Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/381)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (2/381)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats. (3/381)

Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid.  (+info)

Metabolic effect of alpha-and the beta-adrenergic stimulation of rat submaxillary gland in vitro. (4/381)

1. Incubation of submaxillary-gland slices with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 41% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 50%. Propranolol blocked these effects of isoproterenol. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 35% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 75%. In addition, phenylephrine also completely overcame the inhibition of pyruvate removal caused by acetoacetate metabolism and decreased tissue [atp] by 45%. Phentolamine blocked the effects of phenylephrine. 3. In contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenergic stimulation required exogenous Ca2+. 4. These results explain the different metabolic responses of the submaxillary gland to adrenaline in the presence and absence of exogenous Ca2+.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (5/381)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (6/381)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erythrocytes in vitro and in type 1 diabetic patients. (7/381)

Recent studies have suggested that elevated cellular lipid peroxidation may play a role in the development of cellular dysfunction and other complications of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes frequently encounter elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone (ACE). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ketosis might increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione (GSH) levels of red blood cells (RBCs) in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates that incubation of AA with normal RBCs in phosphate-buffered saline (37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in marked GSH depletion, oxidized glutathione accumulation, hydroxyl radical generation, and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Increases in oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation and depletion of GSH in RBCs were not observed with BHB or ACE treatments. Similarly, there was a significant generation of superoxide ion radicals even in a cell-free buffer solution of AA, but not in that of BHB. The presence of BHB together with AA did not influence the capacity of AA to generate oxygen radicals in a cell-free solution or the increase in lipid peroxidation of RBCs incubated with AA. The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked increase in lipid peroxidation in AA-treated RBCs. To examine the effects of ketone bodies in vivo, studies were performed that showed a significant decrease in GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in RBCs of hyperketonemic diabetic patients, but not in normoketonemic type 1 diabetic patients, when compared with age-matched normal subjects. This study demonstrates that elevated levels of the ketone body AA can increase lipid peroxidation and lower GSH levels of RBCs in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. (8/381)

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model.  (+info)

Acetoacetic acid is a naturally occurring keto acid that is formed in the liver and kidneys. The main purpose of acetoacetic acid...
Urine Test Strips for Ketone (Acetoacetic Acid), our Ketostix Ketone Strips provide a fast, convenient way of testing urine for the presence and concentration o
(2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride 69320-90-7 NMR spectrum, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The invention relates to a process for the enzymatic, stereoselective reduction of ketone compounds to provide chiral alcohols, for example the compound of formula (Ib).
Purchase a copy of Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10360833. Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Regions covered in the report:. • North America. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.. Get Discount on Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10360833. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed ...
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The term ketone bodies refers to three intermediate products of fat metabolism, namely acetone (2%), acetoacetic acid (20%) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (78%). Under normal conditions, metabolized fats are completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide, […]. ...
Acetoeddikesyre, acetoacetic acid, 3 oxobutanoic acid. Er et ketonstof. Slutprodukt ved katabolismen af aminosyren leucin, samt ved nedbrydningen af fedtsyrer. Koncentrationen i blodplasma ligger mellem 0,8 og 2,0 mg/100 ml, kan dog under en lang
Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the stereoselectivity of various reducing agents in the reduction of a carbonyl group. The first part of this experiment will focus on the stereoselectivity of sodium borohydride, lithium aluminum hydride, and lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (L-selectride) in the reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone.1 The second part of this experiment will focus on the stereoselectivity of saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) in the reduction of ketone in ethyl acetoacetate.2 The stereoselectivity of each reducing agent will be […]. ...
An efficient synthesis of polyhydroquinoline derivatives is achieved via Hantzsch condensation reaction between aldehydes, dimedone, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in the presence of catalytic amount of SFHS in ethanol. This method gives remarkable advantages such as shorter reaction time, simple workup procedure and good to excellent yields. Furthermore the catalyst can be recovered conveniently and reused efficiently. To analyze potential anticancer activity, synthesized derivatives were docked to tyrosine protein kinase (1YJ) against 4ST and PTR binding sites.
The enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Hepatic steatosis is often seen in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). It is still unclear whether these patients have an impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation. In this study we assessed mitochondrial β-oxidation in CH-C patients by investigating ketogenesis during fasting. This study consisted of thirty patients with CH-C. Serum levels of insulin and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The subjects were then fasted, and venous blood samples were drawn 12 h and 15 h after the start of fasting. The levels of blood ketone bodies were measured by an enzymatic cycling method. The rate of change in total ketone body concentration was compared with that in eight healthy volunteers. The rate of change in total ketone body concentration between 12 h and 15 h after the start of fasting was significantly lower in CH-C patients than in healthy volunteers (129.9% (8.5-577.3%) vs. 321.6% (139.6-405.4%); P |0.01). The rate of change in total ketone body
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Zakaria, Elmi Shahizam (2010) Preparation of ketones and their derivatives via acetoacetic ester synthesis. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Science. Full text not available from this repository. ...
Absorption Oral absorption The substance is assumed to be hydrolytically unstable and will therefore be subject to rapid hydrolysis in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Systemic exposure to the intact substance is therefore unlikely; however systemic exposure to the hydrolysis products may occur. Based on the structure of the molecule, the hydrolysis products are predicted to be acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol and hydrated titanium oxides. Titanium oxides are of very low water solubility and are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (1). The other hydrolysis products (acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol) are low molecular weight and water-soluble, and are therefore likely to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to a significant extent. The OECD 422 screening study reports some findings (reduced weight gain, decreased serum T4 concentration) at the highest dose level of 750 mg/kg bw/d that are consistent with systemic exposure (and therefore ...
Water soluble or water-dispersible cellulose acetoacetate esters are prepared by contacting a cellulose material with diketene, an alkyl acetoacetate, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one or a mixture thereof and a carboxylic anhydride in a solvent system comprising lithium chloride plus a carboxamide. Compositions containing the cellulose acetoacetate esters are useful for coatings applications.
Ketone Test Strips are an easy and convenient way to test urine and quickly identify the presence and concentration of acetoacetic acid. KETONE TEST STRIPS can be used by both low-carb and ketogenic dieters to determine if the body is engaged in nutritional ketosis.KETONE TEST STRIPS are suitable for low-carb or ketogenic dieters. For in-vitro diagnostic use only. 100 TEST STRIPS- For in vitro use only- 15-second test time- Acetoacetic Acid- Reagent Strips- For urinalysis
BHYD : Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is 1 of 3 sources of ketone bodies. Its relative proportion in the blood (78%) is greater than the other 2 ketone bodies, acetoacetate (20%) and acetone (2%). During carbohydrate deprivation (starvation, digestive disturbances, frequent vomiting), decreased carbohydrate utilization (diabetes mellitus), glycogen storage diseases, and alkalosis, acetoacetate production increases. The increase may exceed the metabolic capacity of the peripheral tissues. As acetoacetate accumulates in the blood, a small amount is converted to acetone by spontaneous decarboxylation. The remaining and greater portion of acetoacetate is converted to BHB.
The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic compounds such as coumarine and pyrazole.This research report analyzes this market on the basis of its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends.
Name: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate CA Name: Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester Molecular Structure: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Molecular Formula:C6H10O3 Molecular Weight: 130.14 CAS Registry Number: 141-97-9
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
United States Patent 3,212,855 DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE Ray Mast, John Rebar, Jr., and Joseph Fraser, Elkhart, Ind., assignors to Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, Ind., a corporation of Indiana N0 Drawing. Filed Aug. 6, 1962, Ser. No. 214,867 7 Claims. (Cl. 23253) This invention relates to an improved diagnostic composition and to a method for its preparation. In particular, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test useful in qualitative detection and quantitative determination of ketone bodies in body fluids, especially acetoacetic acid (beta-ketobutyric acid) in urine. More particularly, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test reagent composition which is incorporated upon a bibulous carrier. The fats utilized by the body normally undergo complete oxidation with formation of carbon dioxide and water. Since the fatty acid molecules have long chains of carbon atoms, it is theorized that a large number of intermediate products are formed during the oxidation and under normal ...
There is evidence suggesting that blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is more effective than urine acetoacetate testing in reducing emergency department assessment, hospitalization and time to recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as potentially lowering healthcare expenditure. Further research i …
Resistance to cytotoxicity Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and NK cells use up their targets before agreeable the receptor Fas (CD95) with the ligand FasL and next to the remission of lymphotoxin.The plausibility that these molecules may con- tribute to aberrant neuronal excitability underlying capture recurrence is a creative concept supported by .. RU RU (Until October 1996 this was a valid ACETOACETIC ACID ESTERS descriptor.) acids (inorganic) RU RU RU ACETOLYSIS ACID ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS acids (organic) RU RU ACETONE RU RU aco (anneau de collisions dorsay) ETDE: 2005-01-28 ACETONITRILE acid halides (Prior to January 2005 ACO was a valid 1981-07-06 2000-04-12 .. SF Flotation Cell; FL Spiral Classifier .Function of ball mill in the latex compounding - SlideShare .Related News jual planetary ball mill minig equipment ball mill maintanance ball mill pdf high chromium cast grinding ball coal pulverizer ball mill design and construction of ball mill Stone Dimension Conical ball mill typical flow sheet ...
See also Malonic ester synthesis.. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and the spontaneous breakdown product of acetoacetate, acetone) that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia ...
This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a macrocyclic ligand (L) and its new-fangled complex compounds of the general formula [M-L Cl|sub|2|/sub|] for M= Ru(III), and [M-L] for Pt(II) and Pd(II) where L is a macrocyclic ligand resulted from the condensation reaction of ethylene diamine and ethyl acetoacetate. The ligand and its coordination compounds are formulated according to the chemical analysis, electronic, infrared, |sup|1|/sup|HNMR and mass spectra, as well as magnetic susceptibility values.
Silica-ZnCl2 continues to be found to become a competent and eco-friendly catalyst for the formation of substituted 4-methylcoumarins from ethyl acetoacetate and substituted phenols under Rabbit Polyclonal to TNAP2. nice conditions within an essential oil bath in 80°C. of many chemical substance libraries. A lot of solid-supported reagents like SiO2-SO3H [2] PPA-SiO2 [3] and HClO4-SiO2 Read More. ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase (TIGR00222; EC 2.1.2.11; HMM-score: 297.7) ...
During starvation for 72 h, tumour-bearing rats showed accelerated ketonaemia and marked ketonuria. Total blood [ketone bodies] were 8.53 mM and 3.34 mM in tumour-bearing and control (non-tumour-bearing) rats respectively (P less than 0.001). The [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio was 1.3 in the tumour-bearing rats, compared with 3.2 in the controls at 72 h (P less than 0.001). Blood [glucose] and hepatic [glycogen] were lower at the start of starvation in tumour-bearing rats, whereas plasma [non-esterified fatty acids] were not increased above those in the control rats during starvation. After functional hepatectomy, blood [acetoacetate], but not [3-hydroxybutyrate], decreased rapidly in tumour-bearing rats, whereas both ketone bodies decreased, and at a slower rate, in the control rats. Blood [glucose] decreased more rapidly in the hepatectomized control rats. Hepatocytes prepared from 72 h-starved tumour-bearing and control rats showed similar rates of ketogenesis from palmitate, and ...
NAD is used in the conversion of βHB to acetoacetate (AcAc + NADH ⇌ βHB + NAD). Due to the depletion of NAD, βHB is the predominant ketone product formed. Normally, the ratio of acetoacetate to βHB is 1:1; however, in alcoholic ketoacidosis, the ratio can be 1:7 or higher.5 Once the NADH:NAD returns to normal, lactate levels decrease and acetoacetate increases.1 The ratio of βHB to acetoacetate is also much higher in alcoholic ketoacidosis than in diabetic ketoacidosis.1 The high NADH:NAD ratio also results in increased lactate production, so lactate levels are higher than normal in alcoholic ketoacidosis but not as high as in shock or sepsis. Acetoacetate is metabolized to acetone so that acetone and its metabolites are elevated and may cause an osmolal gap. ...
Feodor Lynen (1911-1979) was awarded half the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.While studying the intermediary metabolism in cells -- in which energy is extracted from cellular nutrients and used to build cellular components -- and the mechanisms of metabolic regulation, he found that acetylation of coenzyme A is the first step in a chain of reactions leading to the formation of cholesterol and fatty acids. Lynen also studied the Pasteur effect (the inhibiting effect of oxygen on yeast fermentation); acetic acid degradation in yeast; the chemical structure of acetic acid in activated isoprene, activated carboxylic acid, and cytohaemin; the degradation of fatty acids and formation of acetoacetic acid; the degradation of tartaric acid; and the biosynthesis of cysteine, terpenes, rubber, and fatty acids ...
Ketogenesis, the production of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate from oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, occurs only in the liver. When glucose production is insufficient, the body shifts to a lipid-based economy. However, the brain cannot oxidize fatty acids for energy, so the production of ketones is protective (1, 2). It is quite remarkable how many distinguished scientists began to study ketogenesis decades ago, among them the Nobel laureates Professors H.A. Krebs and Feodor Lynen. Early on, a widespread belief was that a deficiency of oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle shunted acetyl-CoA derived from fatty acid oxidation into acetoacetate, as described in an excellent lecture on this history published by Professor Krebs in 1966 (3). Indeed, acetoacetate is the preferred metabolic substrate in mammalian cells, chosen above glucose, fatty acids, and other substrates (1, 2). However, oxidation of acetoacetate requires the enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase, which is ...
Acetone also arises in small amounts as a biologically inert side product. Ketone body production is regulated primarily by availability of acetyl CoA. If mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is high, hepatic beta-oxidation will occur at a high rate, and so will synthesis of ketone bodies from the resulting acetyl CoA. The rate of ketone body production increases in starvation. ...
This invention is to a fuel oil composition containing polyolefinic succinimide polyamine alkyl acetoacetate adducts of the general following: ##STR1## wherein the variables are defined herein. The adduct additives are especially useful in concentrates and fuel oil compositions as dispersants. The formulations have excellent cold flow properties compared to similar formulations not containing the inventive adduct.
The test strip contains a reagent with an enzyme that measures the level of D-3-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood. This method is based upon the oxidation of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate by the enzyme D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The reaction generates hydrogen ions which are converted to an electrical current and measured by the meter.. ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Acree, Solomon Farley - On Sodium Phenyl and the Action of Sodium on Ketones (1903). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781169464971
The quantitative significance of the conversion in vivo of L-[U-14C]leucine to ketone bodies was determined in rats starved for 3 or 48 h. In animals starved for 3 h, 4.4% of ketone-body carbon is derived from the metabolism of leucine, and in rats starved for 48 h the corresponding value is 2.3%. This conversion occurs rapidly, and the specific radioactivity of ketone bodies in blood is maximal at 2 min after the intravenous injection of labelled leucine for both periods of starvation. The flux of leucine in the blood is 1.01 and 1.04 mumol/min per 100 g body wt. respectively for animals starved for 3 and 48 h. The specific radioactivity of blood ketone bodies was compared at 2 min after the injection of labelled leucine, lysine and phenylalanine. The specific radioactivity was 4-5 fold higher with leucine than with lysine or phenylalanine. ...
MolCore offers CAS No.2266-48-0, Ethyl 2,2-difluoro-3-oxobutanoate for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD00190633,2266-48-0 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
Ketone bodies are any of three compounds produced when the liver metabolizes fatty acids. In healthy people, ketone bodies work...
Testing for Ketones. There are 3 types of ketone bodies. Acetone, Acetoacetate and Beta-Hydroxybutryate (BHB, though technically not really a ketone body)
In this article you will be learn about What Are Ketones, How does it works, Benefits, Side effects. Here you will also learn about Levels of Ketone Bodies.
What is the Rotheras test for ketone bodies in urine used for? What does it mean if theres a presence of ketones, protein, albumin or bilirubin in urine?
BDH2 antibody [2G1] (3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-BDH2 mAb (GTX84831) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Sectional detail of Water Body on earth, showing necessity of floor like thickness of Water proofing, PCC, RCC, Slope,Gunniting etc., can be planned for indoor and outdoor purposes.
Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for fuel. Normally these ketones will be completely broken down (metabolised) so that there are very few ketones in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, causing an increase in ketones in the body. This
Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase. Nature. 459: 393-397. PMID 19458715 ...
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Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Methyl acetoacetate Lonza quality, ,=99% (GC); CAS No.: 105-45-3; Synonyms: 3-Oxobutanoic acid methyl ester; Acetoacetic acid ...
... although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate ... The normal reference range for quantitative acetoacetate assays (Gas chromatography) are as follows: Normal range (plasma/serum ... encoded search term (Acetoacetate) and Acetoacetate What to Read Next on Medscape ... There are three ketone bodies produced by the body: acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, also termed ...
... although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate ... The normal reference range for quantitative acetoacetate assays (Gas chromatography) are as follows: Normal range (plasma/serum ... encoded search term (Acetoacetate) and Acetoacetate What to Read Next on Medscape ... There are three ketone bodies produced by the body: acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, also termed ...
Home » Germany » Products » Coatings » Intermediates » Acetoacetates Please browse through our product range by industry and ...
... ImageFile = Ethyl acetoacetate.png ImageName = Ethyl acetoacetate ImageFile1 = Ethyl acetoacetate 3d.png ... Ethyl acetoacetate. Chembox new. Name = Ethyl acetoacetate. ImageFile = Ethyl_acetoacetate.png. ImageName = Ethyl acetoacetate ... ethyl acetoacetate - etilacetilacetatas statusas T sritis chemija formulė CH₃COCH₂COOC₂H₅ atitikmenys: angl. ethyl acetoacetate ... ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) is the ethyl. ester. of acetoacetic acid. . It is a solvent. , and is used as a chemical intermediate ...
Ethyl 2-acetoacetate. Ethyl 3-ketobutyrate. Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate(IUPAC). Ethyl acetoacetate. Ethyl acetylacetate. acetoacetic ...
Ketoacidosis - Beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate * CKD - High-AG chronic metabolic acidosis is seen in later stages of CKD, as ...
2] Acetoacetate is produced by acetyl-CoA metabolism, β-hydroxybutyrate is the result of acetoacetate reduction, and acetone is ... The ratio of acetoacetate to 3-β-hydroxybutyrate depends on the redox status in the liver mitochondria (ie, the NAD+/NADH ratio ... 8] Concern has been expressed about the effects of serum acetoacetate on serum β-hydroxybutyrate determination [13] ; however, ... Urinary acetoacetate or capillary beta-hydroxybutyrate for the diagnosis of ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department setting. ...
Succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate transferase deficiency. Additional Information & Resources. Genetic Testing Information. *Genetic ...
ETHYL ACETO ACETATE. Fruity. ETHYL ACRYLATE 1% in EP. Ethereal rum. ETHYL ACRYLATE 1% PG. Ethereal rum. ...
Acetoacetate, μmol/L. 1,936. 3-hydroxybutyric acid, μmol/L. 2,813. Fasting CPR, ng/mL. 0.13. ...
A clean arylation protocol of ethyl acetoacetate was developed using hypervalent diaryliodonium salts under mild and metal-free ... Metal-Free Arylation of Ethyl Acetoacetate with Hypervalent Diaryliodonium Salts: An Immediate Access to Diverse 3-Aryl-4(1H)- ... A clean arylation protocol of ethyl acetoacetate was developed using hypervalent diaryliodonium salts under mild and metal-free ... Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Namelikonda, Niranjan K.; and Manetsch, Roman, "Metal-Free Arylation of Ethyl Acetoacetate with ...
... acetoacetate;Isopropyl-Changzhou Longo Chemical Co., Ltd. ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Thermodynamic Study on Density and Viscosity of Binary Mixtures of Ethyl acetoacetate with (C4-C9) Aliphatic Ketones at (303.15 ...
Thus it is concluded that allyl acetoacetate is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain because it does not exceed the ... The estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) for allyl acetoacetate is 3.2 which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold ...
STREPTOMYCES BINGCHENGGENSIS ACETOACETATE DECARBOXYLASE IN NON- COVALENT COMPLEX WITH POTASSIUM FORMATE - 4ZBO , canSARS ...
In this study, the effects of an acetoacetate (EtOAc) extract of P. bulbocodioides on the cell viability and apoptosis of THP-1 ... Acetoacetate extract of Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) rolfe induces apoptosis of human leukemia thp-1cells through a ... Acetoacetate extract of Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) rolfe induces apoptosis of human leukemia thp-1cells through a ... cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 increased with increasing concentration of acetoacetate extract of P. bulbocodioides, while ...
Leucine degradation, leucine =, acetoacetate + acetyl-CoA. Orthology. K00826 branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase [EC:2.6 ...
Acetoacetate. 31. β-Hydroxybutyrate. 65. MCT5. Unknown. MCT6. Human. Xenopus oocytes. Bumetanide. 0.084. Furosemide. 46b. ...
Ketoacidosis - Beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate * CKD - High-AG chronic metabolic acidosis is seen in later stages of CKD, as ...
Figure 1. Ketone bodies: acetoacetate (AcAc) is the principle ketone body. It is produced and utilized during intermediary ... Figure 1. Ketone bodies: acetoacetate (AcAc) is the principle ketone body. It is produced and utilized during intermediary ... Even though the main ketone body produced in the liver is acetoacetate, the primary circulating ketone is β-hydroxybutyrate ... Acetone is produced by the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate and is important from the clinical point of view because ...
... acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone. Some ketone bodies are consumed for energy, some just hang out in your ...
... acetoacetate, tattarrattat, teetertotter, teeter-totter, tetraacetate, titter-totter, acetoacetic, attoreactor, critocratic, ... acetoacetate Any salt or ester of acetoacetic acid. → Definition and anagrams of acetoacetate. → Other senses and detailed ...
ethyl acetoacetate. FL/FR. endo-. ethyl bicyclo(2.2.1)-5-heptene-2-carboxylate. FR. ...
provide our product catalog : China Dimethyl malonate, Diethyl malonate, China Ethyl acetoacetate, Ethyl acetate, China Acetic ... ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, etc.), Alcohols (including organic alcohols, polyols and alkoxides, ...
  • First off, there are three different types of ketones: acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. (menshealth.com)
  • Ketosis is associated with an increased concentration of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, acetone and beta-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) in the biofluid (milk, plasma, serum and urine) [ 7 ]. (ejast.org)
  • The two primary circulating ketones are Beta Hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetoacetate. (hdiac.org)
  • Ketosis is the elevation of the ketone bodies: D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, (R-3hydroxybutyrate) and acetoacetate. (ketogenicinfo.com)
  • acetone -acetoacetate -beta-hydroxybutyrate. (ketogenicinfo.com)
  • During ketosis, Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels may increase more than levels of acetone and acetoacetate, clearly indicating the patient's trend in metabolic status. (ekfusa.com)
  • Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies, namely acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. (statpearls.com)
  • These include beta hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone. (ganjagarden.org)
  • Ketones acetoacetate and Beta-Hydroxybutyrate are two of the most well-known in ketosis. (getinkspired.com)
  • Ketosis produces three types of ketones that are byproducts of fat: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. (todaysrdh.com)
  • Acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate are the three forms that commonly encountered ketone compounds can take. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are two examples of compounds that can give off a fruity and pleasant odor when present in the breath. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • Semiquantitative methods, although nonspecific for acetoacetate, are frequently used to determine the presence of ketone bodies (acetone and acetoacetate) in urine and blood and are discussed in Ketones . (medscape.com)
  • Extreme accumulation of acetoacetate and other ketones can lead to metabolic acidosis defined as ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • There are three types of ketones that our body produces when it enters ketosis - BHB, acetoacetate, and acetone. (runnerstribe.com)
  • Urine tests for ketones detect acetoacetate but not other ketone bodies. (picmonic.com)
  • Ketones (Acetone and Acetoacetate) can be tested or monitored in either urine or blood. (ekfusa.com)
  • This nitroprusside urine and serum method produces a qualitative assessment of ketosis by detecting the ketones acetoacetate and acetone - it does not detect BHB. (ekfusa.com)
  • These ketones, specifically β -hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetoacetate, and acetone, flow from the liver to the bloodstream and are taken up by organs around the body. (drcolbert.com)
  • Along with the ketones acetone and acetoacetate, BHB serves as a source of cellular energy. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • This class of ketone bodies refers to the three water-soluble ketones (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate [β-HB], and acetone). (empireshealh.com)
  • During ketosis, BHB levels increase more than levels of acetone and acetoacetate, clearly indicating the patients trend in metabolic status. (ekfusa.com)
  • During ketosis, B-HB levels increase more than levels of acetone and acetoacetate, clearly indicating the patient's trend in metabolic status. (ekfdiagnostics.com)
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis are by far the most common forms of elevated acetoacetate level and ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • This nitroprusside urine method produces a qualitative assessment of ketosis and ketoacidosis by detecting both acetoacetate and acetone. (ekfdiagnostics.com)
  • The former were readily prepared in four steps from methyl acetoacetate. (ubc.ca)
  • Thus, the alkylation of the dianion of methyl acetoacetate with (E)-5-bromo-1,3-pentadiene, (E)-5-bromo-2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene, (2E,4E)- and (2E,4Z)-1-bromo-2-methyl-2,4-hexadiene led to a series of β-keto esters. (ubc.ca)
  • Keto beginners should start with a urine-testing strip, the most common and affordable option that identifies acetoacetate in pee. (menshealth.com)
  • Urine test sticks measure acetoacetate and not 3-hydroxybutyrate (β-hydroxybutyrate) although 3-hydroxybutyrate is the predominant ketone. (citizendium.org)
  • It is not detected by urine ketone tests (while acetoacetate is). (picmonic.com)
  • They also have pee (urine) strips that measure acetoacetate levels filtered out of your kidneys. (ketogenicinfo.com)
  • Note that the urine dip stick method for acetoacetate does not detect β-hydroxybutyric acid. (ekfusa.com)
  • His diagnosis of hereditary tyrosinemia was established on findings of raised serum and urine succinylacetone and a deficient activity of fumaryl acetoacetate hydroxylase enzyme. (who.int)
  • The ketone may finish in the urine with acetoacetate. (bariatricstation.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding acetone and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and carbon dioxide (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] Acetoacetate is produced by acetyl-CoA metabolism, β-hydroxybutyrate is the result of acetoacetate reduction, and acetone is produced by the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • Acetone is formed from acetoacetate by spontaneous decarboxylation and is generally considered of little metabolic significance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetone can also be produced via non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate. (picmonic.com)
  • Acetone is produced via the spontaneous non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate and is excreted in the breath. (picmonic.com)
  • Acetoacetate, also termed acetoacetic acid, is a weak β-keto acid produced from acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The organic compound ethyl acetoacetate ( EAA ) is the ethyl ester of acetoacetic acid . (en-academic.com)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the Malonic ester synthesis or the Knoevenagel condensation . (en-academic.com)
  • ethyl acetoacetate - ▪ chemical compound also called acetoacetic ester an ester widely used as an intermediate in the synthesis of many varieties of organic chemical compounds. (en-academic.com)
  • Testing of serum acetoacetate is indicated in the diagnosis of ketoacidosis, mainly in suspected diabetic ketoacidosis and alcohol-induced ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Peripheral tissues can utilize these ketone bodies via ketogenolysis: first, acetoacetate and succinyl-CoA are combined via the enzyme thiophorase into acetoacetyl-CoA. (picmonic.com)
  • In peripheral tissues, it begins when succinyl-CoA and acetoacetate are combined via the enzyme thiophorase. (picmonic.com)
  • Acetoacetyl-CoA is formed from succinyl-CoA and Acetoacetate in all tissues except the liver. (picmonic.com)
  • Reaction of 5-NSA with acetoacetate decarboxylase and subsequent reduction of the resulting Schiff base with sodium borohydride led to the incorporation of a 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylamino reporter molecule in the active site (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper aims at the introduction of azomethine group by the condensation reaction of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane with different compounds containing carbonyl group such as 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, salicylaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate. (ias.ac.in)
  • Solution For Ethyl acetoacetate when reacts with one mole methyl magnesium iodide then product of reaction will be : Are you ready to take control of your learning? (masminaturalcotton.eu)
  • The tetrahydrodipyrazolopyridine derivatives were synthesized in water through a catalyst-free pseudo-six-component reaction of hydrazine hydrate, ethyl acetoacetate, ammonium acetate and aldehyde at room temperature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A common protocol for the synthesis of THDPP is the reaction of aldehydes, hydrazine hydrate, ethyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate in a multi-component manner with the presence of a catalyst. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 3 ] which represents the main metabolic contribution of acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate may be prepared via the Claisen condensation of ethyl acetate . (en-academic.com)
  • Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. (en-academic.com)
  • Preliminary results show that short chain compounds (ethyl alcohol, acetate, acetone, acetoacetate) may be rapidly utilized in the synthesis of fat. (caltech.edu)
  • You can also make apple scent fructone from ethyl acetoacetate with ethylene glycol. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Lactate/pyruvate and 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios were also increased. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The latter is important to understand, as deamination (the process by which the amino group is removed) creates two products: Ammonia and a carbon skeleton (Acetyl CoA/acetoacetate or pyruvate). (completehumanperformance.com)
  • There are three ketone bodies produced by the body: acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate. (medscape.com)
  • Acetoacetate is one of the three ketone bodies produced via ketogenesis, and can leave hepatocytes. (picmonic.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD or ADC) is an enzyme (EC 4.1.1.4) involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in which acetoacetate decarboxylase is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of acetone by acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing or clostridial bacteria was utilized in large-scale industrial syntheses in the first half of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there has been a growing interest in acetone production that is more environmentally friendly, causing a resurgence in utilizing acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) for allyl acetoacetate is 3.2 which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 1000. (europa.eu)
  • Thus it is concluded that allyl acetoacetate is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain because it does not exceed the BCF criteria of being bioacummulative in nature. (europa.eu)
  • 2-(3-nitrobenzylidene)acetoacetate;Isopropyl_Changzhou Longo Chemical Co., Ltd. (longochem.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is an enzyme with major historical implications, specifically in World War I and in establishing the state of Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is a 365 kDa complex with a homododecameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate are water soluble, they can circulate from the liver to other tissues, where both compounds are reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce energy through the citric acid cycle. (medscape.com)
  • Our main products are all kinds of fine chemical intermediates: Alkyl carbonates (including dimethyl carbonate, dimethyl malonate, diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, etc. (chemnet.com)
  • The synthetic protocols developed for them are based on the electrophylic properties of alkylidene acetoacetates, malonates, acetoacetamide esters and malonamides. (unibo.it)
  • En biochimie , une ligase est une enzyme qui catalyse la jonction de deux molécules (en anglais ligation ) par de nouvelles liaisons covalentes avec hydrolyse concomitante de l' ATP ou d'autres molécules similaires. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there is decreased availability of glucose or impaired glucose metabolism, such as in diabetes mellitus, the acetyl-CoA is diverted to produce more acetoacetate, from which acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate are formed. (medscape.com)
  • The term ketone body describes any of 3 molecules: acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, or acetone. (medscape.com)
  • The classic ketogenic diet is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate dietetic approach raising levels of serum ketone bodies, i.e. acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (from less than 0.1 mM to 0.2-1.8 mM and 2-5 mM, respectively) and acetone, and lowering brain glucose uptake [ 6 - 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate are almost exclusively synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA that results from the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These acids, which contain acetone, hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, can accumulate in the blood and guide to a diabetic coma and demise. (sluiz-ibiza.com)
  • A ketogenic diet, a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that elevates circulating levels of ketone bodies ( i.e. , acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone), serves as an alternative energy source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the body begins to break down its stored fats in response to a low supply of energy (glucose) it produces the ketone B -Hydroxybutyrate, which is further catabolised into acetoacetate and then into acetone. (ekfdiagnostics.com)
  • Firstly define the name of ketone bodies such as acetone, acetoacetate, and B- hydroxybutyrate in healthy subjects. (ketoproclub.net)
  • BHB is synthesized from your liver from acetoacetate. (bonoszinkia.com)
  • Ketogenic diets , defined as a carbohydrate intake low enough (typically 5 to 10 percent of caloric intake) to induce ketone (BHB, acetone, acetoacetate) production by the liver. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Both BHB and acetoacetate are directly responsible for moving energy from the liver into other tissues in the body. (ketonenergy.com)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate is an ester of a β- keto carbonic acid and therefore has a strong Keto-enol tautomerism . (en-academic.com)
  • Acetoacetate - Through the breakdown of long- and medium-chain fatty acids for energy, acetoacetate is produced first. (bonoszinkia.com)
  • They directly form ethyl acetoacetate, and the yield is good, so this method is widely used in industry, but acetyl ketene is very dangerous. (en-academic.com)
  • Catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) to yield acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate. (string-db.org)
  • Osmotonicity of acetoacetate: possible implications for cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. (medscicaserep.com)
  • The brain loves BHB and uses it for fuel after it converts this into acetoacetate then finally into acetone. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • HMG-CoA lyase converts HMG-CoA into acetoacetate. (picmonic.com)
  • Polypropylene glycol) oligomers with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to 8000 g·mol -1 were endfunctionalized with acetoacetate groups and subsequently crosslinked using carbon-Michael addition with PEG diacrylate. (elsevier.com)
  • This process produces the ketone BHB, which is further catabolised into acetoacetate and then into acetone. (ekfdiagnostics.com)
  • When the rate of synthesis of acetoacetate and other ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, a phenomenon known as ketonemia. (medscape.com)
  • Ethyl Acetoacetate can be used as a ligand for the formation of an organic metal. (powerpatent.com)
  • In addition, BAIBA supplementation also led to statistically significant increases of acetoacetate, another ketone body. (nutritionfaktory.com)