Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Megestrol Acetate: Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Zinc Acetate: A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.Phorbols: The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Phenylmercuric Acetate: A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Methylazoxymethanol Acetate: The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Cyproterone: An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)VenezuelaButyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GlyoxylatesCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Norethindrone: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.DiglyceridesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Acetyl-CoA Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC 3.1.2.1.PyruvatesNaphthol AS D Esterase: Hydrolytic enzyme activity used as a histocytochemical test for the presence of esterases in tissue. Substrate used is 3-hydroxy-4'-nitro-2-naphthanilide chloroacetate (naphthol AS-D).Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Vinyl CompoundsTriacetin: A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Appetite Stimulants: Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Bacteria, AnaerobicGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Coenzyme ALiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)PolyvinylsEstersSuccinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.MalatesTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Lyngbya Toxins: Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.ZymosanPhorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Bryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/4860)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (2/4860)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (3/4860)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (4/4860)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats. (5/4860)

Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (6/4860)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (7/4860)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. (8/4860)

Nitrate has been shown to shunt the electron flow in Clostridium thermoaceticum from CO2 to nitrate, but it did not influence the levels of enzymes involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (J. M. Frostl, C. Seifritz, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 178:4597-4603, 1996). Here we show that under some growth conditions, nitrate does in fact repress proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The CO oxidation activity in crude extracts of nitrate (30 mM)-supplemented cultures was fivefold less than that of nitrate-free cultures, while the H2 oxidation activity was six- to sevenfold lower. The decrease in CO oxidation activity paralleled a decrease in CO dehydrogenase (CODH) protein level, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of CODH in nitrate-supplemented cultures were 50% lower than those in nitrate-free cultures. Western blots analyses showed that nitrate also decreased the levels of the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (60%) and methyltransferase (70%). Surprisingly, the decrease in activity and protein levels upon nitrate supplementation was observed only when cultures were continuously sparged. Northern blot analysis indicates that the regulation of the proteins involved in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by nitrate is at the transcriptional level. At least a 10-fold decrease in levels of cytochrome b was observed with nitrate supplementation whether the cultures were sparged or stoppered. We also detected nitrate-inducible nitrate reductase activity (2 to 39 nmol min-1 mg-1) in crude extracts of C. thermoaceticum. Our results indicate that nitrate coordinately represses genes encoding enzymes and electron transport proteins in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and activates transcription of nitrate respiratory proteins. CO2 also appears to induce expression of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes and repress nitrate reductase activity.  (+info)

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The research objectives of the project are to develop genetic and molecular techniques that will permit the detection, isolation, and cloning of genes that are regulated during acetate catabolism. These studies should provide a firm basis for understanding the regulation of acetate utilization in the methanogen, Methanosarcina acitivorans. We have concentrated on three areas of study in the first year of the contract. They are; 1)development of cell plating methods for the methanosarcina, 2) screening and isolation of plasmids from the acetogenic methanogens, and 3) construction of gene libraries for M. acetivorans. It is anticipated that techniques developed in these studies will facilitate genetic study of other methanogenic organisms. Keywords: Archaebacteria, Methanogens, Acetate Utilization, Genetic Regulation, Plasmids, Nutrition.*ACETATES
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HOUSTON - Oxea implemented a price increase for acetate esters in North America, Mexico and South America. In North America and Mexico, n-butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate increased $0.03/lb, and n-propyl acetate increased $0.05/lb. In South America, n-butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate increased $70/mt, and n-propyl acetate increased $110/mt.
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Ester solvents (ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, etc.) materials used by the Paint & Coating Mfg. Industry-Materials & Manufacturing Report - U.S. 2014 2014 U.S. Ester - Market research report and industry analysis - 8259823
Then, the MXC was operated in continuous mode. Acetate medium or domestic wastewater (filtered and raw) was fed this website to the MXC at a flow rate of 37.5 mL/h using a cartridge-type peristaltic pump (Master Flex® L/S digital drive, Model 7523-80, Cole-Parmer,. Canada) to maintain hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 8 h in the anode chamber. MXC performance and effluent quality were evaluated with different feed conditions at a fixed HRT of 8 h. First, buffer concentration effect was assessed with acetate medium (2.7 ± 0.2 mM, 175 ± 10 mg COD/L) amended with 50 mM or 5 mM bicarbonate buffer (Run 1 and 2). Then, wastewater biodegradability against acetate medium was investigated at Run 3. To avoid particulate (i.e., SS) effects on current generation and exclusively assess the biodegradability of the wastewater against acetate, the wastewater was filtered and fed to the MXC. Particulates were separated from the wastewater in two filtration steps using glass fiber filters (Fisherbrand glass ...
Ammonium acetate definition, a white, crystalline, deliquescent, water-soluble solid, NH 4 (C 2 H 3 O 2), used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes and meat preservatives. See more.
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Niacets technical acetates are widely used in a number of different industries and for various applications. Our acetates are used in many industrial applications. Their main effect is pH adjustment, crystallization aid, or as a catalyst or reagent. Niacets ingredients are used in resins, coatings, detergents, dyes, heat packs, carbon black, drilling fluids, ceramics, leather tanning, fire extinguishers, polymers, carpet backing, textile dyeing and conditioning, photography, lubricants, anti-freeze, and personal hygiene products, to mention just a few applications. Ammonium Acetate is used in textile dyeing as a mordant in the dyeing of wool, silk, acrylics, nylon). It is also used in the surface treatment of metals and as a gelling agent in the production of rubber latex. Furthermore, it is also used in the production of gel foam carpet backing. ...
Acetate found in: Grafix Dura-Lar Pads And Rolls, Grafix Biodegradable Matte Clear Acetate, Clearmount Shrinkwrap Systems, Picture Wrap Rolls Art Wrap..
The YbhL (AceP) protein. Possibly a pmf-dependent acetate uptake transporter. [14C]Acetate uptake was inhibited by CCCP as well as cold acetate, serine, α-ketoglutarate, lactate, and succinate (M. Inouye, personal communication ...
Reference data were obtained primarily from the PubChem database.. Three dimensional molecular rendering uses Jmol.. InChI string and atom numbering calculated using ALATIS (Hesam Dashti, William M. Westler, John L. Markley, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, "Unique identifiers for small molecules enable rigorous labeling of their atoms", Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170073 (2017), doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.73, https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201773). ...
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BioExpress accepts no responsibility and shall not be held liable for loss, damage, expense, consequential, or accidental damage. This includes the damage to property, person, or premises resulting from these products. BioExpress MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURCHASE. BioExpress expressly disclaims all other warranties, whether express, implied or statutory, including the warranty of MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR USE. In no event will BioExpress be liable for consequential damages arising from the use of products described in this catalog.. ...
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This research is being conducted to test an imaging technique that may be able to detect small amounts of prostate cancer that can not be detected by standard imaging.. Many patients who are diagnosed with prostate cancer undergo surgery to remove the prostate. After this surgery, some patients have a PSA blood test that reveals a low but detectable level of PSA. This PSA may be produced by cancer cells in one of two locations: (1) near the area where the prostate used to be, or (2) elsewhere in the body. If the cancer is only in the area where the prostate used to be, it can be successfully treated with radiation to that area. If the cancer is elsewhere, radiation is not helpful. Currently, there is no available scan that can detect cancer when the PSA is still so low.. The test used in this study is called [11C] acetate PET screening. [11C] acetate is a radioactive tracer that is given by vein to patients before PET scanning. The PET scanner then detects radioactivity from the tracer that is ...
The key difference between methyl acetate and ethyl acetate is that methyl acetate has a methyl group attached to an acetate group whereas ethyl acetate ha
Each 7th Edition Documentation summarizes and evaluates the scientific data from which its TLV® or BEI® is derived.
Optional P-3R relay card provides three-level selectable alarm relay outputs (Alarm1 and Alarm2), the third one for FAULT level and can be set to predefined LEL levels to be linked to addressable or conventional fire control panels. ...
We couldnt find a conversion between grams Ammonium Acetate and nanomol Do a quick conversion: 1 grams Ammonium Acetate = 1 nanomol using the online calculator for metric conversions.
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Showa Denko has decided to build a 100,000t/y ethyl acetate plant at its Oita Complex using its proprietary production process technology. The plant will start commercial production in June 2014. Ethyl acetate is used in wide-rangi
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I cut an 8 1/2 x 11 to 4.25 x 11. Scored at 5.5, 7.25 and 9. The second and third score lines are were you are going to cut out your center panel. Save your bottom piece when you cut , you will reattach to the acetate panel. For the acetate panel I cut a 2.5" x 4.25". attach to inside of card bring in 1/2" to adhere to card. Take your bottom panel and reattach bringing in 1/2" to attache. Whala, you now have an acetate panel card ...
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I am looking for a table listing the normal concentrations or concentration range of typical cell metabolites, e.g., amino acids, NAD, ATP, ions, sugars, major proteins, etc. A few years back I once stumbled over such a table. Unfortunately, I did not make a copy. The only entries I can remember: typical cell protein concentration 100-300mg/mL acetate ion 0.2 - 0.25 M Does anybody know where to find such a table ? I am also looking for a database, printed, on CD or diskette, or on the Net, with physiological data; e.g., average yield for fermentative bacterial growth on glucose 10.5g cells / mol ATP; list of average generation times of different bacteria; metabolic specialties; and so on. Any help would be appreciated. Achim ...
Product name: Ethyl acetate Molecular Formula: C4H8O2 CAS number: 141-78-6 H.S. Code: 29153100 Appearance: Colorless transparent liqui
Dura-Lar is more economical yet more dimensionally stable than wet media acetate. It is generally more flexible and less brittle than acetate but otherwise has very similar characteristics. It is for use with inks, watercolors, acrylics, etc. The surface is reusable and can be washed gently with mild soap. Available by the sheet, by the roll or in 12-sheet pads.
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IBA production with glucose and acetate in strain 7.Strain 7 (JCL260 harbouring IBA production and acetate-assimilating pathways, Table 1) was grown in M9P medi
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I own an acetate that seems to be the same as the record you mentioned here but I got it without much information. The only thing I was told by the Italian seller is that the records came directly from the states. Im surprised to hear that your "source" says the record comes from the UK ...
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Celanese Corp. (CE) and funds managed by Blackstone (BX) announced a definitive agreement to form a JV that will create a global acetate tow supplier. Celanese and Blackstone will own 70 percent and 30 percent of the JV, respectively.
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Acetate or gel electrophoresis[edit]. Proteins are separated by both electrical forces and electroendoosmostic forces. The net ... Proteins are applied to a solid matrix such as an agarose gel, or a cellulose acetate membrane in a liquid buffer, and electric ... Chemistry/ "Evaluation of a cellulose-acetate electrophoresis system for serum protein fractionation" Check ,url=. value (help) ... Kaplan, A; Savory, J (1965). "Evaluation of a cellulose-acetate electrophoresis system for serum protein fractionation". ...
Eslicarbazepine acetate[edit]. In 2008, Bial agreed with Sepracor that its antiepileptic eslicarbazepine acetate (trade name ...
Acetate. 72 mEq. 226 mEq. 134 mEq Cl−. 143 mEq. 145 mEq. 70 mEq ...
... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ...
... cyproterone acetate, gestonorone caproate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Estradiol acetate. 0.45-0.9 mg/day. 0.9-1.8 mg/day. 1.8-3.6 mg/day ... Estradiol esters (e.g., estradiol acetate, estradiol benzoate, estradiol cypionate, estradiol enanthate, estradiol undecylate, ...
Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Medicines for diabetes[edit]. Insulins[edit]. *Insulin injection (soluble). *Intermediate-acting ...
Cellulose acetate. *Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. It features a type of ...
Calcium acetate Other cations. Sodium formate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard ...
... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Shields-Botella, J.; Chetrite, G.; Meschi, S.; Pasqualini, J.R. (2005). "Effect of nomegestrol acetate on estrogen biosynthesis ...
Progesterone acetate; Progesterone 3-acetate; 3-Acetoxypregna-3,5-diene-20-one; 20-Oxopregna-3,5-dien-3-yl acetate; 3,5- ... 8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-17-Acetyl-10,13-dimethyl-2,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl] acetate ... Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether, also known as progesterone acetate,[1] as well as 3-acetoxypregna-3,5-dien-20-one, is a ...
... cyproterone acetate, gestonorone caproate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Estradiol acetate. C3. Ethanoic acid. Straight-chain fatty acid. 2. 1.15. 0.87. 8. Short ... Estradiol acetate. Rings. 12.4 or 24.8 mg per ring (provide 50 or 100 µg E2 per 24 hours for 3 months). Femring ... Estradiol acetateb. Tablets. 0.45, 0.9, or 1.8 mg per tablet. Femtrace ...
... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... cyproterone acetate, gestonorone caproate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Estradiol esters (e.g., estradiol acetate, estradiol benzoate, estradiol cypionate, estradiol enanthate, estradiol undecylate, ...
Glu + Acetate N-acetyl-glutamate synthase α-ketoglutarate + NADPH + NH4+. → Glu + NADP+ + H2O GLUD1, GLUD2[15] ...
... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Metenolone acetate. C17β. Ethanoic acid. Straight-chain fatty acid. 2. 1.14. 0.88. Short ... Trenbolone acetate. C17β. Ethanoic acid. Straight-chain fatty acid. 2. 1.16. 0.87. Short ...
These include Delalutin, Chlormadinone acetate, and PH-218. It would appear that decreased androgen production is a property ... though not as potently as cyproterone acetate.[3] The drug has also been found to suppress androgen production, likely via ... Similarly to the structurally related steroid cyproterone acetate, edogestrone binds directly to the androgen receptor and ...
... cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, gestonorone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... norethisterone acetate, norethisterone enanthate, lynestrenol, etynodiol diacetate, and noretynodrel, while the gonanes include ... norethindrone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate) are converted to this parent compound. Norethindrone is the second most commonly ...
... medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, osaterone acetate (veterinary), and oxendolone,[74][75] and estrogens like ... megestrol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, spironolactone, oxendolone, and osaterone acetate (veterinary) and the nonsteroidal ... chlormadinone acetate and megestrol acetate are steroidal antiandrogens that are weaker than cyproterone acetate but were also ... cyproterone acetate, gestonorone caproate,[131] hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, ...
sodium acetate. 63-69. 264-289[4]. stearic acid. 47.54. 198.91. gallium. 19.2. 80.4. ...
Ethyl Acetate (anhydrous). Acetone (anhydrous). methanol. ethanol. Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or ...
n-Butyl acetate. 225. 420 Cool flame can occur in hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, oils, acids, waxes[9], and even methane. ...
From left to right: 1. water, 2. methanol, 3. ethanol, 4. acetonitrile, 5. dimethylformamide, 6. acetone, 7. ethyl acetate, 8. ...
NAFARELIN ACETATE 344. NALIDIXIC ACID 345. NAPROXEN 346. NARCOTICS DRUGS LISTED IN NARCOTIC DRUGS & PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ACT ...
Estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate. 1.44 (1.09-1.89)* Estradiol/dydrogesterone. ≤1 mg/day E2. ,1 mg/day E2. 1.18 (0.98-1.42) ... Ethinylestradiol/cyproterone acetate. 4.27 (3.57-5.11)* Notes: (1) Nested case-control studies (2015, 2019) based on data from ... Conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate. 2.10 (1.92-2.31)* Conjugated estrogens/norgestrel. ≤0.625 mg/day CEEs. ,0.625 ... and with cyproterone acetate 1.88.[23] Venous thromboembolism occurs in 100-200 per 100,000 pregnant women every year.[23] ...
As an example of mixed acid fermentation, bacteria such as Clostridium pasteurianum ferment glucose producing butyrate, acetate ... They produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formate and acetate and carboxylic acids; and then consortia of microbes convert the ... Finally, methanogens (which are in the domain Archea) convert acetate to methane.[10] ... carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas:[24] The reaction leading to acetate is: C6H12O6 + 4 H2O → 2 CH3COO− + 2 HCO3− + 4 H+ + 4 H2. ...
"SYMLIN (pramlintide acetate)". Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-05 ...
Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Norethindrone Acetate Oral ... WebMD provides common contraindications for Norethindrone Acetate Oral. ... Treatment by Condition Related to Norethindrone Acetate. *Endometriosis Medications. *Abnormal Uterine Bleeding caused by ...
... delmadinone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, and osaterone acetate. CMA ... including medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, and anagestone acetate, and they were also discontinued for the ... Like other steroidal progestins with antiandrogen properties such as cyproterone acetate, megestrol acetate, and spironolactone ... Similarly to other 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives such as cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and megestrol ...
Prednisolone Acetate Generic Name. Get Express Shipping With Online Orders. ... Prednisolone Acetate Generic Name , Save Up To 80% Off The Price. *Liste des élus DP des sites de lUES Sopra Steria ... Mix of prednisolone acetate generic name the electrolytes was complete. The symptoms of a need friend are instead such while. ... Ra salt, prednisolone acetate generic name the correction of presc oral able therapy, lungs was evident in the two medication ...
It is prednisolone acetate 1 ophth forward used to treat therapy of the precio blood, children, events, and 2nd concentrations. ... moreover overruling glucose of prednisolone acetate 1 ophth the acetates same role. ... This is in gland you need south in an dentist, free here the prednisolone acetate 1 ophth option will know you are taking ... This medication may slow down a prednisolone acetate 1 ophth bodys quality if used for a clinical therapy. Not i know is that ...
Many industrial solvents are acetates, including methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, ethylhexyl acetate. Butyl ... acetate and basic zinc acetate. Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetate, used in dyeing, ammonium acetate, a ... "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) ... The esters are the dominant forms of acetate in the marketplace. Unlike the acetate salts, acetate esters are often liquids, ...
Amyl acetate (pentyl acetate) is an organic compound and an ester with the chemical formula CH3COO[CH2]4CH3 and the molecular ... "n-Amyl acetate". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 4 December 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amyl_acetate&oldid=850233970" ... are often referred to as amyl acetate. ... Isoamyl acetate, also known as banana oil.. *Esters, organic ...
Ethinylestradiol/segesterone acetate. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Thomas L. Lemke; David A. ... Segesterone acetate is the generic name of the drug and its USAN.[23][24] It is also known by its brand names nestorone and ... nomegestrol acetate, promegestone, and trimegestone.[3] SGA is a derivative of 16-methylene-17α-hydroxyprogesterone acetate, ... Segesterone acetate (SGA), sold under the brand names Nestorone, Elcometrine, and Annovera, is a progestin medication which is ...
Lithium acetate. Sodium acetate. Potassium acetate. Rubidium acetate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials ... Caesium acetate or cesium acetate is an ionic caesium compound with the molecular formula CH3CO2Cs. It is often used in organic ... Caesium acetate is occasionally used instead of caesium formate in petroleum drilling fluids.[citation needed] ... Torisawa, Yasuhiro; Okabe, Hiromitsu; Ikegami, Shiro (1984), "Efficient Inversions of Secondary Alcohols using Cesium Acetate ...
Estradiol acetate is a synthetic estrane steroid and the C3 acetate ester of estradiol.[3] It is also known as estradiol 3- ... cyproterone acetate, gestonorone caproate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate) ... Estradiol acetate is of about 15% higher molecular weight than estradiol due to the presence of its C3 acetate ester.[3] ... acetate or as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 3-acetate.[3] Another common ester of estradiol in use for oral administration ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=acetate&oldid=53220364" ...
EVA emulsions are polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) copolymers based on vinyl acetate (VAM) internally plastized with vinyl acetate ... Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate); Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate); Polyethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer ... ethylene-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The weight percent vinyl acetate usually varies ... The EVA copolymer which is based on a high proportion of VA (greater than 40%) is referred to as ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber. ...
"Basic copper acetate" is prepared by neutralizing an aqueous solution of copper(II) acetate. The basic acetate is poorly ... Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where AcO− is ... Today, copper acetates are used as reagents for the synthesis of various inorganic and organic compounds.[4] Copper acetate, ... Heating a mixture of anhydrous copper(II) acetate and copper metal affords copper(I) acetate:[9][10] ...
The Solar Spark: Acetates Description. Demonstrating how putting the colours together gives us the full picture. This resource ...
Our Propylene Oxide Glycol Ethers and their Acetates are high purity, high performance industrial chemical solvents sold under ... Ethyl PROXITOL Acetate Ethyl PROXITOL Acetate (EPA) is part of the Shell Chemicals range of Propylene Oxide Glycol Ethers ( ... Glycol ethers and acetates Propylene Oxide Glycol Ethers (POGEs) and their acetates are high purity, high performance ... Methyl PROXITOL Acetate (MPA). 146°C. 45°C. Download Technical Datasheet. Download Stewardship Summery. ...
Nickel acetate behaves similarly to copper. acetate.. If one takes sodium acetate or potassium acetate, so one gets a very oily ... potassium acetate or sodium acetate. You are right, when you say, that. potassium (acetate) also has its origin in the world of ... essentially more oil of acetone from this acetates. Potassium acetate gives. the higher yield, but sodium acetate also delivers ... essentially more oil of acetone from this acetates. Potassium acetate gives. > the higher yield, but sodium acetate also ...
Lead acetate is soluble in water and glycerin. With water it forms the trihydrate, Pb(CH 3COO) 2·3H 2O, a colorless or white ... lead acetate. lead acetate, chemical compound, a white crystalline substance with a sweetish taste. Like other lead compounds, ... plumbous acetate, or Goulards powder. Lead acetate is used as a mordant in textile printing and dyeing, as a drier in paints ... Lead acetate is soluble in water and glycerin. With water it forms the trihydrate, Pb(CH 3COO) 2·3H 2O, a colorless or white ...
Also calleda synthetic filament, yarn, or fabric composed of a derivative of the acetic ester of cellulose, differing from viscose rayon in having greater strength when wet and greater sensitivity to high temperatures. ...
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations ...
Ive already talked about lead acetate and the fact that it was almost certainly the first artificial sweetener before, and ... Whats certain, however, is that lead acetate is the only molecule thats been noted for its efficacy as a sweetener and as a ... Ive already talked about lead acetate and the fact that it was almost certainly the first artificial sweetener before, and ... ostensibly because of the sweet lead acetate - the vessel provided the lead cations, and the partial fermentation of the juice ...
gonadorelin acetate. gonadorelin acetate. gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate. For Estrous Synchrony, Use With:. Lutalyse® ... The concentration is 100 mcg gonadorelin (as gonadorelin acetate) per mL of solution. Please refer to Animal Drugs @ FDA for ... GONAbreed (Abbreviated New Animal Drug Application 200-541) is a sterile injectable solution of gonadorelin acetate, and when ... In January 2013, FDA approved the first gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) product, GONAbreed® (gonadorelin acetate), for ...
Remove all ignition sources. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours of low boiling point adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Absorb liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations ...
... is a 3-oxo-Δ4 steroid (CHEBI:47909) cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) is a acetate ester ( ... cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) has role progestin (CHEBI:59826) cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) is a 20-oxo steroid (CHEBI ... cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) is a chlorinated steroid (CHEBI:77175) cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) is a steroid ester ( ... cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) has functional parent cyproterone (CHEBI:50742) cyproterone acetate (CHEBI:50743) has role ...
... has role metabolite (CHEBI:25212) pentyl acetate (CHEBI:87362) is a acetate ester (CHEBI:47622) ... CHEBI:87362 - pentyl acetate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... pentyl acetate (CHEBI:87362) has functional parent pentan-1-ol (CHEBI:44884) ...
... has functional parent medroxyprogesterone (CHEBI:6715) medroxyprogesterone acetate ( ... CHEBI:6716 - medroxyprogesterone acetate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... 6α-Methyl-4-pregnene-3,20-dion-17α-ol acetate ChemIDplus ... 17α-Hydroxy-6α-methylprogesterone acetate ChemIDplus 6-alpha- ...
... is a acetate salt (CHEBI:59230) ammonium acetate (CHEBI:62947) is a ammonium salt (CHEBI:47704) ... ammonium acetate (CHEBI:62947) has role buffer (CHEBI:35225) ammonium acetate (CHEBI:62947) has role food acidity regulator ( ... CHEBI:62947 - ammonium acetate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
  • Similarly to other 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives such as cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and megestrol acetate, CMA is a weak glucocorticoid, and has the potential to cause adrenal insufficiency upon abrupt discontinuation of the drug at sufficient dosages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to CMA, mammary tumors were found in dogs with various other 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives, including medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, and anagestone acetate, and they were also discontinued for the indication of hormonal contraception (although medroxyprogesterone acetate has since been reintroduced). (wikipedia.org)
  • The estrogen plus progestin sub-study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) per day, relative to placebo. (rxlist.com)
  • Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials and, in the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar. (rxlist.com)
  • Like other steroidal progestins with antiandrogen properties such as cyproterone acetate, megestrol acetate, and spironolactone, but unlike nonsteroidal antiandrogens such as flutamide and bicalutamide, CMA is not a silent antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR) but rather a weak partial agonist of the AR with the capacity to activate the receptor in the absence of more efficacious agonists such as testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications you are taking especially if they are: a glucocorticoid medication such as hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate , thyroid hormone, insulin and/or oral diabetes medicines, drugs metabolized by the liver (for example, corticosteroids, sex steroids, anticonvulsants, cyclosporine), or oral estrogen replacement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mimvey (estradiol and norethindrone acetate) 1 mg/0.5 mg is a single tablet for oral administration containing 1 mg of estradiol and 0.5 mg of norethindrone acetate and the following inactive ingredients: lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, copovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, starch and titanium dioxide. (rxlist.com)
  • Thirty patients were treated with aminoglutethimide 250 mg four times per day together with cortisone acetate 50 mg twice per day for the first 2 weeks, followed by aminoglutethimide 250 mg four times per day with cortisone acetate 25 mg twice per day. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Norethindrone acetate (NETA) is a white or yellowish-white crystalline powder. (rxlist.com)
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