Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Citraconic Anhydrides: Methylmaleic anhydrides.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).TritiumEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.

Characterisation of the conformational and quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109. (1/78)

PDC-109, the major heparin-binding protein of bull seminal plasma, binds to sperm choline lipids at ejaculation and modulates capacitation mediated by heparin. Affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose showed that polydisperse, but not monomeric, PDC-109 displayed heparin-binding capability. We sought to characterise the surface topology of the quaternary structure-dependent heparin-binding region of PDC-109 by comparing the arginine- and lysine-selective chemical modification patterns of the free and the heparin-bound protein. A combination of reversed-phase peptide mapping of endoproteinase Lys-C-digested PDC-109 derivatives and mass spectrometry was employed to identify modified and heparin-protected residues. PDC-109 contains two tandemly arranged fibronectin type II domains (a, Cys24-Cys61; b, Cys69-Cys109). The results show that six basic residues (Lys34, Arg57, Lys59, Arg64, Lys68, and Arg104) were shielded from reaction with acetic anhydride and 1,2-cyclohexanedione in heparin-bound PDC-109 oligomers. In the 1H-NMR solution structures of single fibronectin type II domains, residues topologically equivalent to PDC-109 Arg57 (Arg104) and Lys59 lay around beta-strand D on the same face of the domain. In full-length PDC-109, Arg64 and Lys68 are both located in the intervening polypeptide between domains a and b. Our data suggest possible quaternary structure arrangements of PDC-109 molecules to form a heparin-binding oligomer.  (+info)

Chemical modification of lysine side chains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter causes a shift from cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase to alpha-amylase specificity. (2/78)

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases and alpha-amylases are two groups of enzymes with related secondary structures. However, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases display transferase activities not present in alpha-amylases, probably derived from the existence of two more domains and different amino acid sequences. The hydrolytic activity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is generally quite low, except for two cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases from termophiles. In this work, we have carried out the chemical modification (with acetic anhydride) of the amino groups of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter to assess their contributions to protein function. The acetylated cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase showed a significant reduction of its cyclization, coupling and disproportionation activities. Surprisingly, the hydrolytic (saccharifying) activity was slightly enhanced. These results suggest the participation of one or more lysine side chains in the interactions contributing to the transferase activity, either in any of the S11 subsites or in the acceptor binding site.  (+info)

Induction and suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis by sphingolipids: a possible in vitro model for cell-cell interactions between platelets and endothelial cells. (3/78)

Because sphingosine (Sph) is actively incorporated into platelets and rapidly converted to sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph-1-P), which is then released extracellularly, it is important to study the effects of Sph and Sph-1-P on endothelial cells from the viewpoint of platelet-endothelial cell interaction. In this study, we found that Sph, as well as ceramide, induces apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In contrast, Sph-1-P acts as a HUVEC survival factor; this bioactive lipid was shown to protect HUVECs from apoptosis induced by the withdrawal of growth factors and to stimulate HUVEC DNA synthesis. In metabolic studies, [3H]Sph, incorporated into HUVECs, was converted to [3H]Cer and further to [3H]sphingomyelin in a time-dependent manner, whereas [3H]Sph-1-P formation from [3H]Sph was weak and transient. These findings in HUVECs are very different from those of platelets, which possess a highly active Sph kinase but lack Sph-1-P lyase. As a result, platelets abundantly store Sph-1-P, whereas HUVECs contain much less Sph-1-P. Finally, HUVECs, in contrast to platelets, failed to release Sph-1-P extracellularly, indicating that HUVECs themselves are not able to supply the survival factor Sph-1-P, but receive it from activated platelets. Our results suggest that platelets may maintain the integrity of endothelial cells by incorporating Sph and releasing Sph-1-P.  (+info)

Distinguishing between luminal and localized proton buffering pools in thylakoid membranes. (4/78)

The dual gradient energy coupling hypothesis posits that chloroplast thylakoid membranes are energized for ATP formation by either a delocalized or a localized proton gradient geometry. Localized energy coupling is characterized by sequestered domains with a buffering capacity of approximately 150 nmol H(+) mg(-1) chlorophyll (Chl). A total of 30 to 40 nmol mg(-1) Chl of the total sequestered domain buffering capacity is contributed by lysines with anomolously low pK(a)s, which can be covalently derivatized with acetic anhydride. We report that in thylakoid membranes treated with acetic anhydride, luminal acidification by a photosystem I (duraquinol [DQH(2)] to methyl viologen [MV]) proton pumping partial reaction was nearly completely inhibited, as measured by three separate assays, yet surprisingly, H(+) accumulation still occurred to the significant level of more than 100 nmol H(+) mg Chl(-1), presumably into the sequestered domains. The treatment did not increase the observed rate constant of dark H(+) efflux, nor was electron transport significantly inhibited. These data provide support for the existence of a sequestered proton translocating pathway linking the redox reaction H(+) ion sources with the CF(0) H(+) channel. The sequestered, low-pK(a) Lys groups appear to have a role in the H(+) diffusion process and chemically modifying them blocks the putative H(+) relay system.  (+info)

Novel mechanism of surface catalysis of protein adduct formation. NMR studies of the acetylation of ubiquitin. (5/78)

Reactivity of surface lysyl residues of proteins with a broad range of chemical agents has been proposed to be dependent on the catalytic microenvironment of the residue. We have investigated the acetylation of wild type ubiquitin and of the UbH68N mutant to evaluate the potential contribution of His-68 to the reactivity of Lys-6, which is about 4 A distant. These studies were performed using [1-(13)C]acetyl salicylate or [1,1'-(13)C(2)]acetic anhydride, and the acetylated products were detected by two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that His-68 makes a positive contribution to the rate of acetylation of Lys-6 by labeled aspirin. Additionally, a pair of transient resonances is observed after treatment of wild type ubiquitin with the labeled acetic anhydride but not upon treatment of the H68N mutant. These resonances are assigned to the acetylated His-68 residue. The loss of intensity of the acetylhistidine resonances is accompanied by an increase in intensity of the acetyl-Lys-6 peak, supporting the existence of a transacetylation process between the acetylhistidine 68 and lysine 6 residues located on the protein surface. Hence, this may be the first direct demonstration of a catalytic intermediate forming on the protein surface.  (+info)

Intramolecular capture of pummerer reaction intermediates by an aromatic nucleophile: selective construction of 1,4-benzothiazine and indole ring systems. (6/78)

The simple alkyl sulfoxide 6 carrying two aromatic nucleophiles, when treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride at room temperature (Pummerer reaction conditions), underwent an intramolecular aromatic sulfenylation of the 6-exo-tet process in an exclusive manner to yield two regioisomeric 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives, 8 and 9. On the other hand, a similar reaction of the alpha-acyl sulfoxide 7, possessing identical aromatic nucleophiles, caused an intramolecular aromatic alkylation of the 5-exo-trig process to produce the 3-oxo-indole derivative 14 in a quantitative yield. These results demonstrate that the construction of 1,4-benzothiazine and indole ring systems can be achieved in a selective manner by proper choice of the sulfoxide side chain.  (+info)

Trifluoromethyl ketone-based inhibitors of apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. (7/78)

A variety of aromatic trifluoromethyl ketone derivatives has been studied as inhibitors of apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Among them, alpha-trifluoromethyl diketone (2) and benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone (11) were found to be apoptosis inhibitors which can prevent a neurodegenerative disease. Compounds 2 and 11 showed neuroprotection effect on low K+-induced apoptosis in CGNs. Furthermore, these compounds effectively suppressed DNA fragmentation accompanied with apoptosis. The neuroprotection mode of 2 and 11 was not related to inhibition of caspase-3.  (+info)

Scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate catalyzed aromatic nitration with inorganic nitrates and acetic anhydride. (8/78)

The rare earth metal(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate (rare earth metal(III) triflate, RE(OTf)3) was found to be an efficient catalyst for aromatic nitration with carboxylic anhydride-inorganic nitrate as the nitrating agent. In the presence of a catalytic amount of RE(OTf)3, the nitration of substituted benzenes proceeded to afford the corresponding nitrobenzenes. Especially, scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate (scandium(III) triflate, Sc(OTf)3) is the most active catalyst among our tested Lewis acids. It was also found that acetic anhydride-Al(NO3).9H2O is the most active nitrating agent in this system.  (+info)

  • For example, flammable liquids (acetone and the alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, isobutanol and t-butanol) are given high hazard ratings while glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride and adipoyl chloride whose hazard lies in the inhalation of the vapour are given medium ratings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ISLAMABAD -- Anti-Narcotics Force Pakistan seized 1.091 Tons narcotics and 1625 Liters Acetic Anhydride valuing Rs 1.25 Billion internationally, arrested 27 persons including 2 ladies involved in drug smuggling and impounded 7 vehicles while conducting 27 counternarcotics strikes across the country. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The internal asymmetry may contribute to acetic anhydride's potent electrophilicity as the asymmetric geometry makes one side of a carbonyl carbon more reactive than the other, and in doing so tends to consolidate the electropositivity of a carbonyl carbon to one side (see electron density diagram). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from being highly reactive to water, acetic anhydride is also flammable, generating dangerous vapours when heated. (reference.com)
  • The acetic acid market has grown considerably during the past few years and is estimated to grow at a considerable pace in the next five years, mainly driven by the growing demand in the Asia-Pacific region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This research report categorizes the global acetic acid market on the basis of applications and geography along with forecast of volume, value, and analyzing trends in each of the submarkets. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • ISLAMABAD -- Anti-Narcotics Force Pakistan has seized 1.877 Tons narcotics and 2.52 Tons Acetic Anhydride valuing Rs 1.5 Billion internationally, arrested 29 persons including 6 ladies and 3 foreigners involved in drug smuggling and impounded 9 vehicles while conducting 24 counter-narcotics strikes across the country. (thefreedictionary.com)