Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNaphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Gluconacetobacter: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gluconobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Zygosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Gluconobacter oxydans: A rod-shaped to ellipsoidal, gram-negative bacterium which oxidizes ethanol to acetic acid and prefers sugar-enriched environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)EstersArabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.GluconatesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.ButanonesAcids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
(1/1272) Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat.

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

(2/1272) A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens.

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

(3/1272) Antinociceptive properties of the new alkaloid, cis-8, 10-di-N-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dihydrate isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus: evidence for the mechanism of action.

The antinociceptive action of the alkaloid cis-8, 10-di-n-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dehydrate (DPHD), isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus, given i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v., was assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin- and capsaicin-induced licking, and hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DPHD given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. elicited significant and dose-related antinociception. At the ID50 level, DPHD was about 2- to 39-fold more potent than aspirin and dipyrone, but it was about 14- to 119-fold less potent than morphine. Its analgesic action was reversed by treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine, naloxone, cyprodime, naltrindole, nor-binaltrorphimine, L-arginine, or pertussis toxin. Its action was also modulated by adrenal-gland hormones but was not affected by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A or type B antagonist, bicuculine, or phaclofen, nor was it affected by glibenclamide. DPHD, given daily for up to 7 days, did not develop tolerance to itself nor did it induce cross-tolerance to morphine. However, animals rendered tolerant to morphine presented cross-tolerance to DPHD. The antinociception of DPHD was not secondary to its anti-inflammatory effect, nor was it associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. DPHD, in contrast to morphine, did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it inhibit electrical field stimulation of the guinea pig ileum or mouse vas deferens in vitro. Thus, DPHD produces dose-dependent and pronounced systemic, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in mice, including against the neurogenic nociception induced by formalin and capsaicin. Its antinociceptive effect involves multiple mechanisms of action, namely interaction with mu, delta, or kappa opioid systems, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonin pathways, activation of Gi protein sensitive to pertussis toxin, and modulation by endogenous glucocorticoids.  (+info)

(4/1272) Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig.

Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus.  (+info)

(5/1272) Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine.

We previously showed that plasma cholesterol levels decreased following ingestion of a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) mixture composed of sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids simulating cecal fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber (SBF). In the present study, we investigated whether hepatic and small intestinal cholesterol synthesis is involved in the cholesterol-lowering effects of SCFA and SBF. In vitro (expt. 1) and in vivo (expt. 2) cholesterol synthesis rates and the diurnal pattern of SCFA concentrations in portal plasma (expt. 3) were studied in three separate experiments in rats fed diets containing the SCFA mixture, SBF (100 g/kg diet), or the fiber-free control diet. Cholesterol synthesis was measured using 3H2O as a tracer. The in vitro rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured using liver slices, was greater in the SBF group, but not in the SCFA group, than in the fiber-free control group. In contrast, the hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate in vivo was lower in the SCFA group, but not in the SBF group, than in the control group. The mucosal cholesterol synthesis rate for the whole small intestine was <50% of the hepatic rate. The rate in the proximal region was slightly but significantly lower in the SCFA group, and was significantly higher in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. The rate in the distal small intestines was also significantly greater in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the SCFA and SBF groups than in the fiber-free group in both experiments 2 and 3. Diurnal changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol levels were studied in the experiment 3. SCFA concentrations increased rapidly after the start of feeding the SCFA diet, and changes in plasma cholesterol were the reciprocal of those observed in SCFA. These results show that a decrease in hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate mainly contributes to the lowering of plasma cholesterol in rats fed the SCFA mixture diet. Changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol concentrations support this conclusion. In SBF-fed rats, SCFA produced by cecal fermentation are possibly involved in lowering plasma cholesterol levels by negating the counteractive induction of hepatic cholesterol synthesis caused by an increase in bile acid excretion.  (+info)

(6/1272) Interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and enzymatic study.

The effect of the presence of ammonia on [1-13C]glucose metabolism in the rumen fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was studied by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ammonia halved the level of glycogen storage and increased the rate of glucose conversion into acetate and succinate 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, reducing the succinate-to-acetate ratio. The 13C enrichment of succinate and acetate was precisely quantified by 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The presence of ammonia did not modify the 13C enrichment of succinate C-2 (without ammonia, 20.8%, and with ammonia, 21.6%), indicating that the isotopic dilution of metabolites due to utilization of endogenous glycogen was not affected. In contrast, the presence of ammonia markedly decreased the 13C enrichment of acetate C-2 (from 40 to 31%), reflecting enhanced reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. The reversal of glycolysis was unaffected by the presence of ammonia as shown by 13C-NMR analysis. Study of cell extracts showed that the main pathways of ammonia assimilation in F. succinogenes were glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase. Glutamine synthetase activity was not detected. Glutamate dehydrogenase was active with both NAD and NADP as cofactors and was not repressed under ammonia limitation in the culture. Glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were evidenced by spectrophotometry and 1H NMR. When cells were incubated in vivo with [1-13C]glucose, only 13C-labeled aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and valine were detected. Their labelings were consistent with the proposed amino acid synthesis pathway and with the reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway.  (+info)

(7/1272) Healing effects of heparin on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not heparin can accelerate the healing process of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats and to identify the mechanisms for heparin to produce this effect, so that we can develop a new therapeutic application to heparin besides its traditional anticoagulant activity. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to produce acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Heparin in the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 U/kg were administered intravenously through the tail vein once daily, starting 1 day after ulcer induction for 7 days in the dose-response experiment or heparin 1000 U/kg at a time schedule of 3, 5, and 7 days in the time-response study, respectively. The gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter under ether anesthesia. The rats were then sacrificed and the ulcer areas were measured. The gastric mucosa was then scraped for the determinations of mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level and myeloper-oxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Heparin in the doses of 500 and 1000 U/kg accelerated the healing of acetic acid ulcers in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of heparin also reduced the ulcer areas in a time-dependent fashion. The effect was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal PGE2 levels. The same dose of heparin not only decreased the gastric mucosal MPO activity but also increased the GMBF in a time-related manner. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin with the doses used in the present study accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this action was related to its effects to increase the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and GMBF as well as to decrease the gastric mucosal MPO activity.  (+info)

(8/1272) Experimental colitis increases blood-brain barrier permeability in rabbits.

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are numerous. This study examined the effects of two models of acute colitis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rabbits. CBF (measured with radiolabeled microspheres), or the extraction ratio or permeability-surface area (PS) product of the blood-brain barrier to fluorescein and FITC-dextran, was measured 48 h after colitis induction with acetic acid (HAc) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.05) in TNBS colitis (1.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.52 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.48 x 10(-5) +/- 0.13 x 10(-5) ml/s (mean +/- SE) for treated (n = 14) and untreated (n = 10) animals, respectively. PS product for the larger FITC-dextran was not different in TNBS colitis (0.24 x 10(-5) +/- 0.09 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 7) compared with untreated controls (0.19 x 10(-5) +/- 0.04 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 8). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.01) in HAc colitis compared with vehicle (2.66 x 10(-5) +/- 1.46 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.05 x 10(-5) ml/s, respectively; n = 6 in each group). The extraction of fluorescein from the blood to the brain increased by 75% during TNBS colitis when compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). CBF and cerebrovascular resistance did not change from the untreated control after TNBS colitis. Our data suggest that, irrespective of induction method, acute colitis increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to small molecules without changing CBF.  (+info)

*  Vinegar
20% acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide. Acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems; the vinegar will kill top ... The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ... Low-quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated basi ... acetic acid) made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid. To be called "Spirit Vinegar", the product must come ...
*  Fermentation
Acetic acid (another conversion product) is acidic, and not as volatile as ethanol; however, in the presence of limited oxygen ... If propionic acid, butyric acid, and longer monocarboxylic acids are produced (see mixed acid fermentation), the amount of ... Acetic acid can also undergo a dismutation reaction to produce methane and carbon dioxide: CH3COO− + H+ → CH4 + CO2 ΔG° = -36 ... These lactic acid bacteria can carry out either homolactic fermentation, where the end-product is mostly lactic acid, or ...
*  Saccharibacter
nov., a novel osmophilic acetic acid bacterium isolated from pollen". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Kazunobu, Matsushita; Hirohide, Toyama; Naoto, Tonouchi; Akiko, Okamoto-Kainuma (2016). Acetic Acid Bacteria: Ecology and ...
*  Acetobacter
Acetic acid bacteria are characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Of these, ... Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria. ...
*  Ethanol metabolism
... acetic acid) + NADH + H+ Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol Acetic Acid: −389.9 kJ/mol ΔGf2 = −389.9 + 127.6 = −262.3 kJ/mol ( ... For the oxidation of acetic acid we have: Acetic Acid: −389.9 kJ/mol 3H2O+2CO2: −1 500.1 kJ/mol ΔGf4 = −1 500 + 389.6 = −1 ... The first three steps of the reaction pathways lead from ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetic acid to acetyl-CoA. Once acetyl-CoA ... If the reaction stops part way through the metabolic pathways, which happens because acetic acid is excreted in the urine after ...
*  Jiuqu
A modern practice is to steep the rice in weak acetic acid solution for a short period to help create the optimum pH of 3-3.5 ... Lactic acid is the most common organic acid found in Chinese alcoholic beverages and plays a vital role in both the ... Species of Rhizopus are capable of producing fumaric acid, lactic acid and ethanol as they excrete zymases, but their ... amino acids, peptides, CO2, alcohol and organic acids. Although only one type of starter is required, many Chinese breweries ...
*  Asaia bogorensis
nov., an unusual acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Asaia bogorensis is a species of acetic acid bacterium. It is Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and peritrichously flagellated ... ANO, Yoshitaka; TOYAMA, Hirohide; ADACHI, Osao; MATSUSHITA, Kazunobu (2008). "Energy Metabolism of a Unique Acetic Acid ... 2011). "Ultrafine Cellulose Fibers Produced byAsaia bogorensis, an Acetic Acid Bacterium". Biomacromolecules. 12 (7): 2815-2821 ...
*  Acetic acid/hydrocortisone
... is a commonly used combination drug to treat infections of the outer ear and ear canal. Branded as ... it combines the antibacterial and antifungal action of acetic acid with the anti-inflammatory functions of hydrocortisone. ...
*  Acetic acid (data page)
"Gas phase UV absorption spectra for peracetic acid, and for acetic acid monomers and dimers". J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on acetic acid. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
*  Acetic acid (medical use)
Acetic acid is applied to the cervix and if an area of white appears after about a minute the test is positive. "Acetic acid ( ... Acetic acid is more commonly used for external ear infections in the developing world than the developed. Acetic acid may be ... Acetic acid, also known as vinegar, is used as a medication to treat a number of conditions. As an eardrop it is used to treat ... Acetic acid has been used medically since the time of Ancient Egypt. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ...
*  Indole-3-acetic acid
Some Chlorophenoxyacetic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63 (6): 1768-1768. doi:10.1021/ja01851a601. "Indole-3-Acetic Acid: Material ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best ... Fu SF1 Wei JY, Chen HW, Liu YY, Lu HY, Chou JY (Aug 2015). "Indole-3-acetic acid: A widespread physiological code in ...
*  Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid
... (MCPA) is a compound found in lychee seeds. It is also a metabolite in mammalian digestion ... Dihydrosterculic acid is the major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis. It is a cyclopropene fatty acid ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ... They are accompanied by small amounts of their cyclopropanoid analogues, i.e. cyclopropyl acetic acid. The symptoms of ...
*  4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid
"4-chloroindole-3-acetic and indole-3-acetic acids in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry. 46 (4): 675-681. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97 ... 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is an organic compound that functions as a plant hormone. It is a member of the class ... Reinecke, Dennis M. (1999). "4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth". Plant Growth Regulation. 27 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1023 ... Ernstsen, Arild; Sandberg, Goeran (1986). "Identification of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde in seeds of ...
*  Iridium
Cheung, H.; Tanke, R. S.; Torrence, G. P. (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi: ... Iridium compounds are used as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid. The ... Hexachloroiridic(IV) acid, H 2IrCl 6, and its ammonium salt are the most important iridium compounds from an industrial ... The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number ...
*  Pierre Adet
He proved that glacial acetic acid and vinegar acetic acid were the same substance. He was secretary to the Minister of the ... "Acetic Acid". Collot, Georges-Henri-Victor, 1750-1805 (2014). "American Journeys: Collot Expedition of 1796". Wisconsin ...
*  Skatole
One obtained thereby volitile fatty acids; acetic acid; normal and isobutyric acid; as well as the aromatic substances: phenol ... and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system that displays aromaticity. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring ...
*  Butyl acetate
... and acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid under reflux conditions with the following reaction: Apples, ... ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. Acetic acid, butyl ester in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, ... Acetic acid. (2003). In Ullman's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry (6th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 170-171). Weinheim, Germany: Wiley- ...
*  Organoiridium compound
doi:10.1016/S0022-328X(00)85160-8. Cheung, Hosea; Tanke, Robin S.; Torrence, G. Paul (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's ... of organoiridium complexes is as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid Iridium ... Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (12): 2784-2785. doi:10.1021/ja01473a054 ...
*  Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels
... or the carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) with a high-molecular-weight alcohol (e.g., hexanol, heptanol ... such as carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid), ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) ... Ketonization of acetic acid. B.S. student report. Bradley, M.W., Harris, N., Turner, K. 1982. Process for Hydrogenolysis of ... 3 CH3COOH + 6 H2 → 3 CH3CH2OH + 3 H2O (Hydrogenation of acetic acid) C6H12O6 (from cellulose) + 6 H2 (from lignin) → 3 CH3CH2OH ...
*  Aluminium triacetate
"Acetic acid / aluminum acetate solution". Drugs.com. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016. Thorp, M. A.; Kruger, J.; ... and is usually prepared from aluminium chloride or directly from aluminium by heating in an acetic acid solution with acetic ... and acetic acid would be AcOH or HOAc. Publications in geochemistry, however, are using Ac to refer to acetate rather than ... Oliver, S.; Nilssen, E. L. K.; Prescott, C. A. J. (1998). "The antibacterial activity of acetic acid and Burow's solution as ...
*  Salt End
... of acetic acid and acetic anhydride per year, making BP the largest producer of these chemicals in Europe. Acetic acid is used ... Chemicals produced at Salt End include acetic acid, acetic anhydride, ammonia, bio-butanol, bio-ethanol, ethyl acetate (ETAC) ... Vinyl Acetate". Acetic acid and its derivatives. New York: M. Dekker. pp. 225-229. ISBN 0-8247-8792-7. "Job losses as Saltend ... In 1930 the site was expanded to produce acetic acids from alcohol which were eventually closed down by BP in 1990. In April ...
*  Aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Nakayama T. "Acetic acid bacteria. II. Intracellular distribution of enzymes related to acetic acid fermentation, and some ... an acid + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are aldehyde, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are acid, NADPH, and ...
*  Chichibabin pyridine synthesis
ISBN 3-540-40203-9. Weiss, M. (1952). "Acetic Acid-Ammonium Acetate Reactions. An Improved Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis". ... 5. Increased pressures and temperature In vivo, deamination of the α-amino group of amino acids produces small amounts of ... The structures of these cross-linked amino acids had 3,4,5- and 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyridine skeletons, specifically ...
*  Dehydroacetic acid
Acetic Acid and its Derivatives. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 202. ISBN 9780824787929. Harold William Rossmoore. Handbook ... Dehydroacetic acid is an organic compound which has several industrial applications. The compound is classified as a pyrone ... Industrially, dehydroacetic acid has several uses which include the following: as a fungicide and bactericide. The sodium salt ... When used as a food additive, dehydroacetic acid is referred to using the International Numbering System for Food Additives or ...
*  List of food additives
Acetic acid - acidity regulator Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Acetylated distarch ... Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. Acidity regulators ... Citranaxanthin - color Citric acid - food acid Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids - emulsifier Citrus ... Phosphated distarch phosphate - thickener, vegetable gum Phosphoric acid - food acid Phytic acid - preservative Pigment Rubine ...
*  Haem peroxidase
... indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) catabolism; ethylene biosynthesis; and so on. Class III proteins are also monomeric glycoproteins, ...
African Journal of Biotechnology  - molecular identification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mango juices of...  African Journal of Biotechnology - molecular identification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mango juices of...
This study investigated to identify dominant strain acetic acid bacteria involving in fermented juice of mango and capable to ... Key words: Fermented juice, acetic acid bacteria, 16S rRNA gene sequence, Acetobacter tropicalis. ... ethanol oxidation to acetic acid, and over to CO2 and H2O and also metabolism of carbohydrate was tested, for their affiliation ... to the genera of acetic acid bacteria. Subsequently, genotypic identification was conducted by sequencing the gene coding for ...
more infohttps://academicjournals.org/journal/AJB/article-authors/D93E30F61812
Global Glacial Acetic Acid Market - World Glacial Acetic Acid Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2022 -...  Global Glacial Acetic Acid Market - World Glacial Acetic Acid Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2022 -...
World Glacial Acetic Acid Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2022 - Global Glacial Acetic Acid Industry ... Global Glacial Acetic Acid Report - Grand View Research, Inc. ... Glacial acetic acid is colorless undiluted acetic acid used in ... Global Glacial Acetic Acid Market - World Glacial Acetic Acid Market Size, Trends, Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2022 - ... glacial acetic acid is considered as a good acidity regulator in many foods and beverages. In addition production of acetic ...
more infohttps://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/global-glacial-acetic-acid-market
Effect of naphthaleneacetic acid on endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, peroxidase and auxin oxidase in hypocotyl cuttings of...  Effect of naphthaleneacetic acid on endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, peroxidase and auxin oxidase in hypocotyl cuttings of...
Analysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid. Extraction and partial purification Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was extracted by grinding 5.0 ... Effect of naphthaleneacetic acid on endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, peroxidase and auxin oxidase in hypocotyl cuttings of ... Abbreviations: HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; IAA, indole-3-acetic acid; NAA, naphthaleneacetic acid; TLC, thin ... Abstract. The effect of exogenous naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the internal levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in rooting ...
more infohttp://ejournal.sinica.edu.tw/bbas/content/1996/4/bot374-03.html
Isolation of Acetic Acid Bacteria and Preparation of Starter Culture for Apple Cider Vinegar Fermentation  Isolation of Acetic Acid Bacteria and Preparation of Starter Culture for Apple Cider Vinegar Fermentation
Several acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated from ACV using selective media. Microscopy revealed the cultures to be gram ... The present work focuses on the isolation of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria from ACV and the preparation of a starter culture ... ACV was produced in a bench scale bioreactor using a traditional fermentation process wherein an acetic acid concentration of ... wherein an acetic acid concentration of 4.2% - 4.9% was obtained in 10 - 12 days. Thus, these two starter cultures with locally ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/4-2271318_93456.htm
Plus it  Plus it
Volatile acidity and acetic acid were compared and found to be equivalent for all practical purposes. Total volatile esters ... Acetic acid decreases in the middle fermentation temperature range. Isobutanol does not vary greatly with fermentation ... Impact of Exogenous Abscisic Acid on Vine Physiology and Grape Composition of Cabernet Sauvignon ...
more infohttp://www.ajevonline.org/content/18/3/157
Butyl Acetate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Exporters,Dealers in India  Butyl Acetate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Exporters,Dealers in India
Solvents, Acetic Acid, Acetone, Industrial Chemical, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Bi Carbonate, Ammonium Bifluoride, Aniline, ... Methanol, Toluene, Butyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Butyl Cellosole, Ethyl Acetate, Mix Xylene, Acetic Acid, Soda Ash, Perchloro ... Butyl Acetate, Acetone, Caustic Soda, Oxalic Acid, R.O. Antiscalent, ETP Chemicals, House, House Hold Cleaning Material ... Speciality Chemicals, Di Acetone Alcohol, Acetone, Butyl Acetate, Cyclohexane, Ethyl Acetate, ISO Phthalic Acid, Paint ...
more infohttp://www.maharashtradirectory.com/product/butyl-acetate.html
Acetic Acid | HubPages  Acetic Acid | HubPages
Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid that gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... The global demand of Acetic Acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year. The name is derived from acetum, the Latin name for ... Glacial Acetic Acid. Glacial Acetic Acid. Glacial Acetic Acid is 99% pure acetic acid, (water-free) and is dangerously ... What is Acetic Acid?. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid that gives vinegar its sour taste and ...
more infohttps://hubpages.com/education/Acetic-Acid
Acetic acid, protonated  Acetic acid, protonated
Go To: Top, References, Notes. Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved. Data compiled by: Michael M. Meot-Ner (Mautner) and Sharon G. Lias. Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below. ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=B5000243&Mask=8
Acetic acid, methoxy  Acetic acid, methoxy
Other names: Methoxyacetic acid; 2-Methoxyacetic acid; CH3OCH2COOH; Methoxyethanoic acid * Permanent link for this species. Use ... Utkin, A.Yu.; Bogel'fer, L.Ya.; Chimishkyan, A.L., Reversible reactions in the acidolysis of methyoxyacetic acid by acetic ... Caldwell, G.; Renneboog, R.; Kebarle, P., Gas Phase Acidities of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids, Based on Measurements of Proton ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C625456&Units=SI&Mask=FFFF
Uses for Acetic Acid | eHow  Uses for Acetic Acid | eHow
... is first produced by using acetic acid as a solvent.. Food. A variety of plant and animal tissues contain natural acetic acid ... Acetic acid is a weak acid, so it will not cause a drastic decline in pH levels; but rather, bring it to an ideal neutral level ... Being a weak acid, the acetic acid keeps the different immiscible layers of compound in cream cosmetics together and prevents ... Acetic acid is an organic acid found in nature. The compound is formed when ethanol, another organic compound, undergoes ...
more infohttps://www.ehow.com/info_8690907_uses-acetic-acid.html
Acetic acid - New World Encyclopedia  Acetic acid - New World Encyclopedia
acids. Formic acid. Propionic acid. Butyric acid. Related compounds. Acetamide. Ethyl acetate. Acetyl chloride. Acetic ... in carboxylic acids such as acetic acid can be given off as an H+ ion (proton), giving them their acidic character. Acetic acid ... The volume of acetic acid used in vinegar is comparatively small.. Vinyl acetate monomer. The major use of acetic acid is for ... Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Acetic_acid
0.25% Acetic Acid Irrigation USP  0.25% Acetic Acid Irrigation USP
ACETIC ACID (UNII: Q40Q9N063P) (ACETIC ACID - UNII:Q40Q9N063P) ACETIC ACID. 0.25 g in 100 mL. ... Glacial Acetic Acid USP. CH3COOH. 60.05. 0.25% Acetic Acid Irrigation USP is a prediluted, sterile, nonpyrogenic aqueous ... Acetic Acid Irrigation USP. It is also not known whether 0.25% Acetic Acid Irrigation USP can cause fetal harm when ... 0.25% Acetic Acid Irrigation USP is indicated as a constant or intermittent bladder rinse to help prevent the growth and ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=dd45cee3-9938-4dad-a5e1-1dd4baea85a9&type=display
Acetic Acid; Hydrocortisone Ear Solution  Acetic Acid; Hydrocortisone Ear Solution
ACETIC ACID; HYDROCORTISONE (a SEE tik AS id; hye droe KOR ti sone) is used to treat outer ear infections. ... Acetic Acid; Hydrocortisone Ear Solution. What is this medicine?. ACETIC ACID; HYDROCORTISONE (a SEE tik AS id; hye droe KOR ti ... an unusual or allergic reaction to acetic acid, hydrocortisone, propylene glycol, other medicines, foods, dyes, or ...
more infohttps://www.nationwidechildrens.org/family-resources-education/family-resources-library/acetic-acid-hydrocortisone-ear-solution
Acetic acid - Registration Dossier - ECHA  Acetic acid - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Acetic Acid. Acetic acid (7CI, 8CI, 9CI). Acetic Acid 80%. Acetic Acid Glacial. Acetic acid, 100%. Acetic acid, glacial. Aci- ... Ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid monomer. Ethylic acid. Glacial acetic acid. Ijs azijnzuur. Industrial acetic acid. Lenzing Acetic ... Albrite Acetic Acid 80%. CHINT: Acetic acid. Dilute acetic acid. ECO2200-A-BLACK(T) ECO2200-B. ED2800-A-BLACK(E). Essigsaeure. ... Acetic acid EC Number:. 200-580-7. EC Name:. Acetic acid. CAS Number:. 64-19-7 Molecular formula:. C2H4O2 IUPAC Name:. acetic ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/de/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15549
Acetic acid | What we offer | BP Acetyls Europe  Acetic acid | What we offer | BP Acetyls Europe
Acetic acid. Acetic acid is one of the most versatile organic chemicals manufactured today with applications in almost every ... At BP Acetyls Europe, we produce acetic acid on two plants. We offer a range of grades, all of which have strict quality ...
more infohttps://www.bp.com/en/global/bp-acetyls/whatweoffer/aceticacid.html
When zinc powder added to acetic acid?  When zinc powder added to acetic acid?
How you can separate acetic acid from zinc methoxide? Zinc methoxide and acetic acid react together to form methanol and zinc ... If zinc is first added to dilute sulfuric acid then concentrated sulfuric acid and acetic acid in which case will the fizzing ... Answer The most fizzing will come from the concentrated sulfuric acid, then dilute sulfuric acid, then the acetic acid. The ... When zinc powder added to acetic acid? When zinc powder added to acetic acid?. ...
more infohttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_zinc_powder_added_to_acetic_acid
Acetic acid, diphenylethoxy- | C16H16O3 - PubChem  Acetic acid, diphenylethoxy- | C16H16O3 - PubChem
Acetic acid, diphenylethoxy- , C16H16O3 , CID 24119 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ethoxy_diphenyl_acetic_acid
Acetic acid; trifluoroborane | C2H4BF3O2 - PubChem  Acetic acid; trifluoroborane | C2H4BF3O2 - PubChem
Acetic acid; trifluoroborane , C2H4BF3O2 , CID 61423 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/61423
acetic acid and hydrocortisone (otic)  acetic acid and hydrocortisone (otic)
The combination of acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic is used to treat conditions inside the ear, such as redness, itching, or ... Acetic acid fights bacteria. Hydrocortisone is a steroid. It reduces the actions of chemicals in the body that cause ... What is acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic?. Acetic acid fights bacteria.. Hydrocortisone is a steroid. It reduces the actions ... What other drugs will affect acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic?. There may be other drugs that can affect acetic acid and ...
more infohttps://www.cardiosmart.org/Healthwise/d036/25/d03625
Browse Products Containing: ACETIC ACID || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG  Browse Products Containing: ACETIC ACID || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Products containing ACETIC ACID made by company: All Terrain Inc. There are no products in the database that match your request ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?comp_id=50&ingred06=700079
  • Acetic acid/hydrocortisone is a commonly used combination drug to treat infections of the outer ear and ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branded as Vosol HC and Acetasol HC, it combines the antibacterial and antifungal action of acetic acid with the anti-inflammatory functions of hydrocortisone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chemical bond gives the compound high polarity -- and because of this -- acetic acid is used to create a variety of different solvents. (ehow.com)
  • He said the plant produced 87,810 tons of methanol, 10,012 tons of carbon monoxide and 14,243 tons of acetic acid during the month. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In his Statement of Grounds of Appeal filed on 12 May 1992 and during the oral proceedings held on 29 July 1993, the Appellant contended that document (1) disclosed a process for the production of acetic acid by carbonylating a mixture of methanol and methyl acetate in a molar ratio of 0.001:1 to 2:1 using a homogenous catalyst system comprising rhodium and a metal halide. (epo.org)
  • A variety of plant and animal tissues contain natural acetic acid and its weak acidic properties make it safe to digest at concentrations of 5 percent or less. (ehow.com)
  • food, tech grade CAS NO.:64-19-7 MF: C2H4O2 Food GradeAcetic Acid Glacial99.5% 1. (opencroquet.org)
  • Acetic acid's chemical structure reveals that it has an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. (ehow.com)
  • Using the complex of modern physical methods joined with computational studies, the authors proposed reaction mechanism, where a molecule of acetic acid serves as a proton shuttle, transferring the hydrogen atom between the reaction centers. (innovations-report.com)
  • The theoretical data obtained was in excellent agreement with experiment, proposing the reaction mechanism, where a molecule of acetic acid serves as a proton shuttle, transferring the hydrogen atom between the reaction centers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Asia-Pacific led the acetic acid market, accounting for more than half of the total consumption in 2012, and this demand is projected to grow at a CAGR of about 5.01% from 2013 to 2018. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Pure, water-free acetic acid is a colourless liquid that absorbs water from the environment, and freezes at 16.5 °C (62 °F) to a colourless crystalline solid as seen on the picture right. (hubpages.com)
  • 4. A compound according to claim 1, which is 1-(2-chlorobenzyl)-2-n-butyl-4-chloroimidazole-5-acetic acid. (google.com.au)
  • 9. A compound according to claim 5, which is 1-benzyl-4-chloro-2-(4-chloro-3,5-dinitrophenyl)imidazole-5-acetic acid. (google.com.au)
  • 14. A compound according to claim 10, which is 4-chloro-1-(4-methoxy-3-methylbenzyl)-2-phenylimidazole-5-acetic acid. (google.com.au)
  • Alternatively, the reaction product of step (a) can be treated with base to yield 6-chlorocarbazole-2-oxalic acid and subsequently treating said 6-chlorocarbazole-2-oxalic acid with a Grignard reagent or an alkyllithium to yield the desired6-chloro-.alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • Mauler-Machnik and Nass (1990) have developed a simple staining technique with an ink-25 (Percent) acetic acid solution for infection by Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides in wheat. (thefreedictionary.com)