Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Chromonar: A coronary vasodilator agent.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedCommerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)IndiaFraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Hafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Vinyl CompoundsTissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.EstersPolyvinyls

Effects of glucagon and insulin on lipolysis and ketogenesis in sheep. (1/381)

The hepatic and portal productions of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipolysis were studied in normal and insulin-controlled alloxan-diabetic sheep. Since hyperinsulinemia is associated with glucagon administration, the latter group of sheep were used to maintain constant plasma insulin levels. After control values were obtained glucagon was infused intraportally at 90 mug/hr for two hours. The ketone body production by portal drained viscera was not significantly affected by glucagon. In alloxanized sheep, glucagon significantly (P less than 0.01) increased net hepatic production of acetoacetate (from -0.54 +/- 0.08 to 0.46 +/- 0.07 g/hr). Lipolysis also increased. However, in the normal sheep, hyperinsulinemia prevented any stimulatory effect of glucagon on hepatic ketogenesis and lipolysis. Therefore, while glucagon appears capable of stimulating ketogenesis andlipolysis, these effects are readily suppressed by insulin.  (+info)

Evidence for an inducible nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase in Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276. (2/381)

The metabolism of acetone was investigated in the actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous (formerly Nocardia corallina) B276. Suspensions of acetone- and isopropanol-grown R. rhodochrous readily metabolized acetone. In contrast, R. rhodochrous cells cultured with glucose as the carbon source lacked the ability to metabolize acetone at the onset of the assay but gained the ability to do so in a time-dependent fashion. Chloramphenicol and rifampin prevented the time-dependent increase in this activity. Acetone metabolism by R. rhodochrous was CO2 dependent, and 14CO2 fixation occurred concomitant with this process. A nucleotide-dependent acetone carboxylase was partially purified from cell extracts of acetone-grown R. rhodochrous by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that the acetone carboxylase was composed of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 85, 74, and 16 kDa. Acetone metabolism by the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the presence of a divalent metal and a nucleoside triphosphate. GTP and ITP supported the highest rates of acetone carboxylation, while CTP, UTP, and XTP supported carboxylation at 10 to 50% of these rates. ATP did not support acetone carboxylation. Acetoacetate was determined to be the stoichiometric product of acetone carboxylation. The longer-chain ketones butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, and 2-hexanone were substrates. This work has identified an acetone carboxylase with a novel nucleotide usage and broader substrate specificity compared to other such enzymes studied to date. These results strengthen the proposal that carboxylation is a common strategy used for acetone catabolism in aerobic acetone-oxidizing bacteria.  (+info)

Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats. (3/381)

Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid.  (+info)

Metabolic effect of alpha-and the beta-adrenergic stimulation of rat submaxillary gland in vitro. (4/381)

1. Incubation of submaxillary-gland slices with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 41% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 50%. Propranolol blocked these effects of isoproterenol. 2. Phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, stimulated glucose removal by 35% and decreased tissue [glucose 6-phosphate] by 75%. In addition, phenylephrine also completely overcame the inhibition of pyruvate removal caused by acetoacetate metabolism and decreased tissue [atp] by 45%. Phentolamine blocked the effects of phenylephrine. 3. In contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation, alpha-adrenergic stimulation required exogenous Ca2+. 4. These results explain the different metabolic responses of the submaxillary gland to adrenaline in the presence and absence of exogenous Ca2+.  (+info)

Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. (5/381)

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ketosis on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) were determined in diabetic patients (n = 70) and age-matched normal volunteers (n = 25). Diabetic patients with total ketone body levels > 1.0 mmol/l were considered hyperketonemic, and those with levels < or = 1.0 mmol/l were considered normoketonemic. RESULTS: After normalization versus total lipids, levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the plasma of hyperketonemic diabetic patients (P < 0.05), but not in normoketonemic diabetic patients, compared with age-matched normal volunteers. In addition, low ketonemia was associated with lower lipid peroxidation levels when lipid peroxidation and ketonemia were determined in the same patient (n = 7) at two different clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between hyperketonemia and increased lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients, which suggests that ketosis is a risk factor in the elevated lipid peroxidation levels associated with diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether antioxidant supplementation can be particularly beneficial in reducing lipid peroxidation and complications in type 1 diabetic patients who frequently encounter ketosis.  (+info)

The metabolic effects of estriol in female rat liver. (6/381)

The effects of estriol on oxygen uptake, glucose release, lactate and pyruvate production, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate production in perfused rat liver as well as, carbon uptake in rat liver and intracellular calcium in isolated Kupffer cells were investigated. Basal oxygen consumption of perfused liver increased significantly in estriol or ethanol-treated rats. But these increased effects were blocked by gadolinium chloride pretreatment. In a metabolic study, pretreatment with estriol resulted in a decrease in glucose production and in glycolysis while an increase in ketogenesis. A more oxidized redox state of the mitochondria was indicated by increased ratios of perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] and decreased ratios of perfusate [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. Carbon uptake of Kupffer-cell increased significantly in estriol-treated rats. But these increased uptake were not shown in rats pre-treated by gadolinium chloride blocking phagocytosis. In isolated Kupffer cells from estriol-treated rats, intracellular calcium was more significantly increased after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than in controls. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of estriol (two mg per 100 mg body wt) can be summarized to be highly toxic in rat liver, and these findings suggest that oral administration of estrogens may induce hepatic dysfunctions and play a role in the development of liver disease.  (+info)

Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erythrocytes in vitro and in type 1 diabetic patients. (7/381)

Recent studies have suggested that elevated cellular lipid peroxidation may play a role in the development of cellular dysfunction and other complications of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes frequently encounter elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone (ACE). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ketosis might increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione (GSH) levels of red blood cells (RBCs) in diabetic patients. This study demonstrates that incubation of AA with normal RBCs in phosphate-buffered saline (37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in marked GSH depletion, oxidized glutathione accumulation, hydroxyl radical generation, and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Increases in oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation and depletion of GSH in RBCs were not observed with BHB or ACE treatments. Similarly, there was a significant generation of superoxide ion radicals even in a cell-free buffer solution of AA, but not in that of BHB. The presence of BHB together with AA did not influence the capacity of AA to generate oxygen radicals in a cell-free solution or the increase in lipid peroxidation of RBCs incubated with AA. The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked increase in lipid peroxidation in AA-treated RBCs. To examine the effects of ketone bodies in vivo, studies were performed that showed a significant decrease in GSH and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in RBCs of hyperketonemic diabetic patients, but not in normoketonemic type 1 diabetic patients, when compared with age-matched normal subjects. This study demonstrates that elevated levels of the ketone body AA can increase lipid peroxidation and lower GSH levels of RBCs in people with type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. (8/381)

Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model.  (+info)

Acetoacetic acid is a naturally occurring keto acid that is formed in the liver and kidneys. The main purpose of acetoacetic acid...
(2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride 69320-90-7 NMR spectrum, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The invention relates to a process for the enzymatic, stereoselective reduction of ketone compounds to provide chiral alcohols, for example the compound of formula (Ib).
Purchase a copy of Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10360833. Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Regions covered in the report:. • North America. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.. Get Discount on Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10360833. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed ...
Find here information of Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate selling companies for your buy requirements. Contact verified Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate Manufacturers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate suppliers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate exporters wholesalers, producers, retailers and traders in India.
Acetoeddikesyre, acetoacetic acid, 3 oxobutanoic acid. Er et ketonstof. Slutprodukt ved katabolismen af aminosyren leucin, samt ved nedbrydningen af fedtsyrer. Koncentrationen i blodplasma ligger mellem 0,8 og 2,0 mg/100 ml, kan dog under en lang
An efficient synthesis of polyhydroquinoline derivatives is achieved via Hantzsch condensation reaction between aldehydes, dimedone, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in the presence of catalytic amount of SFHS in ethanol. This method gives remarkable advantages such as shorter reaction time, simple workup procedure and good to excellent yields. Furthermore the catalyst can be recovered conveniently and reused efficiently. To analyze potential anticancer activity, synthesized derivatives were docked to tyrosine protein kinase (1YJ) against 4ST and PTR binding sites.
The enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Zakaria, Elmi Shahizam (2010) Preparation of ketones and their derivatives via acetoacetic ester synthesis. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Science. Full text not available from this repository. ...
Absorption Oral absorption The substance is assumed to be hydrolytically unstable and will therefore be subject to rapid hydrolysis in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Systemic exposure to the intact substance is therefore unlikely; however systemic exposure to the hydrolysis products may occur. Based on the structure of the molecule, the hydrolysis products are predicted to be acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol and hydrated titanium oxides. Titanium oxides are of very low water solubility and are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (1). The other hydrolysis products (acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, 1,3-propanediol) are low molecular weight and water-soluble, and are therefore likely to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to a significant extent. The OECD 422 screening study reports some findings (reduced weight gain, decreased serum T4 concentration) at the highest dose level of 750 mg/kg bw/d that are consistent with systemic exposure (and therefore ...
Water soluble or water-dispersible cellulose acetoacetate esters are prepared by contacting a cellulose material with diketene, an alkyl acetoacetate, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one or a mixture thereof and a carboxylic anhydride in a solvent system comprising lithium chloride plus a carboxamide. Compositions containing the cellulose acetoacetate esters are useful for coatings applications.
The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic compounds such as coumarine and pyrazole.This research report analyzes this market on the basis of its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends.
Name: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate CA Name: Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester Molecular Structure: Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Ethyl 3-oxobutanoate,Butanoic acid,3-oxo-,ethyl ester,CAS 141-97-9,130.14,C6H10O3 Molecular Formula:C6H10O3 Molecular Weight: 130.14 CAS Registry Number: 141-97-9
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
As I stated in my last discussion of ketosis, I think it is telling, and downright intuitive, that if ketosis were some preferred or desired metabolic state, our bodies would not come out of that state so easily. Folks limiting protein intake to force ketosis after their bodies adapt to biologically zero carb diets are forcing their bodies into a state theyd rather not be in. While non-diabetic ketone levels are not toxic (long term effects are unknown, but lets limit it to acute toxicity) in disease where dose makes the poison, they most certainly are. Then lets look at the notion of dietary ketones. We really dont have such a thing, though the LD50 for acetone does appear to be a bit higher than one might expect. Still I wouldnt suggest anyone run out to their local home improvement or beauty supply store to buy the pure stuff and swig it with dinner. I couldnt find anything for beta hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetic acid but thats irrelevant anyway as I know no dietary source of either. ...
United States Patent 3,212,855 DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE Ray Mast, John Rebar, Jr., and Joseph Fraser, Elkhart, Ind., assignors to Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, Ind., a corporation of Indiana N0 Drawing. Filed Aug. 6, 1962, Ser. No. 214,867 7 Claims. (Cl. 23253) This invention relates to an improved diagnostic composition and to a method for its preparation. In particular, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test useful in qualitative detection and quantitative determination of ketone bodies in body fluids, especially acetoacetic acid (beta-ketobutyric acid) in urine. More particularly, this invention is concerned with a diagnostic test reagent composition which is incorporated upon a bibulous carrier. The fats utilized by the body normally undergo complete oxidation with formation of carbon dioxide and water. Since the fatty acid molecules have long chains of carbon atoms, it is theorized that a large number of intermediate products are formed during the oxidation and under normal ...
See also Malonic ester synthesis.. Title: The Elements of Organic Chemistry; Subtitle: A Compendium of Terminology, Definitions, and Concepts for the Beginner.. Available at Amazon or the publishers website: http://linusbooks.com/?wpsc-product=the-elements-of-organic-chemistry. The book contains everything on OChemPal except some recent additions, a few biochemical terms, and the Mastery Check feature. So, if you prefer reading a book to reading a screen, the book is for you.. ...
Silica-ZnCl2 continues to be found to become a competent and eco-friendly catalyst for the formation of substituted 4-methylcoumarins from ethyl acetoacetate and substituted phenols under Rabbit Polyclonal to TNAP2. "nice" conditions within an essential oil bath in 80°C. of many chemical substance libraries. A lot of solid-supported reagents like SiO2-SO3H [2] PPA-SiO2 [3] and HClO4-SiO2 Read More. ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase (TIGR00222; EC 2.1.2.11; HMM-score: 297.7) ...
During starvation for 72 h, tumour-bearing rats showed accelerated ketonaemia and marked ketonuria. Total blood [ketone bodies] were 8.53 mM and 3.34 mM in tumour-bearing and control (non-tumour-bearing) rats respectively (P less than 0.001). The [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio was 1.3 in the tumour-bearing rats, compared with 3.2 in the controls at 72 h (P less than 0.001). Blood [glucose] and hepatic [glycogen] were lower at the start of starvation in tumour-bearing rats, whereas plasma [non-esterified fatty acids] were not increased above those in the control rats during starvation. After functional hepatectomy, blood [acetoacetate], but not [3-hydroxybutyrate], decreased rapidly in tumour-bearing rats, whereas both ketone bodies decreased, and at a slower rate, in the control rats. Blood [glucose] decreased more rapidly in the hepatectomized control rats. Hepatocytes prepared from 72 h-starved tumour-bearing and control rats showed similar rates of ketogenesis from palmitate, and ...
NAD is used in the conversion of βHB to acetoacetate (AcAc + NADH ⇌ βHB + NAD). Due to the depletion of NAD, βHB is the predominant ketone product formed. Normally, the ratio of acetoacetate to βHB is 1:1; however, in alcoholic ketoacidosis, the ratio can be 1:7 or higher.5 Once the NADH:NAD returns to normal, lactate levels decrease and acetoacetate increases.1 The ratio of βHB to acetoacetate is also much higher in alcoholic ketoacidosis than in diabetic ketoacidosis.1 The high NADH:NAD ratio also results in increased lactate production, so lactate levels are higher than normal in alcoholic ketoacidosis but not as high as in shock or sepsis. Acetoacetate is metabolized to acetone so that acetone and its metabolites are elevated and may cause an osmolal gap. ...
Feodor Lynen (1911-1979) was awarded half the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.While studying the intermediary metabolism in cells -- in which energy is extracted from cellular nutrients and used to build cellular components -- and the mechanisms of metabolic regulation, he found that acetylation of coenzyme A is the first step in a chain of reactions leading to the formation of cholesterol and fatty acids. Lynen also studied the Pasteur effect (the inhibiting effect of oxygen on yeast fermentation); acetic acid degradation in yeast; the chemical structure of acetic acid in activated isoprene, activated carboxylic acid, and cytohaemin; the degradation of fatty acids and formation of acetoacetic acid; the degradation of tartaric acid; and the biosynthesis of cysteine, terpenes, rubber, and fatty acids ...
Ketogenesis, the production of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate from oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, occurs only in the liver. When glucose production is insufficient, the body shifts to a lipid-based economy. However, the brain cannot oxidize fatty acids for energy, so the production of ketones is protective (1, 2). It is quite remarkable how many distinguished scientists began to study ketogenesis decades ago, among them the Nobel laureates Professors H.A. Krebs and Feodor Lynen. Early on, a widespread belief was that a deficiency of oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle shunted acetyl-CoA derived from fatty acid oxidation into acetoacetate, as described in an excellent lecture on this history published by Professor Krebs in 1966 (3). Indeed, acetoacetate is the preferred metabolic substrate in mammalian cells, chosen above glucose, fatty acids, and other substrates (1, 2). However, oxidation of acetoacetate requires the enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase, which is ...
Acetone also arises in small amounts as a biologically inert side product. Ketone body production is regulated primarily by availability of acetyl CoA. If mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue is high, hepatic beta-oxidation will occur at a high rate, and so will synthesis of ketone bodies from the resulting acetyl CoA. The rate of ketone body production increases in starvation. ...
This invention is to a fuel oil composition containing polyolefinic succinimide polyamine alkyl acetoacetate adducts of the general following: ##STR1## wherein the variables are defined herein. The adduct additives are especially useful in concentrates and fuel oil compositions as dispersants. The formulations have excellent cold flow properties compared to similar formulations not containing the inventive adduct.
The test strip contains a reagent with an enzyme that measures the level of D-3-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood. This method is based upon the oxidation of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate by the enzyme D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. The reaction generates hydrogen ions which are converted to an electrical current and measured by the meter.. ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Acree, Solomon Farley - On Sodium Phenyl and the Action of Sodium on Ketones (1903). Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781169464971
The quantitative significance of the conversion in vivo of L-[U-14C]leucine to ketone bodies was determined in rats starved for 3 or 48 h. In animals starved for 3 h, 4.4% of ketone-body carbon is derived from the metabolism of leucine, and in rats starved for 48 h the corresponding value is 2.3%. This conversion occurs rapidly, and the specific radioactivity of ketone bodies in blood is maximal at 2 min after the intravenous injection of labelled leucine for both periods of starvation. The flux of leucine in the blood is 1.01 and 1.04 mumol/min per 100 g body wt. respectively for animals starved for 3 and 48 h. The specific radioactivity of blood ketone bodies was compared at 2 min after the injection of labelled leucine, lysine and phenylalanine. The specific radioactivity was 4-5 fold higher with leucine than with lysine or phenylalanine. ...
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Ketone bodies are any of three compounds produced when the liver metabolizes fatty acids. In healthy people, ketone bodies work...
Testing for Ketones. There are 3 types of ketone bodies. Acetone, Acetoacetate and Beta-Hydroxybutryate (BHB, though technically not really a ketone body)
What is the Rotheras test for ketone bodies in urine used for? What does it mean if theres a presence of ketones, protein, albumin or bilirubin in urine?
BDH2 antibody [2G1] (3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-BDH2 mAb (GTX84831) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase". Nature. 459: 393-397. PMID 19458715 ...
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Looking for online definition of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in the Medical Dictionary? acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase explanation free. What is acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase? Meaning of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase medical term. What does acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase mean?
Ketone bodies Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids. Ketone bodies are produced by the liver under the circumstances listed above (i.e. fasting, starving, low carbohydrate diets, prolonged exercise and untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus) as a result of intense gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (not including fatty acids). They are therefore ...
Glucose oxidase catalyzes the formation of gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide from the oxidation of glucose. Peroxidase catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with a potassium iodide chromogen to oxidize the chromogen to colors ranging from green to brown. Bilirubin couples with diazotized dichloroaniline in a strongly acid medium. Colors range through various shades of tan. Acetoacetic acid reacts with nitroprusside. Colors range from buff-pink, for a negative reading, to maroon for a positive reading. pKa changes occur for certain pretreated polyelectrolytes in relation to ionic concentration. In the presence of an indicator, colors range from deep blue-green in urine of low ionic concentration through green and yellow-green in urines of increasing ionic concentration. Hemoglobin catalyzes the reaction of diisopropylbenzene dihydroperoxide and 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine. Colors range from orange through green; very high levels of blood may cause the color development to continue to ...
AS09 562, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase antibody, (EC=1.1.1.30)NAD+-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate oxidoreductase, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate d
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In addition, OXCT1 activity leads to the formation of acetoacetate, which serves as a precursor for short-chain acyl-CoAs and ... Zołnierowicz S, Scisłowski PW, Swierczyński J, Zelewski L (1985). "Acetoacetate utilization by human placental mitochondria". ... from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate. The OXCT1 gene resides on chromosome 5 at the band 5p13. OXCT1 spans a length of over 100 kb ... acetoacetate transferase deficiency". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 15 (3): 371-3. doi:10.1007/BF02435979. PMID ...
However, the liver can use long-chain fatty acids to synthesise the three ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and ... He reported that three water-soluble compounds, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone (known collectively as ketone ... The ketone bodies are possibly anticonvulsant; in animal models, acetoacetate and acetone protect against seizures. The ... which change colour from buff-pink to maroon in the presence of acetoacetate (one of the three ketone bodies).[47] ...
Ho, M.C., Menetret, J.F., Tsuruta, H. and Allen, K.N. (2009). „The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate ... Zerner, B., Coutts, S.M., Lederer, F., Waters, H.H. and Westheimer, F.H. (1966). „Acetoacetate decarboxylase. Preparation of ...
Heart muscle and renal cortex prefer acetoacetate over glucose. The brain uses acetoacetate when glucose levels are low due to ... Under typical physiological conditions, acetoacetic acid exists as its conjugate base, acetoacetate. Acetoacetate is produced ... and then an acetyl CoA is lost from this yielding acetoacetate. The initial acetoacetate can come from the last cycle in the ... In mammals acetoacetate produced in the liver (along with the other two "ketone bodies") is released into the bloodstream as an ...
Properties of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme prepared from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 318-25. PMID 13818236. Molecular ... acetoacetate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetoacetyl-CoA and H2O, whereas its two products are CoA and ... acetoacetate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on thioester bonds. The systematic ...
Geuther spent most of his academic career at the University of Jena where he discovered ethyl acetoacetate, a key compound for ... Geuther is best known for his discovery of ethyl acetoacetate. Although he discovered the compound in 1863, it took him two ... The experimental work of his and others yielded puzzling results and induced debates on the nature of ethyl acetoacetate. The ... the true nature of ethyl acetoacetate was a tautomeric equilibrium between the both suggested structures. The Keto-enol ...
I. Purification of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme from ox liver". J. Biol. Chem. 235: 313-317. PMID 13834445. Molecular ...
... lyase breaks it into acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. Steroidogenic enzyme Debi P. Sarkar (2015). "Classics in Indian ...
"The yeast mediated reduction of ethyl acetoacetate in petroleum ether". Tetrahedron Letters. 34 (24): 3949-3950. doi:10.1016/ ...
Part I. The action of ethyl acetoacetate on linalool and geraniol". J. Chem. Soc. 1940, 704-706. doi:10.1039/JR9400000704. ...
... is prepared quite simply by condensation of ethyl acetoacetate with thiourea. Further work in this series ...
Ketones can be measured in the urine (acetoacetate) and blood (β-hydroxybutyrate). When compared with urine acetoacetate ... acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate). β-Hydroxybutyrate can serve as an energy source in the absence of insulin-mediated glucose ...
The condensation of o-phenylenediamine with α-aryl and γ-aryl-acetoacetate]. Helvetica Chimica Acta (in German). 43 (4): 1046- ...
Aldol condensation of acetone and ethyl acetoacetate gave β-keto-ester 3. A Grignard reaction involving methylmagnesium bromide ...
In alcoholic solution it condenses with sodium acetoacetate to form 4-methylumbelliferone. In addition to electrophilic ...
Under these circumstances acetyl-CoA is diverted to the formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, beta- ... However acetyl-CoA can be converted to acetoacetate, which can decarboxylate to acetone (either spontaneously, or by ... acetoacetate decarboxylase). It can then be further metabolized to isopropanol which is excreted in breath/urine, or by CYP2E1 ...
The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under ... It is sensitive to acetoacetate only, and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate is shifted from a normal value of ... Measuring acetoacetate alone will thus underestimate the accompanying beta-hydroxybutyrate if the standard conversion factor is ... Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. ...
It catalyzes the reaction: (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA = acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate. and requires a divalent metal ion as ...
"Acetoacetyl coenzyme-a as intermediate in the enzymatic breakdown and synthesis of acetoacetate". J Am Chem Soc. 75: 1517-1518 ...
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA is cleaved into two molecules, acetoacetate and acetyl CoA. Point mutations and deletion events ... MCC performs a single step in the breakdown of leucine to eventually yield acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. MCC catalyzes the ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate,acetoacetate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). ... acetoacetate, and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate, CO2, and NADPH. This enzyme belongs to ... acetoacetate + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-(2-oxopropylthio)ethanesulfonate + CO2 + NADPH The 3 substrates of ...
While at Würzburg, Wislicenus developed the use of ethyl aceto acetate in organic synthesis. However, he was also active in ...
This gene encodes the last enzyme in the subpathway that synthesizes acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine, which is ... The fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-fumarylacetoacetate into fumarate and acetoacetate. ...
The conversion of B-OHB to acetoacetate catalyzed by the enzyme reduces the NAD+ to NADH, generating an electrical change, the ... In humans, D-3-hydroxybutyrate is synthesized in the liver from acetoacetate, the first ketone produced in the fasting state. ... This elevated beta-hydroxybutyrate level is naturally expected, as beta-hydroxybutyrate is formed from acetoacetate. The ...
Under these circumstances acetyl-CoA is diverted to the formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, beta- ... dimer called acetoacetate. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a reduced form of acetoacetate, in which the ketone group is converted into ... The smell of acetoacetate and/or acetone in breath is a common feature in ketosis. When a type 1 diabetic suffers a biological ... Acetoacetate has a highly characteristic smell, for the people who can detect this smell, which occurs in the breath and urine ...
ETHYL ACETOACETATE. ICSC. : 1024. Acetoacetic acid ethyl ester. Ethyl acetylacetate. 3-Oxobutanoic acid ethyl ester. 1- ...
Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase KEGG: Entry of Acetoacetate decarboxylase InterPro: IPR010451 Acetoacetate decarboxylase ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase has a KM for acetoacetate of 7×10−3 M whereas the enzyme has a KI for benzoylacetone of 1.9×10−6 M. ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase plays a key role in solvent production by catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate, yielding ... Acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to yield acetone and ...
Ethyl acetoacetate is produced industrially by treatment of diketene with ethanol. The preparation of ethyl acetoacetate is a ... Two moles of ethyl acetate condense to form one mole each of ethyl acetoacetate and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is subject to ... Ethyl acetoacetate, when heated alone (uncatalyzed) with benzyl alcohol, forms synthetically useful benzyl acetoacetate (benzyl ... Ethyl acetoacetate is often used in the acetoacetic ester synthesis similar to diethyl malonate in the malonic ester synthesis ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C; CAS Number: 100548-44-5; Linear Formula: 13CC5H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-489298 MSDS, ... Ethyl acetoacetate-4-13C 99 atom % 13C * CAS Number 100548-44-5 ...
Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C; Linear Formula: 13C2C4H10O3; find Sigma-Aldrich-682403 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... Ethyl acetoacetate-1,2-13C2 99 atom % 13C * Linear Formula CH3CO13CH213CO2CH2CH3 ...
Relationship of Blood Acetoacetate and 3-Hydroxybutyrate in Diabetes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The ratio of blood ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, once thought to be fairly constant, has been shown to vary ... During the treatment of ketoacidosis there is usually an initial increase of the acetoacetate which may persist at a high ... insulin lowers the ratio because the fall of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate occurs earlier and more rapidly than that of acetoacetate ...
... agrochemicals and solvents among others.Methyl acetoacetate is used as a starting material in the production of cyclic ... The market for methyl acetoacetate was mainly driven by end-user industries such as pharmaceutical, ... Europe had the third-largest demand for methyl acetoacetate market in 2013. Increasing demand for methyl acetoacetate from ... Other raw material used in production includes acetyl ketene, methane and ethyl acetoacetate among others. Methyl acetoacetate ...
Further in the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market Industry Analysis report, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market is examined for ... In this Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details ... Methyl Acetoacetate Sales market analysis report contains all study material about Market Overview, Growth, Demand and Forecast ... Also, the Methyl Acetoacetate Sales Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered. ...
Contact verified Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate Manufacturers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate suppliers, Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate ... Find here information of Ethyl Chloro Acetoacetate selling companies for your buy requirements. ... Ethyl Acetoacetate / Methyl Acetoacetate The range is 100% quality checked and you can rest assured us for the same. We along ... Ethyl Acetoacetate Deals in Di Ethyl Sulphate, Napthenic Acid, Nn Diethyl Aniline, Ethyl Acetoacetate, Ortho Toludine Liquid, ...
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Zirconium, C16-18-fatty acid Et acetoacetate Pr alc. complexes Regulatory process names 1 Other identifiers 1 ...
The initial concentrations of methyl acetoacetate, chlorine dioxide, potassium iodide, and sulfuric acid and the pH value have ... In order to study the chemical oscillatory behavior and mechanism of a new chlorine dioxide-iodide ion-methyl acetoacetate ... A methyl acetoacetate (MAA) aqueous solution was prepared by dissolving 3.00 mL methyl acetoacetate in a 500 mL measuring flask ... and sodium chlorite-iodine-ethyl acetoacetate oscillation reaction [23]. As is known, methyl acetoacetate (MAA) and malonic ...
ethyl acetoacetate , C6H10O3 , CID 8868 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
Gas-phase proton NMR studies of keto-enol tautomerism of acetylacetone, methyl acetoacetate, and ethyl acetoacetate.J. Phys. ... Methyl acetoacetate is used as a chemical reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. It participates in the Biginelli ... The enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate over supported nickel catalysts: I. The modification procedure. ... reaction, forming molecules including dihydropyrimidinones.Methyl acetoacetate (MAA) is used for the synthesis of alpha- ...
Jain SK, Kannan K, Lim G: Ketosis (acetoacetate) can generate oxygen radicals and cause increased lipid peroxidation and growth ... To examine the effect of ketosis, U937 monocytes were cultured with ketone bodies (acetoacetate [AA], β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) ... Artuch R, Vilaseca MA, Farre C, Ramon F: Determination of lactate, pyruvate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate with a ... Elevated Blood Interleukin-6 Levels in Hyperketonemic Type 1 Diabetic Patients and Secretion by Acetoacetate-Treated Cultured ...
The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate ... Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood ... D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. ...
Information about Acetoacetate (Ketones), Urine. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and review in-depth ... Acetoacetate (Ketones), Urine. a.k.a. Acetoacetate,Urine, Ketones [Presence] in Urine, Ketone ...
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Succinyl-CoA: acetoacetate transferase deficiency: identification of a new patient with a neonatal onset and review of the ...
The first stage of curing is a self-limiting click Michael addition between acetoacetate and acrylate groups at room ... The prepared materials are gelled after acetoacetate/acrylate Michael addition and show a wide range of properties at both ... A new family of poly(keto ester)-poly(methacrylate) thermosets based on off-stoichiometric acetoacetate-acrylate/methacrylate ... Sequential dual curing by selective Michael addition and free radical polymerization of acetoacetate-acrylate-methacrylate ...
Specimen Type: Serum. Container/Tube: Red. Specimen Volume: 3 mL. Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s). Serum gel tube is not acceptable. Spin down and send 3 mL of serum frozen in a plastic vial.. ...
The methods for lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate are kinetic and ratiometric, eliminating the need for specimen- ... and acetoacetate in plasma with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer. ... A kinetic spectrophotometric assay for rapid determination of acetoacetate in blood.. *Christopher P Price, B Llyod, Giampiero ... Kinetic measurement of the combined concentrations of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in serum.. *N F Nuwayhid, George F ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 141-97-9 ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope ... Home > Products > Stable Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard > MRI/MRS Products > ETHYL ACETOACETATE (2,4-13C2, 99%) ...
  • Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. (hindawi.com)
  • The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were 7.1 and 12% respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • 12. A hemodialysis solution prepared by the process of any of claims 4 to 10, wherein the anion gap is filled by at least one near-equilibrium couple being bicarbonate and carbon dioxide, l-lactate and pyruvate, and/or d- betahydroxybuturate (sic) and acetoacetate. (epo.org)
  • Density of binary mixtures of ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) with straight chain aliphatic ketones butan-2-one, pentan-2-one, hexan-2-one, heptan-2-one, octan-2-one and nonan-2-one were measured at varying compositions of the ethyl acetoacetate at 298.15 K. The derived properties such as excess molar volumes, VmE, of the binary mixtures were calculated from the experimental density data of the mixtures. (nwu.ac.za)
  • A new family of poly(keto ester)-poly(methacrylate) thermosets based on off-stoichiometric acetoacetate-acrylate/methacrylate formulations has been prepared and characterized. (upc.edu)
  • The first stage of curing is a self-limiting click Michael addition between acetoacetate and acrylate groups at room temperature and the second stage is a methacrylate radical photopolymerization. (upc.edu)
  • Ramis, X. Sequential dual curing by selective Michael addition and free radical polymerization of acetoacetate-acrylate-methacrylate mixtures. (upc.edu)
  • It is further converted into 3-aminobutyryl-CoA and acetoacetate in the presence of acetyl-CoA by 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme (4). (nih.gov)
  • An analysis of the reaction kinetics confirmed that acetoacetate reacts selectively with acrylates, leaving methacrylates completely unreacted after the first curing stage. (upc.edu)
  • Ethyl (and other) acetoacetates nitrosate readily with equimolar sodium nitrite in acetic acid, to afford the corresponding oximinoacetoacetate esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructone, the ethylene glycol ketal of ethyl acetoacetate, an aroma compound Ethyl Acetoacetic ester synthesis Wilhelm Riemenschneider and Hermann M. Bolt "Esters, Organic" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. (wikipedia.org)
  • It participates in the Biginelli reaction, forming molecules including dihydropyrimidinones.Methyl acetoacetate (MAA) is used for the synthesis of alpha-substituted aceto- acetic esters and cyclic compounds, e.g. pyrazole, pyrimidine and coumarin derivatives. (alfa.com)
  • The normal catabolic pathway, which moves tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, then to homogentisic acid, the ring then being cleaved to produce maleylacetoacetate (MAA) and fumarylacetoacetate (FAA), is interrupted at the next step, which would normally produce fumarate and acetoacetate. (medscape.com)
  • The first line of support for this mechanism came from a radiolabeling experiment in which researchers labeled the carbonyl group of acetoacetate with 18O and observed that oxygen exchange to water, used as the solvent, is a necessary part of decarboxylation step. (wikipedia.org)