Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Chromonar: A coronary vasodilator agent.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenasePyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.IndiaFraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseFoundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
(1/381) Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep.

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

(2/381) Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276.

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

(3/381) Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats.

Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid.  (+info)

(4/381) Metabolic effect of alpha-and the beta-adrenergic stimulation of rat submaxillary gland in vitro.

1. Incubation of submaxillary-gland slices with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 41% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 50%. Propranolol blocked these effects of isoproterenol. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 35% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 75%. In addition, phenylephrine also completely overcame the inhibition of pyruvate removal caused by acetoacetate metabolism and decreased tissue [atp] by 45%. Phentolamine blocked the effects of phenylephrine. 3. In contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenergic stimulation required exogenous Ca2+. 4. These results explain the different metabolic responses of the submaxillary gland to adrenaline in the presence and absence of exogenous Ca2+.  (+info)

(5/381) Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

(6/381) The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver.

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

(7/381) Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erythrocytes in vitro and in type 1 diabetic patients.

Recent studies have suggested that elevated cellular lipid peroxidation may play a role in the development of cellular dysfunction and other complications of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes frequently encounter elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone (ACE). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ketosis might increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione (GSH) levels of red blood cells (RBCs) in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates that incubation of AA with normal RBCs in phosphate-buffered saline (37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in marked GSH depletion, oxidized glutathione accumulation, hydroxyl radical generation, and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Increases in oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation and depletion of GSH in RBCs were not observed with BHB or ACE treatments. Similarly, there was a significant generation of superoxide ion radicals even in a cell-free buffer solution of AA, but not in that of BHB. The presence of BHB together with AA did not influence the capacity of AA to generate oxygen radicals in a cell-free solution or the increase in lipid peroxidation of RBCs incubated with AA. The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked increase in lipid peroxidation in AA-treated RBCs. To examine the effects of ketone bodies in vivo, studies were performed that showed a significant decrease in GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in RBCs of hyperketonemic diabetic patients, but not in normoketonemic type 1 diabetic patients, when compared with age-matched normal subjects. This study demonstrates that elevated levels of the ketone body AA can increase lipid peroxidation and lower GSH levels of RBCs in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

(8/381) In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model.  (+info)

*  Ketone bodies
Under these circumstances acetyl-CoA is diverted to the formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, beta- ... dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into ... The smell of acetoacetate and/or acetone in breath is a common feature in ketosis. When a type 1 diabetic suffers a biological ... Acetoacetate has a highly characteristic smell, for the people who can detect this smell, which occurs in the breath and urine ...
*  Ketogenesis
... which is generated through the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, either spontaneously or through the enzyme acetoacetate ... Both acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are acidic, and, if levels of these ketone bodies are too high, the pH of the blood ... β-Hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate can pass through membranes easily, and are therefore a source of energy for the brain, which ... The three ketone bodies, each synthesized from acetyl-CoA molecules, are: Acetoacetate, which can be converted by the liver ...
*  Ethyl acetoacetate
... is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol. The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a ... Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is subject to ... Ethyl acetoacetate, when heated alone (uncatalyzed) with benzyl alcohol, forms synthetically useful benzyl acetoacetate (benzyl ... Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the malonic ester synthesis ...
*  Acetoacetate decarboxylase
Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
*  Acetoacetate-CoA ligase
In enzymology, an acetoacetate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetoacetate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoacetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called acetoacetyl-CoA ... acetoacetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and acetoacetyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
*  Butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase
Other names in common use include butyryl coenzyme A-acetoacetate coenzyme A-transferase, and butyryl-CoA-acetoacetate CoA- ... Barker HA, Jeng IM, Neff N, Robertson JM, Tam FK, Hosaka S (1978). "Butyryl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase from a lysine- ... In enzymology, a butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction butanoyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is butanoyl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase. ...
*  OXCT1
In addition, OXCT1 activity leads to the formation of acetoacetate, which serves as a precursor for short-chain acyl-CoAs and ... Zołnierowicz S, Scisłowski PW, Swierczyński J, Zelewski L (1985). "Acetoacetate utilization by human placental mitochondria". ... from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate. The OXCT1 gene resides on chromosome 5 at the band 5p13. OXCT1 spans a length of over 100 kb ... acetoacetate transferase deficiency". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 15 (3): 371-3. doi:10.1007/BF02435979. PMID ...
*  Acetoacetic acid
Heart muscle and renal cortex prefer acetoacetate over glucose. The brain uses acetoacetate when glucose levels are low due to ... Under typical physiological conditions, acetoacetic acid exists as its conjugate base, acetoacetate. Acetoacetate is produced ... and then an acetyl CoA is lost from this yielding acetoacetate. The initial acetoacetate can come from the last cycle in the ... In mammals acetoacetate produced in the liver (along with the other two "ketone bodies") is released into the bloodstream as an ...
*  Acetoacetyl-CoA hydrolase
Properties of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme prepared from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 318-25. PMID 13818236. Molecular ... acetoacetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetoacetyl-CoA and H2O, whereas its two products are CoA and ... acetoacetate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on thioester bonds. The systematic ...
*  Johann Georg Anton Geuther
Geuther spent most of his academic career at the University of Jena where he discovered ethyl acetoacetate, a key compound for ... Geuther is best known for his discovery of ethyl acetoacetate. Although he discovered the compound in 1863, it took him two ... The experimental work of his and others yielded puzzling results and induced debates on the nature of ethyl acetoacetate. The ... the true nature of ethyl acetoacetate was a tautomeric equilibrium between the both suggested structures. The Keto-enol ...
*  Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase
I. Purification of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 313-317. PMID 13834445. Molecular ...
*  HMG-CoA
... lyase breaks it into acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. Steroidogenic enzyme Debi P. Sarkar (2015). "Classics in Indian ...
*  Biocatalysis
"The yeast mediated reduction of ethyl acetoacetate in petroleum ether". Tetrahedron Letters. 34 (24): 3949-3950. doi:10.1016/ ...
*  Carroll rearrangement
Part I. The action of ethyl acetoacetate on linalool and geraniol". J. Chem. Soc. 1940, 704-706. doi:10.1039/JR9400000704. ...
*  Methylthiouracil
... is prepared quite simply by condensation of ethyl acetoacetate with thiourea. Further work in this series ...
*  Diabetic ketoacidosis
Ketones can be measured in the urine (acetoacetate) and blood (β-hydroxybutyrate). When compared with urine acetoacetate ... acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate). β-Hydroxybutyrate can serve as an energy source in the absence of insulin-mediated glucose ...
*  Etonitazene
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
*  Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis
Aldol condensation of acetone and ethyl acetoacetate gave β-keto-ester 3. A Grignard reaction involving methylmagnesium bromide ...
*  Resorcinol
In alcoholic solution it condenses with sodium acetoacetate to form 4-methylumbelliferone. In addition to electrophilic ...
*  3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase
It catalyzes the reaction: (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA = acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate. and requires a divalent metal ion as ...
*  Butanol fuel
"Acetoacetyl coenzyme-a as intermediate in the enzymatic breakdown and synthesis of acetoacetate". J Am Chem Soc. 75: 1517-1518 ...
*  Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA is cleaved into two molecules, acetoacetate and acetyl CoA. Point mutations and deletion events ... MCC performs a single step in the breakdown of leucine to eventually yield acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. MCC catalyzes the ...
*  2-oxopropyl-CoM reductase (carboxylating)
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate,acetoacetate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). ... acetoacetate, and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate, CO2, and NADPH. This enzyme belongs to ... acetoacetate + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate + CO2 + NADPH The 3 substrates of ...
*  Johannes Wislicenus
While at Würzburg, Wislicenus developed the use of ethyl aceto acetate in organic synthesis. However, he was also active in ...
*  Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase
This gene encodes the last enzyme in the subpathway that synthesizes acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine, which is ... The fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-fumarylacetoacetate into fumarate and acetoacetate. ...
ICSC 1024 -    ETHYL ACETOACETATE  ICSC 1024 - ETHYL ACETOACETATE
ETHYL ACETOACETATE. ICSC. : 1024. Acetoacetic acid ethyl ester. Ethyl acetylacetate. 3-Oxobutanoic acid ethyl ester. 1- ...
more infohttps://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=1024&p_version=1&p_lang=en
Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C | Sigma-Aldrich  Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C | Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C; CAS Number: 100548-44-5; Linear Formula: 13CC5H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-489298 MSDS, ... Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C * CAS Number 100548-44-5 ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/489298?lang=en®ion=US
Methyl Acetoacetate Market segment forecast up to 2020  Methyl Acetoacetate Market segment forecast up to 2020
... agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic ... The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, ... Europe had the third-largest demand for methyl acetoacetate market in 2013. Increasing demand for methyl acetoacetate from ... Other raw material used in production includes acetyl ketene, methane and ethyl acetoacetate among others. Methyl acetoacetate ...
more infohttp://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/methyl-acetoacetate-market/release-599181.htm
ethyl acetoacetate | C6H10O3 - PubChem  ethyl acetoacetate | C6H10O3 - PubChem
ethyl acetoacetate , C6H10O3 , CID 8868 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ethyl_acetoacetate
Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C | Sigma-Aldrich  Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C | Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C; Linear Formula: 13C2C4H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-682403 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C * Linear Formula CH3CO13CH213CO2CH2CH3 ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/682403?lang=en®ion=US
Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate - Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India  Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate - Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India
Contact verified Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate Manufacturers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate suppliers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate ... Find here information of Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate selling companies for your buy requirements. ... Ethyl Acetoacetate / Methyl Acetoacetate The range is 100% quality checked and you can rest assured us for the same. We along ... Ethyl Acetoacetate Deals in Di Ethyl Sulphate, Napthenic Acid, Nn Diethyl Aniline, Ethyl Acetoacetate, Ortho Toludine Liquid, ...
more infohttps://www.exportersindia.com/indian-suppliers/ethyl-chloro-acetoacetate.htm
Ethyl acetoacetate - Wikipedia  Ethyl acetoacetate - Wikipedia
Ethyl acetoacetate is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol. The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a ... Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is subject to ... Ethyl acetoacetate, when heated alone (uncatalyzed) with benzyl alcohol, forms synthetically useful benzyl acetoacetate (benzyl ... Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the malonic ester synthesis ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethyl_acetoacetate
Acetoacetate decarboxylase - Wikipedia  Acetoacetate decarboxylase - Wikipedia
Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetoacetate_decarboxylase
105-45-3 - Methyl acetoacetate, 99% - Acetoacetic acid methyl ester - A13696 - Alfa Aesar  105-45-3 - Methyl acetoacetate, 99% - Acetoacetic acid methyl ester - A13696 - Alfa Aesar
Gas-phase proton NMR studies of keto-enol tautomerism of acetylacetone, methyl acetoacetate, and ethyl acetoacetate.J. Phys. ... Methyl acetoacetate is used as a chemical reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. It participates in the Biginelli ... The enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate over supported nickel catalysts: I. The modification procedure. ... reaction, forming molecules including dihydropyrimidinones.Methyl acetoacetate (MAA) is used for the synthesis of alpha- ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/A13696/
Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market to 2021: Overview, Opportunities, In-Depth Analysis and Forecasts | Business  Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market to 2021: Overview, Opportunities, In-Depth Analysis and Forecasts | Business
Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for ... In this Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details ... Methyl Acetoacetate Sales market analysis report contains all study material about Market Overview, Growth, Demand and Forecast ... Also, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered. ...
more infohttp://beforeitsnews.com/business/2016/10/methyl-acetoacetate-sales-market-to-2021-overview-opportunities-in-depth-analysis-and-forecasts-2981181.html
Acetoacetate, Serum -
Mayo Clinic Laboratories Rochester  Acetoacetate, Serum - Mayo Clinic Laboratories Rochester
Specimen Type: Serum. Container/Tube: Red. Specimen Volume: 3 mL. Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s). Serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 3 mL of serum frozen in a plastic vial.. ...
more infohttps://testcatalog.org/show/FACES
Plus it  Plus it
Jain SK, Kannan K, Lim G: Ketosis (acetoacetate) can generate oxygen radicals and cause increased lipid peroxidation and growth ... To examine the effect of ketosis, U937 monocytes were cultured with ketone bodies (acetoacetate [AA], β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) ... Artuch R, Vilaseca MA, Farre C, Ramon F: Determination of lactate, pyruvate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate with a ... Elevated Blood Interleukin-6 Levels in Hyperketonemic Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Secretion by Acetoacetate-Treated Cultured ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/7/2139
The use of Fullers earth to reduce
acetoacetate interference in the
measurement of serum creatinine by
the Beckman Astra-4...  The use of Fuller's earth to reduce acetoacetate interference in the measurement of serum creatinine by the Beckman Astra-4...
The use of Fuller's earth to reduce acetoacetate interference in the measurement of serum creatinine by the Beckman Astra-4 ... John Thompson, "The use of Fuller's earth to reduce acetoacetate interference in the measurement of serum creatinine by the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/1982/648275/cta/
Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood...  Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood...
The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate ... Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood ... D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/1990/295960/abs/
ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%) - Creative Proteomics  ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%) - Creative Proteomics
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 141-97-9 ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope ... Home > Products > Stable Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard > MRI/MRS Products > ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%) ...
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Succinyl-CoA: acetoacetate transferase deficiency: identification of a new patient with a neonatal onset and review of the
    ...  Succinyl-CoA: acetoacetate transferase deficiency: identification of a new patient with a neonatal onset and review of the ...
Succinyl-CoA: acetoacetate transferase deficiency: identification of a new patient with a neonatal onset and review of the ...
more infohttp://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=137928
Direct assays of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate with a centrifugal analyzer. - Semantic Scholar  Direct assays of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate with a centrifugal analyzer. - Semantic Scholar
The methods for lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate are kinetic and ratiometric, eliminating the need for specimen- ... and acetoacetate in plasma with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer. ... A kinetic spectrophotometric assay for rapid determination of acetoacetate in blood.. *Christopher P Price, B Llyod, Giampiero ... Kinetic measurement of the combined concentrations of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in serum.. *N F Nuwayhid, George F ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Direct-assays-of-lactate%2C-pyruvate%2C-and-with-a-Hansen-Freier/47a9d929f73192798b53afa3b39a6eaf47bc696f
Aceto Acetate manufacturing companies  Aceto Acetate manufacturing companies
We are sorry, there are no companies found in " Aceto Acetate" Listing your company for Aceto Acetate allows buyers to find ... Aceto Acetate manufacturers and suppliers. Search. Search by Drug Name, Company, CAS, Chem formula, IUPAC Name, Country (e.g. ...
more infohttp://www.poulvet.com/bulk_drugs/product_companies_india.php?sclid=12&prefix=U
Sodium Acetoacetate
- Keto Research Chem  Sodium Acetoacetate - Keto Research Chem
Sodium Acetoacetate (100grams)C4H5NaO3CAS#: 623-58-5 Special order item. Made upon order and shipped overnight once synthesis ... Sodium Acetoacetate (100grams). C4H5NaO3. CAS#: 623-58-5 ... Sodium Acetoacetate. Regular price $200.00 Sale price $200.00 ...
more infohttps://ketoresearchchem.com/collections/frontpage/products/sodium-acetoacetate
Methyl Aceto Acetate Manufacturers & Suppliers  Methyl Aceto Acetate Manufacturers & Suppliers
Find here Methyl Aceto Acetate manufacturers, suppliers & exporters. Get contact details of companies manufacturing and supplying Methyl Aceto Acetate.
more infohttps://m.dir.webbingindia.com/suppliers.php?wbpn=methyl-aceto-acetate
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate, when heated alone (uncatalyzed) with benzyl alcohol, forms synthetically useful benzyl acetoacetate (benzyl groups being easily removed later by catalytic hydrogenolysis over Pd/C under neutral conditions), via a mechanism involving acetylketene. (wikipedia.org)