Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
A coronary vasodilator agent.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.
A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/381)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (2/381)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats. (3/381)

Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid.  (+info)

Metabolic effect of alpha-and the beta-adrenergic stimulation of rat submaxillary gland in vitro. (4/381)

1. Incubation of submaxillary-gland slices with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 41% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 50%. Propranolol blocked these effects of isoproterenol. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 35% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 75%. In addition, phenylephrine also completely overcame the inhibition of pyruvate removal caused by acetoacetate metabolism and decreased tissue [atp] by 45%. Phentolamine blocked the effects of phenylephrine. 3. In contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenergic stimulation required exogenous Ca2+. 4. These results explain the different metabolic responses of the submaxillary gland to adrenaline in the presence and absence of exogenous Ca2+.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (5/381)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (6/381)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erythrocytes in vitro and in type 1 diabetic patients. (7/381)

Recent studies have suggested that elevated cellular lipid peroxidation may play a role in the development of cellular dysfunction and other complications of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes frequently encounter elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone (ACE). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ketosis might increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione (GSH) levels of red blood cells (RBCs) in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates that incubation of AA with normal RBCs in phosphate-buffered saline (37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in marked GSH depletion, oxidized glutathione accumulation, hydroxyl radical generation, and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Increases in oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation and depletion of GSH in RBCs were not observed with BHB or ACE treatments. Similarly, there was a significant generation of superoxide ion radicals even in a cell-free buffer solution of AA, but not in that of BHB. The presence of BHB together with AA did not influence the capacity of AA to generate oxygen radicals in a cell-free solution or the increase in lipid peroxidation of RBCs incubated with AA. The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked increase in lipid peroxidation in AA-treated RBCs. To examine the effects of ketone bodies in vivo, studies were performed that showed a significant decrease in GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in RBCs of hyperketonemic diabetic patients, but not in normoketonemic type 1 diabetic patients, when compared with age-matched normal subjects. This study demonstrates that elevated levels of the ketone body AA can increase lipid peroxidation and lower GSH levels of RBCs in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. (8/381)

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model.  (+info)

Acetoacetic acid is a naturally occurring keto acid that is formed in the liver and kidneys. The main purpose of acetoacetic acid...
Urine Test Strips for Ketone (Acetoacetic Acid), our Ketostix Ketone Strips provide a fast, convenient way of testing urine for the presence and concentration o
(2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride 69320-90-7 NMR spectrum, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The invention relates to a process for the enzymatic, stereoselective reduction of ketone compounds to provide chiral alcohols, for example the compound of formula (Ib).
Purchase a copy of Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10360833. Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Regions covered in the report:. • North America. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.. Get Discount on Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10360833. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed ...
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The term ketone bodies refers to three intermediate products of fat metabolism, namely acetone (2%), acetoacetic acid (20%) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (78%). Under normal conditions, metabolized fats are completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide, […]. ...
Acetoeddikesyre, acetoacetic acid, 3 oxobutanoic acid. Er et ketonstof. Slutprodukt ved katabolismen af aminosyren leucin, samt ved nedbrydningen af fedtsyrer. Koncentrationen i blodplasma ligger mellem 0,8 og 2,0 mg/100 ml, kan dog under en lang
Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the stereoselectivity of various reducing agents in the reduction of a carbonyl group. The first part of this experiment will focus on the stereoselectivity of sodium borohydride, lithium aluminum hydride, and lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (L-selectride) in the reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone.1 The second part of this experiment will focus on the stereoselectivity of saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) in the reduction of ketone in ethyl acetoacetate.2 The stereoselectivity of each reducing agent will be […]. ...
An efficient synthesis of polyhydroquinoline derivatives is achieved via Hantzsch condensation reaction between aldehydes, dimedone, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in the presence of catalytic amount of SFHS in ethanol. This method gives remarkable advantages such as shorter reaction time, simple workup procedure and good to excellent yields. Furthermore the catalyst can be recovered conveniently and reused efficiently. To analyze potential anticancer activity, synthesized derivatives were docked to tyrosine protein kinase (1YJ) against 4ST and PTR binding sites.
The enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Hepatic steatosis is often seen in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). It is still unclear whether these patients have an impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation. In this study we assessed mitochondrial β-oxidation in CH-C patients by investigating ketogenesis during fasting. This study consisted of thirty patients with CH-C. Serum levels of insulin and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The subjects were then fasted, and venous blood samples were drawn 12 h and 15 h after the start of fasting. The levels of blood ketone bodies were measured by an enzymatic cycling method. The rate of change in total ketone body concentration was compared with that in eight healthy volunteers. The rate of change in total ketone body concentration between 12 h and 15 h after the start of fasting was significantly lower in CH-C patients than in healthy volunteers (129.9% (8.5-577.3%) vs. 321.6% (139.6-405.4%); P |0.01). The rate of change in total ketone body
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Zakaria, Elmi Shahizam (2010) Preparation of ketones and their derivatives via acetoacetic ester synthesis. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Science. Full text not available from this repository. ...
Absorption Oral absorption The substance is assumed to be hydrolytically unstable and will therefore be subject to rapid hydrolysis in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Systemic exposure to the intact substance is therefore unlikely; however systemic exposure to the hydrolysis products may occur. Based on the structure of the molecule, the hydrolysis products are predicted to be acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol and hydrated titanium oxides. Titanium oxides are of very low water solubility and are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (1). The other hydrolysis products (acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol) are low molecular weight and water-soluble, and are therefore likely to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to a significant extent. The OECD 422 screening study reports some findings (reduced weight gain, decreased serum T4 concentration) at the highest dose level of 750 mg/kg bw/d that are consistent with systemic exposure (and therefore ...
Water soluble or water-dispersible cellulose acetoacetate esters are prepared by contacting a cellulose material with diketene, an alkyl acetoacetate, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one or a mixture thereof and a carboxylic anhydride in a solvent system comprising lithium chloride plus a carboxamide. Compositions containing the cellulose acetoacetate esters are useful for coatings applications.
Ketone Test Strips are an easy and convenient way to test urine and quickly identify the presence and concentration of acetoacetic acid. KETONE TEST STRIPS can be used by both low-carb and ketogenic dieters to determine if the body is engaged in nutritional ketosis.KETONE TEST STRIPS are suitable for low-carb or ketogenic dieters. For in-vitro diagnostic use only. 100 TEST STRIPS- For in vitro use only- 15-second test time- Acetoacetic Acid- Reagent Strips- For urinalysis
BHYD : Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is 1 of 3 sources of ketone bodies. Its relative proportion in the blood (78%) is greater than the other 2 ketone bodies, acetoacetate (20%) and acetone (2%). During carbohydrate deprivation (starvation, digestive disturbances, frequent vomiting), decreased carbohydrate utilization (diabetes mellitus), glycogen storage diseases, and alkalosis, acetoacetate production increases. The increase may exceed the metabolic capacity of the peripheral tissues. As acetoacetate accumulates in the blood, a small amount is converted to acetone by spontaneous decarboxylation. The remaining and greater portion of acetoacetate is converted to BHB.
The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic compounds such as coumarine and pyrazole.This research report analyzes this market on the basis of its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends.
Name: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate CA Name: Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester Molecular Structure: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Molecular Formula:C6H10O3 Molecular Weight: 130.14 CAS Registry Number: 141-97-9
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
United States Patent 3,212,855 DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE Ray Mast, John Rebar, Jr., and Joseph Fraser, Elkhart, Ind., assignors to Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, Ind., a corporation of Indiana N0 Drawing. Filed Aug. 6, 1962, Ser. No. 214,867 7 Claims. (Cl. 23253) This invention relates to an improved diagnostic composition and to a method for its preparation. In particular, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test useful in qualitative detection and quantitative determination of ketone bodies in body fluids, especially acetoacetic acid (beta-ketobutyric acid) in urine. More particularly, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test reagent composition which is incorporated upon a bibulous carrier. The fats utilized by the body normally undergo complete oxidation with formation of carbon dioxide and water. Since the fatty acid molecules have long chains of carbon atoms, it is theorized that a large number of intermediate products are formed during the oxidation and under normal ...
There is evidence suggesting that blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is more effective than urine acetoacetate testing in reducing emergency department assessment, hospitalization and time to recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as potentially lowering healthcare expenditure. Further research i …
Resistance to cytotoxicity Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and NK cells use up their targets before agreeable the receptor Fas (CD95) with the ligand FasL and next to the remission of lymphotoxin.The plausibility that these molecules may con- tribute to aberrant neuronal excitability underlying capture recurrence is a creative concept supported by .. RU RU (Until October 1996 this was a valid ACETOACETIC ACID ESTERS descriptor.) acids (inorganic) RU RU RU ACETOLYSIS ACID ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS acids (organic) RU RU ACETONE RU RU aco (anneau de collisions dorsay) ETDE: 2005-01-28 ACETONITRILE acid halides (Prior to January 2005 ACO was a valid 1981-07-06 2000-04-12 .. SF Flotation Cell; FL Spiral Classifier .Function of ball mill in the latex compounding - SlideShare .Related News jual planetary ball mill minig equipment ball mill maintanance ball mill pdf high chromium cast grinding ball coal pulverizer ball mill design and construction of ball mill Stone Dimension Conical ball mill typical flow sheet ...
See also Malonic ester synthesis.. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and the spontaneous breakdown product of acetoacetate, acetone) that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia ...
This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a macrocyclic ligand (L) and its new-fangled complex compounds of the general formula [M-L Cl|sub|2|/sub|] for M= Ru(III), and [M-L] for Pt(II) and Pd(II) where L is a macrocyclic ligand resulted from the condensation reaction of ethylene diamine and ethyl acetoacetate. The ligand and its coordination compounds are formulated according to the chemical analysis, electronic, infrared, |sup|1|/sup|HNMR and mass spectra, as well as magnetic susceptibility values.
Silica-ZnCl2 continues to be found to become a competent and eco-friendly catalyst for the formation of substituted 4-methylcoumarins from ethyl acetoacetate and substituted phenols under Rabbit Polyclonal to TNAP2. nice conditions within an essential oil bath in 80°C. of many chemical substance libraries. A lot of solid-supported reagents like SiO2-SO3H [2] PPA-SiO2 [3] and HClO4-SiO2 Read More. ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase (TIGR00222; EC 2.1.2.11; HMM-score: 297.7) ...
During starvation for 72 h, tumour-bearing rats showed accelerated ketonaemia and marked ketonuria. Total blood [ketone bodies] were 8.53 mM and 3.34 mM in tumour-bearing and control (non-tumour-bearing) rats respectively (P less than 0.001). The [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio was 1.3 in the tumour-bearing rats, compared with 3.2 in the controls at 72 h (P less than 0.001). Blood [glucose] and hepatic [glycogen] were lower at the start of starvation in tumour-bearing rats, whereas plasma [non-esterified fatty acids] were not increased above those in the control rats during starvation. After functional hepatectomy, blood [acetoacetate], but not [3-hydroxybutyrate], decreased rapidly in tumour-bearing rats, whereas both ketone bodies decreased, and at a slower rate, in the control rats. Blood [glucose] decreased more rapidly in the hepatectomized control rats. Hepatocytes prepared from 72 h-starved tumour-bearing and control rats showed similar rates of ketogenesis from palmitate, and ...
NAD is used in the conversion of βHB to acetoacetate (AcAc + NADH ⇌ βHB + NAD). Due to the depletion of NAD, βHB is the predominant ketone product formed. Normally, the ratio of acetoacetate to βHB is 1:1; however, in alcoholic ketoacidosis, the ratio can be 1:7 or higher.5 Once the NADH:NAD returns to normal, lactate levels decrease and acetoacetate increases.1 The ratio of βHB to acetoacetate is also much higher in alcoholic ketoacidosis than in diabetic ketoacidosis.1 The high NADH:NAD ratio also results in increased lactate production, so lactate levels are higher than normal in alcoholic ketoacidosis but not as high as in shock or sepsis. Acetoacetate is metabolized to acetone so that acetone and its metabolites are elevated and may cause an osmolal gap. ...
Feodor Lynen (1911-1979) was awarded half the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.While studying the intermediary metabolism in cells -- in which energy is extracted from cellular nutrients and used to build cellular components -- and the mechanisms of metabolic regulation, he found that acetylation of coenzyme A is the first step in a chain of reactions leading to the formation of cholesterol and fatty acids. Lynen also studied the Pasteur effect (the inhibiting effect of oxygen on yeast fermentation); acetic acid degradation in yeast; the chemical structure of acetic acid in activated isoprene, activated carboxylic acid, and cytohaemin; the degradation of fatty acids and formation of acetoacetic acid; the degradation of tartaric acid; and the biosynthesis of cysteine, terpenes, rubber, and fatty acids ...
Ketogenesis, the production of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate from oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, occurs only in the liver. When glucose production is insufficient, the body shifts to a lipid-based economy. However, the brain cannot oxidize fatty acids for energy, so the production of ketones is protective (1, 2). It is quite remarkable how many distinguished scientists began to study ketogenesis decades ago, among them the Nobel laureates Professors H.A. Krebs and Feodor Lynen. Early on, a widespread belief was that a deficiency of oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle shunted acetyl-CoA derived from fatty acid oxidation into acetoacetate, as described in an excellent lecture on this history published by Professor Krebs in 1966 (3). Indeed, acetoacetate is the preferred metabolic substrate in mammalian cells, chosen above glucose, fatty acids, and other substrates (1, 2). However, oxidation of acetoacetate requires the enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase, which is ...
Acetone also arises in small amounts as a biologically inert side product. Ketone body production is regulated primarily by availability of acetyl CoA. If mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is high, hepatic beta-oxidation will occur at a high rate, and so will synthesis of ketone bodies from the resulting acetyl CoA. The rate of ketone body production increases in starvation. ...
This invention is to a fuel oil composition containing polyolefinic succinimide polyamine alkyl acetoacetate adducts of the general following: ##STR1## wherein the variables are defined herein. The adduct additives are especially useful in concentrates and fuel oil compositions as dispersants. The formulations have excellent cold flow properties compared to similar formulations not containing the inventive adduct.
The test strip contains a reagent with an enzyme that measures the level of D-3-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood. This method is based upon the oxidation of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate by the enzyme D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The reaction generates hydrogen ions which are converted to an electrical current and measured by the meter.. ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Acree, Solomon Farley - On Sodium Phenyl and the Action of Sodium on Ketones (1903). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781169464971
The quantitative significance of the conversion in vivo of L-[U-14C]leucine to ketone bodies was determined in rats starved for 3 or 48 h. In animals starved for 3 h, 4.4% of ketone-body carbon is derived from the metabolism of leucine, and in rats starved for 48 h the corresponding value is 2.3%. This conversion occurs rapidly, and the specific radioactivity of ketone bodies in blood is maximal at 2 min after the intravenous injection of labelled leucine for both periods of starvation. The flux of leucine in the blood is 1.01 and 1.04 mumol/min per 100 g body wt. respectively for animals starved for 3 and 48 h. The specific radioactivity of blood ketone bodies was compared at 2 min after the injection of labelled leucine, lysine and phenylalanine. The specific radioactivity was 4-5 fold higher with leucine than with lysine or phenylalanine. ...
MolCore offers CAS No.2266-48-0, Ethyl 2,2-difluoro-3-oxobutanoate for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD00190633,2266-48-0 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
Ketone bodies are any of three compounds produced when the liver metabolizes fatty acids. In healthy people, ketone bodies work...
Testing for Ketones. There are 3 types of ketone bodies. Acetone, Acetoacetate and Beta-Hydroxybutryate (BHB, though technically not really a ketone body)
In this article you will be learn about What Are Ketones, How does it works, Benefits, Side effects. Here you will also learn about Levels of Ketone Bodies.
What is the Rotheras test for ketone bodies in urine used for? What does it mean if theres a presence of ketones, protein, albumin or bilirubin in urine?
BDH2 antibody [2G1] (3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-BDH2 mAb (GTX84831) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for fuel. Normally these ketones will be completely broken down (metabolised) so that there are very few ketones in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, causing an increase in ketones in the body. This
Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase. Nature. 459: 393-397. PMID 19458715 ...
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Inglis, J. K. H.; Roberts, K. C. (1926). "Ethyl Acetoacetate". Org. Synth. 6: 36. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.006.0036. Hazard Ethyl ... strong bases induce the Claisen condensation to give ethyl acetoacetate: The LD50 for rats is 5620 mg/kg, indicating low ...
"Action of ethyl acetoacetate on phenylhydrazine. I". Chemische Berichte. 16: 2597-2599. doi:10.1002/cber.188301602194. von ...
Through a series of reactions, acetoacetate is first produced; and it is this acetoacetate that is reduced into β- ... Acetoacetate is produced in the mitochondria of liver cells by the addition of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA. This creates 3- ... This class of ketone bodies refers to the three water-soluble ketones (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate [β-HB], and acetone). ... It is synthesized from the breakdown of acetoacetate in ketotic individuals within the liver. Ketone salts are usually a ...
It is the cyclohexyl methylphosphonate ester of ethyl acetoacetate. The compound has two isomers, the cis isomer and trans ... 3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexyl 3-pyridyl methylphosphonate Mevinphos "Phosphonate esters of alkyl acetoacetates". v t e. ...
Heart muscle and renal cortex prefer acetoacetate over glucose. The brain uses acetoacetate when glucose levels are low due to ... Under typical physiological conditions, acetoacetic acid exists as its conjugate base, acetoacetate. Acetoacetate is produced ... yielding acetoacetate. The initial acetoacetate can come from the last cycle in the beta oxidation of a fatty acid, or it can ... In mammals, acetoacetate produced in the liver (along with the other two "ketone bodies") is released into the bloodstream as ...
However, the liver can use long-chain fatty acids to synthesise the three ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and ... He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone ... The ketone bodies are possibly anticonvulsant; in animal models, acetoacetate and acetone protect against seizures. The ... which change colour from buff-pink to maroon in the presence of acetoacetate (one of the three ketone bodies). A short-lived ...
"The yeast mediated reduction of ethyl acetoacetate in petroleum ether". Tetrahedron Letters. 34 (24): 3949-3950. doi:10.1016/ ...
Geuther spent most of his academic career at the University of Jena where he discovered ethyl acetoacetate, a key compound for ... Geuther is best known for his discovery of ethyl acetoacetate. Although he discovered the compound in 1863, it took him two ... The experimental work of his and others yielded puzzling results and induced debates on the nature of ethyl acetoacetate. The ... the true nature of ethyl acetoacetate was a tautomeric equilibrium between the both suggested structures. The Keto-enol ...
Reaction with diketene or acetic acid ester creates the acetoacetate; thermal reaction leads to 2-methyl-2-hepten-6-one. The ...
I. Purification of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 313-317. PMID 13834445. Biology ...
FAH catalyzes the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate. Loss of FAH results in the accumulation of ... acetoacetate and succinate. Fumarylacetoacetate accumulates in hepatocytes and proximal renal tubal cells and causes oxidative ... FAH is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate. It is expressed ...
... lyase breaks it into acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. Steroidogenic enzyme Sarkar DP (2015). "Classics in Indian Medicine ...
Part I. The action of ethyl acetoacetate on linalool and geraniol". Journal of the Chemical Society 1940, 704-706. doi:10.1039/ ...
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
... is prepared quite simply by condensation of ethyl acetoacetate with thiourea. Further work in this series ...
Ketones can be measured in the urine (acetoacetate) and blood (β-hydroxybutyrate). When compared with urine acetoacetate ... acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate). β-Hydroxybutyrate can serve as an energy source in the absence of insulin-mediated glucose ...
The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under ... It is sensitive to acetoacetate only, and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyric to acetoacetate is shifted from a normal value of ... Measuring acetoacetate alone will thus underestimate the accompanying beta-hydroxybutyrate if the standard conversion factor is ... Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. ...
Aldol condensation of acetone and ethyl acetoacetate gave β-keto-ester 3. A Grignard reaction involving methylmagnesium bromide ...
In alcoholic solution it condenses with sodium acetoacetate to form 4-methylumbelliferone. In addition to electrophilic ...
HMG-CoA is then cleaved into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate by HMG-CoA lyase or used in the production of cholesterol via the ... The primary metabolic end products of leucine metabolism are acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate; consequently, it is one of the two ...
"Acetoacetyl coenzyme-a as intermediate in the enzymatic breakdown and synthesis of acetoacetate". J Am Chem Soc. 75 (6): 1517- ...
Hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA form the ketone body acetoacetate via HMG-CoA lyase. Acetoacetate can then reversibly convert to ... Alternatively, acetoacetate can spontaneously degrade to a third ketone body (acetone) and carbon dioxide, which generates much ... Urine test strips utilize a nitroprusside reaction with acetoacetate to give a semi-quantitative measure based on color change ... Although beta-hydroxybutyrate is the predominant circulating ketone, urine test strips only measure acetoacetate. Urinary ...
It catalyzes the reaction: (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA = acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate. and requires a divalent metal ion as ... It is a ketogenic enzyme in the liver that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetate from HMG-CoA within the mitochondria. It ...
It is then degraded by the enzyme homogentisate oxidase to give maleyl-acetoacetate. Paolo Cabras; Alberto Angioni; Carlo ...
Under these circumstances, acetyl-CoA is diverted to the formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, beta ... dimer called acetoacetate. β-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into an ... The smell of acetoacetate and/or acetone in breath is a common feature in ketosis. When a type 1 diabetic suffers acute ... Acetoacetate has a highly characteristic smell, for the people who can detect this smell, which occurs in the breath and urine ...
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA is cleaved into two molecules, acetoacetate and acetyl CoA. Point mutations and deletion events ... MCC performs a single step in the breakdown of leucine to eventually yield acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. MCC catalyzes the ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, acetoacetate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). ... acetoacetate, and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate, CO2, and NADPH. This enzyme belongs to ... acetoacetate + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate + CO2 + NADPH The 3 substrates of ...
While at Würzburg, Wislicenus developed the use of ethyl aceto acetate in organic synthesis. However, he was also active in ...
Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate ... Zerner, B., Coutts, S.M., Lederer, F., Waters, H.H. and Westheimer, F.H. (1966). „Acetoacetate decarboxylase. Preparation of ...
Butyrate can also be metabolized into D-β-hydroxybutyrate via a second metabolic pathway that does not involve acetoacetate as ... The conversion of β-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, which is catalyzed by this enzyme, reduces the NAD+ to NADH, generating an ... This elevated β-hydroxybutyrate level is naturally expected, as β-hydroxybutyrate is formed from acetoacetate. The compound can ... The biosynthesis of D-β-hydroxybutyrate from acetoacetate is catalyzed by the β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase enzyme. ...
ETHYL ACETOACETATE. ICSC. : 1024. Acetoacetic acid ethyl ester. Ethyl acetylacetate. 3-Oxobutanoic acid ethyl ester. 1- ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
Ethyl acetoacetate is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol. The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a ... Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is diprotic: ... Ethyl acetoacetate transesterifies to give benzyl acetoacetate via a mechanism involving acetylketene. Ethyl (and other) ... Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the malonic ester synthesis ...
Relationship of Blood Acetoacetate and 3-Hydroxybutyrate in Diabetes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The ratio of blood ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, once thought to be fairly constant, has been shown to vary ... During the treatment of ketoacidosis there is usually an initial increase of the acetoacetate which may persist at a high ... insulin lowers the ratio because the fall of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate occurs earlier and more rapidly than that of acetoacetate ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C; CAS Number: 100548-44-5; Linear Formula: 13CC5H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-489298 MSDS, ... Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C * CAS Number 100548-44-5 ...
Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C; Linear Formula: 13C2C4H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-682403 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C * Linear Formula CH3CO13CH213CO2CH2CH3 ...
Zirconium, C16-18-fatty acid Et acetoacetate Pr alc. complexes Regulatory process names 1 Other identifiers 1 ...
... agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic ... The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, ... Europe had the third-largest demand for methyl acetoacetate market in 2013. Increasing demand for methyl acetoacetate from ... Other raw material used in production includes acetyl ketene, methane and ethyl acetoacetate among others. Methyl acetoacetate ...
ethyl acetoacetate , C6H10O3 , CID 8868 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
Contact verified Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate Manufacturers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate suppliers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate ... Find here information of Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate selling companies for your buy requirements. ... Ethyl Acetoacetate / Methyl Acetoacetate The range is 100% quality checked and you can rest assured us for the same. We along ... Ethyl Acetoacetate Deals in Di Ethyl Sulphate, Napthenic Acid, Nn Diethyl Aniline, Ethyl Acetoacetate, Ortho Toludine Liquid, ...
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The initial concentrations of methyl acetoacetate, chlorine dioxide, potassium iodide, and sulfuric acid and the pH value have ... In order to study the chemical oscillatory behavior and mechanism of a new chlorine dioxide-iodide ion-methyl acetoacetate ... A methyl acetoacetate (MAA) aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 3.00 mL methyl acetoacetate in a 500 mL measuring flask ... and sodium chlorite-iodine-ethyl acetoacetate oscillation reaction [23]. As is known, methyl acetoacetate (MAA) and malonic ...
Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for ... In this Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details ... Methyl Acetoacetate Sales market analysis report contains all study material about Market Overview, Growth, Demand and Forecast ... Also, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered. ...
Jain SK, Kannan K, Lim G: Ketosis (acetoacetate) can generate oxygen radicals and cause increased lipid peroxidation and growth ... To examine the effect of ketosis, U937 monocytes were cultured with ketone bodies (acetoacetate [AA], β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) ... Artuch R, Vilaseca MA, Farre C, Ramon F: Determination of lactate, pyruvate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate with a ... Elevated Blood Interleukin-6 Levels in Hyperketonemic Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Secretion by Acetoacetate-Treated Cultured ...
The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate ... Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood ... D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. ...
Gas-phase proton NMR studies of keto-enol tautomerism of acetylacetone, methyl acetoacetate, and ethyl acetoacetate.J. Phys. ... Methyl acetoacetate is used as a chemical reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. It participates in the Biginelli ... The enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate over supported nickel catalysts: I. The modification procedure. ... reaction, forming molecules including dihydropyrimidinones.Methyl acetoacetate (MAA) is used for the synthesis of alpha- ...
Information about Acetoacetate (Ketones), Urine. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and review in-depth ... Acetoacetate (Ketones), Urine. a.k.a. Acetoacetate,Urine, Ketones [Presence] in Urine, Ketone ...
... provide 141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate 141-97-9 product and the products related with China (Mainland) 141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate ... 141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate CAS NO.141-97-9. FOB Price: USD 1,000.00-1,000.00 /Kilogram Get Latest Price. Min.Order Quantity: 1 ... Henan Tianfu Chemical Co., Ltd.141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate//www.lookchem.com/300w//201001/img/141-97-9.jpg ...
The first stage of curing is a self-limiting click Michael addition between acetoacetate and acrylate groups at room ... The prepared materials are gelled after acetoacetate/acrylate Michael addition and show a wide range of properties at both ... A new family of poly(keto ester)-poly(methacrylate) thermosets based on off-stoichiometric acetoacetate-acrylate/methacrylate ... Sequential dual curing by selective Michael addition and free radical polymerization of acetoacetate-acrylate-methacrylate ...
Succinyl-CoA: acetoacetate transferase deficiency: identification of a new patient with a neonatal onset and review of the ...
There is evidence suggesting that blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is more effective than urine acetoacetate testing in reducing ... urine acetoacetate testing for the prevention and management of ketoacidosis in Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review Diabet Med ... The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of capillary or serum β-hydroxybutyrate compared with urine acetoacetate ... Blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is now widely available as an alternative to urine acetoacetate testing for detecting ketosis. ...
Ketosis (acetoacetate) can generate oxygen radicals and cause increased lipid peroxidation and growth inhibition in human ... Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured for 24 h at 37 degrees C with ketone bodies (acetoacetate, beta- ... They showed a significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitable reduction of cytochrome C by acetoacetate, but not by beta- ... Additional studies show that Fe2+ potentiates oxygen radical generation by acetoacetate. Thus, elevated levels of ketone body ...
Specimen Type: Serum. Container/Tube: Red. Specimen Volume: 3 mL. Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s). Serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 3 mL of serum frozen in a plastic, preservative-free vial.. ...
The methods for lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate are kinetic and ratiometric, eliminating the need for specimen- ... and acetoacetate in plasma with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer. ... A kinetic spectrophotometric assay for rapid determination of acetoacetate in blood.. *Christopher P Price, B Llyod, Giampiero ... Kinetic measurement of the combined concentrations of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in serum.. *N F Nuwayhid, George F ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 141-97-9 ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope ... Home > Products > Stable Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard > MRI/MRS Products > ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%) ...
Acetoacetate is a Ketone Body with the chemical formula C4H5O3-. Acetoacetate is the conjugate base of Acetoacetic Acid (which ... Acetoacetate is a Ketone Body with the chemical formula C4H5O3-. Acetoacetate is the conjugate base of Acetoacetic Acid (which ... The Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis Part 62: What is Acetoacetate? From the Top Down - Acetone, Acetoacetic Acid, Beta- ... In the body, Acetoacetate is derived from Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria in the liver. ...
Acetoacetate decarboxylase : Hydrophobics, not electrostatics. / Gerlt, John A.. In: Nature chemical biology, Vol. 5, No. 7, ... Gerlt, J. A. (2009). Acetoacetate decarboxylase: Hydrophobics, not electrostatics. Nature chemical biology, 5(7), 454-455. ... Gerlt, John A. / Acetoacetate decarboxylase : Hydrophobics, not electrostatics. In: Nature chemical biology. 2009 ; Vol. 5, No ... Gerlt, JA 2009, Acetoacetate decarboxylase: Hydrophobics, not electrostatics, Nature chemical biology, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 454 ...
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  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding acetone and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of acetone by acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing or clostridial bacteria was utilized in large-scale industrial syntheses in the first half of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there has been a growing interest in acetone production that is more environmentally friendly, causing a resurgence in utilizing acetoacetate decarboxylase-containing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and carbon dioxide (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Your liver converts some of these fatty acids into the ketones acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. (healthline.com)
  • Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ketosis produces three main ketone bodies: acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. (biohackercenter.com)
  • You have the two ladies on either side, acetoacetate and acetone, and in the middle you have the big bass guy, beta-hydroxybutyrate, which represents 70 percent of the ketone bodies in the blood. (mercola.com)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD or ADC) is an enzyme involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is an enzyme with major historical implications, specifically in World War I and in establishing the state of Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1916, biochemist and future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmann was the first to isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in which acetoacetate decarboxylase is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate decarboxylase is a 365 kDa complex with a homododecameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction of 5-NSA with acetoacetate decarboxylase and subsequent reduction of the resulting Schiff base with sodium borohydride led to the incorporation of a 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylamino reporter molecule in the active site (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Westheimer's classical proposal that the decreased pKa of Lys115 in the active site of acetoacetate decarboxylase is the result of its unfavorable electrostatic juxtaposition with Lys116 has been evaluated by X-ray crystallography. (illinois.edu)
  • The organic compound ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) is the ethyl ester of acetoacetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 05/19/2015 -- Methyl acetoacetate also known as acetoacetic methyl ester, methyl-3-ketobutyrateiron sulfate, acetoacetic acid or acetoacetic acid methyl is a methyl ester of acetoacetic acid. (sbwire.com)
  • Acetoacetate is the conjugate base of Acetoacetic Acid (which is shown in the diagram above). (wordpress.com)
  • During the treatment of ketoacidosis there is usually an initial increase of the acetoacetate which may persist at a high levelfor several hours despite improvement of the patient and falling 3-hydroxybutyrate and glucose levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To examine the effect of ketosis, U937 monocytes were cultured with ketone bodies (acetoacetate [AA], β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) in the presence or absence of high glucose levels in the medium at 37°C for 24 h. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. (hindawi.com)
  • Diurnal variations in the concentrations of blood acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and glucose in normal persons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM), or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As with tests for glucose, acetoacetate can be tested by a dipstick or by a lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is now widely available as an alternative to urine acetoacetate testing for detecting ketosis. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of capillary or serum β-hydroxybutyrate compared with urine acetoacetate testing in prevention and management of diabetic ketoacidosis. (nih.gov)
  • MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL (until April 2012, no language restrictions, studies in humans) were searched for experimental and observational studies comparing the effectiveness of blood β-hydroxybutyrate and urine acetoacetate testing. (nih.gov)
  • There is evidence suggesting that blood β-hydroxybutyrate testing is more effective than urine acetoacetate testing in reducing emergency department assessment, hospitalization and time to recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as potentially lowering healthcare expenditure. (nih.gov)
  • A third method is to measure the acetoacetate levels in the urine. (biohackercenter.com)
  • MEASURING KETONE BODY LEVELS IN THE URINEMeasuring ketone bodies (more specifically acetoacetate) in the urine has been possible for some time now. (biohackercenter.com)
  • Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate gets spilled into the urine in the first stages of going into nutritional ketosis, because your body's mitochondria have not adapted to take advantage of those ketones. (mercola.com)
  • Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of allyl acetoacetate was estimated as 10 by means of MCI method as well as PBT Profiler database. (europa.eu)
  • This indicates that allyl acetoacetate will have negligible tendency of sorption to soil and sediment alongwith rapid migration potential to groundwater. (europa.eu)
  • Henry's Law Constant of allyl acetoacetate at 25 deg C is 0.0157 Pa m³/mol. (europa.eu)
  • Urinalysis measures acetoacetate, one of three types of ketones. (mercola.com)
  • The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were 7.1 and 12% respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods are described for direct assays of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate in plasma with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Density of binary mixtures of ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) with straight chain aliphatic ketones butan-2-one, pentan-2-one, hexan-2-one, heptan-2-one, octan-2-one and nonan-2-one were measured at varying compositions of the ethyl acetoacetate at 298.15 K. The derived properties such as excess molar volumes, VmE, of the binary mixtures were calculated from the experimental density data of the mixtures. (nwu.ac.za)
  • The strategy can be depicted in the following simplified form: LiCH2C(O)CH(Na)CO2Et + RX → RCH2C(O)CH(Na)CO2Et + LiX Similar to the behavior of acetylacetone, the enolate of ethyl acetoacetate can also serve as a bidentate ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gas-phase proton NMR studies of keto-enol tautomerism of acetylacetone, methyl acetoacetate, and ethyl acetoacetate. (alfa.com)
  • Based on the structure of the molecule, the hydrolysis products are predicted to be acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol and hydrated titanium oxides. (europa.eu)
  • The other hydrolysis products (acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol) are low molecular weight and water-soluble, and are therefore likely to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to a significant extent. (europa.eu)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate is diprotic: CH3C(O)CH2CO2Et + NaH → CH3C(O)CH(Na)CO2Et + H2 CH3C(O)CH(Na)CO2Et + BuLi → LiCH2C(O)CH(Na)CO2Et + BuH Ethyl acetoacetate is subject to keto-enol tautomerism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, elevated levels of ketone body acetoacetate can generate oxygen radicals and cause lipid peroxidation in endothelial cells, providing a possible mechanism for the increased incidence of vascular disease in diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • In the body, Acetoacetate is derived from Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria in the liver. (wordpress.com)
  • This limitation of the test can be especially problematic in patients with ketoacidosis who cannot convert BOH to acetoacetate because of severe shock or liver failure. (medscape.com)
  • Investigators inferred that the enzymatic defect might reside in deficiency of fumarylacetoacetase, which mediates production of fumaric acid and acetoacetate in both liver and kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Only the chronic metformin-treated liver showed an altered mitochondrial redox via the [acetoacetate]:[β-hydroxybutyrate]. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is sensitive to acetoacetate only, and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate is shifted from a normal value of around 1:1 up to around 10:1 under severely ketoacetotic conditions, due to a changing redox milieu in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methyl acetoacetate is soluble in water (44 wt %) and is completely soluble in alcohol, ether and ether acetate. (sbwire.com)
  • Kinetic measurement of the combined concentrations of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in serum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aluminium acetoacetate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Raltegravir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy. (drugbank.ca)
  • Increasing demand for methyl acetoacetate from perfumery products, pigments, dyestuff and pharmaceuticals has been driving the market for methyl acetoacetate in Europe. (sbwire.com)
  • A new family of poly(keto ester)-poly(methacrylate) thermosets based on off-stoichiometric acetoacetate-acrylate/methacrylate formulations has been prepared and characterized. (upc.edu)
  • The first stage of curing is a self-limiting click Michael addition between acetoacetate and acrylate groups at room temperature and the second stage is a methacrylate radical photopolymerization. (upc.edu)
  • Ramis, X. Sequential dual curing by selective Michael addition and free radical polymerization of acetoacetate-acrylate-methacrylate mixtures. (upc.edu)
  • Additionally, methyl acetoacetate is also used in as an intermediate in manufacturing of dyestuffs and organic pigments. (sbwire.com)
  • Methyl acetoacetate is primarily used as intermediate in manufacturing of polymers and other materials. (sbwire.com)
  • Methyl acetoacetate is used as a pharmaceutical intermediate in formulations such as amoxyciline, dipyridamole and antipyrine among others. (sbwire.com)
  • In agrochemicals, methyl acetoacetate is used as an intermediate for manufacturing primiphos, hymexazole and mevinphos among others. (sbwire.com)
  • Succinylacetone was ultimately determined to be the decarboxylation product of succinyl acetoacetate, a compound derived from the tyrosine catabolic intermediate fumarylacetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • Some of the key manufacturers in the methyl acetoacetate market are Lonza Group, Laxmi Organics, Eastman Chemicals and TCI Development Co. Ltd. among others. (sbwire.com)
  • Methyl acetoacetate is manufactured by the reaction of methanol with beta-ketone (1,3-diketone) in presence of a catalyst. (sbwire.com)
  • In order to study the chemical oscillatory behavior and mechanism of a new chlorine dioxide-iodide ion-methyl acetoacetate reaction system, a series of experiments were done by using UV-Vis and online FTIR spectrophotometric method. (hindawi.com)
  • It participates in the Biginelli reaction, forming molecules including dihydropyrimidinones.Methyl acetoacetate (MAA) is used for the synthesis of alpha-substituted aceto- acetic esters and cyclic compounds, e.g. pyrazole, pyrimidine and coumarin derivatives. (alfa.com)
  • An analysis of the reaction kinetics confirmed that acetoacetate reacts selectively with acrylates, leaving methacrylates completely unreacted after the first curing stage. (upc.edu)
  • Ethyl acetoacetate transesterifies to give benzyl acetoacetate via a mechanism involving acetylketene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl acetoacetate. (fda.gov)
  • Etil Acetoacetate (EAA) mudah larut dalam etanol, etil eter, propylene glikol dan etil asetat, dan etil acetoacetate (EAA) yang larut dalam air ialah 1:12 dengan titik didih 181C. (zgshenyu.com)
  • For example, it forms purple coordination complexes with iron(III) salts: Reduction of ethyl acetoacetate gives ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed a significant superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitable reduction of cytochrome C by acetoacetate, but not by beta-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting the generation of superoxide anion radicals by acetoacetate. (nih.gov)
  • The normal catabolic pathway, which moves tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, then to homogentisic acid, the ring then being cleaved to produce maleylacetoacetate (MAA) and fumarylacetoacetate (FAA), is interrupted at the next step, which would normally produce fumarate and acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • 141-97-9 Ethyl acetoacetate price,buy Formaldehyde,Formaldehyde supplier-Henan Tianfu Chemical Co., Ltd. (lookchem.com)
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetate metabolism in muscle homogenates from normal and dystro- phic mice. (jax.org)
  • The initial concentrations of methyl acetoacetate, chlorine dioxide, potassium iodide, and sulfuric acid and the pH value have great influence on the oscillation observed at wavelength of 289 nm. (hindawi.com)
  • The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The methods for lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate are kinetic and ratiometric, eliminating the need for specimen-blank assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Measuring acetoacetate alone will thus underestimate the accompanying beta-hydroxybutyrate if the standard conversion factor is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the inhibitory effect of acetoacetate extract from Celastrus orbiculatus Thumb (COT) on the growth of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-xenografted human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a nude mouse model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate over supported nickel catalysts: I. The modification procedure. (alfa.com)
  • For sensitive colorimetric measurement of acetoacetate in various biological samples. (promocell.com)
  • Additional studies show that Fe2+ potentiates oxygen radical generation by acetoacetate. (nih.gov)
  • The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a classic laboratory procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. (beforeitsnews.com)