Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The imide of phthalic acids.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A rod-shaped to ellipsoidal, gram-negative bacterium which oxidizes ethanol to acetic acid and prefers sugar-enriched environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Gluconates are salts or esters of gluconic acid, primarily used in medical treatments as a source of the essential nutrient, calcium, and as a chelating agent to bind and remove toxic metals such as aluminum and iron from the body.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Butanones, also known as methyl ethyl ketone or MEK, are organic compounds consisting of a four-carbon chain with a ketone functional group located at the second carbon atom, classified as dimethyl ketones, and commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings as solvents and chemical intermediates.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.

Characterization of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac and its enantiomers in the rat. (1/1272)

The marked analgesic efficacy of ketorolac in humans, relative to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), has lead to speculation as to whether additional non-NSAID mechanism(s) contribute to its analgesic actions. To evaluate this possibility, we characterized (R,S)-ketorolac's pharmacological properties in vivo and in vitro using the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors [indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DS)] as well as the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as references. The potency of racemic (R,S)-ketorolac was similar in tests of acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia, and carrageenan-induced edema formation in rats; ID50 values = 0.24, 0. 29, and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively. (R,S)-ketorolac's actions were stereospecific, with (S)-ketorolac possessing the biological activity of the racemate in the above tests. The analgesic potencies for (R,S)-, (S)-, and (R)-ketorolac, INDO, and DS were highly correlated with their anti-inflammatory potencies, suggesting a common mechanism. (R,S)-ketorolac was significantly more potent than INDO or DS in vivo. Neither difference in relative potency of COX inhibition for (R,S)-ketorolac over INDO and DS nor activity of (S)-ketorolac at a number of other enzymes, channels, or receptors could account for the differences in observed potency. The distribution coefficient for (R,S)-ketorolac was approximately 30-fold less than for DS or INDO, indicating that (R,S)-ketorolac is much less lipophilic than these NSAIDs. Therefore, the physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties of (R,S)-ketorolac may optimize the concentrations of (S)-ketorolac at its biological target(s), resulting in greater efficacy and potency in vivo.  (+info)

A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens. (2/1272)

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

Antinociceptive properties of the new alkaloid, cis-8, 10-di-N-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dihydrate isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus: evidence for the mechanism of action. (3/1272)

The antinociceptive action of the alkaloid cis-8, 10-di-n-propyllobelidiol hydrochloride dehydrate (DPHD), isolated from Siphocampylus verticillatus, given i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v., was assessed in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin- and capsaicin-induced licking, and hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DPHD given by i.p., p.o., i.t., or i.c.v. elicited significant and dose-related antinociception. At the ID50 level, DPHD was about 2- to 39-fold more potent than aspirin and dipyrone, but it was about 14- to 119-fold less potent than morphine. Its analgesic action was reversed by treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine, naloxone, cyprodime, naltrindole, nor-binaltrorphimine, L-arginine, or pertussis toxin. Its action was also modulated by adrenal-gland hormones but was not affected by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A or type B antagonist, bicuculine, or phaclofen, nor was it affected by glibenclamide. DPHD, given daily for up to 7 days, did not develop tolerance to itself nor did it induce cross-tolerance to morphine. However, animals rendered tolerant to morphine presented cross-tolerance to DPHD. The antinociception of DPHD was not secondary to its anti-inflammatory effect, nor was it associated with nonspecific effects such as muscle relaxation or sedation. DPHD, in contrast to morphine, did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it inhibit electrical field stimulation of the guinea pig ileum or mouse vas deferens in vitro. Thus, DPHD produces dose-dependent and pronounced systemic, spinal, and supraspinal antinociception in mice, including against the neurogenic nociception induced by formalin and capsaicin. Its antinociceptive effect involves multiple mechanisms of action, namely interaction with mu, delta, or kappa opioid systems, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonin pathways, activation of Gi protein sensitive to pertussis toxin, and modulation by endogenous glucocorticoids.  (+info)

Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. (4/1272)

Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus.  (+info)

Short-chain fatty acids suppress cholesterol synthesis in rat liver and intestine. (5/1272)

We previously showed that plasma cholesterol levels decreased following ingestion of a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) mixture composed of sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids simulating cecal fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber (SBF). In the present study, we investigated whether hepatic and small intestinal cholesterol synthesis is involved in the cholesterol-lowering effects of SCFA and SBF. In vitro (expt. 1) and in vivo (expt. 2) cholesterol synthesis rates and the diurnal pattern of SCFA concentrations in portal plasma (expt. 3) were studied in three separate experiments in rats fed diets containing the SCFA mixture, SBF (100 g/kg diet), or the fiber-free control diet. Cholesterol synthesis was measured using 3H2O as a tracer. The in vitro rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured using liver slices, was greater in the SBF group, but not in the SCFA group, than in the fiber-free control group. In contrast, the hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate in vivo was lower in the SCFA group, but not in the SBF group, than in the control group. The mucosal cholesterol synthesis rate for the whole small intestine was <50% of the hepatic rate. The rate in the proximal region was slightly but significantly lower in the SCFA group, and was significantly higher in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. The rate in the distal small intestines was also significantly greater in the SBF group than in the fiber-free group. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the SCFA and SBF groups than in the fiber-free group in both experiments 2 and 3. Diurnal changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol levels were studied in the experiment 3. SCFA concentrations increased rapidly after the start of feeding the SCFA diet, and changes in plasma cholesterol were the reciprocal of those observed in SCFA. These results show that a decrease in hepatic cholesterol synthesis rate mainly contributes to the lowering of plasma cholesterol in rats fed the SCFA mixture diet. Changes in portal SCFA and cholesterol concentrations support this conclusion. In SBF-fed rats, SCFA produced by cecal fermentation are possibly involved in lowering plasma cholesterol levels by negating the counteractive induction of hepatic cholesterol synthesis caused by an increase in bile acid excretion.  (+info)

Interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and enzymatic study. (6/1272)

The effect of the presence of ammonia on [1-13C]glucose metabolism in the rumen fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was studied by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ammonia halved the level of glycogen storage and increased the rate of glucose conversion into acetate and succinate 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, reducing the succinate-to-acetate ratio. The 13C enrichment of succinate and acetate was precisely quantified by 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The presence of ammonia did not modify the 13C enrichment of succinate C-2 (without ammonia, 20.8%, and with ammonia, 21.6%), indicating that the isotopic dilution of metabolites due to utilization of endogenous glycogen was not affected. In contrast, the presence of ammonia markedly decreased the 13C enrichment of acetate C-2 (from 40 to 31%), reflecting enhanced reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. The reversal of glycolysis was unaffected by the presence of ammonia as shown by 13C-NMR analysis. Study of cell extracts showed that the main pathways of ammonia assimilation in F. succinogenes were glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase. Glutamine synthetase activity was not detected. Glutamate dehydrogenase was active with both NAD and NADP as cofactors and was not repressed under ammonia limitation in the culture. Glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were evidenced by spectrophotometry and 1H NMR. When cells were incubated in vivo with [1-13C]glucose, only 13C-labeled aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and valine were detected. Their labelings were consistent with the proposed amino acid synthesis pathway and with the reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway.  (+info)

Healing effects of heparin on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats. (7/1272)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not heparin can accelerate the healing process of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats and to identify the mechanisms for heparin to produce this effect, so that we can develop a new therapeutic application to heparin besides its traditional anticoagulant activity. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to produce acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Heparin in the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 U/kg were administered intravenously through the tail vein once daily, starting 1 day after ulcer induction for 7 days in the dose-response experiment or heparin 1000 U/kg at a time schedule of 3, 5, and 7 days in the time-response study, respectively. The gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter under ether anesthesia. The rats were then sacrificed and the ulcer areas were measured. The gastric mucosa was then scraped for the determinations of mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level and myeloper-oxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Heparin in the doses of 500 and 1000 U/kg accelerated the healing of acetic acid ulcers in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of heparin also reduced the ulcer areas in a time-dependent fashion. The effect was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal PGE2 levels. The same dose of heparin not only decreased the gastric mucosal MPO activity but also increased the GMBF in a time-related manner. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin with the doses used in the present study accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this action was related to its effects to increase the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and GMBF as well as to decrease the gastric mucosal MPO activity.  (+info)

Experimental colitis increases blood-brain barrier permeability in rabbits. (8/1272)

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are numerous. This study examined the effects of two models of acute colitis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rabbits. CBF (measured with radiolabeled microspheres), or the extraction ratio or permeability-surface area (PS) product of the blood-brain barrier to fluorescein and FITC-dextran, was measured 48 h after colitis induction with acetic acid (HAc) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.05) in TNBS colitis (1.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.52 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.48 x 10(-5) +/- 0.13 x 10(-5) ml/s (mean +/- SE) for treated (n = 14) and untreated (n = 10) animals, respectively. PS product for the larger FITC-dextran was not different in TNBS colitis (0.24 x 10(-5) +/- 0.09 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 7) compared with untreated controls (0.19 x 10(-5) +/- 0.04 x 10(-5) ml/s, n = 8). PS product for fluorescein increased (P < 0.01) in HAc colitis compared with vehicle (2.66 x 10(-5) +/- 1.46 x 10(-5) ml/s and 0.33 x 10(-5) +/- 0.05 x 10(-5) ml/s, respectively; n = 6 in each group). The extraction of fluorescein from the blood to the brain increased by 75% during TNBS colitis when compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). CBF and cerebrovascular resistance did not change from the untreated control after TNBS colitis. Our data suggest that, irrespective of induction method, acute colitis increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to small molecules without changing CBF.  (+info)

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

'Acetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. They are known for their ability to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes and then to carboxylic acids, particularly the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. This property makes them important in the production of vinegar and other fermented foods. Some species of Acetobacter can also cause food spoilage and may be associated with certain human infections, although they are not considered primary human pathogens.

Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of converting ethanol into acetic acid, a process known as oxidative fermentation. These bacteria are commonly found in environments such as fruits, flowers, and the gut of insects. They are also used in the industrial production of vinegar and other products. Some members of this family can cause food spoilage or infections in humans with weakened immune systems.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Xanthones are a type of chemical compound that are found in various plants and fruits. They have a variety of potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Some research suggests that xanthones may help to protect against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects. Xanthones can be found in small amounts in a variety of foods, including mangosteen fruit, blackberries, and turmeric. They are also available in supplement form.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Naphthaleneacetic acids (NAAs) are a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant hormone that promotes growth and development. Specifically, NAAs are derivatives of naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, with a carboxylic acid group attached to one of the carbon atoms in the ring structure.

NAAs are commonly used in horticulture and agriculture as plant growth regulators. They can stimulate rooting in cuttings, promote fruit set and growth, and inhibit vegetative growth. NAAs can also be used in plant tissue culture to regulate cell division and differentiation.

In medical terms, NAAs are not typically used as therapeutic agents. However, they have been studied for their potential use in cancer therapy due to their ability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Some research has suggested that NAAs may be able to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells, although more studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the safety and efficacy of NAAs as a cancer treatment.

"Gluconacetobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. They are known for their ability to oxidize sugars and alcohols into organic acids, which makes them important in industrial processes like the production of vinegar and biofuels. In a medical context, they are not typically associated with human diseases, but there have been rare reports of infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

"Gluconobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing various alcohols and sugars into their corresponding acids. These bacteria are often found in fruit, flowers, and sap, as well as in fermented foods and beverages. They are known for their ability to rapidly and efficiently oxidize glucose into gluconic acid, which gives them their name. Some species of Gluconobacter can also cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In medical contexts, Gluconobacter species may be associated with infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, and peritonitis.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant growth regulator. It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and mild characteristic odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone, and has a melting point of 130-140°C.

2,4-D is a widely used herbicide that is primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of settings, including agriculture, lawns, and golf courses. It works by mimicking the natural plant hormone auxin, which causes uncontrolled growth in susceptible plants leading to their death.

In medicine, 2,4-D has been used experimentally as a cytotoxic agent for the treatment of cancer, but its use is not widespread due to its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. It is important to handle this chemical with care, as it can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Xanthenes are a class of organic compounds that contain a xanthene core, which is a tricyclic compound made up of two benzene rings fused to a central pyran ring. They have the basic structure:

While xanthenes themselves do not have significant medical applications, many of their derivatives are widely used in medicine and research. For example, fluorescein and eosin are xanthene dyes that are commonly used as diagnostic tools in ophthalmology and as stains in histology. Additionally, some xanthene derivatives have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, it is important to note that individual medical definitions would depend on the specific xanthene derivative in question.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of sac fungi, specifically belonging to the family Saccharomycetaceae. These are commonly referred to as "zygosaccharomyces" or "zygo-saccharomyces." They are known for their ability to tolerate high sugar concentrations and low pH levels, making them highly resistant to various food preservation methods.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is often found in sweet foods like fruit juices, syrups, and honey. Another species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, can be found in a variety of environments including food products, plants, and even clinical settings.

These fungi are important in the field of biotechnology due to their ability to produce useful enzymes and metabolites. However, they can also cause spoilage in certain food products, leading to economic losses for the industry.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Phthalimides are organic compounds that contain a phthalimide functional group. The phthalimide group consists of a pair of fused rings, a benzene ring and a five-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, with one of the nitrogen atoms being part of a carbonyl group.

Phthalimides are commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and dyes. They can also exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, some phthalimides have been found to have toxic effects and may pose environmental and health concerns.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R represents the rest of the molecule.

Carboxylic acids can be found in various natural sources such as in fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Some common examples of carboxylic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), propionic acid (C2H5COOH), and butyric acid (C3H7COOH).

Carboxylic acids have a variety of uses in industry, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. They are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds. In the body, carboxylic acids play important roles in metabolism and energy production.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

'Gluconobacter oxydans' is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as fruit, flowers, and soil. They are known for their ability to oxidize a variety of alcohols and sugars, including glucose, into their corresponding acids. This makes them important in industrial applications, such as the production of vinegar and other food ingredients. In a medical context, they can sometimes be associated with opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, they are not typically considered harmful to healthy individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxytryptophol" is not a recognized or established term in medicine or biochemistry. It seems like it might be a combination of "hydroxytryptophan," which is a naturally occurring amino acid, and "-ol," which is a suffix often used to denote an alcohol. However, I can't find any scientific literature or studies referring to a compound named "Hydroxytryptophol." It's possible there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding in the term. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to help further!

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Gravitropism is the growth or movement of a plant in response to gravity. It is a type of tropism, which is the growth or movement of an organism in response to a stimulus. In gravitropism, plant cells can sense the direction of gravity and grow or bend towards or away from it. Roots typically exhibit positive gravitropism, growing downwards in response to gravity, while shoots exhibit negative gravitropism, growing upwards against gravity. This growth pattern helps plants establish themselves in their environment and optimize their access to resources such as water and light.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Gossypol is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a specific medical condition. However, it is a chemical compound that can be found in the cotton plant (Gossypium species). It's a polyphenolic compound that is present in the seeds, leaves and roots of the cotton plant.

Gossypol has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, such as its anti-fertility effects, and it has also been investigated for its potential use as an anticancer agent. However, its toxicity and side effects have limited its clinical use.

It's important to note that gossypol can be toxic in high concentrations, and consuming large amounts of cottonseed or cottonseed products can lead to gossypol poisoning. Symptoms of gossypol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and difficulty breathing.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

The term "cacao" refers to the plant Theobroma cacao, which is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It is a small evergreen tree that produces large, football-shaped fruits called pods. Each pod contains 20-60 seeds, also known as beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Cacao beans contain several bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, theobromine, and caffeine, that have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, it is important to note that these benefits are typically associated with moderate consumption of cocoa products, rather than large amounts of chocolate or cacao beans themselves.

In summary, while "cacao" may be used interchangeably with "cocoa" in some contexts, the term technically refers to the plant and its seeds, rather than the processed powder or chocolate that is derived from them.

A hypocotyl is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of botany, which is a branch of biology that deals with the study of plants. Therefore, I'd be happy to provide you with a definition of hypocotyl in a botanical context:

The hypocotyl is the portion of the embryo or seedling of a plant that lies between the cotyledons (the embryonic leaves) and the radicle (the embryonic root). In other words, it is the stem-like structure that connects the shoot and the root systems in a developing plant.

When a seed germinates, the hypocotyl elongates and pushes the cotyledons upward through the soil, allowing the young plant to emerge into the light. The hypocotyl can vary in length depending on the species of plant, and its growth is influenced by various environmental factors such as light and temperature.

While the term "hypocotyl" may not be commonly used in medical contexts, understanding basic botanical concepts like this one can still be useful for healthcare professionals who work with patients who have plant-related allergies or other health issues related to plants.

Sodium acetate is an ionic compound with the formula NaC2H3O2. It is formed by the combination of sodium ions (Na+) and acetate ions (C2H3O2-). Sodium acetate is a white, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a buffer in laboratory settings to help maintain a stable pH level in solutions.

In the body, sodium acetate can be produced as a byproduct of metabolism and is also found in some foods and medications. It is quickly converted to bicarbonate in the body, which helps to regulate the acid-base balance and maintain a normal pH level in the blood. Sodium acetate is sometimes used as a source of sodium and acetate ions in intravenous (IV) fluids to help treat dehydration or metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body has too much acid.

It's important to note that while sodium acetate is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects if taken in large amounts or in combination with certain medications. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using any new medication or supplement.

Tryptophan transaminase, also known as tryptophan aminotransferase or L-tryptophan aminotransferase, is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from tryptophan to a ketoacid acceptor, such as alpha-ketoglutarate, resulting in the formation of beta-amino-isocaproic acid and glutamate. The reaction is part of the larger catabolic pathway for tryptophan degradation, which eventually leads to the production of several biologically important compounds, including niacin (vitamin B3) and serotonin, a neurotransmitter.

Tryptophan transaminase plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of amino acids in the body and ensuring their proper utilization for various physiological functions. Dysregulation or deficiency of this enzyme can contribute to several metabolic disorders, including hyperphenylalaninemia (elevated levels of phenylalanine) and certain neurological conditions due to impaired serotonin synthesis.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

In anatomical terms, the reticulum is the second chamber in the ruminant stomach, located between the rumen and the omasum. It is responsible for the continued breakdown of cellulose through microbial fermentation.

However, I believe you may be referring to a term used in pathology or histology. In these contexts, "reticulum" refers to a network of fine fibers, often composed of collagen, that surround cells or organize tissue. It is an important component of the extracellular matrix and provides structural support.

For example, within the liver, the reticulin fibers are part of the hepatic sinusoids' walls and help maintain the liver's architecture. In some disease processes like cirrhosis, these reticulin fibers can become abnormally thickened and contribute to the distortion of the liver's normal structure.

Please let me know if you were looking for information in a different context, and I would be happy to help further!

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Propionates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to a group of medications that are used as topical creams or gels to treat fungal infections of the skin. Propionic acid and its salts, such as propionate, are the active ingredients in these medications. They work by inhibiting the growth of fungi, which causes the infection. Common examples of propionate-containing medications include creams used to treat athlete's foot, ringworm, and jock itch.

It is important to note that there are many different types of medications and compounds that contain the word "propionate" in their name, as it refers to a specific chemical structure. However, in a medical context, it most commonly refers to antifungal creams or gels.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Gluconates are a group of salts and esters derived from gluconic acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally produced in the human body during the metabolism of carbohydrates. In medical contexts, gluconates are often used as a source of the essential mineral ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which are necessary for various bodily functions.

Gluconate salts are commonly used in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements because they are highly soluble in water, making them easy to absorb and utilize by the body. For example, calcium gluconate is a common treatment for hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), while magnesium gluconate is used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Gluconates may also be used as preservatives in some medical products, such as intravenous solutions and eye drops, due to their ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Overall, gluconates are a versatile class of compounds with important applications in medicine and health.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Formates" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It is possible that you may be referring to "formic acid" or "formate," which are terms used in chemistry and biochemistry. Formic acid is a colorless, pungent, and corrosive liquid with the chemical formula HCOOH. Its salts are called formates.

Formate is the anion (negatively charged ion) of formic acid, with the chemical formula HCOO-. Formate can be found in various biological systems and is involved in several metabolic processes. If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of acetate in cells. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of acetate and coenzyme A (CoA) to acetyl-CoA, which is a key molecule in various metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle).

The reaction catalyzed by Acetate-CoA ligase can be summarized as follows:

acetate + ATP + CoA → acetyl-CoA + AMP + PPi

In this reaction, acetate is activated by combining it with ATP to form acetyl-AMP, which then reacts with CoA to produce acetyl-CoA. The reaction also produces AMP and pyrophosphate (PPi) as byproducts.

There are two main types of Acetate-CoA ligases: the short-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase, which is responsible for activating acetate and other short-chain fatty acids, and the acyl-CoA synthetase, which activates long-chain fatty acids. Both types of enzymes play important roles in energy metabolism and the synthesis of various biological molecules.

Lactobacillus fermentum is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as plant material, dairy products, and the human gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus fermentum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help lower the pH of the environment and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins, which can further contribute to its probiotic properties.

Lactobacillus fermentum has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to enhance immune function, improve gut health, and reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also being investigated for its potential role in preventing urogenital infections and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer.

However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Lactobacillus fermentum, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile. As with any probiotic supplement, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Lactobacillus fermentum or any other probiotics.

An "Electronic Nose" is a device that analytically detects, identifies, and quantifies volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gaseous samples to identify specific odors or chemical compositions. It typically consists of an array of electronic gas sensors with partial specificity and pattern recognition software to analyze the response patterns of these sensors. The device mimics the functioning of a human nose, which can recognize a wide range of smells based on the unique pattern of activation of its olfactory receptors. Electronic noses have applications in various fields, including medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring, and security.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Butanones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a ketone functional group and have the molecular formula C4H8O. They are also known as methyl ethyl ketones or MEKs. The simplest butanone is called methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or 2-butanone, which has a chain of four carbon atoms with a ketone group in the second position. Other butanones include diethyl ketone (3-pentanone), which has a ketone group in the third position, and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, which has a branched chain with a ketone group in the second position.

Butanones are commonly used as solvents in various industrial applications, such as paint thinners, adhesives, and cleaning agents. They have a characteristic odor and can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Exposure to butanones can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and nausea.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes a diverse range of bacterial species that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and the surfaces of plants and animals. Some notable members of Alphaproteobacteria include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which form symbiotic relationships with the roots of leguminous plants, as well as the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia, which are responsible for causing diseases such as typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

The Alphaproteobacteria class is further divided into several orders, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Caulobacterales. These orders contain a variety of bacterial species that have different characteristics and ecological roles. For example, members of the order Rhizobiales are known for their ability to fix nitrogen, while members of the order Rhodobacterales include photosynthetic bacteria that can use light as an energy source.

Overall, Alphaproteobacteria is a diverse and important group of bacteria that play various roles in the environment and in the health of plants and animals.

Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group) and an acetic acid group. In the context of medicine, sodium phenylacetate is used in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as urea cycle disorders, to help remove excess ammonia from the body. It does this by conjugating with glycine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which can then be excreted in the urine.

It is important to note that the use of phenylacetates should be under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Colposcopy is a medical procedure in which a colposcope, which is a type of microscope, is used to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease or abnormalities. The colposcope allows the healthcare provider to see these areas in greater detail than is possible with the naked eye. During the procedure, the provider may take a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for further examination under a microscope.

Colposcopy is often used to investigate abnormal Pap test results or to follow up on women who have been diagnosed with certain types of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). It can also be used to diagnose and monitor other conditions, such as genital warts, inflammation, or cancer.

It is important to note that colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure and not a treatment. If abnormalities are found during the exam, additional procedures may be necessary to remove or treat them.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

'Wine' is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice. It contains ethanol and can have varying levels of other compounds depending on the type of grape used, the region where it was produced, and the method of fermentation.

In a medical context, wine might be referred to in terms of its potential health effects, which can vary. Moderate consumption of wine, particularly red wine, has been associated with certain health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health. However, heavy or excessive drinking can lead to numerous health problems, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and an increased risk of various types of cancer.

It's important to note that while moderate consumption may have some health benefits, the potential risks of alcohol consumption generally outweigh the benefits for many people. Therefore, it's recommended that individuals who do not currently drink alcohol should not start drinking for health benefits. Those who choose to drink should do so in moderation, defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

It then can be titrated using a solution in glacial acetic acid of a very strong acid, such as perchloric acid. Acetic acid ... acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water and other trace elements. Acetic acid ... Acetic acid Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of acetic acid Acetic acid ... Acetic acid has 349 kcal (1,460 kJ) per 100 g. Vinegar is typically no less than 4% acetic acid by mass. Legal limits on acetic ...
... (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during ... Several species of acetic acid bacteria are used in industry for production of certain foods and chemicals. All acetic acid ... gluconic acid, and cellulose. Besides food industry, some acetic acid bacteria are used as biocatalysts for the industrial ... Acetic acid bacteria are airborne and are ubiquitous in nature. They are actively present in environments where ethanol is ...
The major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis is a cyclopropane fatty acid named Dihydrosterculic acid ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is found in lychee seeds and also a toxic metabolite in mammalian digestion after ... Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA) is a compound found in lychee (Litchi chinensis) seeds. ... They are accompanied by small amounts of their cyclopropanoid analogues, i.e. cyclopropyl acetic acid. MPCA is also a ...
... is the organosulfur compound with the formula HO2CCH2C4H3S. Together with thiophene-3-acetic acid, it ... is one of two isomeric thiophene acetic acids. It is prepared from 2-acetylthiophene. It is a precursor to the antibiotics ... "2-Thiopheneacetic acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 9 January 2022. Swanston, Jonathan (2006). "Thiophene". Ullmann's ...
Acetic acid is more commonly used for external ear infections in the developing world than the developed. "Acetic acid (otic) ... Acetic acid, which at low concentrations is known as vinegar, is an acid used to treat a number of conditions. As an eardrop it ... Acetic acid has been used medically since the time of Ancient Egypt. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential ... "Acetic acid otic Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved ...
The alcohol is esterified with 2-nitrophenylacetic acid, proceeding through the acid chloride or acid anhydride. The acid ... It has also been used as an internal standard for measurement of salicylamide-O-acetic acid (an anti-asthma drug) using high ... Schulz, H. -U.; Kraas, E. (1 January 1985). "Determination of the theophylline solubilizer salicylamide-O-acetic acid in serum ... The carboxylic acid on the 2-nitrophenylacetic acid is first protected using menthol, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) ...
"Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals: a method for estimation of indole-3-acetic acid in tissues". The ... Sep 2015). "Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5". FEMS ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common naturally occurring plant hormone of the auxin class. It is the best known ... Jeong YM, Oh MH, Kim SY, Li H, Yun HY, Baek KJ, Kwon NS, Kim WY, Kim DS (2010). "Indole-3-acetic acid/horseradish peroxidase ...
"Gas phase UV absorption spectra for peracetic acid, and for acetic acid monomers and dimers". J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 157 ( ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on acetic acid. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
It is one of two isomers of thiophene acetic acid, the other being thiophene-2-acetic acid. Thiophene-3-acetic acid has ... Thiophene-3-acetic acid is an organosulfur compound with the formula HO2CCH2C4H3S. It is a white solid. ... Acetic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
"4-chloroindole-3-acetic and indole-3-acetic acids in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry. 46 (4): 675-681. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97 ... 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is an organic compound that functions as a plant hormone. It is a member of the class ... Reinecke, Dennis M. (1999). "4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth". Plant Growth Regulation. 27 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1023 ... Ernstsen, Arild; Sandberg, Goeran (1986). "Identification of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde in seeds of ...
... compounds are used as catalysts in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid. Iridium ... Cheung, H.; Tanke, R. S.; Torrence, G. P. (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi: ... Jones, Jane H. (2000). "The cativa™ process for the manufacture of acetic acid". Platinum Metals Review. 44 (3): 94-105. ... acetic acid), and ignition tips for spark plugs. Resistance to heat and corrosion are the bases for several uses of iridium and ...
"Acetic Acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2022-11-13. Dewar, James (1899). "Sur la solidification de l'hydrogène". ...
He proved that glacial acetic acid and vinegar acetic acid were the same substance. In 1796, Adet was elected a member of the ... "Acetic Acid". "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2021-03-31. Tom Eblen (2017-03-19). "Kentucky invasion? ...
... is produced by the neutralization of acetic acid with ammonium carbonate or by saturating glacial acetic acid ... As the salt of a weak acid and a weak base, ammonium acetate is often used with acetic acid to create a buffer solution. ... It is a white, hygroscopic solid and can be derived from the reaction of ammonia and acetic acid. It is available commercially ... "Acetic Acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_045.pub2. "Spirit ...
Wagner, Frank S. (1978). "Acetic acid". In Grayson, Martin (ed.). Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (3rd ed.). ... The British Government patented Henri Drefus's process for producing acetic acid anhydride. By 1918, Henri Dreyfus was managing ... methanol carbonylation long appeared to be attractive precursors to acetic acid. Henri Dreyfus developed a methanol ...
doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)81474-6. Cheung, Hosea; Tanke, Robin S.; Torrence, G. Paul (2000). "Acetic acid". Ullmann's ... of organoiridium complexes is as catalyst in the Cativa process for carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid. Iridium ... compounds are relevant to many important processes including olefin hydrogenation and the industrial synthesis of acetic acid. ... Hydrido Complexes by Reaction with Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (12): 2784-2785. doi:10.1021/ja01473a054 ...
One obtained thereby volatile fatty acids; acetic acid; normal and isobutyric acid; as well as the aromatic substances: phenol ... Tryptophan is converted to indoleacetic acid, which decarboxylates to give the methylindole. Skatole can be synthesized via the ... "Catabolic pathway for the production of skatole and indoleacetic acid by the acetogen Clostridium drakei, Clostridium ... page 130 Skatole is derived from the amino acid tryptophan in the digestive tract of mammals. ...
Acids like acetic acid are indefinitely miscible in water and have limited solubility in organic solvents. Alternatives to acid ... dilute acetic acid) is first used to extract the weaker base, then more concentrated acid (e.g. hydrochloric acid or nitric ... However, the acids and bases must differ greatly in strength, e.g. one strong acid and one very weak acid. Therefore, the two ... If the organic acid component is relatively weak and has a pKa value of ~5 (such as a carboxylic acid), adding additional acid ...
... and acetic acid with the presence of sulfuric acid: Butyl acetate is mainly used as a solvent for coatings and inks. It is a ... A colorless, flammable liquid, it is the ester derived from n-butanol and acetic acid. It is found in many types of fruit, ... ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. Acetic acid, butyl ester in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, ... "Acetic Acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_045. Schneider, ...
The smoke is actually small droplets of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid formed by hydrolysis. Acetyl chloride is used for ... is an acyl chloride derived from acetic acid (CH3COOH). It belongs to the class of organic compounds called acid halides. It is ... the reaction of acetic anhydride with hydrogen chloride produces a mixture of acetyl chloride and acetic acid: ( CH 3 CO ) 2 O ... Acetic acid Acetyl bromide Acetyl fluoride Acetyl iodide Merck Index, 11th Edition, 79. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : ...
It is derived from acetic acid. It finds some use as a plasticizer and as an industrial solvent. The related compound N,N- ... It can also be made from anhydrous acetic acid, acetonitrile and very well dried hydrogen chloride gas, using an ice bath, ... "Acetic Acid". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_045.pub2. Mindat: ... similar to the essential bond between amino acids in proteins. This finding lends support to the theory that organic molecules ...
Billions of kilograms are generated annually in the production of acetic acid. On an industrial scale, the reaction of acetic ... carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide or hydrohalic acid) is also ... This hydrolysis is the most heavily exploited reaction for acyl halides as it occurs in the industrial synthesis of acetic acid ... Hosea Cheung, Robin S. Tanke, G. Paul Torrence "Acetic Acid" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH ...
... lactic acid, allow a better solubility than that of higher pH (e.g., ChCl:acetic acid). Hence, different solubilities can be ... Studies have shown that ionic oxides such as ZnO tend to have high solubility in ChCl:malonic acid, ChCl:urea and Ethaline, ... Most of them are mixtures of choline chloride and a hydrogen-bond donor (e.g., urea, ethylene glycol, malonic acid) or mixtures ... The best selective recovery of copper (>97%) from chalcopyrite can be obtained with a mixed DES of 20 wt.% ChCl-oxalic acid and ...
... lactic acid, allow a better solubility than that of higher pH (e.g., ChCl:acetic acid). Hence, different solubilities can be ... Studies have shown that ionic oxides such as ZnO tend to have high solubility in ChCl:malonic acid, ChCl:urea and Ethaline, ... Most of them are mixtures of choline chloride and a hydrogen-bond donor (e.g., urea, ethylene glycol, malonic acid) or mixtures ... The best selective recovery of copper (>97 %) from chalcopyrite can be obtained with a mixed DES of 20 wt.% ChCl-oxalic acid ...
... acids or methyl amines; acetogenesis making acetic acid; methanogenesis making methane, and sulfate, nitrite and nitrate ... Over time the amino acids tend to racemize, and those with more functional groups are lost earlier. Protein still will degrade ... Lipids are hydrolysed to fatty acids over long time periods. Plant cuticle waxes are very difficult to degrade, and may survive ... In dead Sphagnum, sphagnan a polysaccharide with D-lyxo-5-hexosulouronic acid is a major remaining substance. It makes the bog ...
... or the carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid) with a high-molecular-weight alcohol (e.g., hexanol, heptanol ... such as carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric acid), ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) ... Ketonization of acetic acid. B.S. student report. CA1229096A, Bradley, Michael W.; Harris, Norman & Turner, Keith, "Process for ... 3 CH3COOH + 6 H2 → 3 CH3CH2OH + 3 H2O (Hydrogenation of acetic acid) C6H12O6 (from cellulose) + 6 H2 (from lignin) → 3 CH3CH2OH ...
"Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester". webbook.nist.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-22. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET ELAN CHEMICAL COMPANY, INC - ... the benzoyl CoA is conjugated with glycine under formation of hippuric acid or it is hydrolyzed generating free benzoic acid. ... Hippuric acid, which is the major metabolite, is also excreted via the urine. Since cinnamyl acetate is used as both a ... Next, the cinnamic acid is transformed into cinnamoyl CoA which is again converted to either cinnamoylglycine by N-acyl ...
... is an organic compound with the, which can be viewed as the mixed anhydride of acetic acid and formic ... Acetic formic anhydride is a formylation agent for amines, amino acids, and alcohols. It is also a starting material for other ... Formic anhydride Acetic anhydride Acetic oxalic anhydride Strazzolini, Paolo; Giumanini, Angelo G.; Cauci, Sabina (1990). " ... It can also be prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride and formic acid at 0 °C. While more stable than formic anhydride, ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-0035-6. Koster, R.; Anderson, M.; De Beer, J. (1959). "Acetic acid for analgesic screening". Federation ... of a test compound is determined by the number of abdominal writhes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid. ...
Page 19: "The tip of the glass rod held over the ether emits the blue flame from the whole of its surface; acetic acid formed ... A number of other investigators subsequently also observed cold flames: Miller, H. B. (1826) "On the production of acetic acid ... This appearance is connected with the formation of a peculiar acrid volatile substance possessed of acid properties.": 79 After ... acids, waxes, and even methane. The lowest temperature of a cool flame is poorly defined and is conventionally set as a ...
It then can be titrated using a solution in glacial acetic acid of a very strong acid, such as perchloric acid. Acetic acid ... acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water and other trace elements. Acetic acid ... Acetic acid Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of acetic acid Acetic acid ... Acetic acid has 349 kcal (1,460 kJ) per 100 g. Vinegar is typically no less than 4% acetic acid by mass. Legal limits on acetic ...
Ethanoic acid, Glacial acetic acid, Methanecarboxylic acid [Note: Can be found in concentrations of 5-8% in vinegar.] Colorless ... Acetic acid (aqueous), Ethanoic acid, Glacial acetic acid, Methanecarboxylic acid [Note: Can be found in concentrations of 5-8 ... Strong oxidizers (especially chromic acid, sodium peroxide & nitric acid), strong caustics [Note: Corrosive to metals.] ...
Effect Of Addition Of Calcium Chloride On Separation Of Acetic Acid-Water Mixture By Extractive Distillation. - Download as a ... acetic acid in the acetic acid-water mixture, water is more volatile component in acetic acid-water mixture. Most of the Salt ... acetic acid in the acetic acid-water mixture, water is more volatile component in acetic acid-water mixture. Most of the Salt ... SCOPE OF EXPERIMENT / WORK: Acetic acid is the most widely used aliphatic carbonic acid. An acetic acid and water, do not form ...
This page contains information on the chemical Acetic acid, ((2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)thio)-, hydrazide including: 3 synonyms/ ... 2-Methoxy-9-acridinyl) thio) acetic acid hydrazide*Acetic acid, ((2-methoxy-9-acridinyl) thio)-, hydrazide. Properties. * ... Acetic acid, ((2-methoxy-9-acridinyl) thio)-, hydrazide. Identifications. *CAS Number: 126379-86-0*Synonyms/Related:*(( ... Chemical Database - Acetic acid, ((2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)thio)-, hydrazide. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2023. Accessed ...
The use of liquid-liquid extraction has shown to be a viable tool to remove the acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate. ... Acetic acid has been shown to be one of the most ubiquitous fermentation inhibitors in a bioethanol production facility which ... The use of liquid-liquid extraction has shown to be a viable tool to remove the acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate. ... Enhancing bioethanol fermentation through removal of acetic acid using liquid-liquid extraction. Mahdieh Aghazadeh, Purdue ...
This page contains information on the chemical 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-((2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)hydrazide ... 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-((2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methyl) hydrazide*2-Methyl-1H-indole-3-acetic acid 2-((2,4- ... 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-((2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methyl) hydrazide. Identifications. *CAS Number: 78123-17-8* ... Chemical Database - 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-((2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)hydrazide. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. ...
The global acetic acid market is projected to grow from $7.29 billion in 2021 to $10.54 billion in 2028 at a CAGR of 5.4% in ... Acetic Acid Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Application (Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM), Purified Terephthalic ... Acid (PTA), Ester Solvents, Acetic Anhydride, Others), and Regional Forecast, 2021-2028. Region : Global , Format: PDF , Report ...
Permeability coefficient of acetic acid through egg PC-decane bilayers. Value. 0.0069 cm/sec Range: Table - link cm/sec ... Monocarboxylic acid permeation through lipid bilayer membranes. J. Membrane Biol. 77: 255-264PubMed ID6699907 ...
Selection of stainless steels for handling acetic acid (CH3COOH). Introduction. Acetic acid is a weak reducing acid. It is used ... Commercially concentrated acid is around 99 wt. %, (glacial acetic acid).. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Ferritic ... Contamination of acetic acid with the more aggressive formic acid, (HCOOH), can result in an unexpected reduction in corrosion ... Peracetic acid CH3C(O)OOH. Peracetic acid, CH3C(O)OOH, which is also known as peroxyacetic acid, is used as a disinfectant, ( ...
Material Safety Data Sheet or SDS for Acetic acid octyl ester 112-14-1 from chemicalbook for download or viewing in the browser ... Acetic acid octyl ester. Revision Date:2023-08-05Revision Number:1 ...
nbsp; Key words: Trisodium phosphate, Lactic acid, Acetic acid, E. coli, Aerobic count, Quality, Chicken, Poultry. ... nbsp; Key words: Trisodium phosphate, Lactic acid, Acetic acid, E. coli, Aerobic count, Quality, Chicken, Poultry. ... and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for reducing E. coli NCTC 10538 and aerobic ... and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for reducing E. coli NCTC 10538 and aerobic ...
Food Grade Acetic Acid Market Analysis Report - Industry Size, Trends, Insights, Market Share, Competition, Opportunities, and ... 3. Food Grade Acetic Acid Market Insights, 2022-2029. 3.1 Food Grade Acetic Acid Market Drivers. 3.2 Food Grade Acetic Acid ... Europe Food Grade Acetic Acid Market, Asia-Pacific Food Grade Acetic Acid Market, Middle East and Africa Food Grade Acetic Acid ... 11.1 Key Companies in Food Grade Acetic Acid Industry. 11.2 Food Grade Acetic Acid Business Overview. 11.3 Food Grade Acetic ...
Acetic Acid; 2-[(2-Aminoacetyl)Amino]-3-Phenyl-Propanamide (molecular formula: C13H19N3O4). ... Acetic Acid; 2-[(2-Aminoacetyl)Amino]-3-Phenyl-Propanamide. Synonyms. Acetic Acid; 2-[(2-Aminoacetyl)Amino]-3-Phenyl- ... Propanamide; Acetic Acid; 2-[(2-Amino-1-Oxoethyl)Amino]-3-Phenylpropanamide; Acetic Acid; 2-(Glycylamino)-3-Phenyl-Propionamide ... Home >> Chemical Listing >> Page 386 >> Acetic Acid; 2-[(2-Aminoacetyl)Amino]-3-Phenyl-Propanamide ...
Steps for applying acetic acid to the cervix Detecting changes in the cervical epithelium after application of acetic acid ... Steps of applying acetic acid for VIA and identifying the transformation zone (VIA negative) Steps of applying acetic acid for ... Please note that an HPV positive cervix may appear normal even after application of acetic acid. Some of the criteria mentioned ... Home / Training / Manuals / Atlas of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for screening, triage, and assessment for ...
Purchase Acetic Acid GK format test kit is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of acetic acid acetate in wines ... Acetic Acid Assay Kit (ACS Manual Format) K-ACETAF - Acetic Acid Assay Kit (ACS Analyser Format) K-ACETAK - Acetic Acid Assay ... The Acetic Acid GK format test kit is for use with auto-analysers and is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of ... As part of Megazymes overall commitment to providing the highest quality products, we have developed this acetic acid kit that ...
Dominican Republic exported Acids; saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acetic acid n.e.s. in item no. 2915.3 to ... Dominican Republic exports of Acids; saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acetic acid n.e.s. in item no. 2915.3 ... HS Code 291539: Acids; saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acetic acid n.e.s. in item no. 2915.3. Please note: ... Acids; saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids; esters of acetic acid n.e.s. in item no. 2915.3. 2021. World. 70.59. 22,516. Kg ...
Learn more about Acetic acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it ... Acetic acid glacial ≥99.7% (by freezing point), CMOS for microelectronic, J.T.Baker® Supplier: AVANTOR PERFORMANCE MATERIALS US ... Acetic acid glacial ≥99.9%, BAKER INSTRA-ANALYZED® for trace metal analysis, J.T.Baker® Supplier: AVANTOR PERFORMANCE MATERIALS ... Acetic acid glacial ≥99%, BAKER INSTRA-ANALYZED® Plus for trace metal analysis, J.T.Baker® Supplier: AVANTOR PERFORMANCE ...
Potassium Permanganate Experiment 0.15 Minute ACETIC ACID IS ... Technical Grade Packing Size 30 KG NETT Glacial Acetic Acid 99 ... Acetic Acid. Product Details: Form Liquid Usage/Application Vinegar Physical State Liquid Usage Industrial Grade Standard ... ACETIC ACID IS USED IN FOOD AND PHARMA ... Technical Grade Packing Size 30 KG NETT Glacial Acetic Acid 99 ...
Acetic Acid Test. The acetic acid test can be helpful in the diagnosis of genital warts. In particular, soaking acetic acid ... The acetic acid test can be used in conjunction with colposcopy to examine cervical lesions. However, this test is reserved ... The method involves applying a 3-5% acetic acid-moistened gauze pad for 5-10 minutes on suspected lesions of the penis, cervix ... diagnosis of most cutaneous and external genital warts can be made on clinical examination or with application of acetic acid ...
UV-method for the determination of Acetic acidl in food products, designed for using only with the RIDA®CUBE SCAN instrument ( ... CUBE Acetic Acid quantity. Add to cart. Category: RIDA®CUBE SKU: RCS4226 Tags: acetic automation enzymatic assays organic acids ... UV-method for the determination of Acetic acid in food products.. The enzymatic test kit is designed for using only with the ... UV-method for the determination of Acetic acid in food products.. The enzymatic test kit is designed for using only with the ...
Chemical Properties of Acetic Acid. *Acidic Nature: Acetic acid is a weak acid, and it can donate a proton (H+) to aqueous ... Acetic Acid. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is a colorless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH ... Melting Point: Acetic acid freezes at approximately 16.6°C (62°F).. *Boiling Point: The boiling point of acetic acid is around ... Physical Properties of Acetic Acid. *Physical State: Acetic acid is a colorless, pungent-smelling liquid at room temperature ...
Acetic acid anhydride,Acetyl acetate,Acetyl anhydride,Ethanoic anhydride; Linear Formula: (CH3CO)2O; find Sigma-Aldrich-242845 ... Acetic anhydride ACS reagent, ≥98.0%; CAS Number: 108-24-7; EC Number: 203-564-8; Synonyms: Acetanhydride, ... Acetic anhydride is an organic solvent. On dissolution in water it undergoes solvolysis to afford acetic acid. It is widely ... Acetic anhydride has been used as one of the reaction components in the preparation of:. *2-acetylamino-5-aminobenzenesulfonic ...
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I-2020 Single-Analyte Photometer Kit to measure Peracetic Acid in water with a range of 0-5.0 ppm ... The I-2020 Peracetic Acid Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring Peracetic Acid in water levels from 0 - 5.00 ... Youre reviewing:I-2020 Peracetic Acid. Your Rating. Quality. 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars ...
The acetic acid used as the sclerosant was 40%-50% in concentration, and the amounts used ranged from 2 mL to 70 mL (mean, 11.3 ... The acetic acid used as the sclerosant was 40%-50% in concentration, and the amounts used ranged from 2 mL to 70 mL (mean, 11.3 ... The acetic acid used as the sclerosant was 40%-50% in concentration, and the amounts used ranged from 2 mL to 70 mL (mean, 11.3 ... The acetic acid used as the sclerosant was 40%-50% in concentration, and the amounts used ranged from 2 mL to 70 mL (mean, 11.3 ...
Otetul utilizat in bucatarie are un procent de 3-5% acid acetic, in timp ce produsul RAND-ECO are un continut de acid acetic de ... Pestmaster erbicid total RAND-ECO, acid acetic concentrat, 1l.. Pestmaster erbicid total RAND-ECO, acid acetic concentrat, 1l. ... Produsul Pestmaster erbicid total RAND-ECO, acid acetic concentrat, 1l. se afla in baza noastra de date. Este posibil ca la ... Pestmaster RAND-ECO produs pe baza de acid acetic, se poate utiliza pentru indepartarea buruienilor nedorite de pe: ziduri, ...
Ready to use stock solution Plant Growth Regulators for Plant Tissue Culture (PTC). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) Concentration: ... Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Concentration: 1mg/ml. Size: 100 ml Simpan di tempat bersuhu rendah (4degC). Penggunaan adalah ... Be the first to review "PGR Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) - For Plant Tissue Cultures" Cancel reply. Your email address will not ... Home / Kultur Tisu / Medium / PGR Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) - For Plant Tissue Cultures. ...
... recovered acetic acid/30% water, neat=100% recovered acetic acid, acetic anhydride=15% recovered acetic acid/85% acetic ... 0024]Batch distillation experiments using recovered acetic acid, recovered acetic acid plus water, and recovered acetic acid ... The acetic anhydride is separated from the acid and recycled back to the acetylation step, while the spent acetic acid must be ... For example, the acetic acid is purified by feeding acetic acid and water to a distillation column; azeotropically removing ...
  • Acetic anhydride, (CH 3 CO) 2 O, can be aggressive to either 304 or 316 types in the absence of any water and in the presence of chlorides. (bssa.org.uk)
  • Acetic anhydride is an organic solvent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Wacher process (starting reagent + a ketene) and Knapsack process (starting reagent = acetaldehyde) have been reported for the industrial preparation of acetic anhydride. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Prismane Consulting estimates vinyl acetate to account for the largest acetic acid consumption followed by purified terephthalic acid, ethyl acetate and acetic anhydride at a global level. (prismaneconsulting.com)
  • Based on the Derivative, the Acetic Acid Market analysis covers Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM), Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA), Ethyl Acetate, Acetic Anhydride, Other Derivatives. (consainsights.com)
  • Glacial acetic acid" is a name for water-free (anhydrous) acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of water in vinegar has such a profound effect on acetic acid's properties that for centuries chemists believed that glacial acetic acid and the acid found in vinegar were two different substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1910, most glacial acetic acid was obtained from the pyroligneous liquor, a product of the distillation of wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time, Germany was producing 10,000 tons of glacial acetic acid, around 30% of which was used for the manufacture of indigo dye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetic acid (aqueous), Ethanoic acid, Glacial acetic acid, Methanecarboxylic acid [Note: Can be found in concentrations of 5-8% in vinegar. (cdc.gov)
  • glacial acetic acid). (bssa.org.uk)
  • Form Liquid Usage/Application Vinegar Physical State Liquid Usage Industrial Grade Standard Technical Grade Packing Size 30 KG NETT Glacial Acetic Acid 99 % AS 0.0001 % Freezing Point 14.5 Evaporates The Residual 0. (atozchemicals.com)
  • When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • Ko Hebei Pengfa Chemical Co., Ltd. he kamupene e mahi ana ki te hanga, ki te hoko me te kaweake i te waikawa acetic glacial, te otinga waikawa acetic, te waikawa formic, te waikawa phosphoric, te waikawa tae, te konutai Acetate, ca. (pengfachemical.com)
  • We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ∼1200 and ∼1400 Gmol yr−1 , dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. (nasa.gov)
  • The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. (nasa.gov)
  • Besides, Celanese`s acetic acid plant has become the world`s largest acetic acid production plant, its production capacity has reached 3150 K MT. BP-Amoco company is the No.1 of European producers, with the production capacity of 2800 K MT. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • Vinegar is at least 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water and other trace elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinegar is mostly dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "acetic acid" derives from the Latin word for vinegar, "acetum", which is related to the word "acid" itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinegar was known early in civilization as the natural result of exposure of beer and wine to air, because acetic acid-producing bacteria are present globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of acetic acid in alchemy extends into the third century BC, when the Greek philosopher Theophrastus described how vinegar acted on metals to produce pigments useful in art, including white lead (lead carbonate) and verdigris, a green mixture of copper salts including copper(II) acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinegar and Acetic Bacteria. (uco.es)
  • first meeting devoted to acetic acid bacteria with special interest in vinegar, traditionally, their most important product. (uco.es)
  • Parallel specific conferences on vinegar research, fostered by The Vinegar Research Network (" Primeras Jornadas de I+d+I en la Elaboración de Vinagres de Vino " and " Second Symposium on Research+Development+Innovation for Vinegar Production ") were held in Spain during 2003 and 2006 chaired by Prof. Albert Mas and Prof. Isidoro García in Tarragona and Cordoba respectively. (uco.es)
  • Vinegar is roughly 3-9% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • When kombucha ferments, the process produces a type of acid called acetic acid, which is also present in vinegar. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The objective is to study the effect of addition of CaCl on separation of Acetic acid - water mixture and to find out the possibility of the use of concentrated solution of CaCl 2 as a solvent for separating dilute solution of acetic acid in water by extractive distillation process. (slideshare.net)
  • This atlas describes the use of VIA as a primary screening test or as a triage test for HPV-positive women, and explains how application of dilute acetic acid to the cervix can help in determining eligibility for ablative treatment. (who.int)
  • Acetic acid /əˈsiːtɪk/, systematically named ethanoic acid /ˌɛθəˈnoʊɪk/, is an acidic, colourless liquid and organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H, C2H4O2, or HC2H3O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name "ethanoic acid", a valid IUPAC name, is constructed according to the substitutive nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also recognized as ethanoic acid, acetic acid is a colorless liquid that functions as a significant forerunner to the manufacturing of multiple chemicals used in the fabric, gum and plastic sectors. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Because both methanol and carbon monoxide are commodity raw materials, methanol carbonylation long appeared to be attractive precursors to acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetic Acid is a commodity chemical produced by carbonylation of methyl alcohol or methanol. (prismaneconsulting.com)
  • Moreover, the price volatility of standard raw materials such as methanol will further boost the transition to bio-based acetic acid in the coming years. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • The 3rd International Conference on Acetic Acid Bacteria. (uco.es)
  • The use of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) in foods, beverages and some industrial chemicals production as well as their potential for many new applications make them very important not only for modern industrial societies but for many ones in the developing world. (uco.es)
  • Third International Conference on Acetic Acid Bacteria. (uco.es)
  • Storage time and temperature affect microbial dynamics of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in a kombucha beverage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, cultivable yeasts and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated from the beverage , inoculated in pure culture , identified by molecular methods , and yeasts assessed for their functional properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peracetic acid, CH 3 C(O)OOH, (peroxyacetic acid), should be safe with stainless steels. (bssa.org.uk)
  • Peracetic acid, CH 3 C(O)OOH, which is also known as peroxyacetic acid, is used as a disinfectant, (sanitiser), in food, medical and water treatment related industries. (bssa.org.uk)
  • The I-2020 Peracetic Acid Meter is designed for accurately and quickly measuring Peracetic Acid in water levels from 0 - 5.00 ppm. (gas-sensing.com)
  • Of the many DBPs that are present in chlorinated waters, the trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the major DBPs. (bmj.com)
  • Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastman Chemical Company also announced at its U.S. facility in Longview, Texas, the extension of its carboxylic acid crop capability. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Ferritic stainless steels such as the 430 type can be considered for most acid concentrations at ambient temperatures, but normally austenitics are preferred as pitting corrosion has been reported in industrial plant and equipment. (bssa.org.uk)
  • In the 24 hour experiment in October, concentrations of both acids were lower between 0800-1800 than during the same time-period in August (mean HCOOH g =4.4±2.7 ppbv, mean CH 3 COOH g =1.4±0.5 ppbv). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Acetic-acid concentrations ranged from 3 to 5 parts per million (ppm) below the OSHA standard of 10ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • In the context of acid-base reactions, the abbreviation HAc is sometimes used, where Ac in this case is a symbol for acetate (rather than acetyl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetate is the ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "acetate" can also refer to a salt containing this anion, or an ester of acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetic acid was isolated by treatment with milk of lime, and the resulting calcium acetate was then acidified with sulfuric acid to recover acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Acetic Acid GK format test kit is for use with auto-analysers and is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of acetic acid (acetate) especially in wines, fruit juices, beverages and food products. (megazyme.com)
  • Increasing use of acetate acid in the manufacture of multiple products, such as vinyl acetate monomers (VAM) and purified terephthalate acid, is expected to increase business volume during the evaluation era. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Bio-based acetate has the same characteristics as convectional acid with minimal environmental harm. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Visual inspection after application of acetic acid (VIA) is widely used as a screening test in low- and middle-income countries, because of its simplicity, point-of-care nature, and low cost. (who.int)
  • The metabolites of note included small fatty acids such as decanoic and octanoic acid, amino acids such as serine and 1H-indole-3-acetic acid, and sugar derivatives such as glycerol. (medscape.com)
  • Acetic acid balances the pH level of IGF-1 peptides, resulting in the longer shelf life of over 30 days after reconstitution while keeping the peptide solution sterile due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties. (bacteriostatic-water-uk.com)
  • In addition, the increasing use of acetic acid in terephthalic acid manufacturing is also set to help market growth during the forecast period. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Terephthalic acid is a significant construction block in the manufacture of polyester resins, widely used in polyester movies, PET resins and polyester polymers. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Terephthalic acid is also used in house furnishing and textile production such as bed linen, dresses and curtains. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Acetic acid has been shown to be one of the most ubiquitous fermentation inhibitors in a bioethanol production facility which slows down the bioethanol production and reduces its yield through inhibition of the ethanol producing microorganisms. (purdue.edu)
  • Xylitol and acetic acid were also formed during the fermentation. (lu.se)
  • Contamination of acetic acid with the more aggressive formic acid, (HCOOH), can result in an unexpected reduction in corrosion resistance of the 316 types. (bssa.org.uk)
  • Gaseous formic acid (HCOOH g ) and acetic acid (CH 3 COOH g ) were measured every 30 minutes during a 10 hour daylight period in August, and a 24 hour period in October, 1990 in the urban atmosphere of Yokohama, Japan. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Monocarboxylic acid permeation through lipid bilayer membranes. (harvard.edu)
  • Acetic acid is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • The photometric measurement covers all enzymatic and colorimetric assays for the detection of organic acids (i.e. lactic acid), sugars (i.e. glucose) or other food components (i.e. sulfite). (biotica.gr)
  • On the other hand , Dekkera anomala ( Brettanomyces anomalus), representing 52 % of the yeast isolates, remained viable up to 90 days at both storage temperatures , and was able to produce high levels of organic acids and exopolysaccharides. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, Celanese Corporation, a significant business competitor, announced a 150-kilo tonnes development of its acetic acid and VAM crop capability in Clear Lake, Texas. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • As part of Megazyme's overall commitment to providing the highest quality products, we have developed this acetic acid kit that provides a specific and rapid assay for use with auto-analysers. (megazyme.com)
  • View more of our acetic acid and organic acid assay kits. (megazyme.com)
  • Our company needs a lot of sodium borate and boric acid , which we purchase every month. (ecplaza.net)
  • If your company can provide stable sodium borate and boric acid all year round, please contact me, henanwuwanwu(@)hotmail.com, please. (ecplaza.net)
  • In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction sequence consisted of chlorination of carbon disulfide to carbon tetrachloride, followed by pyrolysis to tetrachloroethylene and aqueous chlorination to trichloroacetic acid, and concluded with electrolytic reduction to acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • To measure accurately urinary elimination half life of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA). (bmj.com)
  • Initial work by Weisel and co-workers 4 and limited pharmacokinetic literature 5, 6 showed promise for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) for integrating medium term exposure to drinking water DBPs. (bmj.com)
  • Exposures to acetic-acid (64197), ammonia (7664417), carbon-dioxide (124389), carbon-monoxide (630080), formaldehyde (50000), and ozone (10028156) were surveyed at the Bureau of Land Management (SIC-9199) in Cheyenne, Wyoming on April 2, 1981. (cdc.gov)
  • To better reflect its structure, acetic acid is often written as CH3−C(O)OH, CH3−C(=O)OH, CH3COOH, and CH3CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • On dissolution in water it undergoes solvolysis to afford acetic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Strong oxidizers (especially chromic acid, sodium peroxide & nitric acid), strong caustics [Note: Corrosive to metals. (cdc.gov)
  • It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.China is the world`s largest producer of acetic acid, accounting for 52.70% of the world`s total production capacity in 2017. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • In terms of consumption, Asia-Pacific accounted for the largest share of acetic acid globally. (prismaneconsulting.com)
  • Effect Of Addition Of Calcium Chloride On Separation Of Acetic Acid-Water Mixture By Extractive Distillation. (slideshare.net)
  • This indicates a preferential association of salt with less volatile component, acetic acid in the acetic acid-water mixture, water is more volatile component in acetic acid-water mixture. (slideshare.net)
  • Similar to Effect Of Addition Of Calcium Chloride On Separation Of Acetic Acid-Water Mixture By Extractive Distillation. (slideshare.net)
  • Vol-1 Issue-2 2015 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 1130 www.ijariie.com 19 Effect Of Addition Of Calcium Chloride On Separation Of Acetic Acid-Water Mixture By Extractive Distillation. (slideshare.net)
  • Cumene is oxidized using air or oxygen in the presence of an acid catalyst, typically a sulfuric acid/phosphoric acid mixture. (intactone.com)
  • The trivial name "acetic acid" is the most commonly used and preferred IUPAC name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetic acid is commonly used to make VAM, which is used to create multiple resins and polymers for adhesives, movies, paints, coatings, textiles and other end-user products. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Commonly, nucleic acids or proteins are electrophoretically separated on agarose or acrylamide gels and then transferred (blotted) from the gel onto the NC. (cdc.gov)
  • sodium citrate/citric acid decreases effects of lactulose by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Acetic Acid Market from Consainsights analyses the Acetic Acid Market Market in the Chemicals & Materials industry over the forecast period to 2027. (consainsights.com)
  • Air samples taken in the film developing room, printing room, and throughout one entire floor were negative for all suspect chemicals except acetic-acid. (cdc.gov)
  • 5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The research analyses various direct and indirect forces that can potentially impact the Food Grade Acetic Acid market supply and demand conditions. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • However, complying with stringent regulations and varying standards around the world, growing competition, inflation estimated to remain above the upper band during the short term in key nations, and fluctuating raw material prices are some of the Food Grade Acetic Acid market restraints over the forecast period. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report provides analysis of global acetic acid market for the period 2015-2026, wherein 2019 to 2026 is the forecast period and 2018 is considered as the base year. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • During the forecast period, acetic acid demand is expected to demonstrate significant development. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Growing infrastructural projects across the globe are expected to boost demand for coatings and sealants, thus adding favorably to the development of supply for acetic acid monomers over the forecast period. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • 10. The method of purifying acetic acid containing terpene and terpenoid impurities according to claim 1, wherein the amount of water in the product stream is 25% or less. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Acetic Acid 0.6% Water Solution is the recommended buffer for IGF-1 peptides reconstitution. (bacteriostatic-water-uk.com)
  • In a 13-week gavage study, B6C3F1 mice (20 per sex per dose) received MCA (as an acid in deionized water) at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/ kg bw per day, 5 days per week. (canada.ca)
  • In the same study as above, six groups of F344 rats (20 per sex per dose) received MCA (as an acid in deionized water) by gavage at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/ kg bw per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. (canada.ca)
  • The research report covers Food Grade Acetic Acid industry statistics including current Food Grade Acetic Acid Market size, Food Grade Acetic Acid Market Share, and Growth Rates (CAGR) by segments and sub-segments at global, regional, and country levels, with an annual forecast till 2029. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The global acetic acid market size is expected to worth around US$ 16.4 billion by 2026 and forecasted to grow at striking CAGR around 6.2% over the forecast time frame 2019 to 2026, According to Acumen Research and Consulting. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • The Global Food Grade Acetic Acid Market study is a comprehensive report with in-depth qualitative and quantitative research evaluating the current scenario and analyzing prospects in Food Grade Acetic Acid Market over the next seven years, to 2029. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • According to Prismane Consulting's market model, the global demand for Acetic Acid is anticipated to grow at an average rate of around 3% post-2021 (long-term forecast). (prismaneconsulting.com)
  • The global Acetic Acid market was valued at 1043.28 Million USD in 2021 and will grow with a CAGR of 3.93% from 2021 to 2027, based on Research newly published report. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • The diagnosis of most cutaneous and external genital warts can be made on clinical examination or with application of acetic acid and biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • The Acetic Acid Strategy Report 2020 describes the Acetic Acid market, with focus on the country, and application scenarios. (prismaneconsulting.com)
  • The report identifies the most profitable products of Food Grade Acetic Acid market, dominant end uses and evolving distribution channel of the Food Grade Acetic Acid Market in each region. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • UV-method for the determination of Acetic acid in food products. (biotica.gr)
  • Looking to purchase 1- 2 ton Oxalic Acid Anhydrous Powder CAS 6153-56-6 Mesh Requirements = 500-mesh superfine powder Target Price = $750/MT CIF Vancouver, BC, Canada End use of raw material is cleaning products Payment Terms = Credit Card , Paypal. (ecplaza.net)
  • The use of liquid-liquid extraction has shown to be a viable tool to remove the acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate. (purdue.edu)
  • The skilled players are constantly seen shifting to producing bio-based acetic acid from sugar, corn, cheese whey waste, poplar tree, and other bakery residues. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • We required Isophthalic Acid on a regular basis. (ecplaza.net)
  • Therefore, growth in the development of these initiatives offers enormous growth prospects in acetic acid supply. (acumenresearchandconsulting.com)
  • Acetic Acid Market research report from Consainsights outlines the detailed strategic analysis, trends, market opportunities, growth prospects, industry and market challenges and sustainable solutions to sustain in the competitive environment. (consainsights.com)
  • 2. The method of purifying acetic acid containing terpene and terpenoid impurities according to claim 1, wherein the product stream withdrawn from the column is a liquid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of purifying acetic acid containing terpene and terpenoid impurities according to claim 2, further comprising drying the liquid product stream. (patentsencyclopedia.com)