Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNaphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Gluconacetobacter: A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gluconobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Zygosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Gluconobacter oxydans: A rod-shaped to ellipsoidal, gram-negative bacterium which oxidizes ethanol to acetic acid and prefers sugar-enriched environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gossypol: A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)EstersArabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.GluconatesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.ButanonesAcids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.

Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat. (1/1272)

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens. (2/1272)

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

Antinociceptive properties of the new alkaloid, cis-8, 10-di-N-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dihydrate isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus: evidence for the mechanism of action. (3/1272)

The antinociceptive action of the alkaloid cis-8, 10-di-n-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dehydrate (DPHD), isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus, given i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v., was assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin- and capsaicin-induced licking, and hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DPHD given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. elicited significant and dose-related antinociception. At the ID50 level, DPHD was about 2- to 39-fold more potent than aspirin and dipyrone, but it was about 14- to 119-fold less potent than morphine. Its analgesic action was reversed by treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine, naloxone, cyprodime, naltrindole, nor-binaltrorphimine, L-arginine, or pertussis toxin. Its action was also modulated by adrenal-gland hormones but was not affected by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A or type B antagonist, bicuculine, or phaclofen, nor was it affected by glibenclamide. DPHD, given daily for up to 7 days, did not develop tolerance to itself nor did it induce cross-tolerance to morphine. However, animals rendered tolerant to morphine presented cross-tolerance to DPHD. The antinociception of DPHD was not secondary to its anti-inflammatory effect, nor was it associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. DPHD, in contrast to morphine, did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it inhibit electrical field stimulation of the guinea pig ileum or mouse vas deferens in vitro. Thus, DPHD produces dose-dependent and pronounced systemic, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in mice, including against the neurogenic nociception induced by formalin and capsaicin. Its antinociceptive effect involves multiple mechanisms of action, namely interaction with mu, delta, or kappa opioid systems, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonin pathways, activation of Gi protein sensitive to pertussis toxin, and modulation by endogenous glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. (4/1272)

Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus.  (+info)

Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine. (5/1272)

We previously showed that plasma cholesterol levels decreased following ingestion of a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) mixture composed of sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids simulating cecal fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber (SBF). In the present study, we investigated whether hepatic and small intestinal cholesterol synthesis is involved in the cholesterol-lowering effects of SCFA and SBF. In vitro (expt. 1) and in vivo (expt. 2) cholesterol synthesis rates and the diurnal pattern of SCFA concentrations in portal plasma (expt. 3) were studied in three separate experiments in rats fed diets containing the SCFA mixture, SBF (100 g/kg diet), or the fiber-free control diet. Cholesterol synthesis was measured using 3H2O as a tracer. The in vitro rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured using liver slices, was greater in the SBF group, but not in the SCFA group, than in the fiber-free control group. In contrast, the hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate in vivo was lower in the SCFA group, but not in the SBF group, than in the control group. The mucosal cholesterol synthesis rate for the whole small intestine was <50% of the hepatic rate. The rate in the proximal region was slightly but significantly lower in the SCFA group, and was significantly higher in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. The rate in the distal small intestines was also significantly greater in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the SCFA and SBF groups than in the fiber-free group in both experiments 2 and 3. Diurnal changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol levels were studied in the experiment 3. SCFA concentrations increased rapidly after the start of feeding the SCFA diet, and changes in plasma cholesterol were the reciprocal of those observed in SCFA. These results show that a decrease in hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate mainly contributes to the lowering of plasma cholesterol in rats fed the SCFA mixture diet. Changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol concentrations support this conclusion. In SBF-fed rats, SCFA produced by cecal fermentation are possibly involved in lowering plasma cholesterol levels by negating the counteractive induction of hepatic cholesterol synthesis caused by an increase in bile acid excretion.  (+info)

Interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and enzymatic study. (6/1272)

The effect of the presence of ammonia on [1-13C]glucose metabolism in the rumen fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was studied by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ammonia halved the level of glycogen storage and increased the rate of glucose conversion into acetate and succinate 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, reducing the succinate-to-acetate ratio. The 13C enrichment of succinate and acetate was precisely quantified by 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The presence of ammonia did not modify the 13C enrichment of succinate C-2 (without ammonia, 20.8%, and with ammonia, 21.6%), indicating that the isotopic dilution of metabolites due to utilization of endogenous glycogen was not affected. In contrast, the presence of ammonia markedly decreased the 13C enrichment of acetate C-2 (from 40 to 31%), reflecting enhanced reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. The reversal of glycolysis was unaffected by the presence of ammonia as shown by 13C-NMR analysis. Study of cell extracts showed that the main pathways of ammonia assimilation in F. succinogenes were glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase. Glutamine synthetase activity was not detected. Glutamate dehydrogenase was active with both NAD and NADP as cofactors and was not repressed under ammonia limitation in the culture. Glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were evidenced by spectrophotometry and 1H NMR. When cells were incubated in vivo with [1-13C]glucose, only 13C-labeled aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and valine were detected. Their labelings were consistent with the proposed amino acid synthesis pathway and with the reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway.  (+info)

Healing effects of heparin on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats. (7/1272)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not heparin can accelerate the healing process of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats and to identify the mechanisms for heparin to produce this effect, so that we can develop a new therapeutic application to heparin besides its traditional anticoagulant activity. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to produce acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Heparin in the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 U/kg were administered intravenously through the tail vein once daily, starting 1 day after ulcer induction for 7 days in the dose-response experiment or heparin 1000 U/kg at a time schedule of 3, 5, and 7 days in the time-response study, respectively. The gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter under ether anesthesia. The rats were then sacrificed and the ulcer areas were measured. The gastric mucosa was then scraped for the determinations of mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level and myeloper-oxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Heparin in the doses of 500 and 1000 U/kg accelerated the healing of acetic acid ulcers in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of heparin also reduced the ulcer areas in a time-dependent fashion. The effect was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal PGE2 levels. The same dose of heparin not only decreased the gastric mucosal MPO activity but also increased the GMBF in a time-related manner. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin with the doses used in the present study accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this action was related to its effects to increase the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and GMBF as well as to decrease the gastric mucosal MPO activity.  (+info)

Experimental colitis increases blood-brain barrier permeability in rabbits. (8/1272)

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are numerous. This study examined the effects of two models of acute colitis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rabbits. CBF (measured with radiolabeled microspheres), or the extraction ratio or permeability-surface area (PS) product of the blood-brain barrier to fluorescein and FITC-dextran, was measured 48 h after colitis induction with acetic acid (HAc) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.05) in TNBS colitis (1.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.52 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.48 x 10(-5) +/- 0.13 x 10(-5) ml/s (mean +/- SE) for treated (n = 14) and untreated (n = 10) animals, respectively. PS product for the larger FITC-dextran was not different in TNBS colitis (0.24 x 10(-5) +/- 0.09 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 7) compared with untreated controls (0.19 x 10(-5) +/- 0.04 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 8). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.01) in HAc colitis compared with vehicle (2.66 x 10(-5) +/- 1.46 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.05 x 10(-5) ml/s, respectively; n = 6 in each group). The extraction of fluorescein from the blood to the brain increased by 75% during TNBS colitis when compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). CBF and cerebrovascular resistance did not change from the untreated control after TNBS colitis. Our data suggest that, irrespective of induction method, acute colitis increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to small molecules without changing CBF.  (+info)

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Vinegars are commonly used as food condiments and preservatives. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is also used in the Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry because of its medicinal properties. Since specifically selected starter cultures for commercial vinegar production are not readily available, apple juice supplemented with sugar is commonly inoculated with a microbiologically undefined culture obtained from the previous batch of ACV. The present work focuses on the isolation of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria from ACV and the preparation of a starter culture. ACV was produced in a bench scale bioreactor using a traditional fermentation process wherein an acetic acid concentration of 3.8% was obtained after three weeks. Several acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated from ACV using selective media. Microscopy revealed the cultures to be gram negative to gram variable short rods. The growth pattern of the isolates on differential media and biochemical tests suggested the presence of Acetobacter and
View Notes - lab2-chem311-1 from CHEMICAL E 300 at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. INTRODUCTION I-Objective :- To obtain the electrical conductivity of KCl and acetic acid solutions. -
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... , from the French vin aigre (sour wine), is a flavoring agent in many cuisines. Vinegar can be made from numerous fermentable carbohydrates including fruits, grains, honey, wine, and even potatoes. Acetic acid is one product of the fermentation process and gives vinegar its sharp flavor and pungent odor. White distilled vinegars are generally 4%-7% acetic acid. Cider and wine vinegars are 5%-6% acetic acid. Acetic acid, however, is NOT synonymous with vinegar. Vinegar contains many other ingredients such as amino acids, mineral salts, and nonvolatile organic acids. The US Food and Drug Administration states that diluted acetic acid is not vinegar and should not be added to food products that would be expected to contain vinegar. Specialty vinegars are herbal or fruit vinegars. Herbal vinegars are wine or white distilled vinegars that can be seasoned with garlic, basil, tarragon, or other spices. Fruit varieties are wine and white vinegars sweetened with fruit or fruit juice. A popular ...
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Global Acetic Acid Market: Overview. The demand within the global acetic acid market acid has been rising on account of advancements in the chemical industry. Acetic acid is a pungent-smelling, colourless liquid that has commendable applications across a wide array of industries. The chemical formula of acetic acid is CH3COOH, and is commonly known as ethanoic acid. Acetic acid, in its undiluted form, is known as glacial acetic acid, and it has a sour taste. Acetic acid is the key component in vinegar, and this factor has also led to the popularity of the global acetic acid market.. Several new applications of acetic acid have been discovered over the past decade. This factor has played an integral role in enhancing the growth prospects of the global acetic acid market in recent times. Cellulose acetate and polyvinyl acetate are amongst other key categories of compounds that are processed with the help of acetic acid. Owing to the aforementioned dynamics, the global market for acetic acid is ...
Pliny the Elder, the famous Roman naturalist, (70 A.D.) said "Vinegar possesses great merits for its many uses, without which life would lose its pleasantness." Fine Balsamic Vinegar of Modena is the masterpiece of the vinegar world. In recognition of the extraordinary nature of this product, the Italian government has adopted legislation defining its characteristics and production process. Unlike wine vinegar, which is made from wine, Balsamic vinegar is made from fermented concentrated grape must (grape juice), and gets its dark color and pungent sweetness from aging in oak barrels over a period of many years. Compared to more pedestrian vinegars, Carlis is quite aromatic and flavorful. It is a sweet and delicious vinegar that is the perfect complement to Extra Virgin olive oil over salads. Guaranteed Carli quality.. Note: this product contains sulfites, which are added to inhibit the growth of unfavorable, flavor-detracting bacteria.. ...
Pliny the Elder, the famous Roman naturalist, (70 A.D.) said "Vinegar possesses great merits for its many uses, without which life would lose its pleasantness." Fine Balsamic Vinegar of Modena is the masterpiece of the vinegar world. In recognition of the extraordinary nature of this product, the Italian government has adopted legislation defining its characteristics and production process. Unlike wine vinegar, which is made from wine, Balsamic vinegar is made from fermented concentrated grape must (grape juice), and gets its dark color and pungent sweetness from aging in oak barrels over a period of many years. Compared to more pedestrian vinegars, Carlis is quite aromatic and flavorful. It is a sweet and delicious vinegar that is the perfect complement to Extra Virgin olive oil over salads. Guaranteed Carli quality.. Note: this product contains sulfites, which are added to inhibit the growth of unfavorable, flavor-detracting bacteria.. ...
Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free (anhydrous) acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid is anhydrous form of acetic acid in which it exists in dimmer form ...
Carefully remove all cerumen and debris to allow acetic acid to contact infected surfaces directly. To promote continuous contact, insert a wick of cotton saturated with acetic acid into the ear canal; the wick may also be saturated after insertion. Instruct the patient to keep the wick in for at least 24 hours and to keep it moist by adding 3 to 5 drops of acetic acid every 4 to 6 hours. The wick may be removed after 24 hours but the patient should continue to instill 5 drops of acetic acid 3 or 4 times daily thereafter, for as long as indicated. In pediatric patients, 3 to 4 drops may be sufficient due to the smaller capacity of the ear canal.. ...
Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (| 0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1∆ and hac1∆ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid.
11. Make old socks look new. Get the stains out of old socks and sweaty gym clothes by soaking them in a vinegar solution. Add 1 cup of white distilled vinegar to a large pot of water, bring to a boil and drop in the stained clothes. Let them soak overnight, and in the morning stained clothes are fresh and bright.. 12. Restore handbags and shoes. Wipe white distilled vinegar on scuffed leather bags and shoes. It will restore their shine and help hide the marks.. 13. Banish weeds. Pour white distilled vinegar on the weeds growing in the cracks of your walkway and driveway. Saturate the plant so the vinegar reaches the roots.. 14. Liven droopy flowers. Dont throw out cut flowers once they start to wilt. Instead, add two tablespoons of white vinegar and one teaspoon of sugar to a quart of water. Pour the solution into your vase, and the flowers will perk up.. 15. Put an end to itching. Dab a cotton ball soaked in white vinegar on mosquito bites and insect stings. It will stop them from itching and ...
Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar, originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province, eastern China.[24] Shanxi mature vinegar is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum and other grains. Nowadays in Shanxi province, there are still some traditional vinegar workshops producing handmade vinegar which is aged for at least five years with a high acidity. Only the vinegar made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years is considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard. A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Rice vinegar is most popular in the ...
glacial acetic acid methyl alcohol | 112317-27-8, chemical structure search glacial acetic acid methyl alcohol including CAS No., molecular formula, chemical properties, chemical suppliers, price of chemical.
All natural. Diluted with water to 4.1% acidity. Since 1649. Excellent for salads & sauces. Try our gently flavored Marukan Seasoned Rice Vinegar. Marukan Rice Vinegar is brewed with selected rice by our traditional method achieved from our experience of over three centuries.. ...
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) solution (1.0 mg/mL) is an indole-based auxin that has been sterile filtered in aqueous solution.. IAA; Heteroauxin Solution (1.0 mg/mL).. ...
Summary: Glacial acetic acid is supercooled in ice then shaken to crystallize.. Hazards: Glacial Acetic acid is corrosive.. Chemicals and Solutions: New, unopened bottle of glacial acetic acid. Materials: Bucket of ice, large enough to submerge entire bottle of acetic acid. Procedure: Several hours before the lecture, begin cooling the acetic acid in the bucket of ice. The ice must come up past the neck of the bottle. The acid should be left undisturbed in the ice for several hours. To perform the demonstration, simply open the bottle, reseal it and give it a vigorous shake. The acid should crystalize. (if it does not crystalize, open, reseal, and shake it again.) ...
Limited shelf life of meat products due to microbial spoilage is a major problem in meat industry as meat is a good source for growth of microorganisms. Therefore, preservation is essential. Thus, the present study was focused to determine the effect of acetic acid, lactic acid and trisodium phosphate on microbial quality of chicken cold cuts (chicken salami and chicken roll). Samples were randomly collected during the chilling step and treated as groups by immersion in lactic acid (2, 3, 4%), acetic acid (2, 2.5, 3%), trisodium phosphate (8, 10, 12%) for 20 seconds. Samples without any treatment served as the control. All treatments were vaccum packed and stored under chilled condition. Treatments were evaluated for colony forming units (CFU), yeast and molds and pH in 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th day of storage. Based on CFU counts for chicken salami samples on 40th day, acetic acid 2, 2.5, 3% treated samples showed 1.55×105 CFU/g, 1.31×105 CFU/g, 1.16×105 CFU/g, lactic acid 2, 3, 4% treated ...
My best guess is you are interpreting the statement "inductive effect decreases as the length of alkyl group increases" somewhat out of context.. So, lets compare formic acid to acetic acid. Formic acid has hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl, while acetic acid has a methyl group. The methyl group is inductively donating, and as a result acetic acid is less acidic than formic acid. $p_{Ka}$ difference of $1$ full unit.. So now, let us compare methyl acetic acid (a precise, but incorrect, alternate name for propanoic acid) to acetic acid. Methyl acetic acid has an inductive donating group at the $\ce{CH2}$ carbon. As such, we expect some donation, and a lower acidity for methyl acetic acid as compared to acetic acid. True, the donating group is one group removed from the acidic site, which means the effect of the methyl group on methyl acetic acids acidity is diminished as compared to an electron donating group directly attached to the carbonyl, so the acidity reduction will be smaller. $p_{Ka}$ ...
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DUBLINResearch and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/b2ttsp/glacial_acetic) has announced the addition of the Glacial Acetic Acid (HAC) Industry Forecasts - China Focus report to their offering. This study focuses on Chinas Glacial Acetic Acid (HAC) industry forecasts. In the two past decades,
Substitutes for white balsamic vinegar include white wine vinegar or rice wine vinegar. White balsamic vinegar does not change the color of other ingredients in recipes, such as prawns or scallops,...
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White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent.[38] Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces.[39] For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned.. Vinegar is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin and hardener, even after the epoxy has begun to harden. Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional, and still-popular, method of cleaning grease-smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom.[40] Vinegar can be used for polishing brass or bronze. Vinegar is widely known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass.. Vinegar has been reputed to have strong antibacterial properties. One test by Good Housekeepings microbiologist found that 5% vinegar is 90% effective against mold and 99.9% effective against bacteria,[41] though another study showed that vinegar is less effective than Clorox and Lysol against poliovirus.[42] In ...
Biomass gasification-fermentation is a process that involves the partial oxidation of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas, primarily containing CO, CO2, and H2, which is then fermented to ethanol and other co-products. The advantage of gasification-fermentation over the saccharification-fermentation process is that gasification utilizes all lignocellulosic components (cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose) in the biomass, leading to a greater potential for ethanol production from the same quantity of biomass. Syngas fermentation using ?Alkalibaculum bacchi? a new alkaliphilic acetogen strain CP11 was studied in 250-mL bottles containing 100 mL of yeast extract medium at 37°C and pH 8.0. The new strain CP11 was able to convert CO and H2 present in modeled syngas (from bottled gases) and producer syngas (obtained from gasifying switchgrass) to ethanol and acetic acid. The modeled syngas was composed of 40% CO, 30% CO2, and 30% H2 (by volume). The producer gas was made of 13.4% CO, 16.4% CO2, 11.1% ...
Did you know that you can make your own creations of Infused Balsamic Vinegar and use it in culinary recipes as the base for a salad dressing, to marinate meat, poultry or fish; or chuck it in with your favorite pasta salad?Types of Balsamic VinegarsDistilled White Balsamic Vinegar is clear in color with a sharp acidic
Serrano Pepper Honey Balsamic Vinegar: Oh so sweet with a long-lasting Serrano Pepper kick and finish, this golden balsamic vinegar from The Olive Tap is going to be a hit in any gourmet kitchen.
Easy, delicious and healthy Balsamic vinegar glaze recipe from SparkRecipes. See our top-rated recipes for Balsamic vinegar glaze.
Did you know that you could prevent or improve heart disease with just two teaspoons of our apple cider vinegar a day? Thats cheaper than any medication available on the market! But you dont just have to take our word for it. This fact has been proven by medical science over and over again.. One study showed that vinegar or acetic acid solution mixed with a normal diet in rats reduced their systolic blood pressure (thats the top number on the blood pressure reading) by up to 20mmHg! Vinegar lowered the activity of renin and aldosterone by up to 40% and 25% respectively. Renin and aldosterone are two hormones in the body that work to increase blood pressure. So, lowering their activity would enable better control of the disease.. Translating this to a human trial, a lower risk of fatal heart disease was reported in the Nurses Health Study, a study that involved thousands of people. This particular benefit was seen in nurses who consumed salads topped with oil and vinegar dressings regularly. ...
I credit my German heritage for my love of lip-puckering sour foods. I like anything pickled, mustards, horseradish, and I love vinegar on salads.. Apple cider vinegar has long been a folk remedy for many ailments, many of which are unproven or have been disproved. But some studies have shown that it may help with diabetes and obesity.. Even your standard table vinegar thats used on salads is showing signs of being a fat fighter. It appears to turn on genes that produce proteins that help the body break down fats, according to Japanese researchers. The research has also suggested that acetic acid, the main chemical in vinegar, can help control blood pressure and blood sugar levels. (more…). ...
Acetic acid is an important carboxylic acid widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical, food and other industries. The growing importance of biological production (fermentation) expressed with new routes and increasing production rates, leads to look for technologies of downstream processing for product separation. The reactive extraction can be used for the recovery of an acetic acid from aqueous solution.The reactive extraction with specific extractant and a proper combination of extractant and diluents provides the higher capacity and selectivity of an acetic acid. The recovery of acetic acid by reactive extraction is studied using an organic solvent such as toluene, petroleum ether and n-hexane. The feed concentration of acetic acid in the aqueous solution ranges in between 0.1 to 0.4 gmol/l. The extraction of acetic acid from aqueous solution (feed concentration 0.4 gmol/lit) with organic solvent gives the distribution coefficient (KD) in toluene, petroleum ether and N-Hexane solvents equal to ...
Spruce up a horses coat by adding 1/2 cup vinegar to 1 quart of water. Use this mixture in a spray bottle to apply to the horses coat before showing. Pour 1/4 cup of apple cider vinegar onto a horses regular grain feed once a day to deter pesky flies. Dogs sometimes like to eat horse droppings in the barn. Some dog and horse owners claim that adding 1/2 cup of vinegar to the horses feed twice a day will discourage dogs from doing this.. From dogs to horses, vinegar can come in handy. Maybe vinegar really is an animals best friend.. ...
Some of our vinegars are lean and bracing, some fruity and elegant, some rich, with a touch of sweetness - and thats not even including the balsamic vinegars! From Orleans-processed wine vinegars to solera sherry vinegars to Balsamico Tradizionale, we offer a wide array of vinegars.
Most acidified foods including dressings and sauces use vinegar (acetic acid) to produce the desired acidity. Ensuring you have a good concentration of hyaluronic acid can reduce problems like dandruff, overall dryness and skin sagginess. Vinegar is a familiar and effective source of food acid. Acetic acid is added to certain medications and is commonly used in manufacturing to produce inks, dyes, skin care products and oral hygiene products. Rather, check out this list of 25 common foods that help to neutralize acid and maintain a healthy body mass. Increasing hyaluronic acid concentration in your body can also help hydrate your skin and decrease the risk of dryness. Lets look at a longer list of foods that contain this acid. Acetic acid is what gives vinegar its distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. Acetic acid is considered "food-grade" if it complies with the specifications in Food Chemicals Codex. • MALDI-TOF MS facilitates the dereplication and identification of AAB. To restore ...
These data suggest that vinegar ingestion at bedtime may favorably impact waking glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes. The antiglycemic effect of acetic acid, the active ingredient in vinegar, has been attributed to reduced starch digestion (5) and/or delayed gastric emptying (6). Neither of these proposed mechanisms likely explains the effects noted herein; moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report describing a hypoglycemic effect of vinegar apart from mealtime. Fushimi et al. (7,8) have published a series of trials in rats demonstrating that acetic acid alters hepatic and skeletal glucose metabolism. These investigations show that acetic acid feeding (0.2 acetic acid/100 g diet) reduced xylulose-5-phosphate accumulation in liver and phosphofructokinase-1 activity in skeletal muscle-metabolic changes consistent with reduced glycolysis and the promotion of glycogen synthesis. Hence, acetic acid may possibly alter the glycolysis/gluconeogenic cycle in liver, which may benefit ...
There are no official guidelines concerning taking vinegar internally. Some people take one to two teaspoons a day, mixed in a glass of water, before meals or in the morning, and report benefits from doing so. The risk of taking small amounts of vinegar is low, and research suggests it may have some real health benefits.. Diabetes. Vinegar is said to be anti-glycemic and has a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels. Its thought that the acetic acid in vinegar may lower blood sugar by preventing the complete digestion of complex carbohydrates, which is accomplished either by accelerating gastric emptying or increasing the uptake of glucose by bodily tissues.3. One theory is that vinegar might inactivate some of the digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates into sugar, thus slowing the conversion of complex carbohydrate into sugar from a meal into your bloodstream.. This gives your body more time to pull sugar out of your blood, preventing your sugar levels from spiking. Quite a bit of ...
Vinegar also contains potassium, magnesium and acetic acid, which kills damaging bacteria on contact. Vinegar continues to amaze people in what it can do. Here are 8 ways vinegar can help you.
At BP Acetyls Europe, we produce acetic acid on two plants. We offer a range of grades, all of which have strict quality control processes established. Key properties of BP Acetic Acid chemically pure include ...
Apple cider vinegar is a mild and light vinegar. The acetic acid concentration is 5%. Like the apple, it contains more than thirty of nutrients: minerals, vitamins A (or retinol), B1 (or thiamine), B2 (or riboflavin), B3 (or vitamin PP, niacin or nicotinic acid ) and C (or ascorbic acid), essential amino acids, many enzymes and a high dose of pectin. It is particularly rich in potassium and other trace mineral elements such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, fluorine, silicon, boron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium . ...
Unraveling the complex genetic basis of physiological properties remains a challenge. Especially, the selection of segregants displaying the phenotype of interest can be cumbersome if the trait under study is non-selectable. The development of pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis highly simplified simultaneous genetic mapping of QTLs, a method that works efficiently with a small number of segregants [21-24]. However, identifying causative mutations in the mapped QTLs remains an elaborate task. We have now shown that pooled-segregant whole-genome sequencing analysis can be made more efficient, at least for some QTLs, by inbreeding all segregants multiple times before phenotypic selection. Increasing the recombination frequency resulted in the expected narrowing of QTL size, as was clearly shown for QTL1. However, unexpected outcomes, such as the appearance and disappearance of QTLs, were also observed. The loss of linkage of HAA1 in QTL2 was particularly striking, since RHA showed that ...
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Cheung, H.; Tanke, R. S.; Torrence, G. P. (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi: ... Iridium compounds are used as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid. The ... Hexachloroiridic(IV) acid, H 2IrCl 6, and its ammonium salt are the most important iridium compounds from an industrial ... The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number ...
He proved that glacial acetic acid and vinegar acetic acid were the same substance. He was secretary to the Minister of the ... "Acetic Acid". Collot, Georges-Henri-Victor, 1750-1805 (2014). "American Journeys: Collot Expedition of 1796". Wisconsin ...
One obtained thereby volitile fatty acids; acetic acid; normal and isobutyric acid; as well as the aromatic substances: phenol ... and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Skatole has a double ring system that displays aromaticity. It is continuous (all atoms in the ring ...
... and acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid under reflux conditions with the following reaction: Apples, ... ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. Acetic acid, butyl ester in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, ... Acetic acid. (2003). In Ullman's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry (6th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 170-171). Weinheim, Germany: Wiley- ...
doi:10.1016/S0022-328X(00)85160-8. Cheung, Hosea; Tanke, Robin S.; Torrence, G. Paul (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's ... of organoiridium complexes is as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid Iridium ... Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (12): 2784-2785. doi:10.1021/ja01473a054 ...
... or the carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) with a high-molecular-weight alcohol (e.g., hexanol, heptanol ... such as carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid), ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) ... Ketonization of acetic acid. B.S. student report. Bradley, M.W., Harris, N., Turner, K. 1982. Process for Hydrogenolysis of ... 3 CH3COOH + 6 H2 → 3 CH3CH2OH + 3 H2O (Hydrogenation of acetic acid) C6H12O6 (from cellulose) + 6 H2 (from lignin) → 3 CH3CH2OH ...
"Acetic acid / aluminum acetate solution". Drugs.com. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016. Thorp, M. A.; Kruger, J.; ... and is usually prepared from aluminium chloride or directly from aluminium by heating in an acetic acid solution with acetic ... and acetic acid would be AcOH or HOAc. Publications in geochemistry, however, are using Ac to refer to acetate rather than ... Oliver, S.; Nilssen, E. L. K.; Prescott, C. A. J. (1998). "The antibacterial activity of acetic acid and Burow's solution as ...
... of acetic acid and acetic anhydride per year, making BP the largest producer of these chemicals in Europe. Acetic acid is used ... Chemicals produced at Salt End include acetic acid, acetic anhydride, ammonia, bio-butanol, bio-ethanol, ethyl acetate (ETAC) ... Vinyl Acetate". Acetic acid and its derivatives. New York: M. Dekker. pp. 225-229. ISBN 0-8247-8792-7. "Job losses as Saltend ... In 1930 the site was expanded to produce acetic acids from alcohol which were eventually closed down by BP in 1990. In April ...
Nakayama T. "Acetic acid bacteria. II. Intracellular distribution of enzymes related to acetic acid fermentation, and some ... an acid + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are aldehyde, NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are acid, NADPH, and ...
ISBN 3-540-40203-9. Weiss, M. (1952). "Acetic Acid-Ammonium Acetate Reactions. An Improved Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis". ... 5. Increased pressures and temperature In vivo, deamination of the α-amino group of amino acids produces small amounts of ... The structures of these cross-linked amino acids had 3,4,5- and 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyridine skeletons, specifically ...
... indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) catabolism; ethylene biosynthesis; and so on. Class III proteins are also monomeric glycoproteins, ...
nov., a novel osmophilic acetic acid bacterium isolated from pollen". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Kazunobu, Matsushita; Hirohide, Toyama; Naoto, Tonouchi; Akiko, Okamoto-Kainuma (2016). Acetic Acid Bacteria: Ecology and ...
H. Mondal; R. K. Mandal; B. B. Biswas (22 November 1972). "RNA Stimulated by Indole Acetic Acid". Nature New Biology. 240: 111- ... He is known for his contributions to the metabolism of nucleic acid and the regulation of protein synthesis in plant cells. He ... 283-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Academic Press. 16 June 1975. pp. 181-. ... successful in identifying the RNA polymerase associated with the transcription and methylation processes of Ribonucleic acid in ...
Ten genera from Acetobacteraceae make up the acetic acid bacteria. Acetobacteraceae was proposed as a family for Acetobacter ... Raspor P; Goranovic D (2008). "Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 28 (2 ... Gillis M; De Ley J (January 1980). "Intra- and Intergenic Similarities of the Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cistrons of ...
These haloacids are absorbed into acetic acid. Subsequent use of microcolumetric titration, an electrochemical quantification ... The inorganic halides that are also adsorbed are washed away using a strong acid such as nitric acid. The carbon with adsorbed ... Once in water, the naturally occurring fulvic acids and humic acids can lead to formation of mutagenic compounds such as ... While combustion of hydrocarbon part of the compounds form CO2 and H2O, halo acids are formed from the halogens. ...
... such as acetic acid, HA, where A=CH3COO−. HA ⇌ H+ + A− Vinegar contains acetic acid. When acid molecules dissociate, the ... This explains why vinegar is acidic, because acetic acid dissociates to some extent, releasing hydrogen ions into the solution ... A third example is illustrated by the chemical reaction of dissociation of a weak acid, ... concentration of the undissociated acid molecules (HA) decreases and the concentrations of the product ions (H+ and A−) ...
Acetic Acid Bacteria 2.1s (2013): e5. Solieri, Lisa, and Paolo Giudici. Vinegars of the World. Springer Milan, 2009. ... of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography technique for rapid detection and identification of acetic acid bacteria ...
... produces Indole-3-acetic acid. Cho, Ji Young; Kim, Myoung Sug (13 July 2012). "Antibacterial ... "Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by Streptomyces atrovirens isolated from rhizospheric soil in Egypt". Journal of Biology ...
For example, it reacts with water to form acetic acid; with acetic acid to form acetic anhydride; with ammonia and amines to ...
... is synthesized using hydrogen fluoride and acetic anhydride. Acetic acid is produced as a byproduct. HF + (CH ... "Dual Reactivity of the Formyl Cation as an Electrophile and a Bransted Acid in Superacids". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 60: ...
Acetic Acid Bacteria 2.1s (2013): e5. Ogawa S, Tachimoto H, Kaga T (January 2010). "Elevation of ceramide in Acetobacter ... of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography technique for rapid detection and identification of acetic acid bacteria ...
H2O Also described as the sodium acid salt of acetic acid, is best described as the sodium salt of the hydrogen-bonded anion ( ... Sodium diacetate is a compound with formula NaH(C 2H 3O 2) 2. It is a salt of acetic acid. It is a colorless solid that is used ... The salt forms upon half-neutralization of acetic acid followed by evaporation of the solution. It can be viewed as the result ... an effect that enhances the acidity of acetic acid in concentrated solution: 2 CH3CO2H + NaOH → Na+[(CH3CO2)2H]− + ...
Reaction with Ag2O leads to acetic acid. Reaction with sodium-mercury amalgam (NaHg) and water leads to isopropyl alcohol. ... About 20% of propylene oxide is hydrolyzed into propylene glycol, via a process which is accelerated by acid or base catalysis ...
Both acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans use glycerol as a carbon source to form dihydroxyacetone ... This earlier study also found that dihydroxyacetone also has an effect on the amino acids and nucleic acids which is bad for ... Metabolism of acetic acid bacteria in relation to their importance to wine quality]. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie. 141 (4): ... "Acetic acid bacteria in winemaking: a review". American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 39 (2): 143-154. Margalith, Pinhas ...
It is formally derived from acetic acid. Although far rarer in the laboratory than the related acetyl bromide and acetyl ... It is also an intermediate in the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate. Upon treatment with carboxylic acids, ... Jones, J. H. (2000). "The CativaTM Process for the Manufacture of Acetic Acid" (PDF). Platinum Metals Rev. 44 (3): 94-105. ... by the carbonylation of methyl iodide in the Cativa and Monsanto processes that are the main industrial route to acetic acid. ...
An alternative method of disinfection is to use a 10% solution of acetic acid (vinegar) as an overnight soak, or to microwave ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ... Malnutrition, whether by malabsorption, or poor diet, especially hematinic deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) can ...
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Web:www.hongdaherb.com(Shaanxi Hongda Phytochemistry Co., Ltd.)
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... acetic acid, The 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid manufactured by us find usage in research purposes we involve profits ... 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid is an organic compound which is most commonly utilized in formulation of herbicides for ... During a chemical reaction, 2-(2,6-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid can donate one and accept three hydrogen bonds. ...
... is first produced by using acetic acid as a solvent.. Food. A variety of plant and animal tissues contain natural acetic acid ... Acetic acid is a weak acid, so it will not cause a drastic decline in pH levels; but rather, bring it to an ideal neutral level ... Being a weak acid, the acetic acid keeps the different immiscible layers of compound in cream cosmetics together and prevents ... Acetic acid is an organic acid found in nature. The compound is formed when ethanol, another organic compound, undergoes ...
Acetic acid (aqueous), Ethanoic acid, Glacial acetic acid, Methanecarboxylic acid [Note: Can be found in concentrations of 5-8 ... Strong oxidizers (especially chromic acid, sodium peroxide & nitric acid), strong caustics [Note: Corrosive to metals.] ...
Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid that gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... The global demand of Acetic Acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year. The name is derived from acetum, the Latin name for ... Glacial Acetic Acid. Glacial Acetic Acid. Glacial Acetic Acid is 99% pure acetic acid, (water-free) and is dangerously ... What is Acetic Acid?. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid that gives vinegar its sour taste and ...
Other names: Methoxyacetic acid; 2-Methoxyacetic acid; CH3OCH2COOH; Methoxyethanoic acid * Permanent link for this species. Use ... Utkin, A.Yu.; Bogelfer, L.Ya.; Chimishkyan, A.L., Reversible reactions in the acidolysis of methyoxyacetic acid by acetic ... Caldwell, G.; Renneboog, R.; Kebarle, P., Gas Phase Acidities of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids, Based on Measurements of Proton ...
Acetic acid/hydrocortisone is a commonly used combination drug to treat infections of the outer ear and ear canal. Branded as ... it combines the antibacterial and antifungal action of acetic acid with the anti-inflammatory functions of hydrocortisone. ...
Acetic acid. Acetic acid is one of the most versatile organic chemicals manufactured today with applications in almost every ... At BP Acetyls Europe, we produce acetic acid on two plants. We offer a range of grades, all of which have strict quality ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is a compound found in lychee seeds. It is also a metabolite in mammalian digestion ... Dihydrosterculic acid is the major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis. It is a cyclopropene fatty acid ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ... They are accompanied by small amounts of their cyclopropanoid analogues, i.e. cyclopropyl acetic acid. The symptoms of ...
How you can separate acetic acid from zinc methoxide? Zinc methoxide and acetic acid react together to form methanol and zinc ... If zinc is first added to dilute sulfuric acid then concentrated sulfuric acid and acetic acid in which case will the fizzing ... Answer The most fizzing will come from the concentrated sulfuric acid, then dilute sulfuric acid, then the acetic acid. The ... When zinc powder added to acetic acid? When zinc powder added to acetic acid?. ...
acids. Formic acid. Propionic acid. Butyric acid. Related compounds. Acetamide. Ethyl acetate. Acetyl chloride. Acetic ... in carboxylic acids such as acetic acid can be given off as an H+ ion (proton), giving them their acidic character. Acetic acid ... The volume of acetic acid used in vinegar is comparatively small.. Vinyl acetate monomer. The major use of acetic acid is for ... Glacial acetic acid is a trivial name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig (literally, ice-vinegar ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of tetrachloro-methane in trifluoro-acetic acid at different concentrations ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of tetrachloro-methane in trifluoro-acetic acid. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of tetrachloro-methane in trifluoro-acetic acid at different concentrations ...
acetic acid synonyms, acetic acid pronunciation, acetic acid translation, English dictionary definition of acetic acid. n. A ... clear, colorless organic acid, C2H4O2, with a distinctive pungent odor, used as a solvent and in the manufacture of rubber, ... Related to acetic acid: Sodium acetate. acetic acid. n.. A clear, colorless organic acid, C2H4O2, with a distinctive pungent ... trichloracetic acid, trichloroacetic acid - a strong acid made by chlorinating acetic acid ...
Retrieved from "https://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Acetic_acid/Approval&oldid=100230382" ...
Acetic Acetic Acid BaC2 BaCO3 Zusammenfassung. Es wird eine Methode beschrieben, mit deren Hilfe sich aus BaCO3 Essigsäure ...
... 5453-74-7 acetic acid
Acetic acid; trifluoroborane , C2H4BF3O2 , CID 61423 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Acetic Acid. Acetic acid (7CI, 8CI, 9CI). Acetic Acid 80%. Acetic Acid Glacial. Acetic acid, 100%. Acetic acid, glacial. Aci- ... Ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid monomer. Ethylic acid. Glacial acetic acid. Ijs azijnzuur. Industrial acetic acid. Lenzing Acetic ... Albrite Acetic Acid 80%. CHINT: Acetic acid. Dilute acetic acid. ECO2200-A-BLACK(T) ECO2200-B. ED2800-A-BLACK(E). Essigsaeure. ... Acetic acid EC Number:. 200-580-7. EC Name:. Acetic acid. CAS Number:. 64-19-7 Molecular formula:. C2H4O2 IUPAC Name:. acetic ...
ACETIC ACID, GLACIAL or ACETIC ACID SOLUTION, more than 80% acid, by mass ... acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent, by weight, of acetic acid ... ACETIC ACID SOLUTION, not less than 50% but not more than 80% acid, by mass ... ACETIC ACID SOLUTION, more than 10% and less than 50% acid, by mass ...
... where a molecule of acetic acid serves as a proton shuttle, transferring the hydrogen atom between the reaction centers. ... Acetic acid as a proton shuttle in gold chemistry. Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences ... where a molecule of acetic acid serves as a proton shuttle, transferring the hydrogen atom between the reaction centers. ... it did not react with concentrated acids or alkali solutions even at high temperatures. Actually, it is the chemical inertness ...
... phenyl Acetic Acid,5g (26XN72)? Graingers got your back. Price:$142.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or ...
Novel imidazole-5-acetic acid derivatives of the formula: ##STR1## wherein R1 is lower alkyl, cycloalkyl or, phenyl which may ... sulfuric acid, etc.) and with organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, etc.), ... Among preferred examples of the acid are mineral acids such as sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. The concentration of such ... for hydrochloric acid, and in cases in which the compound (I) is less soluble in these acids, about 30 to 50% of acetic acid is ...
Make your classroom electrifying with activities and information spanning chemistry and physics content. Everything from equilibrium to electricity and reactions to rocketry at your fingertips.. ...
Acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic (for the ear) is a combination medicine used to treat infections in the ear canal, and to ... Acetic acid is an antibiotic that treats infections caused by bacteria or fungus. Hydrocortisone is a steroid. It reduces the ... What is acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic?. Acetic acid is an antibiotic that treats infections caused by bacteria or fungus. ... What is the most important information I should know about acetic acid and hydrocortisone otic?. You should not use acetic acid ...
  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which stimulates ethylene production by enhancing ACC synthase activity, also caused an increase in ACC oxidase transcript and activity levels. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and characterization of an indigo-producing oxygenase involved in indole 3-acetic acid utilization by Acinetobacter baumannii. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii harbours a gene cluster similar to the iac locus of Pseudomonas putida 1290, which can catabolize the plant hormone indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) as an energy source. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The market size of Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA) 3900 will reach xx in 2026, with a CAGR of xx% from 2020 to 2026. (powershow.com)
  • The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA) 3900 market in 2020. (powershow.com)
  • 5-fluorouracil-1 acetic acid (5-FA), a 5-Fu derivative was coupled with PEG derivatives via ester bond to form a macromolecular prodrug, 5-FA-PAE. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The objectives of the new atlas are to describe the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) as a primary screening test or as a test to triage women who test positive for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and to explain how application of dilute acetic acid to the cervix can help in determining eligibility for ablative treatment. (iarc.fr)
  • To mark the official launch by the World Health Organization of the Global Strategy to Accelerate the Elimination of Cervical Cancer, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce the launch of a new digital atlas, the Atlas of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for screening, triage, and assessment for treatment . (iarc.fr)
  • In a screen-and-treat programme, determining the eligibility of a screen-positive woman (irrespective of whether the test is VIA or HPV detection) for ablative treatment requires application of acetic acid to the cervix, and many of the principles and techniques of VIA are followed. (iarc.fr)
  • Classified as a weak Acid, when concentrated it is corrosive and can attack the skin. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • While acetic acid is classified as a weak acid, especially higher concentrations are corrosive to many types of metals and non-metallic materials. (marchpump.com)
  • Plant growth regulators like naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) positively affect the growth and yield of crop plants. (uel.br)
  • Acetic acid is a severe skin, eye and mucous membrane irritant. (osha.gov)
  • stomach wall has a protective lining of mucous that prevent the acid from penetrating the underlying tissues. (jiskha.com)
  • The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Acetic acid is an antibiotic that treats infections caused by bacteria or fungus. (rexhealth.com)
  • What other drugs will affect acetic acid? (rexhealth.com)
  • It is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on acetic acid used in the ears. (rexhealth.com)
  • Leave the cotton in your ear for at least 24 hours, and keep it moist by adding 3 to 5 drops of acetic acid to the cotton every 4 to 6 hours. (rexhealth.com)
  • Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Industrial Acetic Acid market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. (powershow.com)
  • Succinic acid is one of the most interesting platform chemicals that can be produced in a biorefinery approach. (usda.gov)
  • You should not use acetic acid if you have a hole in your ear drum (ruptured ear drum). (rexhealth.com)
  • You should not use acetic acid if you are allergic to it, or if you have a hole in your ear drum (ruptured ear drum). (rexhealth.com)