Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC
A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC
Hydrolytic enzyme activity used as a histocytochemical test for the presence of esterases in tissue. Substrate used is 3-hydroxy-4'-nitro-2-naphthanilide chloroacetate (naphthol AS-D).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/4860)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (2/4860)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (3/4860)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (4/4860)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats. (5/4860)

Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (6/4860)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (7/4860)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (8/4860)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

Papillomas can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most commonly found on the face, neck, and scalp. They may appear as small bumps or growths that look like a wart. In some cases, papillomas may be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

Papillomas are typically diagnosed through a physical examination of the affected area. In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other potential causes. Treatment for papillomas usually involves removal of the growth through a minor surgical procedure or cryotherapy (freezing).

Papillomas are not cancerous and do not typically pose any long-term health risks. However, they may be unsightly and can cause psychological distress for some people. In these cases, treatment may be sought for cosmetic reasons. It is important to note that papillomas should not be confused with squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer that can resemble a papilloma in appearance but has the potential to be more aggressive and harmful.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

Symptoms of Canavan disease typically become apparent within the first few months of life and may include:

* Delayed development
* Muscle weakness and stiffness
* Poor coordination and balance
* Seizures
* Vision loss
* Hearing loss
* Respiratory problems

There is no cure for Canavan disease, and treatment is limited to managing the symptoms. Children with the disorder often have a shortened lifespan, typically living into their teenage years or early twenties. The progression of the disease can be slowed with medication and other supportive therapies, but the outcome is generally poor.

Inheritance Pattern:

Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a child inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the disorder but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers have a 25% chance of passing the mutated gene to each of their children.


Canavan disease can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include measurement of aspartoacylase enzyme activity in white blood cells or analysis of genetic mutations that cause the disorder. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to evaluate brain development and identify any structural abnormalities.


There is no cure for Canavan disease, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options may include:

* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and coordination
* Occupational therapy to help with daily activities and fine motor skills
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Seizure medication to control seizures
* Anticonvulsant medication to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures


The prognosis for Canavan disease is generally poor, with most children dying before the age of 2. However, some individuals with milder forms of the disorder may live into their teenage years or even early adulthood. It is important to note that each child's prognosis can vary greatly depending on the severity of their condition and the presence of any other health issues.


Canavan disease can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Seizures: Canavan disease can cause seizures, which can be difficult to control.
* Developmental delays: Children with Canavan disease may experience developmental delays and learning disabilities.
* Intellectual disability: Many individuals with Canavan disease will have intellectual disability.
* Vision loss: Some children with Canavan disease may experience vision loss or blindness.
* Hearing loss: Some children with Canavan disease may experience hearing loss.
* Respiratory problems: Canavan disease can cause respiratory problems, such as sleep apnea and pneumonia.
* Infections: Children with Canavan disease may be more susceptible to infections due to their weakened immune system.

Causes and risk factors:

Canavan disease is caused by a mutation in the ASPA gene, which codes for an enzyme involved in the breakdown of certain fats in the body. This mutation leads to a buildup of these fats in the brain, causing damage to brain cells and leading to the symptoms of the disorder.

There is no known risk factor for Canavan disease, as it is a genetic condition that can occur spontaneously. However, family history may be a factor in some cases, as there is a higher risk of the disorder occurring in individuals with a family history of the condition.


There is no known prevention for Canavan disease, as it is a genetic condition that occurs spontaneously. However, prenatal testing is available for pregnant women who have a family history of the disorder or who are at risk of having an affected child. This testing can help identify whether the fetus has the mutated ASPA gene and confirm a diagnosis of Canavan disease.

Treatment and management:

There is no cure for Canavan disease, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. Some of the treatments that may be used to manage the disorder include:

* Physical therapy: To help improve muscle tone and strength.
* Occupational therapy: To help with daily activities and fine motor skills.
* Speech therapy: To help with communication and language development.
* Medications: To control seizures and other symptoms.
* Respiratory support: To help with breathing difficulties.


The prognosis for Canavan disease is poor, as the disorder is progressive and there is no cure. Children with the condition typically have a shortened lifespan, with many passing away before the age of 10. However, with proper management and support, some individuals with Canavan disease may live into their teenage years or even early adulthood.

In conclusion, Canavan disease is a rare and severe genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by mutations in the ASPA gene and can be diagnosed through genetic testing. While there is no cure for the disorder, treatment and management are available to help improve symptoms and quality of life. With proper support and care, individuals with Canavan disease can live fulfilling lives despite their challenges.

Cocarcinogenesis can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Synergistic effects: The combined effect of two or more substances is greater than the sum of their individual effects. For example, smoking and exposure to asbestos can increase the risk of lung cancer more than either factor alone.
2. Antagonism: One substance may counteract the protective effects of another substance, leading to an increased risk of cancer. For example, alcohol consumption may antagonize the protective effects of a healthy diet against liver cancer.
3. Potentiation: One substance may enhance the carcinogenic effects of another substance. For example, smoking can potentiate the carcinogenic effects of exposure to certain chemicals in tobacco smoke.
4. Multistage carcinogenesis: Cocarcinogens can contribute to the development of cancer through multiple stages of carcinogenesis, including initiation, promotion, and progression.

Understanding cocarcinogenesis is important for developing effective cancer prevention strategies and for identifying potential co-carcinogens in our environment and diet. By identifying and avoiding co-carcinogens, we can reduce our risk of cancer and improve our overall health.

Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate - Plodia interpunctella mating inhibitor: 41 (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (abbr. Z9,E12 ... 11-tetradecadienyl acetate - Conistra vaccinii mating attractant: 41 (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (abbr. Z9,E11-14:Ac) - ... 5-tetradecadienyl acetate - Accosus centerensis mating attractant: 41 (Z,E)-4,8-tetradecadienyl acetate - Borkhausenia ... Various tetradecadienyl acetate compounds serve as insect mating pheromones especially among the Pyralidae. These include: (Z,E ...
Many industrial solvents are acetates, including methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, ethylhexyl acetate. Butyl ... acetate and basic zinc acetate. Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetate, used in dyeing, ammonium acetate, a ... "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) ... The esters are the dominant forms of acetate in the marketplace. Unlike the acetate salts, acetate esters are often liquids, ...
It is an acetate of methylazoxymethanol. In rat models, the specific effect of MAM on neural development depends on the ... Methylazoxymethanol acetate, MAM, is a neurotoxin which reduces DNA synthesis used in making animal models of neurological ... Methylazoxymethanol acetate administered at GD17 reduces the thickness of the hippocampus and the thalamus. The locomotor ... Another study found that mice whom methylazoxy-methanol acetate was administered on 16th gestational day, but not those whom it ...
... is an organic ester with the molecular formula CH3C(O)OCH2C6H5. It is formed by the condensation of benzyl ... It is collected and used by the bees as an intra-specific pheromone; In apiculture benzyl acetate is used as a bait to collect ... "Benzyl acetate". The Good Scents Company. Schiestl, F.P. & Roubik, D.W. (2004). "Odor Compound Detection in Male Euglossine ... Natural sources of benzyl acetate include varieties of flowers like jasmine (Jasminum), and fruits like pear, apple, etc. " ...
... also known as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-acetate (MENT acetate) and 7α-methylestr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate) is a ... It is an androgen ester - specifically, the C17 acetate ester of trestolone (7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone; MENT). The ... Trestolone acetate (USAN; developmental code names CDB-903, NSC-69948, U-15614; ... Acetate esters, Androgen esters, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estranes, Ketones, Prodrugs, Progestogens, Synthetic ...
... is also used as a flavoring because of its fruity odor, and it is naturally present in many fruits (such as ... Hexyl acetate is an ester with the molecular formula C8H16O2. It is mainly used as a solvent for resins, polymers, fats and ... Record of Hexyl acetate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 17 ... Acetate esters, Ester solvents, Sweet-smelling chemicals). ...
... , also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-acetate or as estr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is a synthetic, ... It is an androgen ester - specifically, the C17β acetate ester of nandrolone. List of androgen esters § Nandrolone esters ... Acetate esters, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Nandrolone esters, Progestogens, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited ...
... , also known as norhydroxy-δ6-progesterone acetate, 6-dehydro-17α-hydroxy-19-norprogesterone 17α-acetate, or ... Gestadienol acetate is the C17α acetate ester of gestadienol. Analogues of gestadienol acetate include algestone acetophenide ( ... hydroxyprogesterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, nomegestrol acetate, norgestomet, and segesterone acetate (nestorone ... Gestadienol acetate (developmental code name CIBA-31458-Ba or CIBA-31458) an orally active progestin which was described in the ...
Analogues of BMMA include chlormethenmadinone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and methenmadinone acetate. List of progestogen ... Bromethenmadinone acetate (BMMA, also known as bromsuperlutin) is a progestin medication which was developed in Czechoslovakia ... 20-dione acetate and its analogues in rats". Acta Endocrinol. 66 (2): 303-16. doi:10.1530/acta.0.0660303. PMID 5107826. Shapiro ... Acetate esters, Bromoarenes, Enones, Diketones, Pregnanes, Progestogen esters, Progestogens, Veterinary drugs, Vinylidene ...
... (brand names Aceto-Sterandryl, Aceto-Testoviron, Amolisin, Androtest A, Deposteron, Farmatest, Perandrone ... Acetate esters, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Androstanes, Ketones, Testosterone esters, All stub articles, Genito-urinary ... A), or testosterone ethanoate, also known as androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is an androgen and anabolic steroid and a ...
... (retinol acetate, vitamin A acetate) is a natural[dubious - discuss] form of vitamin A which is the acetate ... Preformed Vitamin A refers to retinyl palmitate and retinyl acetate. Retinyl acetate from Sigma-Aldrich Moon, Richard C.; ... Retinyl acetate, National Cancer Institute Drug Dictionary Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Vitamin A, ... In the United States, retinyl acetate is classified generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in the amounts used to fortify foods ...
... or lauryl acetate, CH3COO(CH2)11CH3, is the dodecyl ester of acetic acid. It has a floral odor and is useful as ... ISBN 978-0-8155-2039-9. Sigma-Aldrich Co., Lauryl acetate. Retrieved on 2014-05-28. v t e (Articles without EBI source, ... Acetate esters, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester. It is the acetate ester of ...
... is an inorganic salt composed of a neodymium atom trication and three acetate groups as anions where ... Because neodymium (Nd) is right above uranium (U) the chemical properties of uranyl acetate and neodymium acetate would be very ... B The reaction of neodymium chloride and sodium acetate can also produce neodymium acetate: NdCl3 + 3Na(CH3COO) → Nd(CH3COO)3 ... Neodymium acetate as a hydrate is a purple solid that is soluble in water. The solubility of the compound increases when sodium ...
JSC "DP acetate DP acetate produce cellulose acetate yarns from 1965 " Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cellulose acetate ... This cellulose diacetate is known as secondary acetate, or simply as "acetate". After it is formed, cellulose acetate is ... contain a higher ratio of acetate-to-cellulose than do acetate fibers. Cellulose acetate film, made from cellulose diacetate ... Acetate film was also used as the base for magnetic tape, prior to the advent of polyester film. Cellulose acetate magnetic ...
"Iso-propyl Acetate". Material Safety Data Sheets. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Isopropyl acetate". Centers for ... Isopropyl acetate is quite flammable in both its liquid and vapor forms, and it may be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. The ... Isopropyl acetate is an ester, an organic compound which is the product of esterification of acetic acid and isopropanol. It is ... Isopropyl acetate is a solvent with a wide variety of manufacturing uses that is miscible with most other organic solvents, and ...
... can refer to: Ferric acetate (iron(III) acetate), [Fe3O(CH3CO2−)6(H2O)3]CH3CO2− Ferrous acetate (iron(II) acetate ...
Acetates were often used as "demos" of new recordings by artists and record labels. Some acetates are highly prized for their ... An acetate disc (also known as a lacquer, test acetate, dubplate, or transcription disc) is a type of phonograph record ... Acetate blanks allowed high-quality playable records to be produced "instantaneously". Acetates were used in radio broadcasting ... Despite their name, professional grade "acetate" discs do not contain any acetate. They consist of an aluminum disc with a ...
... (brand names Antofin, Previsone, Pregno-Pan), also known as pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one 3β-acetate, is a ... Pregnenolone acetate has been marketed in France in a topical cream containing 1% pregnenolone acetate and 10% "sex hormone" ... 325-. ISBN 978-92-871-6298-4. Lamb JH, Kelly FC, Shackelford PO, Rebell G, Koons RC (1953). "Pregnenolone acetate in treatment ... Pregnenolone succinate Prebediolone acetate National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID= ...
... also known as 4-chlorotestosterone 17β-acetate (4-CLTA) or as 4-chloroandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is a synthetic, ... It is an androgen ester - specifically, the C17β acetate ester of clostebol (4-chlorotestosterone) - and acts as a prodrug of ... Clostebol acetate (BAN) (brand names Macrobin, Steranabol, Alfa-Trofodermin, Megagrisevit), ... Clostebol caproate Clostebol propionate Norclostebol Norclostebol acetate Oxabolone Oxabolone cipionate Elks J (14 November ...
... is the acetate salt of holmium, with a chemical formula of Ho(CH3COO)3. Holmium acetate can be obtained by ... "Holmium acetate". Retrieved 2014-01-01. R. S. Kolat, J. E. Powell (1962-05-01). "Acetate Complexes of the Rare Earth and ... Further adding heat will form Ho(OH)(CH3COO)2, HoO(CH3COO) then Ho2O2CO3, forming holmium oxide at 590 °C. Holmium acetate is ... G. A. M. Hussein, B. A. A. Balboul, G. A. H. Mekhemer (2000-11-01). "Holmium oxide from holmium acetate, formation and ...
... (CMMA), also known as chlorsuperlutin, is a progestin medication which was developed in ... Analogues of CMMA include bromethenmadinone acetate (bromsuperlutin), which was assessed but was never marketed, and ... List of progestogen esters § Esters of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives 16-Methylene-17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetate Sterba ... Acetate esters, Chloroarenes, Diketones, Pregnanes, Progestogen esters, Progestogens, Veterinary drugs, Vinylidene compounds, ...
Pure isoamyl acetate, or mixtures of isoamyl acetate, amyl acetate, and other flavors may be referred to as banana oil. Isoamyl ... Isoamyl acetate is used to confer banana or pear flavor in foods. Banana oil commonly refers to a solution of isoamyl acetate ... Isoamyl acetate, also known as isopentyl acetate, is an organic compound that is the ester formed from isoamyl alcohol and ... Isoamyl acetate occurs naturally in the banana plant and it is also produced synthetically. Isoamyl acetate is released by a ...
... (FMPA, 9α-fluoromedroxyprogesterone acetate, or 9α-FMPA) is a synthetic steroid medication ... Anecortave acetate "FMPA - AdisInsight". Sugino E, Fujimori S, Hibino S, Choshi T, Ichihara Y, Sato Y, Yamaji T, Tsuboi H, ... "Pharmacokinetics of 9alpha-fluoromedroxyprogesterone acetate in rats: comparison with medroxyprogesterone acetate". Biopharm ... Fluoromedroxyprogesterone acetate (FMPA) - AdisInsight v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
11-cis-Vaccenyl acetate (cVA) is a volatile chemical compound that acts as a pheromone in Drosophila and at least one species ... It is the acetate ester of vaccenyl alcohol. The odorant receptor subunit Or67d was shown to be necessary for detection of cVA ...
... is a natural monoterpene which contributes to the smell and flavor of peppermint. It is the acetate ester of ... Menthyl acetate constitutes 3-5% of the volatile oil of mentha piperita, contributing to its smell and flavour. L-Menthyl ... Menthyl Acetate Maeve Egan, Éilis Margaret Connors, Zeeshan Anwar, and John J. Walsh Journal of Chemical Education 2015 92 (10 ... acetate at Sigma-Aldrich PDR for Herbal Medicines, 4th Edition, Thomson Healthcare, page 640. ISBN 978-1-56363-678-3 Nature's ...
... is the ester resulting from the condensation of acetic acid and phenethyl alcohol. Like many esters, it is ... "Phenethyl acetate". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 11 February 2016. Burdock, George A. (1996). Encyclopedia of food and color ... Acetate esters, All stub articles, Ester stubs). ...
Aluminium diacetate, also known as basic aluminium acetate, is prepared from aqueous aluminium acetate solution resulting in a ... Aluminium acetate or aluminium ethanoate (also "aluminum ~"), sometimes abbreviated AlAc in geochemistry, can refer to a number ... Aluminium monoacetate, also known as dibasic aluminium acetate, forms from Al(OH)3 and dilute aqueous acetic acid. More ... 2008). "Aluminium ethanoate (aluminium acetate)". A Dictionary of Chemistry (6th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN ...
... chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and nomegestrol acetate ... "Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension -- Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR ... Estradiol/megestrol acetate Ethinylestradiol/megestrol acetate Kuhl H (2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: ... and an acetate ester at the C17α position. MGA is the C17α acetate ester of megestrol, which, in contrast to MGA, was never ...
... , or gestronol acetate, also known as norhydroxyprogesterone acetate, is a progestin of the 19- ... It is the C17α acetate ester of gestronol (17α-hydroxy-19-norprogesterone). Gestonorone acetate has been found to consistently ... 1. Selective hydrolysis of steroidal acetates". Yakugaku Zasshi. 81 (3): 369-373. doi:10.1248/yakushi1947.81.3_369. ISSN 0031- ... Acetate esters, Diketones, Norpregnanes, Progestogen esters, Progestogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary ...
... suitability of isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for identifying vitamin E acetate ( ... Vitamin E Acetate in Bronchoalveolar-Lavage Fluid Associated with EVALI. Blount BC, Karwowski MP, Shields PG, Morel-Espinosa M ... Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring vitamin E acetate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Maria ... Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring vitamin E acetate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Maria ...
Exposure to vinyl acetate occurs mainly in the workplace. Breathing high levels of it for a short time may irritate your eyes, ... What is vinyl acetate?. Vinyl acetate is an industrial chemical that is produced in large amounts in the United States. It is a ... How can vinyl acetate affect my health?. The major effects experienced from breathing high levels of vinyl acetate for a short ... Is there a medical test to show whether Ive been exposed to vinyl acetate?. No tests are available to measure vinyl acetate in ...
Both alpha and beta isomers are present in commercial methoxypropanol and methoxypropyl acetate. These isomers differ in ... NEG and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Propylene Glycol Ethers and Their Acetates. ... NEG and NIOSH Basis for an Occupational Health Standard: Propylene Glycol Ethers and Their Acetates ... methoxypropyl acetate and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether. ... methoxypropyl acetate and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
... ANHYDROUS (UNII: NVG71ZZ7P0) (ACETATE ION - UNII:569DQM74SC, SODIUM CATION - UNII:LYR4M0NH37) SODIUM ACETATE ... Sodium Acetate Injection, USP (2 mEq/mL) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, concentrated solution of sodium acetate in water for ... Each mL contains 164 mg of sodium acetate (anhydrous) which provides 2 mEq each of sodium (Na+) and acetate (CH3COO-). The ... Solutions containing acetate ions should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. Acetate ...
... called also amyl acetate, banana oil, pear oil-not used systematically. ... The meaning of ISOAMYL ACETATE is the acetic ester CH3COOC5H11 of amyl alcohol from fusel oil - ... "Isoamyl acetate." Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization, and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of ...
Hydrocortisone acetate is a corticosteroid. The molecular weight of hydrocortisone acetate is 404.50. Chemically, ... Each Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppository for rectal administration contains hydrocortisone acetate in a hydrogenated ... In normal subjects, about 26 percent of hydrocortisone acetate is absorbed when the hydrocortisone acetate suppository is ... HYDROCORTISONE ACETATE suppository. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ...
Desmopressin acetate tablets are indicated for the management of primary nocturnal enuresis. Desmopressin acetate may be used ... Desmopressin acetate tablets contain either 0.1 or 0.2 mg desmopressin acetate. Inactive ingredients include: corn starch, ... Desmopressin acetate tablets contain as active substance, desmopressin acetate, a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone ... Desmopressin acetate tablets are contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to desmopressin acetate or to any ...
Cal NORML Warns of Potential THC-O Acetate Risk. A study shows both THC-O and vitamin E acetate may convert into a dangerous ...
Flecainide acetate should be started in the hospital with rhythm monitoring. Any use of flecainide acetate in children should ... FLECAINIDE ACETATE tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... Flecainide acetate is a white crystalline substance with a pKa of 9.3. It has an aqueous solubility of 48.4 mg/mL at 37°C. ... Flecainide Acetate Tablets USP are also indicated for the prevention of:. •. documented ventricular arrhythmias, such as ...
Testing Status of Piperonyl acetate M20133. Testing Status of Piperonyl acetate M20133. CASRN: 326-61-4. Formula: C10-H10-O4. ... 1,3-Benzodioxole-5-methanol, acetate (9CI). Genetic Toxicology. *Salmonella (879036) Completed *Citation: Mortelmans, K., ...
Ethyl Acetate definition: A colorless volatile flammable liquid, C,sub,4,/sub, H,sub,8,/sub, O,sub,2,/sub, , used in perfumes, ... Ethyl Acetate Sentence Examples *. With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl ... Geuther, who showed that the chief product of the action of sodium on ethyl acetate was a sodium compound of composition ... The substance is best prepared by drying ethyl acetate over calcium chloride and treating it with sodium wire, which is best ...
... with a gold-toned metal bridge contrasting the bold black acetate frame. The Gucci logo further enriches the temples. ... Cat-Eye Acetate Glasses + A sophisticated shape, the classic cat-eye glasses are reimagined in a mix of materials, ... with a gold-toned metal bridge contrasting the bold black acetate frame. The Gucci logo further enriches the temples. ...
Table 1: Adverse Reactions due to Abiraterone Acetate in COU-AA-301 Abiraterone Acetate with Prednisone (N = 791) Placebo with ... Table 5: Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of Patients on the Abiraterone Acetate Arm in LATITUDE * Abiraterone Acetate with Prednisone ... Table 3: Adverse Reactions in ≥5% of Patients on the Abiraterone Acetate Arm in COU-AA-302 Abiraterone Acetate with Prednisone ... Table 4: Laboratory Abnormalities in ,15% of Patients in the Abiraterone Acetate Arm of COU-AA-302 Abiraterone Acetate with ...
1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate; PGMEA; 1,2-propanediol monomethyl ether acetate; propylene glycol methyl ether acetate; propylene ... NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Propylene glycol methyl ... Miller, R.R., Hermann, E.A., Young, J.T., Calhoun, L.L. and Kastl, P.E.: Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) ... Domoradzki, J.Y., Brzak, K.A. and Thornton, C.M.: Hydrolysis kinetics of Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate in rats in ...
... providing the first direct evidence of vitamin E acetate at the site of injury. ... Vitamin E acetate was universally found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with vaping lung injury, ... "Until the relationship of vitamin E acetate and lung health is better characterized, its important that vitamin E acetate not ... Vitamin E acetate was "universally" detected and no other potential toxins have been detected in the testing done so far, she ...
Find information on aluminum acetate use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula. ... Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing aluminum acetate. ... Products containing aluminum acetate. aluminum acetate topical. Drug class: topical astringents. Multi-ingredient medications ... Chemical structure of aluminum acetate. See also. Search the entire site for aluminum acetate ...
The earrings are made with high-quality acetate and feature hypoallergenic titanium posts. Diameter: 0.4 inch. Please see these ...
Uranyl Acetate UO2(C2H3O2)2.2H2O bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. ... About Uranyl Acetate. Uranyl Acetate is a moderately water soluble crystalline Uranium source that decomposes to Uranium oxide ... All metallic acetates are inorganic salts containing a metal cation and the acetate anion, a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Uranyl Acetate. Acetates. Chemical Manufacturing. Research & Laboratory. ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Acetate ion, Acetate, ethanoate, 71-50-1.
Learn about drug interactions between estradiol acetate oral and enoxaparin subq and use the RxList drug interaction checker to ... Drug interactions with estradiol acetate oral and enoxaparin subq. home drug interactions checker , estradiol acetate oral and ... estradiol acetate oral and enoxaparin subq. estradiol acetate oral decreases effects of enoxaparin subq by opposing drug ... estradiol acetate oral and enoxaparin subq. estradiol acetate oral decreases effects of enoxaparin subq by pharmacodynamic ...
... placebo-controlled PreCISe trial assessed glatiramer acetate (GA) effects in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) ... Neuroprotection with glatiramer acetate: evidence from the PreCISe trial J Neurol. 2013 Jul;260(7):1901-6. doi: 10.1007/s00415- ... The phase III, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled PreCISe trial assessed glatiramer acetate (GA) effects in patients ...
Calcium Acetate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking calcium acetate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium acetate, any other medications ... Take calcium acetate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. ... Calcium acetate may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *nausea ...
Shop the Softie Sunglasses in Black Bio-Acetate at, The big and bold Softie sunglasses. ... Bio-Acetate. The frames are made from bio-acetate, a biodegradable and recyclable cellulose acetate. This is gained from ...
Acetate High Waist Fit Jeans. Regular price €169,00 Unit price /per ... Fabric: 33.8% Modal 29.1% Lyocell 18.3% Cotton 9.7% Polyester 8.1% Acetate 1.0% Elastane ...
... [Abstract Depot ... Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use and the Development and Progression of Uterine Leiomyoma. ... Synopsis Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use and the Development and Progression of Uterine Leiomyoma] Harmon QE, Patchel SA ... Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use and the Development and Progression of Uterine Leiomyoma] [ ...
Some of the products may have synthetic medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) added. MPA is a derivative of progesterone ... ...
  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid. (
  • Wanklyn have shown that pure ethyl acetate free from alcohol will not react with sodium to produce aceto-acetic ester. (
  • Isoamyl acetate is considered more irritating than butyl acetate. (
  • The revised IDLH for isoamyl acetate is 1,000 ppm based on acute toxicity data in humans [Amor 1950] and animals [Munch 1972]. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about vinyl acetate. (
  • Exposure to vinyl acetate occurs mainly in the workplace. (
  • What is vinyl acetate? (
  • Vinyl acetate is an industrial chemical that is produced in large amounts in the United States. (
  • Vinyl acetate is used to make other industrial chemicals. (
  • Vinyl acetate is also used as a coating in plastic films for food packaging and as a modifier of food starch. (
  • What happens to vinyl acetate when it enters the environment? (
  • Vinyl acetate enters the environment from industries that make, use, or process it. (
  • Vinyl acetate breaks down readily in the environment. (
  • It is not known how long vinyl acetate stays in the soil. (
  • How might I be exposed to vinyl acetate? (
  • Breathing air near a factory that makes or uses vinyl acetate. (
  • Breathing air near a hazardous waste site containing vinyl acetate. (
  • How can vinyl acetate affect my health? (
  • The major effects experienced from breathing high levels of vinyl acetate for a short time are irritated eyes, nose, and throat. (
  • We don't know what the effects are from breathing lower levels of vinyl acetate for a long time. (
  • We also don't know what happens if you ingest vinyl acetate. (
  • Birth defects were not seen in the offspring of animals that were exposed to vinyl acetate in drinking water during their pregnancies. (
  • Vinyl acetate has caused skin irritation and blisters in workers who accidentally spilled it on their skin. (
  • Eye irritation has also been seen when people were exposed to vinyl acetate in the air or through accidents when the chemical went into their eyes. (
  • How likely is vinyl acetate to cause cancer? (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that vinyl acetate is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (
  • There are no human studies on the carcinogenicity of vinyl acetate. (
  • one study showed an increase in tumors of the noses of rats who breathed vinyl acetate, while another study did not show an increase in tumors in rats who drank water containing the chemical. (
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to vinyl acetate? (
  • No tests are available to measure vinyl acetate in the blood, urine, or body tissues. (
  • thus, measurement of these break down products is not useful for determining whether you have been exposed to vinyl acetate. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that discharges or accidental spills into the environment of 5,000 pounds or more of vinyl acetate be reported to the EPA. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that vinyl acetate may be safely used as a coating or a part of a coating that is used in plastic films for food packaging, and as a modifier of food starch. (
  • The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established an exposure limit of 10 parts of vinyl acetate per million parts of workplace air (10 ppm) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. (
  • Vinyl acetate is an industrial chemical that is produced in o Breathing air near a factory that makes or uses vinyl acetate. (
  • It is very flammable and may o Breathing air near a hazardous waste site containing vinyl acetate. (
  • We also don't know o Vinyl acetate enters the environment from industries that what happens if you ingest vinyl acetate. (
  • that were exposed to vinyl acetate in drinking water during o It is not known how long vinyl acetate stays in the soil. (
  • Vinyl acetate has caused skin irritation and blisters in 5,000 pounds or more of vinyl acetate be reported to the workers who accidentally spilled it on their skin. (
  • irritation has also been seen when people were exposed to The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has deter vinyl acetate in the air or through accidents when the chemi mined that vinyl acetate may be safely used as a coating or cal went into their eyes. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and There are no human studies on the carcinogenicity of Health (NIOSH) recommends that exposure to vinyl vinyl acetate. (
  • breathed vinyl acetate, while another study did not show an increase in tumors in rats who drank water containing the chemical. (
  • Vinyl acetate breaks down very ppm: Parts per million. (
  • Details for: Butyl acetates. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about zinc acetate? (
  • What is zinc acetate? (
  • Zinc acetate is usually given to people who have already been treated with a chelating drug to remove copper from the body. (
  • Zinc acetate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking zinc acetate? (
  • You should not use zinc acetate if you are allergic to it. (
  • You should not breastfeed while taking zinc acetate. (
  • Zinc acetate should not be given to a child younger than 10 years old. (
  • How should I take zinc acetate? (
  • If zinc acetate upsets your stomach, take the medicine between breakfast and lunch. (
  • Take zinc acetate regularly to get the most benefit. (
  • What should I avoid while taking zinc acetate? (
  • You may need to avoid certain foods that can make it harder for your body to absorb zinc acetate. (
  • What are the possible side effects of zinc acetate? (
  • What other drugs will affect zinc acetate? (
  • Other drugs may affect zinc acetate, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about zinc acetate. (
  • Zinc Acetate Dihydrate Tablet-associated Gastric Lesions. (
  • Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence and endoscopic features of zinc acetate dihydrate tablet -associated gastric lesions. (
  • Methods We retrospectively examined the endoscopic features of 47 patients taking zinc acetate dihydrate tablets who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy . (
  • None of the 19 patients who previously underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy had gastric lesions before starting zinc acetate dihydrate . (
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed after the cessation of zinc acetate dihydrate intake in six patients , and revealed the resolution of gastric lesions. (
  • Conclusion Gastric lesions were observed in 29 of 47 patients who were taking zinc acetate dihydrate tablets . (
  • Although the exact pathogenesis is uncertain, we believe that understanding the unique manifestations of this gastric lesion will help physicians manage adverse events in patients taking zinc acetate dihydrate tablets . (
  • Geuther, who showed that the chief product of the action of sodium on ethyl acetate was a sodium compound of composition C6H903Na, which on treatment with acids gave a colourless, somewhat oily liquid of composition C6H1003. (
  • Find similar words to ethyl acetate using the buttons below. (
  • The enzyme did not hydrolyse retinyl acetate, cholesteryl acetate and ethyl acetate, thus indicating a high degree of specificity. (
  • This document deals with the propylene glycol ethers most commonly used in industry, namely methoxypropanol, methoxypropyl acetate and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether. (
  • Domoradzki, J.Y., Brzak, K.A. and Thornton, C.M.: Hydrolysis kinetics of Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate in rats in vivo and in rat and human tissues in vitro . (
  • Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) and ethylene gly- col monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) have been used in a The solvents ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) variety of solvent applications. (
  • Flecainide acetate is an antiarrhythmic drug available in tablets of 50 mg, 100 mg, or 150 mg for oral administration. (
  • Flecainide acetate is a white crystalline substance with a pK a of 9.3. (
  • Flecainide Acetate Tablets USP also contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch and sodium stearyl fumarate. (
  • In man, flecainide acetate produces a dose-related decrease in intracardiac conduction in all parts of the heart with the greatest effect on the His-Purkinje system (H-V conduction). (
  • Flecainide acetate causes a dose-related and plasma-level related decrease in single and multiple PVCs and can suppress recurrence of ventricular tachycardia. (
  • In limited studies of patients with a history of ventricular tachycardia, flecainide acetate has been successful 30 to 40% of the time in fully suppressing the inducibility of arrhythmias by programmed electrical stimulation. (
  • Flecainide acetate does not usually alter heart rate, although bradycardia and tachycardia have been reported occasionally. (
  • Following oral administration, the absorption of flecainide acetate is nearly complete. (
  • A reduction in flecainide acetate dosage should be considered when milk is removed from the diet of infants. (
  • Each Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppository for rectal administration contains hydrocortisone acetate in a hydrogenated cocoglyceride base. (
  • Hydrocortisone acetate is a corticosteroid. (
  • The molecular weight of hydrocortisone acetate is 404.50. (
  • In normal subjects, about 26 percent of hydrocortisone acetate is absorbed when the hydrocortisone acetate suppository is applied to the rectum. (
  • Absorption of hydrocortisone acetate may vary across abraded or inflamed surfaces. (
  • Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppositories are indicated for use in inflamed hemorrhoids, post irradiation (factitial) proctitis, as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis, cryptitis, other inflammatory conditions of the anorectum, and pruritus ani. (
  • Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppositories are contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the components. (
  • Hydrocortisone acetate suppositories should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the risk to the fetus. (
  • Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from hydrocortisone acetate suppositories, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. (
  • Drug abuse and dependence have not been reported in patients treated with Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppositories. (
  • Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppositories are easy to open, color coded and available in cartons of 12. (
  • Hydrocortisone acetate decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing increased capillary permeability. (
  • Calcium acetate is used to control high blood levels of phosphorus in people with kidney disease who are on dialysis (medical treatment to clean the blood when the kidneys are not working properly). (
  • Calcium acetate is in a class of medications called phosphate binders. (
  • Calcium acetate comes as a capsule, tablet, and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. (
  • Take calcium acetate at around the same times every day. (
  • Take calcium acetate exactly as directed. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium acetate, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in calcium acetate preparations. (
  • Take a fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin (Avelox) at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after taking calcium acetate. (
  • Also, take levothyroxine (Euthyrox, Synthroid, Tirosint) at least 4 hours before or 4 hours after taking calcium acetate. (
  • Many other medications may also interact with calcium acetate, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (
  • Do not take supplements or antacids containing calcium while taking calcium acetate. (
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to take calcium acetate. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking calcium acetate, call your doctor. (
  • Calcium acetate may cause side effects. (
  • calcium acetate will decrease the level or effect of baloxavir marboxil by cation binding in GI tract. (
  • calcium acetate decreases levels of eltrombopag by inhibition of GI absorption. (
  • calcium acetate decreases effects of acebutolol by unspecified interaction mechanism. (
  • calcium acetate will increase the level or effect of amantadine by Other (see comment). (
  • calcium acetate decreases effects of amlodipine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • We investigated the suitability of isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for identifying vitamin E acetate (VEA) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. (
  • A study shows both THC-O and vitamin E acetate may convert into a dangerous lung toxin when they are heated in a vape pen. (
  • For the first time, vitamin E acetate has been found in biologic samples obtained from patients with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI), federal health officials with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said today. (
  • Tests on 29 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from EVALI patients from 10 states showed vitamin E acetate in all 29, Anne Schuchat, MD, CDC principal deputy director, reported during a call with reporters. (
  • Vitamin E acetate was "universally" detected and no other potential toxins have been detected in the testing done so far, she said. (
  • These findings provide direct evidence of vitamin E acetate at the primary site of injury within the lung," Schuchat added. (
  • The lung findings are consistent with product testing that found vitamin E acetate in product samples used by EVALI patients. (
  • Vitamin E acetate usually does not cause harm when swallowed as a vitamin supplement or applied topically to the skin, but previous research has suggested that it may interfere with normal lung function when inhaled, Schuchat said. (
  • Schuchat emphasized that the vitamin E acetate findings do not rule out other possible compounds or ingredients that may be causing the lung injuries. (
  • Until the relationship of vitamin E acetate and lung health is better characterized, it's important that vitamin E acetate not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products," Schuchat said. (
  • Sodium Acetate Injection, USP (2 mEq/mL) is indicated as a source of sodium for addition to large volume intravenous fluids to prevent or correct hyponatremia in patients with restricted or no oral intake. (
  • The bioavailability of desmopressin acetate oral tablets is about 5% compared to intranasal desmopressin acetate, and about 0.16% compared to intravenous desmopressin acetate. (
  • estradiol acetate oral decreases effects of enoxaparin subq by opposing drug effects. (
  • estradiol acetate oral decreases effects of enoxaparin subq by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • Desmopressin acetate tablets contain either 0.1 or 0.2 mg desmopressin acetate. (
  • Desmopressin acetate tablets contain as active substance, desmopressin acetate, a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone arginine vasopressin. (
  • Following administration of desmopressin acetate tablets, the onset of antidiuretic effect occurs at around 1 hour, and it reaches a maximum at about 4 to 7 hours based on the measurement of increased urine osmolality. (
  • The use of desmopressin acetate tablets in patients with an established diagnosis will result in a reduction in urinary output with an accompanying increase in urine osmolality. (
  • No lessening of effect was observed in the 46 patients who were treated with desmopressin acetate tablets for 12 to 44 months and no serum antibodies to desmopressin were detected. (
  • In the four long-term studies of desmopressin acetate tablets, no increases in blood pressure in 46 patients receiving desmopressin acetate tablets for periods of 12 to 44 months were reported. (
  • In one study, the pharmacodynamic characteristics of desmopressin acetate tablets and intranasal formulation were compared during an 8-hour dosing interval at steady state. (
  • All metallic acetates are inorganic salts containing a metal cation and the acetate anion, a univalent (-1 charge) polyatomic ion composed of two carbon atoms ionically bound to three hydrogen and two oxygen atoms (Symbol: CH3COO) for a total formula weight of 59.05. (
  • An enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of a-tocopheryl acetate was characterised in chicken liver. (
  • Sodium Acetate Injection, USP (2 mEq/mL) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, concentrated solution of sodium acetate in water for injection. (
  • Sodium Acetate, USP anhydrous is chemically designated CH 3 COONa, a hygroscopic powder very soluble in water. (
  • Sodium Acetate Injection, USP (2 mEq/mL) is contraindicated in patients with hypernatremia or fluid retention. (
  • Sodium Acetate Injection, USP (2 mEq/mL) must be diluted before use. (
  • one acetate in the workplace not exceed 4 ppm over a 15 study showed an increase in tumors of the noses of rats who minute period. (
  • Uranyl Acetate is a moderately water soluble crystalline Uranium source that decomposes to Uranium oxide on heating. (
  • There are reports of an occasional change in response to the intranasal formulations of desmopressin acetate (desmopressin acetate Nasal Spray and desmopressin acetate Rhinal Tube). (
  • Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic analogue of the natural pituitary hormone 8- arginine vasopressin (ADH), an antidiuretic hormone affecting renal water conservation. (
  • Some of the products may have synthetic medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) added. (
  • Solutions containing acetate ions should be used with great care in patients with metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. (
  • The phase III, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled PreCISe trial assessed glatiramer acetate (GA) effects in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the neuroprotective effect of GA in a subset of patients in the PreCISe trial, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity, in a large central volume of brain. (
  • A sophisticated shape, the classic cat-eye glasses are reimagined in a mix of materials, with a gold-toned metal bridge contrasting the bold black acetate frame. (
  • Made from black acetate, this square-framed pair is inlaid with silver-tone metal and the house's emblem at the temples. (
  • Rectangular black acetate frame features an 8mm chunky front that's sculpted to maximize volume and wearability. (
  • Acetates are excellent precursors for production of ultra high purity compounds, catalysts, and nanoscale materials . (
  • Uranyl Nitrate and Uranyl Acetate are used in medical and analytical laboratories. (
  • Increasing oral doses produced dose dependent increases in the plasma levels of desmopressin acetate. (
  • The time to reach maximum plasma desmopressin acetate levels ranged from 0.9 to 1.5 hours following oral or intranasal administration, respectively. (
  • The information below refers to products available in the United States that contain aluminum acetate . (
  • The earrings are made with high-quality acetate and feature hypoallergenic titanium posts. (
  • By now most music heads have heard the story of Warren Hill picking up the rare acetate of the Velvet Underground's lost Scepter studio sessions on a Chelsea Street for 75 cents, and how it recently turned into E-Bay mania (selling for $25,000 after an aborted first attempt that was ruined by fake high bidders). (
  • The frames are made from bio-acetate, a biodegradable and recyclable cellulose acetate. (
  • DALLAS, AMSTERDAM & SHANGHAI-(BUSINESS WIRE)- $CE -Celanese Corporation (NYSE:CE), a global chemical and specialty materials company, today announced it will raise prices of all acetate tow product grades sold globally by $ 0.40/kg or € 0.34/kg. (

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