% (Reactive Esters), stab. with 50-105 ppm hydroquinone 5g Alfa Aesar™ 1,4-Butanediol diacrylate, 85+%...
1) Evers S, et al. (1996) Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by the VanS(B)-VanR (B) two-component regulatory system in Enterococcus faecalis V583.. J Bacteriol 178(5):1302-9 PubMed: 8631706 ...
MICROORGANISMS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,4-BUTANEDIOL, 4-HYDROXYBUTANAL, 4-HYDROXYBUTYRYL-COA, PUTRESCINE AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, AND METHODS RELATED THERETO - diagram, schematic, and image 46 ...
Acetoin is an intermediate. Diacetyl and acetoin are two compounds that give butter its characteristic taste. Because of this, ... The yeast then absorbs the diacetyl, and reduces the ketone groups to form acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. Beer sometimes undergoes ... That notice also solicited input regarding exposure and health effects of acetoin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and furfural. Two ... Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, ...
Voges-Proskauer /ˈfoʊɡəs ˈprɒskaʊ.ər/ or VP is a test used to detect acetoin in a bacterial broth culture. The test is ... Alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide are chemicals that detect acetoin. Procedure: First, add the alpha-naphthol; then, add ...
Strains of this species produce acetoin, a chemical found in many food products and fragrances. MEYER, S. A.; BROWN, R. E.; ... Romano, P; Suzzi, G; Zironi, R; Comi, G (Jun 1993). "Biometric Study of Acetoin Production in Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and ...
Bertagnolli, B.L.; Hager, L.P. (1993). "Role of flavin in acetoin production by two bacterial pyruvate oxidases". Arch. Biochem ...
Its biosynthesis involves amination of acetoin, the latter derived from pyruvate. It exhibits potential nootropic and ...
Like members of the S. mitis group, they are negative for acetoin production and mannitol and sorbitol fermentation. The S. ... Members of this group are esculin positive and sorbitol negative and produce acetoin. Historically, S. bovis had been divided ... S. salivarius group organisms are positive for acetoin production and are esculin positive but are negative for arginine ... Isolates in this group are negative for acetoin production, arginine, esculin, and mannitol and are sorbitol fermentation ...
α-Acetolactic acid can also be decarboxylated by alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase to produce acetoin. Wood, B. J. B.; Holzapfel ...
... is a species of bacteria that ferments 2,3-butanediol and acetoin. It is Gram-negative, strictly ...
It also tests positive for acetoin production, arginine, dihydrolase, benzidine, catalase, hemolysis, and lipase; it tests ...
2004). "Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol in recombinant Enterobacter aerogenes carrying Vitreoscilla hemoglobin ...
Together with the acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases and the acetoin utilization proteins, the histone deacetylases form an ... Leipe DD, Landsman D (Sep 1997). "Histone deacetylases, acetoin utilization proteins and acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases are ...
The Voges-Proskauer test detects whether a bacterium is producing the product acetoin from the digestion of glucose.[citation ...
... is the name of two acetoin forming enzymes: Diacetyl reductase ((R)-acetoin forming) Diacetyl reductase ((S ...
Other names in common use include L-butanediol dehydrogenase, L-BDH, and L(+)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (L-acetoin forming ... acetoin + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S,S)-butane-2,3-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are ... acetoin, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of ...
... may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that ... acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because ...
They are non-sporulating and catalase-negative The majority of specimens test positive for the production of acetoin (Vogues- ...
2-acetoin + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, and two products, (R)-2-acetoin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate carboxy-lyase [(R)-2-acetoin-forming]. Other ...
The majority of Streptococcus anginosus strains produce acetoin from glucose, ferment lactose, trehalose, salicin, and sucrose ...
In sensory terms, 1,1-diethoxyethane and other acetals, acetoin, and sotolon are the main compounds formed from acetaldehyde in ...
... a chemical reaction used in testing for the production of acetoin by various bacteria. With Richard Pfeiffer, he edited the " ...
The VP test uses alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide to test for the presence of acetylmethylcarbinol (acetoin), an ...
... acetoin) from glucose fermentation.The production of acetoin, a neutral reacting end product produced by members such as ... In the presence of atmospheric oxygen and 40% KOH, acetoin is converted to diacetyl and α-Naphthol serves as catalyst to bring ... the oxidation product of acetoin. The test should be red, after standing for 1 hour because negative VP cultures may produce ...
are also generally positive for acetoin production (Voges-Proskauer test) and negative for the methyl red test, indicating 2,3- ...
... synthesis of ring A was methoxydimethylindol 3 synthesised by condensation of the Schiff base from m-anisidine 1 and acetoin 2 ...
... solution to detect the breakdown of glucose into acetoin which is used by bacteria for external energy storage. A positive test ...
When cultured aerobically, strain CNRZ 483 transformed 2.3% of glucose to acetoin and produced no diacetyl or 2,3-butanediol. ... lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 that produced diacetyl and acetoin from glucose were isolated. The lactate dehydrogenase ... of glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In contrast to the parental strain, the NADH balance showed that the mutants ... acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol). Anaerobically, strain CNRZ 483 produced no C4 compounds, while mutants 483L1, 483L2, and 483L3 ...
Acetoin is a chiral molecule. The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin. Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as ... In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. The Voges- ... The conversion of acetoin into acetyl-CoA is catalysed by the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, following a mechanism largely ... Proskauer test is a commonly used microbiological test for acetoin production. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ...
Acetoin dehydrogenase (EC 2.3.1.190, acetoin dehydrogenase complex, acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system, AoDH ES) is an enzyme ... Acetoin dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetoin + CoA + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetaldehyde ... "Identification and molecular characterization of the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 aco operon genes involved in acetoin catabolism ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
"Acetoin Dehydrogenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.5. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acetoin Dehydrogenase" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Acetoin Dehydrogenase" by people in Profiles. ...
To further improve acetoin production, a total of six different genes or operons were expressed in the acetoin producing ... Methanol-based acetoin production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus E. B. Drejer, D. T. C. Chan, C. Haupka, V. F ... To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microbial production of acetoin from methanol. ... methanolicus MGA3 increased acetoin titers 1.6-fold up to 0.42 ± 0.01 g L−1 which corresponds to 0.07 g g−1 methanol. This ...
Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under ... from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. ... One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3- ... Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the metabolism of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol Appl Environ ...
The report generally describes acetoin acetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Acetoin Acetate market ... Acetoin acetate market forecast. 6. ACETOIN ACETATE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Acetoin acetate prices in Europe. 6.2. Acetoin acetate ... Acetoin acetate prices in North America. 6.4. Acetoin acetate prices in other regions. 7. ACETOIN ACETATE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. ... Acetoin acetate application spheres, downstream products. 3. ACETOIN ACETATE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. ACETOIN ACETATE PATENTS ...
1993) Identification of genes involved in the utilization of acetate and acetoin in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 10:259- ... 1993) Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Bacillus subtilis ccpA Gene Mutants Specifically Defective in Activation of Acetoin Biosynthesis. Andrew J. Turinsky, Tessa R. ... 1994) Catabolite regulation of Bacillus subtilis acetate and acetoin utilization genes by CcpA. J. Bacteriol. 176:4527-4533. ...
Acetoin is used as an external energy store by a number of fermentive bacteria. Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the ... Acetoin is used as a food flavoring (in baked goods) and a fragrance. Acetoin is a sweet, buttery, and creamy tasting compound ... Acetoin. Description. Acetoin, also known as dimethylketol or 2,3-butanolone, belongs to the class of organic compounds known ... acetoin has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder celiac disease. Acetoin is a colorless or pale yellow to green ...
127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Acetoin (CAS 513-86-0) Market 2018-2023 report by Gen Consulting. Global acetoin ... 6.1 Global Acetoin Sales Volume by Type (2013-2018). 6.2 Global Acetoin Revenue by Type (2013-2018). 6.3 Global Acetoin Price ... 10.1 Global Acetoin Market Size Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.1 Global Acetoin Sales Forecast (2018-2023). 10.1.2 Global Acetoin ... 5.1 Global Acetoin Sales & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.2 Global Acetoin Revenue & Share by Company (2013-2018). 5.3 Price ...
Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol ... Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain Biotechnol Biofuels. 2017 Mar 14;10 ... Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio- ... The interaction with the non-depletable electron acceptor led to an acetoin formation with a yield of 79% of the theoretical ...
... acetoin was the only volatile eliciting significant attraction. Hence, acetoin might play a key role in governing the crabs ... Interestingly, acetoin is a fermentation product that in a blend seems to be involved in governing the attraction of vinegar ... Five odorants (acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, styrene) occurred in both arenga and coconut samples, while 13 ... However, the only attractive single odorant turned out to be acetoin, which attracted 79% of the tested animals (Fig. 2A). This ...
Solid dimer is converted to liquid monomer on melting, dissolution or distillation. Gradually reverts to dimer on standing. Praske, E.; Crounse, J. D.; Bates, K. H.; Kurten, T.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Wennberg, P. O. Atmospheric Fate of Methyl Vinyl Ketone: Peroxy Radical Reactions with NO and HO2. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119 (19), 4562-4572.. Liu, J.; Liu, M.; He, C.; Song, H.; Chen, F. Effect of thermal treatment on the flavor generation from Maillard reaction of xylose and chicken peptide. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2015, 64 (1), 316-325.. ...
Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin.. M C ... Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources. The ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ... Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. ...
α-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin ... At 55°C, 7.7 g/L of acetoin and 14.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen ... Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a ... XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the ...
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In this study, cellular carbon fluxes in the acetoin producer CGR6 were further redirected toward acetoin synthesis using ... Finally, the optimal engineered strain CGS11 produced a titer of 102.45 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.419 g/g glucose at a rate ... The optical purity of the resulting (3R)-acetoin surpassed 95%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of ... Over the past decades, intense efforts have been devoted to the production of acetoin through green biotechniques. However, ...
Addition of nitrate as electron acceptor led to an anaerobic acetoin production with a yield of up to 0.9 mol acetoin per mol ... Acetoin has well-established applications in industrial food production and was suggested to be a platform chemical for a bio- ... Electrode-assisted acetoin production in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain. Förster, A. H.; Beblawy, S.; ... Electrode-assisted fermentation, Escherichia coli, Bulk chemicals, Acetoin, Metabolic engineering. Nachgewiesen in. Web of ...
Acetoin. 2558pdf icon. ACETOIN. Acetone. 1300pdf icon. KETONES I. Acetone. 2549pdf icon. VOLATILE ORGANIC CPDS (Screening). ...
... *By Hillary in E-Liquid Reviews, Safe Vaping ... Acetoin and Acetyl Propionyl, best e liquids, Diacetyl, diacetyl free, diacetyl free e juice, eliquids ... 1 - Kais Virgin Vapors Customer Service Team confirmed there is no Diacetyl, diacetyl analogs, Acetoin, Acetyl Propionyl, 2, ... I would like to know if the e-liquids produced by Indigo vapor are Diacetyl, Acetoin, and/or Acetyl Propionyl Free. I do not ...
ACETOIN PROPYLENEGLYCOL KETAL FLAVORING AGENT OR ADJUVANT 977164-02-5 ALPHA-ACETOLACTATE DECARBOXYLASE ENZYME PREPARATION FROM ...
Synthesis of (3R)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis *Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy ... Rights & permissionsfor article Synthesis of (3,i,R,/i,)-acetoin and 2,3-butanediol isomers by metabolically engineered ,i, ...
Acetoin Diacetyl. Method 1012, (November 2008).. *Acetoin Diacetyl. Method 1013, (September 2008). ...
  • However, no cre site was found in the alsSD operon, which encodes acetolactate synthase and acetolactate decarboxylase, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of acetoin ( 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • In particular, expression of a gene coding for malic enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus in combination with the isocitrate lyase gene from B. methanolicus MGA3 increased acetoin titers 1.6-fold up to 0.42 ± 0.01 g L −1 which corresponds to 0.07 g g −1 methanol. (rsc.org)
  • Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) is an important flavour compound and is applied in cosmetics, pharmacy and chemical synthesis. (dechema-dfi.de)
  • Protein involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid). (uniprot.org)
  • Protein involved in the synthesis of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). (uniprot.org)
  • The enzymes responsible for the formation of acetoin, acetolactate synthase, and acetolactate decarboxylase are synthesized in detectable amounts only in cells that have reached stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the compounds giving butter its characteristic flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin, also known as dimethylketol or 2,3-butanolone, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyloins. (hmdb.ca)
  • By analyzing volatiles of coconuts and arenga fruit, we identified five compounds, including acetoin, which are present in both food sources. (biologists.org)
  • In a behavioral screen performed in the crabs' habitat, a beach on Christmas Island, we found that of 15 tested fruit compounds, acetoin was the only volatile eliciting significant attraction. (biologists.org)
  • Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. (asm.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of highly enantiomerically enriched (3 R )-acetoin, together with a competitive product yield and productivity, achieved in a simple, green processes without expensive additives or substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the highest acetoin titer ever reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoin is a chiral molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as an external energy store by a number of fermentive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, acetoin is considered to be an oxygenated hydrocarbon lipid molecule. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetoin is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. (hmdb.ca)
  • Since it can be obtained from biomass and possesses reactive carbonyl and hydroxyl moieties, the United States Department of Energy designated acetoin as one of 30 promising platform chemicals that were given priority for development and utilization in 2004 [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They tested the e-cigarettes for the presence of three chemicals considered "high priority" when it comes to respiratory risk: diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3-pentanedione. (time.com)
  • Acetoin, also known as 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, with the molecular formula is C4H8O2, is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin is a sweet, buttery, and creamy tasting compound. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetoin is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. (hmdb.ca)
  • Because of this, manufacturers of partially hydrogenated oils typically add artificial butter flavor - acetoin and diacetyl - (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to the final product, which would otherwise be tasteless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) is a popular food additive with a pleasant butter-like flavor [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid) signaling pathway (e.g. transport and signal transduction) that regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and cellular signaling (e.g. seed dormancy, seed maturation, vegetative growth and responses to various environmental stimuli such as stomatal closure during drought). (uniprot.org)
  • Protein involved in the degradation of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). (uniprot.org)
  • Acetoin is chiral, and its enantiomers (3 S )- and (3 R )-acetoin are more valuable than the racemate as they are potential pharmaceutical intermediates [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, acetoin was listed as one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoin, especially the optically pure (3 S )- or (3 R )-enantiomer, is a high-value-added bio-based platform chemical and important potential pharmaceutical intermediate. (biomedcentral.com)