Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/381)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (2/381)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats. (3/381)

Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid.  (+info)

Metabolic effect of alpha-and the beta-adrenergic stimulation of rat submaxillary gland in vitro. (4/381)

1. Incubation of submaxillary-gland slices with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 41% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 50%. Propranolol blocked these effects of isoproterenol. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 35% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 75%. In addition, phenylephrine also completely overcame the inhibition of pyruvate removal caused by acetoacetate metabolism and decreased tissue [atp] by 45%. Phentolamine blocked the effects of phenylephrine. 3. In contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenergic stimulation required exogenous Ca2+. 4. These results explain the different metabolic responses of the submaxillary gland to adrenaline in the presence and absence of exogenous Ca2+.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (5/381)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (6/381)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erythrocytes in vitro and in type 1 diabetic patients. (7/381)

Recent studies have suggested that elevated cellular lipid peroxidation may play a role in the development of cellular dysfunction and other complications of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes frequently encounter elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone (ACE). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ketosis might increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione (GSH) levels of red blood cells (RBCs) in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates that incubation of AA with normal RBCs in phosphate-buffered saline (37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in marked GSH depletion, oxidized glutathione accumulation, hydroxyl radical generation, and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Increases in oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation and depletion of GSH in RBCs were not observed with BHB or ACE treatments. Similarly, there was a significant generation of superoxide ion radicals even in a cell-free buffer solution of AA, but not in that of BHB. The presence of BHB together with AA did not influence the capacity of AA to generate oxygen radicals in a cell-free solution or the increase in lipid peroxidation of RBCs incubated with AA. The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked increase in lipid peroxidation in AA-treated RBCs. To examine the effects of ketone bodies in vivo, studies were performed that showed a significant decrease in GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in RBCs of hyperketonemic diabetic patients, but not in normoketonemic type 1 diabetic patients, when compared with age-matched normal subjects. This study demonstrates that elevated levels of the ketone body AA can increase lipid peroxidation and lower GSH levels of RBCs in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. (8/381)

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model.  (+info)

Acetoacetates are compounds that are produced in the liver as a part of fatty acid metabolism, specifically during the breakdown of fatty acids for energy. Acetoacetates are formed from the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules and are intermediate products in the synthesis of ketone bodies, which can be used as an alternative energy source by tissues such as the brain during periods of low carbohydrate availability or intense exercise.

In clinical settings, high levels of acetoacetates in the blood may indicate a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by high levels of ketone bodies in the blood due to insulin deficiency or resistance. DKA can lead to serious complications such as cerebral edema, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death if left untreated.

Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
... is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol. The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a ... Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is diprotic: ... Ethyl acetoacetate transesterifies to give benzyl acetoacetate via a mechanism involving acetylketene. Ethyl (and other) ... Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the malonic ester synthesis ...
In enzymology, an acetoacetate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetoacetate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetoacetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called acetoacetyl-CoA ... acetoacetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and acetoacetyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
Other names in common use include butyryl coenzyme A-acetoacetate coenzyme A-transferase, and butyryl-CoA-acetoacetate CoA- ... Barker HA, Jeng IM, Neff N, Robertson JM, Tam FK, Hosaka S (1978). "Butyryl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase from a lysine- ... In enzymology, a butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction butanoyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is butanoyl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase. ...
It is the cyclohexyl methylphosphonate ester of ethyl acetoacetate. The compound has two isomers, the cis isomer and trans ... "Phosphonate esters of alkyl acetoacetates". v t e (Articles needing additional references from October 2018, All articles ... Acetoacetate esters, Phosphonate esters, Ethyl esters, Cyclohexyl compounds, All stub articles, Ester stubs). ...
Inglis, J. K. H.; Roberts, K. C. (1926). "Ethyl Acetoacetate". Org. Synth. 6: 36. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0036. Hazard Ethyl ... anhydrous ethyl acetate and strong bases react to give ethyl acetoacetate: The LD50 for rats is 5620 mg/kg, indicating low ...
4, p. 351 Knorr, L. (1883). "Action of ethyl acetoacetate on phenylhydrazine. I". Chemische Berichte. 16: 2597-2599. doi: ...
Zołnierowicz S, Scisłowski PW, Swierczyński J, Zelewski L (1985). "Acetoacetate utilization by human placental mitochondria". ... from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate. The OXCT1 gene resides on chromosome 5 at the band 5p13. OXCT1 spans a length of over 100 kb ... rate-limiting step in ketolysis by transferring the CoA from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate, giving acetoacetyl-CoA (AcAc-CoA). ... acetoacetate transferase deficiency". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 15 (3): 371-3. doi:10.1007/BF02435979. PMID ...
It arises from decarboxylation of acetoacetate. Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ...
With ethyl acetoacetate ethyl acetosuccinate is produced. Hydrolysis gives glycolic acid. Koenig, Günter; Lohmar, Elmar; ...
Through a series of reactions, acetoacetate is first produced; and it is this acetoacetate that is reduced into β- ... Acetoacetate is produced in the mitochondria of liver cells by the addition of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA. This creates 3- ... Acetoacetate Acetone Ketone Ketone bodies Ketosis β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) "Exogenous Ketones: What They Are, Benefits of Use ... Technically there are other ketone esters such as acetoacetate/ D/L 1,3-butanediol (racemic). This diester has been tested more ...
... is also used to make acetoacetate from CO2 and propylene or ethylene in aerobic bacteria. Specifically, in bacteria ... The eventual carboxylation produces acetoacetate, breaking down the propylene. Mesna - a cancer chemotherapy adjuvant with the ...
Heart muscle and renal cortex prefer acetoacetate over glucose. The brain uses acetoacetate when glucose levels are low due to ... CoA The acetoacetate-CoA itself is formed by three routes: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA releases acetyl CoA and acetoacetate ... Nitroprusside changes from pink to purple in the presence of acetoacetate, the conjugate base of acetoacetic acid, and the ... Under typical physiological conditions, acetoacetic acid exists as its conjugate base, acetoacetate: AcCH2CO2H → AcCH2CO−2 + H+ ...
However, the liver can use long-chain fatty acids to synthesise the three ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and ... He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone ... The ketone bodies are possibly anticonvulsant; in animal models, acetoacetate and acetone protect against seizures. The ... which change colour from buff-pink to maroon in the presence of acetoacetate (one of the three ketone bodies). A short-lived ...
Properties of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme prepared from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 318-25. PMID 13818236. Portal: ... acetoacetate This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on thioester bonds. The systematic name ...
Geuther spent most of his academic career at the University of Jena where he discovered ethyl acetoacetate, a key compound for ... Geuther is best known for his discovery of ethyl acetoacetate. Although he discovered the compound in 1863, it took him two ... The experimental work of his and others yielded puzzling results and induced debates on the nature of ethyl acetoacetate. The ... the true nature of ethyl acetoacetate was a tautomeric equilibrium between the both suggested structures. The Keto-enol ...
Reaction with diketene or acetic acid ester creates the acetoacetate; thermal reaction leads to 2-methyl-2-hepten-6-one. The ...
I. Purification of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (2): 313-317. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258( ...
"The yeast mediated reduction of ethyl acetoacetate in petroleum ether". Tetrahedron Letters. 34 (24): 3949-3950. doi:10.1016/ ...
FAH catalyzes the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate. Loss of FAH results in the accumulation of ... acetoacetate and succinate. Fumarylacetoacetate accumulates in hepatocytes and proximal renal tubal cells and causes oxidative ... FAH is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate. It is expressed ...
... lyase breaks it into acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. Steroidogenic enzyme Sarkar DP (2015). "Classics in Indian Medicine ...
"The yeast mediated reduction of ethyl acetoacetate in petroleum ether". Tetrahedron Letters. 34 (24): 3949-3950. doi:10.1016/ ...
Part I. The action of ethyl acetoacetate on linalool and geraniol". Journal of the Chemical Society 1940, 704-706. doi:10.1039/ ...
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
... is prepared quite simply by condensation of ethyl acetoacetate with thiourea. Further work in this series ...
The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under ... It is sensitive to acetoacetate only, and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyric to acetoacetate is shifted from a normal value of ... Measuring acetoacetate alone will thus underestimate the accompanying beta-hydroxybutyrate if the standard conversion factor is ... Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. ...
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
Aldol condensation of acetone and ethyl acetoacetate gave β-keto-ester 3. A Grignard reaction involving methylmagnesium bromide ...
In alcoholic solution it condenses with sodium acetoacetate to form 4-methylumbelliferone. In addition to electrophilic ...
Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
... although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate ... The normal reference range for quantitative acetoacetate assays (Gas chromatography) are as follows: Normal range (plasma/serum ... encoded search term (Acetoacetate) and Acetoacetate What to Read Next on Medscape ... There are three ketone bodies produced by the body: acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, also termed ...
CIL) offers product CLM-523-1 Ethyl acetoacetate (2,4-¹³C₂, 99%) ...
... diabetes ... People that were fasted for one night and had higher levels of acetoacetate also had higher levels of a compound called 3-HHD ... May an increased synthesis of acetoacetate due to the substrate availability be a part of the explanation? There is a curious ...
3-dicarboxylate and of ethyl acetoacetate in concentrated sulfuric acid ... Note about Transformations of phenylhydrazones of dialkyl 2-oxo-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate and of ethyl acetoacetate in ... Transformations of phenylhydrazones of dialkyl 2-oxo-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate and of ethyl acetoacetate in concentrated ... 3-dicarboxylate and of ethyl acetoacetate in concentrated sulfuric acid ...
Differential effects of sodium acetoacetate and acetoacetic acid infusions on alanine and glutamine metabolism in man. ... Differential effects of sodium acetoacetate and acetoacetic acid infusions on alanine and glutamine metabolism in man ...
... although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate ... The normal reference range for quantitative acetoacetate assays (Gas chromatography) are as follows: Normal range (plasma/serum ... encoded search term (Acetoacetate) and Acetoacetate What to Read Next on Medscape ... High levels of acetoacetate in blood might result from the following:. * Decreased availability of carbohydrates (eg, ...
Search PubMed for references concerning: Ethyl-acetoacetate. 1 more. Title: PPL catalyzed four-component PASE synthesis of 5- ... Title: Hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate is a novel diagnostic metabolic marker of liver cancer. Jensen PR, Serra SC ... Title: Hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate is a novel diagnostic metabolic marker of liver cancer. Jensen PR, Serra SC ... In particular, hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) was shown to provide a metabolic fingerprint of HCC. Using ...
... although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate ... The normal reference range for quantitative acetoacetate assays (Gas chromatography) are as follows: Normal range (plasma/serum ... encoded search term (Acetoacetate) and Acetoacetate What to Read Next on Medscape ... High levels of acetoacetate in blood might result from the following:. * Decreased availability of carbohydrates (eg, ...
Hydrolyzed VA/Vinyl Acetoacetate Copolymer is a copolymer of vinyl acetoacetate and partially hydrolyzed vinyl acetate.. ... HYDROLYZED VA/VINYL ACETOACETATE COPOLYMER. kalvonmuodostaja, sideaine, emulgaattori, kynsiä hoitava aine ...
The acetoacetate activation and cleavage enzyme system. scientific article published on 01 May 1953 ...
Whatsapp: +86 15623840867. Telegram: @xzselina. Threema: NRVA8ZRD. Signal: +524422048176. [email protected]. ...
METHYL ACETOACETATE, 105-45-3, Esters, C5H8O3 by Loba Chemie, India ... METHYL ACETOACETATE For Synthesis. Methyl 3-oxobutanoate, Methyl 3-oxobutyrate, Acetoacetic acid methyl ester. ...
The dynamic viscocity of allyl acetoacetate was found to be 13.408 mPa s (dynamic) at 27 deg C.The viscocity is equivalent to ... The dynamic viscocity of allyl acetoacetate was found to be 13.408 mPa s (dynamic) at 27 deg C.The viscocity is equivalent to ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
2-Ethoxyethyl methylene acetoacetate-1,2-13C2-Wuxi Beita Pharmatech Co., Ltd. -2-乙氧亚甲基乙酰乙酸乙酯-1,2-13C2 ...
Ethyl 2-(ethoxymethylene)acetoacetate Cas No.:3788-94-1 *Catalog Numbe:AMY202100076 ...
... and acetoacetate were measured at baseline and 5 different timepoints. Changes in ketone bodies over time were monitored using ... whereas β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate remained stable over time. Higher acetone concentrations were correlated with higher ...
Succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate transferase deficiency. Additional Information & Resources. Genetic Testing Information. *Genetic ...
ETHYL ACETO ACETATE. Fruity. ETHYL ACRYLATE 1% in EP. Ethereal rum. ETHYL ACRYLATE 1% PG. Ethereal rum. ...
Acetoacetates / blood * Acidosis / blood * Acidosis / chemically induced * Acidosis / metabolism* * Alkalosis / blood * ...
Acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate reduce mouse embryo viability via differential metaboli Acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate ... RESEARCH QUESTION Does the ketone acetoacetate (AcAc) alone, or combined with ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßOHB), impact mouse embryo ...
OM: Acetoacetate. [57]. Arabidopsis. thaliana. Roots and shoots. GC-MS. CH: Galactose, sucrose, trehalose, gentiobiose, ...
Acetoacetate, μmol/L. 1,936. 3-hydroxybutyric acid, μmol/L. 2,813. Fasting CPR, ng/mL. 0.13. ...
The AACS plays an important role in the activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, and hence may be related to the use of ... The AACS is an acetoacetate-specific ligase. In mice, this gene is regulated in vivo in the liver tissue when induced by ...
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... acetoacetate chloroethyl,Suberanilic Acid Methyl Ester-Jinan Kehui Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd. ...
King Industries, Inc. designs, manufactures and distributes additives for small and large companies throughout the world.. ...
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding acetone and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of acetone by acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing or clostridial bacteria was utilized in large-scale industrial syntheses in the first half of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there has been a growing interest in acetone production that is more environmentally friendly, causing a resurgence in utilizing acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and carbon dioxide (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Semiquantitative methods, although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate) in urine and blood and are discussed in Ketones . (medscape.com)
  • There are three ketone bodies produced by the body: acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. (medscape.com)
  • When there is decreased availability of glucose or impaired glucose metabolism, such as in diabetes mellitus, the acetyl-CoA is diverted to produce more acetoacetate, from which acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate are formed. (medscape.com)
  • Plasma concentrations of ketone bodies acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were measured at baseline and 5 different timepoints. (nih.gov)
  • The urine methods measure either acetoacetate or both acetoacetate and acetone but they do not detect the other ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Fatty acids produce acetoacetate, which is converted to acetone and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB). (karger.com)
  • Ketogenic diets result in nutritional ketosis , an increase of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) in the blood. (healthnews.com)
  • Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone are ketone bodies. (medscape.com)
  • Acetone forms from the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • Urinary acetoacetate and breath acetone assessments are good predictors of ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD or ADC) is an enzyme (EC 4.1.1.4) involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the rate of synthesis of acetoacetate and other ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, a phenomenon known as ketonemia. (medscape.com)
  • Ketone bodies, including acetoacetate, are constantly produced in insignificant amount by the liver. (medscape.com)
  • Serum acetoacetate constitutes the most widely available and easily measured ketone body in most hospitals. (medscape.com)
  • RESEARCH QUESTION Does the ketone acetoacetate (AcAc) alone, or combined with ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßOHB), impact mouse embryo development , metabolism , histone acetylation and viability? (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, urine acetoacetate - measured by the strips - paradoxically increases during resolution of DKA, and drug interferences can occur with urine ketone measurement, Misra noted. (medscape.com)
  • Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, the predominant ketone bodies, are rich in energy. (medscape.com)
  • Herein, we report an efficient PASE protocol for the synthesis of potentially lipophilic zwitterionic 5-monosubstituted barbiturates by four component reaction of mixture of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, aldehyde and barbituric acid in ethanol at room temperature. (inra.fr)
  • In particular, hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) was shown to provide a metabolic fingerprint of HCC. (inra.fr)
  • Acetoacetate, also termed acetoacetic acid, is a weak β-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate, also termed acetoacetic acid, is a weak β-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes when limited carbohydrate availability stimulates the activation of glucagon and other counter-regulatory hormones in order to promote the oxidation of fatty acids as alternative energy sources. (medscape.com)
  • and acetoacetic acid ( ACETOACETATES ). (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • People that were fasted for one night and had higher levels of acetoacetate also had higher levels of a compound called 3-HHD which forms through the detoxification process of methylglyoxal. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • May an increased synthesis of acetoacetate due to the substrate availability be a part of the explanation? (foundmyfitness.com)
  • The laboratory test uses serum or plasma, the liquid portion of the blood after the cells have been removed, to measure acetoacetate and/or beta-hydroxybutyrate. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • The reduction of acetoacetate in the mitochondria results in beta-hydroxybutyrate production. (medscape.com)
  • Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate transport energy from the liver to other tissues. (medscape.com)
  • 2] Tissues outside the liver transfer coenzyme A from succinylcoenzyme A to acetoacetate, and, via the citric acid cycle, metabolize the active acetoacetate to carbon dioxide and water. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis are by far the most common forms of elevated acetoacetate level and ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • Testing of serum acetoacetate is indicated in the diagnosis of ketoacidosis, mainly in suspected diabetic ketoacidosis and alcohol-induced ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Extreme accumulation of acetoacetate and other ketones can lead to metabolic acidosis defined as ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Reaction of 5-NSA with acetoacetate decarboxylase and subsequent reduction of the resulting Schiff base with sodium borohydride led to the incorporation of a 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylamino reporter molecule in the active site (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • DI-fusion Differential effects of sodium acetoacetate and acetoacetic. (ac.be)
  • hence, acetoacetate levels in blood may be used as an indirect reflection of the severity of acidosis, especially in cases of weakly positive semiquantitative determinations. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is an enzyme with major historical implications, specifically in World War I and in establishing the state of Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 3 ] which represents the main metabolic contribution of acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate reduce mouse embryo viability via differential metabolic and epigenetic mechanisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • In carbohydrate-deficient states, fatty-acid metabolism spurs acetoacetate accumulation. (medscape.com)
  • Since acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate are water soluble, they can circulate from the liver to other tissues, where both compounds are reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce energy through the citric acid cycle. (medscape.com)
  • These are further metabolized to yield acetyl-CoA, acetoacetate, and succinyl-CoA. (medscape.com)
  • The production of acetoacetate when we burn fat protects from a damaging metabolite generated from sugar metabolism. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • However, with recovery, acetoacetate increases and assay results become positive. (medscape.com)
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in which acetoacetate decarboxylase is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dynamic viscocity of allyl acetoacetate was found to be 13.408 mPa s (dynamic) at 27 deg C.The viscocity is equivalent to 9.931 mPa s at 20 deg C. (europa.eu)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is a 365 kDa complex with a homododecameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the rate of synthesis of acetoacetate and other ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, a phenomenon known as ketonemia. (medscape.com)
  • Testing of serum acetoacetate is indicated in the diagnosis of ketoacidosis, mainly in suspected diabetic ketoacidosis and alcohol-induced ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD or ADC) is an enzyme (EC 4.1.1.4) involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is an enzyme with major historical implications, specifically in World War I and in establishing the state of Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in which acetoacetate decarboxylase is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is a 365 kDa complex with a homododecameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction of 5-NSA with acetoacetate decarboxylase and subsequent reduction of the resulting Schiff base with sodium borohydride led to the incorporation of a 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylamino reporter molecule in the active site (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • At 24 days of fasting, despite further elevation of arterial levels of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, the utilization of acetoacetate did not increase further and if anything decreased, while five out of eight subjects released β-hydroxybutyrate across the forearm. (jci.org)
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ethyl acetoacetate is used as a solvent for lacquer and an analytical reagent. (nbinno.com)
  • For example, ethyl acetoacetate and resorcinol are cyclized to obtain 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin, which is an anti-allergic scale intermediate. (nbinno.com)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate is condensed with benzoyl chloride to give ethyl benzoylacetate, which is an intermediate of the central stimulant Campanula hydrochloride. (nbinno.com)
  • Since acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate are water soluble, they can circulate from the liver to other tissues, where both compounds are reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce energy through the citric acid cycle. (medscape.com)
  • However, little is known about the role of acetoacetate in the AD brain. (nih.gov)
  • hence, acetoacetate levels in blood may be used as an indirect reflection of the severity of acidosis, especially in cases of weakly positive semiquantitative determinations. (medscape.com)
  • Isopropyl Acetoacetate (CAS 542-08-5) Market report provides in-depth analysis of the current state of the industry, including its technological trends, competitive landscape, key players, revenue forecasts for global, regional and country levels. (articlepedia.xyz)
  • Elevated Acetoacetate and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Levels in Cord Blood of Infants of Diabetic Mothers. (childrens.com)
  • For the purpose of research, The Report has segmented global Isopropyl Acetoacetate (CAS 542-08-5) market on the basis of types, end-users and region. (articlepedia.xyz)
  • Thus, we intraventricularly injected acetoacetate into familial AD mice (APPSWE) for 14 days and monitored their memory and biochemical changes. (nih.gov)