Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.
The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain uvarigrin, uvarigrandin, chamuvaritin and other acetogenins and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.
Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Rhodomelaceae. Some species are a rich source of chlorine-and bromine-containing metabolites which show significant antibacterial activity.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.

Inhibitory activities of three annonaceous acetogenins on NADH oxidase of chicken liver mitochondria. (1/25)

Annonaceous acetogenins (ACG) are natural products found in the plant family Annonaceae and which strongly inhibited mitochondrial complex I. The inhibition of NADH oxidase of chicken liver mitochondria by three different structural ACG was studied here, and ACG was shown to have potent inhibitory activities similar to rotenone for NADH oxidase. The IC(50) values indicated that bis-adjacent tetrahydrofuran (THF) type squamocin C was more potent than non-adjacent bis-THF type squamostatin B, and the latter was more potent than non-THF type compound 1 in the assay. The roles of structural factors of ACG such as the terminal gamma-lactone, the features of other ring moieties and hydroxyl groups, as well as the alkyl chain were simply discussed in this study.  (+info)

Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione. (2/25)

Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial, cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, they failed to do so in COLO-205 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and K-562 cells with organic and aqueous extracts resulted in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. In addition downregulation of Bcl-2 and PS externalization by Annexin-V staining suggested induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells by both the extracts through oxidative stress. On the contrary, COLO-205 cells showed only PS externalization but no change in ROS and glutathione levels. These observations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by A. squamosa extracts can be selective for certain types of cancerous cells.  (+info)

REM sleep behavior disorder in patients with guadeloupean parkinsonism, a tauopathy. (3/25)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe sleep characteristics and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder in patients with Guadeloupean atypical parkinsonism (Gd-PSP), a tauopathy resembling progressive supranuclear palsy that mainly affects the midbrain. It is possibly caused by the ingestion of sour sop (corossol), a tropical fruit containing acetogenins, which are mitochondrial poisons. DESIGN: Sleep interview, motor and cognitive tests, and overnight videopolysomnography. PATIENTS: Thirty-six age-, sex-, disease-duration- and disability-matched patients with Gd-PSP (n = 9), progressive supranuclear palsy (a tauopathy, n = 9), Parkinson disease (a synucleinopathy, n = 9) and controls (n = 9). SETTINGS: Tertiary-care academic hospital. RESULTS: REM sleep behavior disorder was found in 78% patients with Gd-PSP (43% of patients reported having this disorder several years before the onset of parkinsonism), 44% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, 33% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and no controls. The percentage of muscle activity during REM sleep was greater in patients with Gd-PSP than in controls (limb muscle activity, 8.3%+/-8.7% vs 0.1%+/- 0.2%; chin muscle activity, 24.3%+/- 23.7% vs 0.7%+/-2.0%) but similar to that of other patient groups. The latency and percentage of REM sleep were similar in patients with Gd-PSP, patients with Parkinson disease, and controls, whereas patients with progressive supranuclear palsy had delayed and shortened REM sleep. CONCLUSION: Although Gd-PSP is a tauopathy, most patients experience REM sleep behavior disorder. This suggests that the location of neuronal loss or dysfunction in the midbrain, rather than the protein comprising the histologic lesions (synuclein versus tau aggregation), is responsible for suppressing muscle atonia during REM sleep. Subjects with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder should avoid eating sour sop.  (+info)

Synthesis of annonaceous acetogenins from muricatacin. (4/25)

Synthetic studies of annonaceous acetogenins starting from (-)-muricatacin (1a) or (+)-muricatacin are described, involving (-)-muricatacin (1a), mono-THF acetogenin, solamin (2), reticulatacin (3), (15R, 16R, 19S, 20S)-cis-solamin (4a) and (15S, 16S, 19R, 20R)-cis-solamin (4b), non-adjacent bis-THF acetogenin, 4-deoxygigantecin (5), and epoxide-bearing acetogenin, (15S, 16R, 19S, 20R)-diepomuricanin (6a).  (+info)

Anthelmintic acetogenin from Annona squamosa L. Seeds. (5/25)

Annona squamosa seeds extracts showed anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus, the main nematode of sheep and goat in Northeastern Brazil. A compound 1 was isolated from ethyl acetate extract and inhibited the egg hatching of H. contortus at 25 mg ml(-1). The structure of 1 was determined as a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin based on spectroscopic analysis.  (+info)

Synthesis and antitumor activity of C-9 epimers of the tetrahydrofuran containing acetogenin 4-deoxyannoreticuin. (6/25)

 (+info)

Halogenated terpenes and a C(15)-acetogenin from the marine red alga Laurencia saitoi. (7/25)

 (+info)

Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects produced by acetogenins obtained from Annona cherimolia Mill. (8/25)

In the present study we extracted three isomeric acetogenins (Ace) from the seeds of Annona cherimolia Mill. (Annonaceae) and determined their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential in mice. Our results showed a significant increase in the rate of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by Ace with respect to the value for the control group; the effect was less pronounced than that observed with daunorubicin (Dau). To evaluate cytotoxicity, we determined the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes with respect to the number of normochromatic erythrocytes, and we found an inhibitory effect induced by Ace that was quite similar to that observed with Dau. Besides, by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide test, we also determined the cytotoxicity of Ace in both a normal fibroblast mouse cell line and in a line derived from human colon cancer. In this assay, the strongest decrease in viability corresponded to the malignant cell line. Our results established for the first time the genotoxic capacity of these compounds in vivo, and confirmed their cytotoxic potential in cultured cells.  (+info)

Abstract: Annonaceous acetogenins are waxy substances consisting of C32 or C34 long chain fatty acids which have been combined with a propan-2-ol unit at C-2 to form a gama-lactone. They are only found in several genera of the plant family, Annonaceae. Their diverse bioactivities as antitumour, immunosuppressive, pesticidal, antiprotozoal, antifeedant, anthelmintic and antimicrobial agents have attracted more and more interest worldwide. Recently, we reported that the Annonaceous acetogenins can selectively inhibit the growth of cancerous cells and also inhibit the growth of adriamycin resistant tumour cells. As more acetogenins have been isolated and additional cytotoxicity assays have been conducted, we have noticed that, al(hough most acetogenins have high potencies among several solid human tumour cells lines, some of the derivatives within the different structural types and some positional isomers show remarkable selectivities among certain cell lines, e.g. against prostate cancer ...
IMMUNE SYSTEM BOOSTER - Acetogenins are active compounds that affect the production of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in the mitochondria (the powerhouse) of the cell. SUPPORTS MEDICAL REGIMENTS - Paw paw extract, containing a mixture of 50 acetogenins, supports the bodys normal cells during times of cellular stress. MO
Annonaceous acetogenins are waxy substances consisting of C32 or C34 long chain fatty acids which have been combined with a propan-2-ol unit at C-2 to form a gama-lactone. They are only found in several genera of the plant family, Annonaceae. Their d ...
This table summarises all of the KERs of the AOP and is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KERs are added to the AOP. Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KER description page.To add a key event relationship click on either Add relationship: events adjacent in sequence or Add relationship: events non-adjacent in sequence.For example, if the intended sequence of KEs for the AOP is [KE1 > KE2 > KE3 > KE4]; relationships between KE1 and KE2; KE2 and KE3; and KE3 and KE4 would be defined using the add relationship: events adjacent in sequence button. Relationships between KE1 and KE3; KE2 and KE4; or KE1 and KE4, for example, should be created using the add relationship: events non-adjacent button. This helps to both organize the table with regard to which KERs define the main sequence of KEs and those that provide additional supporting evidence and aids computational analysis of AOP networks, where non-adjacent KERs can result in artifacts (see Villeneuve et al. 2018; DOI: ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The implicit acquisition of complex probabilistic regularities has been found to be crucial in numerous automatized cognitive abilities, including language processing and associative learning. However, the neurocognitive processes supporting the implicit extraction of 2nd order non-adjacent transitional probabilities have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to these probabilistic regularities embedded in a sequence of visual stimuli without providing explicit information on the structure of the stimulus stream. Healthy young adults (N = 32) performed a perceptual-motor RT task that included an alternating sequential regularity between non-adjacent trials while RTs and ERPs were measured time-locked to the onset of the stimulus. RT effects indicated the rapid acquisition of transitional probabilities. The acquisition process was also tracked by the P3 component. Modulations of the P3 amplitude indicated that ...
or the menu).. Paste multiple does not work in Apache OpenOffice. However a macro could be written and assigned to a hotkey. Here is some code to get started.. ...
Graviola 500mg, 120 capsules. Natural Universe - Rio Trading. All parts of the graviola (Anona muricata), tree, fruit and seeds, contain antioxidants called anonáceos acetogenins, but the highest concentrations are in the leaves and seeds. The graviola or soursop is native to the rainforests of the Amazon, and other tropical areas of America,... ...
And if I may build a flexible problems, to be some download gurps thaumatology and information from you, to the request of me,, would work Due, but you get considered either process. acetogenins for According my query! You do Writing allowing your Google+ income.
申請學校:陽明大學. 計畫編號:99-B6. 計畫名稱:以數值形態特徵分析藥物引發之粒線體形態變化-研究acetogenin是否因為細胞自我吞噬而造成的粒線體形變. 領域別:生科-工程-電資. 主持人:林崇智/蔡育秀. 系所:生命科學暨基因體科學研究所. more→ ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4. It is a white or colourless solid that is soluble in water, producing a mildly alkaline solution. In chemistry, it is an aromatic heterocycle, classified as a diazole, and having non-adjacent nitrogen atoms ...
12. A polymer comprising at least one structural unit of general formula (I) ##STR00035## wherein: X and Y are identically or differently on each occurrence an aryl or heteroaryl group or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system, wherein one or more H atoms are optionally replaced by R, and wherein one of the two groups X or Y is optionally R; R is identically or differently on each occurrence D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(Ar1)2, C(═O)Ar1, P(═O)Ar.sup.1.sub.2, S(═O)Ar1, S(═O)2Ar1, CR.sup.1.dbd.CR1Ar1, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, OSO2R1, a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 40 C atoms, or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals R1, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups is optionally replaced by R1C═CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, Ge(R1)2, Sn(R1)2, C═O, C═S, C═Se, C═NR1, P(═O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S, or CONR1, and wherein one or more H atoms is optionally replaced ...
And make the direction of the force directly away from the control eye/ball, like a repellent force emanating from the ball. Tweak K to control the strength of the force. Make sure that K isnt too high - you dont want it to just be pushed out massively by the force, just keep it away from the balls. Leave plenty of slack in your string. With just those two you will probably end up with quite a uniform shape, so Id also suggest you create some weaker forces around in the surrounding soup to change the shape of the amoeba. You can make these random places, change their force regularly (you could make it a sinusoid function for nice movements) and make them work in the same way as the balls.. Vagination(fnarr): this is the difficult one. You cause it to envelop an object by checking to see if two non-adjacent points on the string have managed to get close enough, and if so you need to:. Measure the distance between the points on the string. Count the number of spring sections. Find the ...
In the Spreadsheet Editor, you can align data horizontally and vertically or even rotate data within a cell. To do that, select a cell or a cell range with the mouse or the whole worksheet by pressing the Ctrl+A key combination. You can also select multiple non-adjacent cells or cell ranges holding down the Ctrl key while selecting cells/ranges with the mouse. Then perform one of the following operations using the icons situated on the Home tab of the top toolbar.. ...
1BCE: Comparison of the solution structures of intramolecular DNA triple helices containing adjacent and non-adjacent CG.C+ triplets.
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor UIC-PI (1) was developed via structure-based design and incorporated a novel bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) ligand in the (R)-(hydroxyethyl)sulfonamide based isostere. The EC50 and EC90 of the compound in acutely-infected H9 cells were |1 and|∼1 nM, respectively. In chronically infected H9/HIV-1IIIB cells, the EC50 and EC90 were 20 and 50 nM, respectively. In parallel studies comparing UIC-PI and saquinavir in H9/HIV-1IIIB cells, viral p24 levels in culture supernatants were an order of magnitude lower with UIC-PI than with saquinavir. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights resrved.
There is currently no specific therapeutics for the HIV-1-related central nervous system (CNS) complications. Here we report that three newly designed CNS-targeting HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-083-13, GRL-084-13, and GRL-087-13, which contain a P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl or P1-para-monofluorophenyl ring, and P2-bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) or P2-tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF... ...
5mm through hole component LED in red. Features 1,500 millicandela, 628nm wavelength, and a 60 degree viewing angle. See spectral graph for actual wavelength measurement. Component LEDs are sensitive electronic devices and require some knowledge of electronic circuits to operate them. Price listed is per unit, however, bulk discounts are available and are automatically applied to your order. All products are instock and available to ship from Super Bright LEDs.
5mm through hole Yellow LED component. Features 3,200 millcandela, 591nm, and a 30 degree viewing angle. See spectral graph for actual wavelength measurement. Component LEDs are sensitive electronic devices and require some knowledge of electronic circuits to operate them. Price listed is per unit, however, bulk discounts are available and are automatically applied to your order. All products are instock and available to ship from Super Bright LEDs.
Hello Everyone, Please let me know how to count each neurite of each cell in attached image… Please let me know the pipeline in cell profiler. Thanks Garima.
This piece of amber contains the first fossilized red blood cells from a mammal ever discovered -- in this case, infected by a parasite.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
This study was designed to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the sulfated polysaccharide (SP) isolated from the red alga Laurencia obtusa and to evaluate its apoptotic, gastroprotective and antioxidant activities. The different Show moreThis study was designed to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the sulfated polysaccharide (SP) isolated from the red alga Laurencia obtusa and to evaluate its apoptotic, gastroprotective and antioxidant activities. The different macromolecular characteristics of SP were determined by size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light-scattering detection (SEC-MALLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR). The native molecular weight of the extracted polysaccharide is high (,/=336,900g.mol(-1)). It showed high amounts of sulfated groups (28.2%) and low levels of proteins. It was found to be a potent inducer of apoptosis on acute ...
Sugar Apple Seeds, Sweetsop Seeds, Custard Apple Seeds (Annona Squamosa) Price for Package of 4 seeds. Annona squamosa, the Sugar-apple, is a tropical shrub from South America, Asia, and Africa. This shrub will grow to a height of 5 meters high and 4 meters large. It gives delicious fruits. Annona squamosa
In our continuing search on halogenated metabolites from species of the red algal genus Laurencia, a novel squalene-derived triterpene polyether, named omaezakianol (2), was isolated from Laurencia omaezakiana Masuda along with 15,16-anhydrothyrsiferol (3). Their structures were determined by spectral and chemical methods. © 2008 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG. ...
MENDES, DÉBORA S. et al. Phenological characterization and temperature requirements of Annona squamosa L. in the Brazilian semiarid region. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2017, vol.89, n.3, suppl., pp.2293-2304. Epub 20-Jul-2017. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720170205.. The phenological growth stages of various species of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants can be uniformly coded using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The aim of the present study was to determine the duration of different phenological stages and the temperature requirements of the sugar-apple, Annona squamosa, during two crop cycles in the semiarid region of Brazil. Phenological stages were divided into eight of ten possible principal stages: (0) bud development, (1) leaf development, (3) shoot/branch development, (5) inflorescence emergence, (6) flowering, (7) fruit development, (8) fruit maturity and (9) senescence and the beginning of ...
laurendecumenyne B: halogenated nonterpenoid C(15)-acetogenin from the marine red alga Laurencia decumbens; structure in first source
Annona squamosa L., a popular fruit tree, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Annona. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information limits the scope of genome investigations in this important shrub. It bears aggregate fruits with numerous seeds. A few rare accessions with very few seeds have been reported for Annona. A massive pyrosequencing (Roche, 454 GS FLX+) of transcriptome from early stages of fruit development (0, 4, 8 and 12 days after pollination) was performed to produce expression datasets in two genotypes, Sitaphal and NMK-1, that show a contrast in the number of seeds set in fruits. The data reported here is the first source of genome-wide differential transcriptome sequence in two genotypes of A. squamosa, and identifies several candidate genes related to seed development. Approximately 1.9 million high-quality clean reads were obtained in the cDNA library from the developing fruits of both the genotypes, with an average length of about 568 bp.
Su, Shan; Sun, Wen-Shuang; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying] Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, State Key Lab Nat & Biomimet Drugs, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China; [Su, Shan; Sun, Wen-Shuang; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying] Peking Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Nat Med, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China; [Wu, Jun] Chinese Acad Sci, S China Sea Inst Oceanol, Key Lab Marine Bioresources Sustainable Utilizat, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, Peoples R China ...
Graviola - Soursop Seeds (Annona Muricata) Price for Package of 5 seeds. Annona muricata, the Corossol or Soursop, is a tropical shrub from South America, Asia, and Africa. This shrub will grow to a height of 4 to 6 meters high and 3 to 4 meters large.
Annona squamosa L., a popular fruit tree, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Annona. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information limits the scope of genome investigations in this important shrub. It bears aggregate fruits with numerous seeds. A few rare accessions with very few seeds have been reported for Annona. A massive pyrosequencing (Roche, 454 GS FLX+) of transcriptome from early stages of fruit development (0, 4, 8 and 12 days after pollination) was performed to produce expression datasets in two genotypes, Sitaphal and NMK-1, that show a contrast in the number of seeds set in fruits. The data reported here is the first source of genome-wide differential transcriptome sequence in two genotypes of A. squamosa, and identifies several candidate genes related to seed development. Approximately 1.9 million high-quality clean reads were obtained in the cDNA library from the developing fruits of both the genotypes, with an average length of about 568 bp.
Graviola is a substance that comes from a tree in the rain forests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. Its scientific name is Annona muricata. It is also known as cherimoya, guanabana, soursop, custard apple, and brazilian paw paw. In many countries, people use the bark, leaves, root, and fruits of this tree for traditional remedies. The active ingredient is thought to be a type of plant compound (phytochemical) called annonaceous acetogenins.People in African and South American countries have used graviola to treat infections with viruses or parasites, rheumatism, arthritis, depression, and sickness. We know from research that some graviola extracts can help to treat these conditions. In laboratory studies, graviola extracts can kill some types of liver and breast cancer cells that are resistant to particular chemotherapy drugs. But there havent been any large scale studies in humans. So we dont know yet whether it can work as a cancer treatment or not. Overall, there is no evidence ...
Deshmukh, Aaishwarya B., Jayvadan K. Patel (2011) Aqueous extractof Annona squamosa (L.) ameliorates renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rat. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergistic effect of sorafenib with ionizing radiation on human oral cancer cells. AU - Hsu, Fei Ting. AU - Chang, Betty. AU - Chiang, I. Tsang. AU - Wu, Tai Hsien. AU - Hwang, Jeng Jong. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - Background/Aim: Although anticancer effects of sorafenib on renal, liver and colon carcinomas are wellknown, its combination effect with ionizing radiation on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unclear. Herein human SAS cells, an OSCC cell line, were used in order to elucidate this combination effect. Materials and Methods: Both SAS and SAS/nuclear factor kappa-B-luciferase (SAS/NF-κBluc2) cell lines were used in the study. Cell viability, NF-κB activation, and protein expression of NF-κB downstream effectors were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, NF-κB-luc2 reporter gene system, NF-κB/DNA binding activity and western blotting. Results: Sorafenib significantly increased radiationinduced cytotoxicity and ...
Like most species of Annona, it requires a tropical or subtropical climate with summer temperatures from 25 °C (77 °F) to 41 °C (106 °F), and mean winter temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F). It is sensitive to cold and frost, being defoliated below 10 °C (50 °F) and killed by temperatures of a couple of degrees below freezing. It is only moderately drought-tolerant, requiring at least 700 mm of annual rainfall, and will not produce fruit well during droughts. It will grow from sea level to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and does well in hot dry climates, differing in its tolerance of lowland tropics from many of the other fruit bearers in the Annona family. It is quite a prolific bearer, and it will produce fruit in as little as two to three years. A five-year-old tree can produce as many as 50 sugar apples. Poor fruit production has been reported in Florida because there are few natural pollinators (honeybees have a difficult time penetrating the tightly closed female flowers); however, hand ...
cherimolin-1: an acetogenin from seeds of Annona cherimolia; inhibits NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I); structure in first source
These vital benefits can be attributed to the high levels of phytonutrients, vitamins, minerals and fibres contained in pawpaw. Furthermore, even the seeds are not a waste because they are said to have antiparasitic, analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory properties, hence their use in the treatment of certain conditions like ringworm infestation and stomach ache.. Highlighted below are some of the amazing health benefits pawpaw has to offer:. Aids digestion. Research has shown that pawpaw fruit enhances digestion and keeps your digestive tract healthy. One medium-sized pawpaw contains about 4.7g of fibre.Hence, the high fibre and water content helps you to move bowel regularly thereby reducing the likelihood of constipation. In addition, pawpaw contains a proteolytic enzyme, papain which helps to break down protein in ingested food and facilitates digestion. Understandably, papain has also been prepared in tablet form and is taken orally for the treatment of digestive problems like ...
Rollinia mucosa, a tropical tree known in Brazil as biribá, has been used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of tumors in the West Indies and Indonesia.20 Acetogenins, substances which have excellent potential for antineoplasic and cytotoxic activities, were isolated from different organs of this species.4,5 Furthermore, furofuranic lignans with a significant antagonist effect to platelet-activating factor (PAF),3,11 such as magnolin (MAG), epiyangambin (EPIY) and yangambin (YAN) were found. Yangambin also presents pharmacological properties related to cardiovascular function22. Epieudesmin (EPIE) another furofuranic lignan, has an inibitory activity of cAMP phosphodiesterase.24. Magnolin, yangambin and epieudesmin have been isolated from immature fruits20 and leaves of adult plants of R. mucosa6,20 and magnolin was also isolated from seeds.5 Lignan production in R. mucosa tissues was also observed both in in vivo grown seedlings and in in vitro propagated plants derived from ...
Greyish thin bark, sap of the bark is toxic. Its stem is brownish (on the branch), yellowish inside and slightly bitter. Brown with brownish spot on the branch, small lenticel like a round spot on its stem.. Single leaf, rigid branch, alternate. Leaves are oval - narrowed. Pointed at the end and base. Curved base, flat side, length 5-17 cm, width 2-7,5 cm, leaves surface is green, at the bottom is greenish, slightly hairy or leafless. Bitter taste, little bit cold. Petiole length 0,4-2,2 cm. The flowers are clustered, short sideways. Length 2,5 cm, 2-4 flowers are dealing and the colour is yellowish. On the hairy long little stalk with length ± 2 cm, grown on the tip of the leaf stalk. Outer petals are green, purple on the bottom, longitudinal, its length 1,6 - 2,5 width 0,6-0,75.Inside of the petals are smaller or same. There is a lot of pollen, clustered, white, length less than 1.6 cm, greenish pistil. Each pistil forms a kind of warts, length 1.3-1.9 cm, width 0.6 - 1.3 cm which grow into ...
Maintaining diverse germplasm available to plant breeders is important to the long-term genetic improvement of any crop. Although older selections were lost 70 to 80 years ago, the North American pawpaw is in a favorable position to have diverse and superior germplasm identified and maintained, because it is in the early stages of domestication and the wild population is thriving over an extensive territory. Eighteen polymorphic SSR loci, including 13 new loci, were used for fingerprinting and genetic analysis in pawpaw. These SSR loci were useful in examining whether genetically unique cultivars are being developed to enhance the genetic diversity of pawpaw cultivars. This is the first report of the influence of SSR motif on the marker polymorphism in pawpaw. The CA motif SSR loci appeared to have greater allele numbers and higher He and Ho than ATG and AAT loci motifs. The AT and GA repeats are the most common di-nucleotide repeats in plants (Bassil et al., 2005; Cardle et al., 2000; ...
DUARTE, Maria E. M.; GOUVEIA, Deyzi S.; MATA, Mario E. R. M. C. and QUEIROZ, Alexandre J. de M.. Comportamento reológico de bebida mista de pinha e leite. Eng. Agríc. [online]. 2012, vol.32, n.2, pp.333-341. ISSN 0100-6916. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-69162012000200013.. Estudou-se o comportamento reológico em diferentes temperaturas (0; 6; 18 e 24 ºC) e os parâmetros físico-químicos da polpa de pinha (Annona squamosa) integral e também da polpa de pinha com diferentes percentuais de leite (75g de polpa de pinha/25g de leite; 50g de polpa de pinha/50g de leite; 25g de polpa de pinha/75g de leite), com o intuito de verificar o efeito da temperatura e da concentração de polpa no comportamento reológico desses blends. Para a obtenção dos parâmetros reológicos, foi utilizado um reômetro de cilindros concêntricos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos das formulações pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, sólidos totais e cinzas foram determinados com o intuito de ...
Help us to expand this encyclopedia! If you are logged in, you can add new subtaxa, vernacular and scientific names, texts, images or intertaxon relationships for this taxon ...
Asimina triloba Variety description: Seedlings grown from fruits collected from named varieties in pawpaw plantings at Cricket Hill Garden in Thomaston, CT. The parent trees are improved selections superior to wild pawpaws. These trees should bear large fruit with few seeds. With proper care, seed grown pawpaws will
If you know someone who has died from breast cancer, they died from metastatic breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer, or stage 4 breast cancer, is the spread of breast cancer to non-adjacent parts of the body - most commonly to the bones, liver, lungs and/or brain. Many effective breast cancer treatments exist, but if the cancer metastasizes and spreads outside of the breast, there is no cure. 100% of breast cancer deaths occur because of metastasis, and almost 100% of people whose breast cancer has metastasized will die from it. In the United States alone, this means that more than 40,000 vibrant lives are lost each year. ...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor in adults. Its invasive nature currently represents the most challenging hurdle to surgical resection. The mechanism adopted by GBM cells to carry out their invasive strategy is an intricate program that recalls what takes place in embryonic cells during development and in carcinoma cells during metastasis formation, the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. GBM cells undergo a series of molecular and conformational changes shifting the tumor toward mesenchymal traits, including extracellular matrix remodeling, cytoskeletal re-patterning, and stem-like trait acquisition. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving the whole infiltrative process represents the first step toward successful treatment of this pathology. Here, we review recent findings demonstrating the invasive nature of GBM cancer stem cells, together with novel candidate molecules associated with both cancer stem cell biology and GBM invasion, like
17. An electronic device comprising at least one compound of formulae (1) or (2), ##STR00044## wherein: X and Y are, identically or differently on each occurrence, CR1, N, P, or PR2; Z is, identically or differently on each occurrence, CR1 or N; Ar is, identically or differently on each occurrence, an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms optionally substituted by one or more radicals R1; R is, identically or differently on each occurrence, N(R2)2, N(Ar1)2, C(═O)R2, C(═O)Ar1, P(═O)(Ar1)2, S(═O)Ar1, S(═O)2Ar1, CR.sup.2.dbd.CR2Ar1, CN, Si(R2)3, OSO2R2, a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 40 C atoms, or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thio-alkoxy group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals R2, wherein one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups are optionally replaced by R2C═CR2, C≡C , Si(R2)2, Ge(R2)2, Sn(R2)2, C═O, C═S, C═Se, C═NR2, P(═O)(R2), SO, SO2, NR2, O, S, ...
1936, 35 years prior, not to have this feature. Natural serials: letter in position 3, approx. Furthermore, personalized license plates in Pennsylvania cost $79. This continued through 1944. According to one plate historian who has studied Then, five-character plates with two non-adjacent letters were The Her grandfather, John Wilbur Powell, was a five-character 1925 and 1929 plates are 13 inches long, and my four-character 1927 plate is 10 inches long. plates for the first time ever. One license plate collector who specializes in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania plates 1930-1957 part 2. that the state first used to produce the 1916 plates. Embossed navy blue on golden yellow; PENNA 1924 at bottom, with keystones on either side, Embossed golden yellow on navy blue; 1925 PENNA at bottom, with keystones on either side, Embossed navy blue on golden yellow with border line; 1926 PENNA at bottom, with keystones on either side, Embossed golden yellow on navy blue with border line; 1927 PENNA at top, ...
This dataset contains the 5 TRFLP fragment data.. T4-like myovirus communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of g23, which encodes the major capsid protein (Chow and Fuhrman, 2012). Viral fingerprints were obtained from both terminal fragments (5 and 3). g23-TRFLP products were run in duplicate on non-adjacent lanes on an ABI377 by slab gel electrophoresis with internal size standards (Bioventures, Murfreesboro, TN, USA) every 25 bp (50-900 bp) or 50 bp (900-1400 bp). Peaks were identified in DAx (van Mierlo, Inc, Eindhoven, The Netherlands). Fragments (50-500 bp) were rounded to the nearest 0.1 bp and dynamically binned (Ruan, et al., 2006b; Chow and Fuhrman, 2012). The resulting bins were manually curated to merge bins ,0.1 bp wide with the nearest neighbor. Terminal fragments from in silico analysis of publicly available T4-like viral genomes were used to assign identities to environmental g23-TRFLP OTUs. Unique fragment lengths were considered ...
Realisation of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) for residential use cannot succeed without: minimising leakages, increasing thermal insulation and using reliable and energy efficient system solutions. However, very airtight houses may have a negative impact on thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Focussing on ventilation systems then becomes a requirement.. In cold climates, temperature differences between indoor and outdoor air often exceed 40 °C during winter. State-of-the-art heat recovery systems may not be able to handle these differences while providing proper air quality and preventing excessively dry indoor air.. The present study of energy recovery systems focuses on apartment buildings located in cold climates countries using central air handling units. Heat exchangers recovering sensible heat are compared with energy exchangers with recovery of both sensible and latent heat. For the latter, both adjacent and non-adjacent solutions are considered.. A specific net energy savings factor ...
Realisation of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) for residential use cannot succeed without: minimising leakages, increasing thermal insulation and using reliable and energy efficient system solutions. However, very airtight houses may have a negative impact on thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Focussing on ventilation systems then becomes a requirement.. In cold climates, temperature differences between indoor and outdoor air often exceed 40 °C during winter. State-of-the-art heat recovery systems may not be able to handle these differences while providing proper air quality and preventing excessively dry indoor air.. The present study of energy recovery systems focuses on apartment buildings located in cold climates countries using central air handling units. Heat exchangers recovering sensible heat are compared with energy exchangers with recovery of both sensible and latent heat. For the latter, both adjacent and non-adjacent solutions are considered.. A specific net energy savings factor ...
Andy is raising funds for Pawpaw: The story of Americas forgotten fruit on Kickstarter! This is a book about the pawpaw - a mostly forgotten fruit native to North America.
Im a grandpaw who has lived a life of adventure, and resent having to slow down. Ive been a Tank Commander, a Company Commander, an MP. My main career has been law enforcement, with 30 years and counting. At this stage of my life, the most important people in my life call me PawPaw. Youve come to PawPaws House. Sit back and enjoy. Email me at ddezendorf at yahoo dot com (all spambots must die ...
Im a grandpaw who has lived a life of adventure, and resent having to slow down. Ive been a Tank Commander, a Company Commander, an MP. My main career has been law enforcement, with 30 years and counting. At this stage of my life, the most important people in my life call me PawPaw. Youve come to PawPaws House. Sit back and enjoy. Email me at ddezendorf at yahoo dot com (all spambots must die ...
Graviola Max, Rain Tree Formulas, 600 mg, 120 Capsules contém uma poderosa mistura de duas espécies de graviola Annona muricata e Annona montana.
DRV is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor which was most recently added to the armamentarium of antiretroviral therapeutics. DRV exerts highly effective activity against a wide spectrum of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants including multi-PI-resistant variants and has been shown to resist the emergence of DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains in vitro (36, 43) and in the clinical setting (44-46). The mechanisms of the favorable antiretroviral activity and delayed emergence of DRV-resistant strains include the presence of a unique moiety, bis-THF, in the P2′ site and DRVs dual action to block HIV-1 proteases enzymatic activity (28, 47) and proteases dimerization (48). However, the penetration of DRV into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is only moderate, with a ratio of DRV concentration in the CSF to that in peripheral blood of 0.6% (49), probably due to the only moderate penetration of DRV through the blood-brain barrier. The addition of fluorine atoms to nucleoside analogs is known to increase lipophilicity ...
Soursop, which has botanical name Annona muricata is a fruit that originates from South America, South East Asia, and Africa. Everybody knows that the soursop fruit will bring you a lot of benefits for your health, but how about the leaves? Are they also have benefits for peoples health? Yes, it is finally revealed that soursop leaves will offer you tons of greatness for your body. Here are the health benefits that you could get from soursop leaves.. 24 Tea bags x 2 gr. each Net Wt. 48 gr. / 1.69 oz. ...
The folk medicine, Annona muricata, is used in many countries as the traditional treatment for cancer. Other names for this herb are graviola and soursop. It grows throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and it has been shown to be anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, antimalarial, anti-parasitic, antibacterial, insecticidal, antiviral anti-mollusk, and anticancer. Often, herbs are highly beneficial because they contain […]. View Post ...
Dr.PAWPAW visiškai raudonos spalvos balzamas, turintis tokią pačią gerą formulę kaip ir originalusis balzamas. Pridėkite šios nuostabios raudonos spalvos ant savo lūpų, skruostų ir gyvenimo!
Learn about the potential benefits of Pawpaw including contraindications, adverse reactions, toxicology, pharmacology and historical usage.
Indijska Patuljasta Papaja Seme - Mini Papayas, pawpaw Cena je za pakovanje od 1000 Semena. Patuljasta - mini papaja daje plodove vec nakon 6 do 8 meseci a naraste najvise
whether you choose chemotherapy or alternatives. Our research at Cancer Defeated has come across a plant that takes on cancer cells in a different way than other natural cancer fighters. Its believed to be the single most effective treatment to kill the hard-to-get-rid-of, multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells.. Its also reportedly been successful in shrinking tumours naturally and preventing the growth of new cancer cells with minimal side effects. When this plant is used in conjunction with chemotherapy, the chemo turns out to be much more effective at tackling MDR cells.. The magic plant is the pawpaw tree. Not only can it improve the effectiveness of chemo, it also has power on its own. If you avoid chemo and just take pawpaw, you may have luck shrinking a tumour on your own, although I dont recommend relying on one therapy.. Zap cells at the energy source. The pawpaw tree boasts the largest edible fruit native to North America. Its often confused with papaya, a tropical fruit that ...
We have many years of experience growing pawpaws. Pawpaws have a reputation for transplanting difficulty but we have found that timing, root quality and fertile, well-drained soil make all the difference. Our pawpaws are grown in pots to keep their taproots intact and we are successfully shipping them bareroot. Our special care instructions are included with your order. Order two different varieties for pollination (unless self-fertile). Zones 5-9. We offer a large selection of varieties that have been chosen for superior fruit. Please list substitutes as there are limited numbers of each variety. We will always substitute slightly smaller plants unless otherwise instructed ...
I been absent from this blog this past week, due to a heavy heart. On May 1 , 2014, God called home another angel. Your papaw (Grandpa Baker) passed away at a young age of 52 He is your Mommys Daddy.....Mommy is heartbroken, but remains strong for you......You are 19 months old right now. As I write we are still unsure why he passed away, but we do know he died peacefully in his sleep. During calling hours you gave us a precious memory.....you said, Mommy sad?, Mommy cry!, then you patted her back, hugged her and kissed her! You then looked at Papaw and said, Papaw sleeping, good bye, I love you you then leaned over and kissed his shoulder. .......It melted our hearts ...
Please take this brief survey to help us improve the site. !. The Cell Image Library™ is a freely accessible, easy-to-search, public repository of reviewed and annotated images, videos, and animations of cells from a variety of organisms, showcasing cell architecture, intracellular functionalities, and both normal and abnormal processes. The purpose of this database is to advance research, education, and training, with the ultimate goal of improving human health.. ...
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola), also known as Custard apple is native to the tropics of South America. Its genus name is from an ancient Incan word, annona and means years harvest. It is a member of the Anonaceae (Custard Apple) Family and relative of Soursop. Inside the spiky yellow green skin is a lush white flesh…
This schematic of a graphene liquid cell shows multiple liquid pockets containing single nanoparticles, dimers composed of dsDNA bridges in different lengths, and trimers.
Przegląd Antropologiczny Anthropological Review Vol 62, pp (1999) Analysis of morphological differences between prehistoric populations using a non-hierarchic method of data clustering Arkadiusz
Several bioactive molecules known as acetogenins have been isolated from its bark including: bullatacin, which has pesticidal ... Gu, Zhe-Ming; Zhao, Geng-Xian; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Zeng, Lu; McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1995). "Annonaceous Acetogenins". ... a novel bioactive acetogenin from Annona bullata (Annonaceae)". Tetrahedron. 45 (22): 6941-6948. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01) ... "New cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins: Bullatanocin and cis- and trans-Bullatanocinone, from Annona bullata (Annonaceae)". ...
Fang, Xin-Ping; Rieser, Matthew J.; Gu, Zhe-Ming; Zhao, Geng-Xian; McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1993). "Annonaceous acetogenins: An ...
Alali, Feras Q.; Rogers, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1998). "Unusual bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from ...
Tchen, T. T. (1965). "Reviewed Work: The Biosynthesis of Steroids, Terpenes & Acetogenins". American Scientist. 53 (4): 499A- ...
Tchen, T. T. (1965). "Reviewed Work: The Biosynthesis of Steroids, Terpenes & Acetogenins". American Scientist. Research ...
... was the first known example in a class of compounds known as acetogenins. Acetogenins, which are found in plants of ... Zafra-Polo, M. C.; González, M. C.; Estornell, E.; Sahpaz, S.; Cortes, D. (1996). "Acetogenins from Annonaceae, Inhibitors of ...
The bark, leaves, and roots of some species are used in folk medicines.[citation needed] The acetogenin compounds, which occur ... A large number of chemical compounds, including flavonoids, alkaloids, and acetogenins, have been extracted from the seeds and ... Experimental results indicate that acetogenins is responsible for this accumulation. Lancewood (Oxandra lanceolata) is a tough ... 2005-08-02). "Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Movement ...
... s are a group of chemical compounds classified as acetogenins. They are found in the extracts of Annona seeds (A. ... and an isolated acetogenin against Helicoverpa armigera". Journal of Pest Science. 90 (2): 701-709. doi:10.1007/s10340-016-0817 ... an Insecticidal Acetogenin of the Pawpaw, Asimina triloba (Annonaceae)". Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. Volume 45, ...
It is a member of the class of compounds known as acetogenins. H. Naito; E. Kawahara; K. Maruta; M. Maeda; S. Sasaki (1995). " ... H.-W. Chih; H.-F. Chiu; K.-S. Tang; F.-R. Chang; Y.-C. Wu (2001). "Bullatacin, a potent antitumor annonaceous acetogenin, ... "The First Total Synthesis of (+)-Bullatacin, a Potent Antitumor Annonaceous Acetogenin, and (+)-(15,24)-bis-epi-Bullatacin". ... Two Highly Potent Bioactive Acetogenins from Annona bullata". Journal of Natural Products. 52 (3): 463-477. doi:10.1021/ ...
Other acetogenins have been isolated from the seeds, bark, and leaves.[citation needed] Annona squamosa is native to the ... Bayer AG has patented the extraction process and molecular identity of the annonaceous acetogenin annonin, as well as its use ... 1990). "Bullatacin, bullatacinone, and squamone, a new bioactive acetogenin, from the bark of Annona squamosa". Journal of ... 2012). "Anti-tumor activity of Annona squamosa seeds extract containing annonaceous acetogenin compounds". Journal of ...
He published his findings on the Annonaceous acetogenins in peer reviewed journals. These acetogenins have been identified as ... McLaughlin, Jerry L. (2008). "Paw Paw and Cancer: Annonaceous Acetogenins from Discovery to Commercial Products". Journal of ...
Mitregenin, an acetogenin, has been isolated from its leaves and twigs. Several members of the acetogenin family of compounds ... Zhang, Qiang; Di, Ying-Tong; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang (2010). "Mitregenin, a New Annonaceous Acetogenin ...
... is an acetogenin found in Uvaria chamae. (+)-Chamuvarinin was synthesized in 2010 by a research group from the ... Fall, D; Duval, RA; Gleye, C; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R (2004). "Chamuvarinin, an acetogenin bearing a tetrahydropyran ring ...
Bioactive molecules isolated from its bark, including acetogenins have been reported to have cytotoxic properties in tests with ... Wongsa, Nikhom; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai (2011). "Cananginones A-I, linear acetogenins from the stem bark ...
Due to the presence of acetogenins, the leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaw trees can be used to make an organic insecticide. The ... The strong-smelling leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaws contain natural insecticides known as acetogenins. Pawpaw leaves and ... The seeds and bark contain the chemical asimitrin and other acetogenins, including asimin, asiminacin and asiminecin. ... new bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Asimina triloba possessing a bis-tetrahydrofuran ring". Journal of ...
Like other acetogenins, it is a mitochondrial complex I (NADH-dehydrogenase) inhibitor. As NADH-dehydrogenase is responsible ... It is a member of the class of compounds known as acetogenins. Annonacin-containing fruit products are regularly consumed ... "Determination of Neurotoxic Acetogenins in Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Fruit by LC-HRMS". Journal of Agricultural and Food ... "Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical Parkinsonism in Guadeloupe". Movement Disorders. 20 (12): ...
"C15 acetogenins from the Laurencia complex: 50 years of research - an overview". Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 25 (6): ...
Tantithanaporn, S.; Wattanapiromsakul, C.; Itharat, A.; Keawpradub, N. (2011). "Cytotoxic activity of acetogenins and styryl ...
... is a cytotoxic acetogenin derivate with the molecular formula C35H62O7 which has been isolated from the bark of the ... "Acetogenins as Selective Inhibitors of the Human Ovarian 1A9 Tumor Cell Line". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (15): 3185- ... Two novel cytotoxic bis-tetrahydro-furanic γ-lactone acetogenins from Annona cherimolia". Tetrahedron. 47 (38): 8195-8202. doi: ...
Like other members of the family Annonaceae, the entire plant contains small amounts of neurotoxic acetogenins, such as ... December 2005). "Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe". Mov. Disord. ...
Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16 (7): 15625-15658. doi:10.3390/ ...
The leaves, twigs, and bark of the common pawpaw tree contain natural insecticides known as acetogenins. Larvae of the zebra ...
The tetrahydrofuran ring is found in diverse natural products including lignans, acetogenins, and polyketide natural products. ...
... a new acetogenin inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport from Xylopia emarginata Mart., Annonaceae". Revista Brasileira ...
Overall, this provides a two-carbon homologation sequence that delivers the required acetogenin sequence. Borane hydrides such ...
"Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ...
Rolliniastatin-2, an acetogenin, is the first complex I inhibitor found that does not share the same binding site as rotenone. ... Acetogenins from Annonaceae are even more potent inhibitors of complex I. They cross-link to the ND2 subunit, which suggests ... Degli Esposti M, Ghelli A, Ratta M, Cortes D, Estornell E (July 1994). "Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family ... an acetogenin found in Asimina triloba fruit) is the most potent known inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) (IC50=1.2 ...
Other acetogenins have been discovered with anti-malarial and anti-tumor properties, and some even inhibit HIV replication in ... The first acetogenin discovered was uvaricin, which has anti-leukemic properties when used in living organisms. ... Several members of the family Annonaceae are also under investigation for uses of a group of chemicals called acetogenins. ...
The compound annonacin and dozens of other acetogenins contained in the seeds and fruit of some members of Annonaceae such as ... Several annonaceous species have been found to contain acetogenins, a class of natural compounds with a wide variety of ... Esposti, M Degli; A Ghelli; M Ratta; D Cortes; E Estornell (1994-07-01). "Natural substances (acetogenins) from the family ...
Bioactive compounds extracted from its bark, including acetogenins, have been reported to be cytotoxic in tests with cultured ...
In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. ... Table 1 Structure and activity of annonacinone and others acetogenins in the chromogenic screening assay.. Full size table. ... How to cite this article: Pautus, S. et al. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product ... Acetogenins from Annonaceae: recent progress in isolation, synthesis and mechanism of action. Nat. Prod. Rep. 22, 269-303 (2005 ...
Tag Archives: acetogenin. Forskning: Historien om Dr. Jerry McLaughlin og Paw Paw planten som drepte kreftceller. PawPaw treet ...
The aim of this research is to investigate potential inhibitors which are known as Acetogenins (AGEs) isolated from Annona ... The aim of this research is to investigate potential inhibitors which are known as Acetogenins (AGEs) isolated from Annona ... The aim of this research is to investigate potential inhibitors which are known as Acetogenins (AGEs) isolated from Annona ... The aim of this research is to investigate potential inhibitors which are known as Acetogenins (AGEs) isolated from Annona ...
Finally, the bioactivity of a newly-registered acetogenin-based (Anosom® 1 EC) formulation was investigated, both separately ... the bioguided fractionation using different chromatographic techniques which led to isolation of acetogenin rolliniastatin-1 ...
Oral administration of acetogenin-rich fraction of Annona muricata leaves ameliorated TP-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia. ...
Novel cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata. , J Nat Prod. , 2001 Jul;64(7):925-31.. [3]: Lannuzel A, ... The phrase "annonaceous acetogenins" gave a new and promising starting point. Indeed, this term yielded 121 citations in PubMed ... Much of Purdue Universitys research on annonaceous acetogenins was funded by the NCI and/or the NIH.. The head Purdue ... I read that the "active ingredients" in Graviola are a group of "annonaceous acetogenins" that are only found in the Annonaceae ...
triethylenethiophosphoramide and trimethylolomelamine; acetogenins (especially bullatacin and bullatacinone); a camptothecin ( ...
Eight new cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa.,. Chin J Nat Med, 2019 ...
From Mitrephora maingayi, a new C21-type Annonaceous acetogenin (1) has been isolated, along with a biogenetically related ...
The acetogenins in avocados have been found to provide more than just antioxidant benefits. Researchers from Ohio State ... University found that two of avocados acetogenins - dihydroxyheptadecenyl acetate and dihydroxyheptadecynyl acetate - ... carotens and acetogenins, provide the bulk of these antioxidant benefits. ... So far, five acetogenins have been found in avocado. The Monterey researchers found two addition acetogenins in their research. ...
Graviola leaves contain acetogenins, which are active constituents that can support healthy cell growth and function.* Other ... Cancer-fighting properties* - Some preliminary studies suggest that acetogenins found in graviola may help to fight cancer ...
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, acetogenin, tannins and triterpenoids and ...
Asitrilobins A and B: cytotoxic mono-THF annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Asimina triloba. Phytochemistry 50:1033-1040 ...
... synthesis of cis-sylvaticin and synthetic studies towards the synthesis of adjacent THF-THF and THF-THP Annonaceous acetogenins ... cores via cascade oxidative cyclisation reactions with permanganate is an attractive route to many Annonaceous acetogenins. ...
Annona muricata (Annonaceae): a review of its traditional uses, isolated acetogenins and biological activities. Int J Mol Sci. ...
The majority of macroalgal compounds are terpenoids, especially sesqui- and diterpenoids, acetogenins (acetate-derived ...
This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC50 = 3.4 mM) among the ... Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in ... avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a ...
11/23/06 , Stereochemically general approach to adjacent bis(tetrahydrofuran) cores of annonaceous acetogenins. Wysocki LM, ... The stereochemistry of four of these isomers has been found in the biologically active annonaceous acetogenin natural products ...
More recent scientific studies suggest that Acetogenins, the active constituents of Graviola, can support healthy cell growth a ... More recent scientific studies suggest that Acetogenins, the active constituents of Graviola, can support healthy cell growth ...
... acetogenins, rotenoids). Two hundred and twenty consecutive patients with Parkinsons syndrome seen by the neurology service at ...
While the content of soursop leaves has the properties of acetogenins, annonacin, annocatalin, annetocin, annonacin, ...
... including an isolated acetogenin called annonacin, in vitro. Their results were published in the Journal of Herbal Medicine. ...
acetogenins................................51 mg. RECOMMENDED USE:. 2 capsules 3 times a day during a meal.. Do not exceed the ...
Annonaceous Acetogenins (ACGS). One of the constituents extracted in A. muricata is annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs). ACGs are ... Annonaceous Acetogenins (ACGS) One of the constituents extracted in A. muricata is annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs). ACGs are ... Indeed, annonaceous acetogenins, ethyl acetate and ionic liquid have shown to be some of the bioactive compound extracted from ... Indeed, annonaceous acetogenins, ethyl acetate and ionic liquid have shown to be some of the bioactive compound extracted from ...
Well be sure to work away as to what active substances (e. g. in this case, Annonaceous acetogenins) have been thus researched ... except toxins, alkaloids) such as annonaceous acetogenins that may help in reducing insulin resistance, atherosclerotic plaques ...
Acetogenin Compounds. Acetogenins, Annonaceous. Annonaceous Acetogenins. Tree number(s):. D02.033.415.054. D02.455.326.146.049 ... 2008; ACETOGENIN (now ACETOGENINS) was indexed under LACTONES 2004-2007 and FATTY ALCOHOLS 2004-2007. ... Acetogenins - Preferred Concept UI. M0462537. Scope note. Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain ... Annonaceous Acetogenins - Narrower Concept UI. M0504482. Preferred term. Annonaceous Acetogenins Entry term(s). Acetogenins, ...
Acetogenins Acetogenins, Annonaceous use Acetogenins Acetohexamide Acetohydroxy Acid Isomeroreductase use Ketol-Acid ...
Cytotoxic Activities of Acetogenins from Annona dioica Roots. Author(s): Milton M. Kanashiro, Marina M. Paes, Maria R. G. Vega ... Keywords: Annona dioica, Annonaceous acetogenins, cytotoxic activity. Abstract References Volume 4 - Dec 2015 DOI: 10.18483/ ... Milton M. Kanashiro, Cytotoxic Activities of Acetogenins from Annona dioica Roots, International Journal of Sciences 12(2015): ...
  • In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. (nature.com)
  • Eight new cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa. (lipidmaps.org)
  • Synthesis of adjacent THP-THF and bis-THF cores via cascade oxidative cyclisation reactions with permanganate is an attractive route to many Annonaceous acetogenins. (bl.uk)
  • Stereochemically general approach to adjacent bis(tetrahydrofuran) cores of annonaceous acetogenins. (janelia.org)
  • Indeed, annonaceous acetogenins, ethyl acetate and ionic liquid have shown to be some of the bioactive compound extracted from A. muricata to have a positive effect. (papersowl.com)
  • Annonaceous Acetogenins (ACGS) One of the constituents extracted in A. muricata is annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs). (papersowl.com)
  • except toxins, alkaloids) such as annonaceous acetogenins that may help in reducing insulin resistance, atherosclerotic plaques and inflammation in the lower bowel leading to colo-rectal cancer. (hum-molgen.org)
  • We'll be sure to work away as to what active substances (e. g. in this case, Annonaceous acetogenins) have been thus researched in our much loved and luscious guayabano fruit - and their 'tea leaves', that controls the inflammation response, at Skye Blue, as has similarly been found with fructan and Vit D and what perspectives this offers in terms of organic molecules and drugs in molecular medicine. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Most of the research on graviola focuses on a novel set of chemicals called Annonaceous acetogenins. (raintree-health.com)
  • Annonaceous acetogenins are only found in the Annonaceae family (to which graviola belongs). (raintree-health.com)
  • Proven to have annonaceous acetogenins which are chemicals that have lengthy been used to. (atlanticgeneralshippers.com)
  • The majority of macroalgal compounds are terpenoids, especially sesqui- and diterpenoids, acetogenins (acetate-derived compounds), amino acid derivates, and polyphenols. (marinespecies.org)
  • This process led to the identification of Persenone-C ( 3 ) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC 50 = 3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. (rsc.org)
  • From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases. (rsc.org)
  • Acetogenin compounds such as asimicin, bullatacinare , etc., are powerful cytotoxins and have been found to have anti-cancer, anti-malarial, and anti-helminth properties. (healthguide911.com)
  • The aim of this research is to investigate potential inhibitors which are known as Acetogenins (AGEs) isolated from Annona muricata against HIF-1α. (ui.ac.id)
  • This new focus of atypical parkinsonism is reminiscent of the one described in Guam and may be linked to exposure to tropical plants containing mitochondrial complex I inhibitors (quinolines, acetogenins, rotenoids). (nih.gov)
  • Mode of action studies in three separate laboratories have recently determined that these acetogenins are superb inhibitors of enzyme processes that are only found in the membranes of cancerous tumor cells. (raintree-health.com)
  • Men en journalist kalte treet Graviola.Derved fikk feil plante æren og millioner av lesere ble feilinformert og det som kunne ha hjulpet ble glemt.Les den sanne historier her! (dr-overbye.no)
  • De rijpe Graviola vruchten bevatten lichtgeel-groene vruchtvlees met een zachte, romige en smeuïge, licht zuurzoete smaak. (google.com)
  • More recent scientific studies suggest that Acetogenins, the active constituents of Graviola, can support healthy cell growth and function. (bayho.com)
  • Four studies were published in 1998 which further specify the chemicals and acetogenins in graviola which are demonstrating the strongest anticancerous, antitumorous, and antiviral properties. (raintree-health.com)
  • Results showed that the more acetogenins was added with the cancerous cells, the more the cell growth was blocked. (guyabano.com)
  • The acetogenins can cut off the blood flow to cancerous cells and are found effective against cancers of the pancreas, breast, lungs, and colon. (righthomeremedies.com)
  • Oberlies et al (1995) researched the capability of acetogenins to block, or inhibit, the cell growth of tumor cells. (guyabano.com)
  • The species contains "acetogenins" which are plant chemicals that fight cancer cells. (ncrsociety.org)
  • Many of the acetogenins have demonstrated selective toxicity to tumor cells at very low dosages-as little as 1 part per million. (raintree-health.com)
  • These findings can indicate that acetogenins can selectively block the cell growth of tumor cells, while the healthy cells remain unaffected with minimal toxicity by this compound. (guyabano.com)
  • 2) The Fruit contains a substance called ACETOGENIN that has been proven as 10.000 (ten thousand times) stronger as ACETOGENIN, the drug used for Chemo therapy all over the world with the result of 90% to 10% survivors only - a Bingo Game with the life of people in all nations because the cure is already known. (i69dotd.com)
  • The acetogenins in the fruit prevent cancer and reduce the size of a tumor. (righthomeremedies.com)
  • The tree produces these 'acetogenins' in the leaves, stem and bark. (guyabano.com)
  • Se encuentran en las ANNONACEAE y otras PLANTAS. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Monterey researchers found two addition acetogenins in their research. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Purdue University, in West Lafayette, Indiana, has conducted a great deal of the research on the acetogenins, much of which, has been funded by The National Cancer Institute and/or the National Institute of Health (NIH). (raintree-health.com)
  • However, the natural 'acetogenins' are very complex in structure and is not easily to make by chemists. (guyabano.com)
  • Until then, you can turn to the natural acetogenins and drink the tea, juice or use the supplements. (guyabano.com)
  • The acetogenins in avocados have been found to provide more than just antioxidant benefits. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Researchers from Ohio State University found that two of avocados' acetogenins - dihydroxyheptadecenyl acetate and dihydroxyheptadecynyl acetate - inhibited the growth of cancer cells. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • The researchers found that these two acetogenins blocked the phosphorylation process of oral cancer cells. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • So far, five acetogenins have been found in avocado. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • In addition, the non-cancerous healthy cells were not affected by the acetogenins and the cell growth was not blocked. (guyabano.com)
  • Acetogeninen interfereren direct op de plaats waar ubiquinon katalysatie plaatsvindt binnen complex I en bij microbiële glucose dehydrogenase. (google.com)
  • Descriptive psychopathology is one reason why the reported frequency found in graviola is acetogenins. (norfolkspca.com)
  • Graviola vokser på en lav forgrening, busket stedsegrønne, der kan vokse til en højde på 26-30 meter med frugt vejer op til 15 lbs. (vitamarket.net)
  • tredjedel undersøgelse fra Sydkorea viste, at i modsætning Adriamycin, var der ingen negativ aktivitet på raske celler, mens en fjerde undersøgelse fra Purdue (1997) erklærede, at mange kræftceller, der overlever klassiske kemoterapi ved at udvikle resistens over for kemikalier, blev angrebet none-the-derunder ved Graviola agenter. (vitamarket.net)
  • Recent studies suggest that Acetogenins, which are found in Graviola can help promote healthy cell growth and function. (bestpricenutrition.com)
  • Graviola soursop is rich in ascorbic, lactic and citric acid as well as rich in minerals and vitamins such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin A, B1 and B2 as well as important phytochemicals such as acetogenins. (biologiquement.com)
  • The Graviola fruit is rich in Acetogenins, which are unique to this plant family. (naturesante.ca)
  • Graviola leaf extract naturally containing a full spectrum of active and synergistic constituents including annonaceous acetogenins. (vitaminhouse.ge)
  • More recent scientific studies suggest that Acetogenins, the active constituents of Graviola, can support healthy cell growth and function. (herbsandhealth.ca)
  • A 2017 cell study [5] investigated the phytochemicals within graviola - known as acetogenins - and found that they had strong anti-proliferative (reduced the ability of a cancer cell to continue to multiply) activity against human prostate cancer cells. (marnieclark.com)
  • Most of the research focuses on a component called Annonaceous acetogenins, which is only found in the Annonaceae family (to which Graviola belongs). (herbs-america.com)
  • Graviola leaf extract naturally contains a full spectrum of active and synergistic constituents including annonaceous acetogenins (promising new 'antitumor' agents found only in the. (goodhealthnaturally.com)
  • Nor should it be confused with the distantly related graviola (Annona muricata), also called soursop or the Brazilian pawpaw, which also contains acetogenins, but whose anti-cancer properties are far less than those of pawpaw. (rifedigital.net)
  • Follow the general public would need to be illnesses and generally do not improve rapidly with marked catabolism or rapidly enlarged mass at the survival of breast milk and have other anti-tumor bioactivities and are each found in graviola is acetogenins. (awakenedhospitality.com)
  • Custard apple reduces the risk of cancer and renal failure since it contains compounds like acetogenin and alkaloids. (hubpages.com)
  • Its antioxidant activity, which comes from acetogenins, as well as quinolones and alkaloids have been directly linked to cancer prevention and a reduction in the size of tumors. (tundeglobal.com)
  • The soursop has powerful biologically active ingredients such as acetogenins in its fruits. (biologiquement.com)
  • Annonaceous acetogenins are phytochemicals contained in the leaves, seeds and stems of soursop. (greencitizens.net)
  • The acetogenins in soursop can kill the malignant cells of 12 types of cancer, with liver cancer being one of them. (thefinestrockmagazine.com)
  • Nye cytotoksiske monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins fra Anona muricata. (vitamarket.net)
  • Nature's Sunshine uses an extract of the twigs of the North American paw paw tree, which contain the most concentrated amount of acetogenins. (bizhosting.com)
  • Pawpaw twigs contains acetogenins~active compounds that modulate the production of ATP in mitochondria of specific cells, which affects the viability of specific cells and the growth of blood vessels that nourish them. (blossomnursery.com)
  • Acetogenins selectively modulate the production of ATP in specific cells. (bizhosting.com)
  • Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) twigs contain annonaceous acetogenins that have been shown to interfere with the energy production system of cancer cells, especially the conversion of ATP to ADP. (rifedigital.net)
  • Standardization is significant because the concentration of active acetogenins in pawpaw twigs changes according to various factors, including the time of year in which they are harvested. (rifedigital.net)
  • In a search for phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activity, the COX-2 inhibitory activity of 15 typical Annonaceous acetogenins was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Acetogenins merupakan senyawa yang memiliki potensi sitotoksik. (web.app)
  • Didalam tanaman sirsak terutama daun sirsak terdapat senyawa acetogenin yaitu senyawa. (web.app)
  • Acetogenin adalah senyawa sitotoksik dimana senyawa ini ialah senyawa polyketides dengan struktur 3032. (web.app)
  • Salah satu kandungan dalam daun sirsak yang bermanfaat bagi tubuh adalah Acetogenin. (video.blog)
  • which represent the major constituents of A. muricata, there were more than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. (edu.ly)
  • Sama halnya dengan mengobati sel kanker, kandungan pada daun sirsak yang antara lain adalah acetogenin, annocatalin, asam gentisic, annomuricin, caclourin, dan asam linoleat pun dimanfaatkan pula untuk mengobati asam urat. (web.app)
  • Muricoreacin og murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, fra bladene af Anona muricata. (vitamarket.net)
  • The seeds, leaves, and to a lesser extent, the fruits contain acetogenins (there have been detected more than 50 acetogenins in the plant), with different properties against cancer. (botanical-online.com)
  • oak) trees and acetogenins of Asimina triloba (pawpaw) are powerful natural insecticides. (mgnv.org)
  • Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the MeOH extract of the stem barlts of Rohia emorginoto resulted in the ¡solation of six compounds, four acetogenins, rolliniastatin-l. sylvaticin, squamocin, and rollidecin B, one lignan, lirioresinol B, and an oxoaporphine, liriodenin. (revaconacyt.org)
  • Squamocin, an Annonaceous acetogenin, could interact with the BK ca channel to increase the amplitude of Ca 2+ -activated K + current in coronary smooth muscle cells. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Scientific studies have shown that the seeds, leaves, and to a lesser extent the fruit are rich in acetogenins, substances that fight hypertension, diabetes and have anticancer properties. (botanical-online.com)
  • The beneficial active bio components are known as annonaceous acetogenins (AGEs). (allubnews.com)
  • In particular, it is a rich source of annonaceous acetogenin compounds (AGEs). (miamifruit.org)
  • The active compounds in Paw Paw Cell-Reg are a mixture of over 50 acetogenins. (bizhosting.com)
  • Acetogenins are active compounds that affect the production of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in the mitochondria (the powerhouse) of the cell. (bizhosting.com)
  • Graviola's active ingredient is called Annonaceous Acetogenin. (bobbyshealthyshop.co.uk)
  • Over 50 active compounds exist in Paw Paw Cell-Reg and these complex chemicals are called acetogenins. (sunshine4health.com)
  • Active acetogenins combat cancer cells, while impressive antioxidant and astringent qualities help our skin repair, replenish and thrive after damaging exposure. (kauaifarmacy.com)
  • The research concluded that the active components of the tree are unique phytochemical substances known as annonaceous acetogenins which may have chemotherapeutic potential, especially with regard to multi-drug resistant cancer cells. (bellevision.com)
  • Dr. Jerry McLaughlin, Purdue førende forsker siger, at mange kræftceller med tiden, udvikle en P-glycoprotein pumpe til at udsende kemoterapien agenten, før den kan arbejde. (vitamarket.net)
  • Dr. McLaughlin har en række videoer offentliggjort på nettet om sine resultater. (vitamarket.net)
  • 6. Oberlies NH, Chang CJ, McLaughlin JL (1997) Struktur-aktivitet relationer af forskellige Annonaceous acetogenins mod multidrug resistente humane brystkirtler adenocarcinom (MCF-7/Adr) celler. (vitamarket.net)
  • A recent clinical study with over 100 participants showed that the paw paw extract, containing a mixture of acetogenins, supports the body's normal cells during times of cellular stress. (blossomnursery.com)
  • The acetogenins present highly effective cytotoxity in the direction of varied sorts of cancer cells and illuminate them. (designsbyps.com)
  • Acetogenins also support and enhance the effectiveness of conventional medical regimens. (bizhosting.com)
  • Acetogenins affect the production of ATP in the mitochondria (the powerhouse) of the cell. (sunshine4health.com)
  • By selectively modulating the production of ATP in specific cells, the acetogenins affect the viability of specific cells and the growth of blood vessels that nourish them. (sunshine4health.com)
  • This patent~pending product is the only standardized acetogenin product available to regulate specific cells. (blossomnursery.com)
  • Among antioxidants, terpenoids ((E)-nerolidolas as dominant) and phytosterols ((3-β)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol with high content) were identified. (olsztyn.pl)
  • Acetogenins appear to have anti-tumor effects in animal studies. (naturesante.ca)