Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Phosphotransferases (Nitrogenous Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a nitrogenous group acceptor. EC 2.7.3.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Purification and characterization of two extremely thermostable enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. (1/86)

Phosphate acetyltransferase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK) of the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima have been purified 1,500- and 250-fold, respectively, to apparent homogeneity. PTA had an apparent molecular mass of 170 kDa and was composed of one subunit with a molecular mass of 34 kDa, suggesting a homotetramer (alpha4) structure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed significant identity to that of phosphate butyryltransferases from Clostridium acetobutylicum rather than to those of known phosphate acetyltransferases. The kinetic constants of the reversible enzyme reaction (acetyl-CoA + Pi -->/<-- acetyl phosphate + CoA) were determined at the pH optimum of pH 6.5. The apparent Km values for acetyl-CoA, Pi, acetyl phosphate, and coenzyme A (CoA) were 23, 110, 24, and 30 microM, respectively; the apparent Vmax values (at 55 degrees C) were 260 U/mg (acetyl phosphate formation) and 570 U/mg (acetyl-CoA formation). In addition to acetyl-CoA (100%), the enzyme accepted propionyl-CoA (60%) and butyryl-CoA (30%). The enzyme had a temperature optimum at 90 degrees C and was not inactivated by heat upon incubation at 80 degrees C for more than 2 h. AK had an apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa and consisted of one 44-kDa subunit, indicating a homodimer (alpha2) structure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed significant similarity to those of all known acetate kinases from eubacteria as well that of the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. The kinetic constants of the reversible enzyme reaction (acetyl phosphate + ADP -->/<-- acetate + ATP) were determined at the pH optimum of pH 7.0. The apparent Km values for acetyl phosphate, ADP, acetate, and ATP were 0.44, 3, 40, and 0.7 mM, respectively; the apparent Vmax values (at 50 degrees C) were 2,600 U/mg (acetate formation) and 1,800 U/mg (acetyl phosphate formation). AK phosphorylated propionate (54%) in addition to acetate (100%) and used GTP (100%), ITP (163%), UTP (56%), and CTP (21%) as phosphoryl donors in addition to ATP (100%). Divalent cations were required for activity, with Mn2+ and Mg2+ being most effective. The enzyme had a temperature optimum at 90 degrees C and was stabilized against heat inactivation by salts. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 (1 M), which was most effective, the enzyme did not lose activity upon incubation at 100 degrees C for 3 h. The temperature optimum at 90 degrees C and the high thermostability of both PTA and AK are in accordance with their physiological function under hyperthermophilic conditions.  (+info)

Cloning, sequence analysis, expression and inactivation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum pta-ack operon encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. (2/86)

The Corynebacterium glutamicum ack and pta genes encoding the acetate-activating enzymes acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase were isolated, subcloned on a plasmid and re-introduced into Corynebacterium glutamicum. Relative to the wild-type, the recombinant strains showed about tenfold higher specific activities of both enzymes. Sequence analysis of a 3657 bp DNA fragment revealed that the ack and pta genes are contiguous in the corynebacterial chromosome, with pta upstream and the last nucleotide of the pta stop codon (TAA) overlapping the first of the ack start codon (ATG). The predicted gene product of pta consists of 329 amino acids (Mr 35242), that of ack consists of 397 amino acids (Mr 43098) and the amino acid sequences of the two polypeptides show up to 60 % (phosphotransacetylase) and 53% (acetate kinase) identity in comparison with respective enzymes from other organisms. Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations using pta- and ack-specific probes and transcriptional cat fusion experiments revealed that the two genes are transcribed as a 2.5 kb bicistronic mRNA and that the expression of this operon is induced when Corynebacterium glutamicum grows on acetate instead of glucose as a carbon source. Directed inactivation of the chromosomal pta and ack genes led to the absence of detectable phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase activity in the respective mutants and to their inability to grow on acetate. These data indicate that no isoenzymes of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase are present in Corynebacterium glutamicum and that a functional acetate kinase/phosphotransacetylase pathway is essential for growth of this organism on acetate.  (+info)

Genes coding for phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase in Sinorhizobium meliloti are in an operon that is inducible by phosphate stress and controlled by phoB. (3/86)

Recent work in this laboratory has shown that the gene coding for acetate kinase (ackA) in Sinorhizobium meliloti is up-regulated in response to phosphate limitation. Characterization of the region surrounding ackA revealed that it is adjacent to pta, which codes for phosphotransacetylase, and that these two genes are part of an operon composed of at least two additional genes in the following order: an open reading frame (orfA), pta, ackA, and the partial sequence of a gene with an inferred peptide that has a high degree of homology to enoyl-ACP reductase (fabI). Experiments combining enzyme assays, a chromosomal lacZ::ackA transcriptional fusion, complementation analysis with cosmid subclones, and the creation of mutations in pta and ackA all indicated that the orfA-pta-ackA-fabI genes are cotranscribed in response to phosphate starvation. Primer extension was used to map the position of the phosphate starvation-inducible transcriptional start sites upstream of orfA. The start sites were found to be preceded by a sequence having similarity to PHO boxes from other phosphate-regulated genes in S. meliloti and to the consensus PHO box in Escherichia coli. Introduction of a phoB mutation in the wild-type strain eliminated elevated levels of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities in response to phosphate limitation and also eliminated the phosphate stress-induced up-regulation of the ackA::lacZ fusion. Mutations in either ackA alone or both pta and ackA did not affect the nodulation or nitrogen fixation phenotype of S. meliloti.  (+info)

Homofermentative production of D- or L-lactate in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli RR1. (4/86)

We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure D- or L-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to D-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce D-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of D-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of D-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous L-lactate pathway, an L-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and D-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to L-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of L-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of D-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of L-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product.  (+info)

Characterization of a group of anaerobically induced, fnr-dependent genes of Salmonella typhimurium. (5/86)

We have previously reported the isolation of a group of anaerobically regulated, fnr-dependent lac fusions in Salmonella typhimurium and have grouped these oxd genes into classes based on map position. In order to identify these genes, we have replaced the original Mud-lac fusion in a member of each oxd class with the much smaller Mud-cam element, cloned the fusion, and determined DNA sequence sufficient to define the oxd gene. Several of the fusions correspond to previously known genes from S. typhimurium or Escherichia coli: oxd-4 = cbiA and oxd-11 = cbiK, oxd-5 = hybB, oxd-7 = dcuB, oxd-8 = moaB, oxd-12 = dmsA, and oxd-14 = napB (aeg-46. 5). Two other fusions correspond to previously unknown loci: oxd-2 encodes an acetate/propionate kinase, and oxd-6 encodes a putative ABC transporter present in S. typhimurium but not in E. coli.  (+info)

Catabolite regulation of the pta gene as part of carbon flow pathways in Bacillus subtilis. (6/86)

In Bacillus subtilis, the products of the pta and ackA genes, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, play a crucial role in the production of acetate, one of the most abundant by-products of carbon metabolism in this gram-positive bacterium. Although these two enzymes are part of the same pathway, only mutants with inactivated ackA did not grow in the presence of glucose. Inactivation of pta had only a weak inhibitory effect on growth. In contrast to pta and ackA in Escherichia coli, the corresponding B. subtilis genes are not cotranscribed. Expression of the pta gene was increased in the presence of glucose, as has been reported for ackA. The effects of the predicted cis-acting catabolite response element (CRE) located upstream from the promoter and of the trans-acting proteins CcpA, HPr, Crh, and HPr kinase on the catabolite regulation of pta were investigated. As for ackA, glucose activation was abolished in ccpA and hprK mutants and in the ptsH1 crh double mutant. Footprinting experiments demonstrated an interaction between CcpA and the pta CRE sequence, which is almost identical to the proposed CRE consensus sequence. This interaction occurs only in the presence of Ser-46-phosphorylated HPr (HPrSer-P) or Ser-46-phosphorylated Crh (CrhSer-P) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). In addition to CcpA, carbon catabolite activation of the pta gene therefore requires at least two other cofactors, FBP and either HPr or Crh, phosphorylated at Ser-46 by the ATP-dependent Hpr kinase.  (+info)

The role of histidines in the acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila. (7/86)

The role of histidine in the catalytic mechanism of acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila was investigated by diethylpyrocarbonate inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis. Inactivation was accompanied by an increase in absorbance at 240 nm with no change in absorbance at 280 nm, and treatment of the inactivated enzyme with hydroxylamine restored 95% activity, results that indicated diethylpyrocarbonate inactivates the enzyme by the specific modification of histidine. The substrates ATP, ADP, acetate, and acetyl phosphate protected against inactivation suggesting at least one active site where histidine is modified. Correlation of residual activity with the number of histidines modified, as determined by absorbance at 240 nm, indicated that a maximum of three histidines are modified per subunit, two of which are essential for full inactivation. Comparison of the M. thermophila acetate kinase sequence with 56 putative acetate kinase sequences revealed eight highly conserved histidines, three of which (His-123, His-180, and His-208) are perfectly conserved. Diethylpyrocarbonate inactivation of the eight histidine --> alanine variants indicated that His-180 and His-123 are in the active site and that the modification of both is necessary for full inactivation. Kinetic analyses of the eight variants showed that no other histidines are important for activity. Analysis of additional His-180 variants indicated that phosphorylation of His-180 is not essential for catalysis. Possible functions of His-180 are discussed.  (+info)

Urkinase: structure of acetate kinase, a member of the ASKHA superfamily of phosphotransferases. (8/86)

Acetate kinase, an enzyme widely distributed in the Bacteria and Archaea domains, catalyzes the phosphorylation of acetate. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of Methanosarcina thermophila acetate kinase bound to ADP through crystallography. As we previously predicted, acetate kinase contains a core fold that is topologically identical to that of the ADP-binding domains of glycerol kinase, hexokinase, the 70-kDa heat shock cognate (Hsc70), and actin. Numerous charged active-site residues are conserved within acetate kinases, but few are conserved within the phosphotransferase superfamily. The identity of the points of insertion of polypeptide segments into the core fold of the superfamily members indicates that the insertions existed in the common ancestor of the phosphotransferases. Another remarkable shared feature is the unusual, epsilon conformation of the residue that directly precedes a conserved glycine residue (Gly-331 in acetate kinase) that binds the alpha-phosphate of ADP. Structural, biochemical, and geochemical considerations indicate that an acetate kinase may be the ancestral enzyme of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/Hsc70/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases.  (+info)

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Cloning of Clostridium thermocellum acetate kinase (ack) and/or phosphotransacetylase (pta) genes in Escherichia coli by functional complementation of ack and/or pta mutants was complicated by an alternative acetate assimilation pathway involving acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). In addition to the problems encountered with the complementation approach, cloning of these genes was not readily achieved using heterologous probing with corresponding genes from Escherichia coli and Methanosarcina thermophila due to the lack of sufficient homology. The use of a PCR-based approach, on the other hand, yielded a specific C. Thermocellum gene fragment which showed significant sequence identity to the ack gene for which primers were designed. The subcloned ack fragment was then successfully used as a probe for the isolation of the corresponding gene and restriction analysis of that region.
Mukhopadhyay, S., Hasson, M.S., and Sanders, D.A. (2008) A continuous assay of acetate kinase activity: Measurement of inorganic phosphate release generated by hydroxylaminolysis of acetyl phosphate. Bioorg Chem 36, 65-69.. Brindley, M. A., L. Hughes, A. Ruiz, P. B. McCray, Jr., A. Sanchez, D. A. Sanders, and W. Maury (2007) Ebola virus glycoprotein 1: Identification of residues important for binding and postbinding events. J Virol 81, 7702-7709.. Alvarado, J., Ghosh, A., Janovitz, T., Jauregui, A., Hasson, M.S., and Sanders, D.A. (2006). Origin of Exopolyphosphatase Processivity: Fusion of an ASKHA Phosphotransferase and a Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Homolog. Structure. 14, 1263-1272.. Strang B. L., Takeuchi Y., Relander T., Richter J., Bailey R., Sanders D.A., Collins M.K., and Ikeda Y. (2005). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vectors with alphavirus envelope glycoproteins produced from stable packaging cells. J Virol. 79:1765-1771.. Sanders, D.A. and B. L. Wanner (2005). ...
J. R. Andreesen, Universität Göttingen, Germany <- L. G. Ljungdahl <- H. G. Wood <- H. A. Barker <- F. E. Fontaine, University of Wisconsin, Departments of Biochemistry and Agricultural Bacteriology, Madison, USA. Horse faeces; Country of origin unknown (258). Type strain. Taxonomy/description (258, 1300, 1943, 5196). Sequence accession no. 16S rRNA gene: AY656675, complete genome: CP012369. Produces acetate kinase (2186), formate dehydrogenase (2187), formyltetrahydrofolate synthase (955). Metabolism of carbohydrates (259). Biotransformation of tetrachloromethane (4306). Carbon monoxide is used as electron donor (1954). Presence of cytochrome and menaquinone (956). Strain-specific literature (954). (Medium 60, 55°C, anaerobic ...
Members of the class Asteroidea exhibit both asexual (regeneration and clonal) and sexual (gonochoric) means of reproduction. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic larvae and later metamorphose into pentamorous juveniles which develop into young sea stars with stubby arms (Ref. 833). ...
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Title: Characterization and evaluation of a pta (phosphotransacetylase) negative mutant of escherichia coli hbi01 as production host of foreign ...
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Products derived from the central aerobic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli often compete with the acetate-producing pathways poxB and ackA-pta for glucose. The production of isoamyl acetate from acetyl-CoA by ATF2, a yeast alcohol acetyltransferase, was a model system to demonstrate the beneficial effects of reducing aerobic acetate production. Ester production was 80% higher in the poxB, ackA-pta strain (0.18 mM) than found in the single ackA-pta mutant, when both overexpressed the PDH complex, panK, and ATF2. Anaerobically, succinate was produced alongside isoamyl acetate to maintain the proper redox balance between NADH and NAD+. The two compounds could be easily separated in an industrial setting because of the difference in their volatilities. An ldhA, adhE double mutant strain served as the control strain to test the effect of an additional ackA-pta mutation. The triple mutant produced 36% more ester (9.4 mM) and 7 times more succinate (45.5 mM) than the control ...
Figure 1. Metabolism of pyruvate to acetate in Clostridia. The phosphoroclastic conversion of pyruvate to acetate is mediated by several iron-containing proteins. Pyruvate-ferridoxin oxidoreductase oxidizes pyruvate, using ferridoxin (Fd) as the electron acceptor. Reduced ferridoxin is then re-oxidized by a third iron-containing protein, hydrogenase. Protons serve as the electron acceptor, and hydrogen gas is formed. Phospho-transacetylase and acetate kinase catalyze the final two steps, with acetate and one mole of ATP formed as end products. Importantly, both pyruvate-ferridoxin oxidoreductase and ferridoxin are able to form complexes with nitric oxide. This would effectively block this pathway, depriving cells of ATP, as well as increasing the concentration of pyruvate to potentially toxic levels. Adapted from White, 2000.. ...
Drugs and other reagents. Ganciclovir from Roche Laboratories was prepared (20 mmol/L) in PBS. Azidothymidine from Sigma and ganciclovir triphosphate (GCVTP) from TriLink Biotechnologies were prepared (10 mmol/L) in PBS and stored at −20°C. Azidothymidine triphosphate (AZTTP) from Calbiochem was prepared (10 mmol/L) in PBS and stored at −70°C. Venom phosphodiesterase was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corp. Acetate kinase was obtained from Roche Applied Sciences.. Synthesis of ganciclovir monophosphate, ganciclovir diphosphate, azidothymidine monophosphate, and azidothymidine diphosphate. Venom phosphodiesterase was used to synthesize ganciclovir monophosphate (GCVMP) from GCVTP ( 26). The reaction mixture consisted of 0.01 mol/L Tris-HCl, 0.01 mol/L MgCl2 (pH 9.0), 1 unit venom phosphodiesterase, and 250 μmol/L GCVTP. The reaction proceeded for 6 h at 37°C and was inactivated by heating for 2 min at 95°C. Generation of GCVMP was confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass ...
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Bouche, S. , Klauck, E. , Fischer, D. , Lucassen, M. , Jung, K. and Hengge-Aronis, R. (1998): Regulation of RssB-dependent proteolysis in Escherichia coli: a role for acetyl phosphate in a response regulator-controlled process , Molecular microbiology ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathway of propionate formation in Desulfobulbus propionicus. AU - Stams, A.J.M.. AU - Kremer, D.R.. AU - Nicolaij, K.. AU - Weenk, G.. AU - Hansen, T.A.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Whole cells of Desulfobulbus propionicus fermented [1-13C]ethanol to [2-13C] and [3-13C]propionate and [1-13C]-acetate, which indicates the involvement of a randomizing pathway in the formation of propionate. Cell-free extracts prepared from cells grown on lactate (without sulfate) contained high activities of methylmalonyl-CoA: pyruvate transacetylase, acetase kinase and reasonably high activities of NAD(P)-independent L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase NAD(P)-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase, phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase and reasonably high activity of NAD(P)-independent L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase, fumarate reductase and succinate dehydrogenase. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the conversion of succinate to propionate in the presence of pyruvate, CoA and ATP and the oxaloacetate-dependent conversion ...
Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is a Gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium capable of ethanologenic fermentation of both C5 and C6 sugars and may have possible use for commercial bioethanol production [Tang et al., 2009; Taylor et al. (2009) Trends Biotechnol 27(7): 398-405]. Little is known about the physiological changes that accompany a switch from aerobic (high redox) to microaerobic/fermentative (low redox) conditions in thermophilic organisms. The changes in the central metabolic pathways in response to a switch in redox potential were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR and proteomics. During low redox (fermentative) states, results indicated that glycolysis was uniformly up-regulated, the Krebs (tricarboxylic acid or TCA) cycle non-uniformly down-regulated and that there was little to no change in the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate accumulation was accounted for by strong down-regulation of the acetate CoA ligase gene (acs) in addition to up-regulation of the pta and ackA genes ...
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I cut an 8 1/2 x 11 to 4.25 x 11. Scored at 5.5, 7.25 and 9. The second and third score lines are were you are going to cut out your center panel. Save your bottom piece when you cut , you will reattach to the acetate panel. For the acetate panel I cut a 2.5" x 4.25". attach to inside of card bring in 1/2" to adhere to card. Take your bottom panel and reattach bringing in 1/2" to attache. Whala, you now have an acetate panel card ...
ethyl [(2E)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-triazenyl]acetate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low ...
The key difference between methyl acetate and ethyl acetate is that methyl acetate has a methyl group attached to an acetate group whereas ethyl acetate ha
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ethyl 2-(fluoren-9-ylidenemethylamino)acetate - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Metabolic Engineering of Thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis for Chiral Pure D-2,3-Butanediol Production Another BDO, 2,3-Butanediol, is also a potential fuel and a platform chemical. Organisms that natively produce the chemical are pathogenic and can only form the product with fermentations at 37°C. To transform the Bacillus licheniformis they had to use a protoplast fusion method. They were able to utilize xylose as a feedstock at 50°C to create 2,3-Butanediol. This will be helpful to utilize lignocellulose substrates as higher temperatures are helpful because of higher rates of degradation and fewer enzymes are need to be added [13]. Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield In this paper the authors used Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and made knockouts in the genes for acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Their strain was able to produce high yields of ethanol as the only measurable fermentation ...
Acetate formation requires two enzymes: phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase. acetyl-CoA + phosphate → acetyl- ... The E. coli strain W3110 was genetically engineered to generate 2 moles of acetate for every 1 mole of glucose that undergoes ... For instance, strains for the increased production of ethanol, lactate, succinate and acetate have been developed due to the ... The mixture of end products produced by mixed acid fermentation includes lactate, acetate, succinate, formate, ethanol and the ...
... the team concluded that the microbe likely acquired the ability to efficiently consume acetate using acetate kinase and ... Scientists hypothesize acetate kinase could be the urkinase in a major protein superfamily that includes actin. Evidence ... Recently researchers have proposed an evolution hypothesis for acetate kinase and phosphoacetyl transferase with genomic ... structure of acetate kinase, a member of the ASKHA superfamily of phosphotransferases". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (2): 680- ...
González MI, Bannerman PG, Robinson MB (2003). "Phorbol myristate acetate-dependent interaction of protein kinase Calpha and ...
As an activator of protein kinase C, it is a weak tumor promoter compared to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. PDBu is ...
doi:10.1007/s00374-007-0217-7. Höller, Ulrich; König, Gabriele M.; Wright, Anthony D. (November 1999). "A New Tyrosine Kinase ... was found in ethyl acetate extract from U. botrytis. Ulocladium botrytis also synthesizes extracellular keratinases and can ... Additionally, a new tyrosine kinase (p56tck) inhibitor called ulocladol, with the molecular formula C16H14O7, ...
... interacts with RACK1 and is a substrate for the phosphorylation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated protein kinase C ... The protein kinase Ki-1/57 occurs in the nucleus". Am. J. Pathol. 140 (2): 473-82. PMC 1886443 . PMID 1310832. Strausberg RL, ...
... of the related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase in megakaryocytes upon stem cell factor and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation ... "Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions". Nature. 376 (6543 ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: PTK2B PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta". Soni D, Regmi SC, Wang DM, DebRoy A, Zhao YY, Vogel SM, Malik AB, ...
... of the related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase in megakaryocytes upon stem cell factor and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation ... The proteins that bind to paxillin are diverse and include protein tyrosine kinases, such as Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK ... "Activation of pyk2/related focal adhesion tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase in cardiac remodeling". The Journal of ... We also know that the binding of paxillin to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is critical for directing paxillin function. The ...
The Rubottom group found that lead(IV) acetate in DCM or benzene gave good yields of acyclic and cyclic α-hydroxy esters after ... synthesized various derivatives of phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol to aid in the study of the various phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ... In order to synthesize α-hydroxy esters, different oxidants are needed such as NaOCl (see above), lead(IV) acetate, or a ... acetate or hypofluorous acid-acetonitrile (HOF-ACN). However, these α-hydroxylations do not proceed via silyl enol ether ...
Its main products from fermenting fructose or maltose are lactate, acetate, ethanol, glycerol, and carbon dioxide. ... and carbamate kinase (CK). A fourth protein located at the cell membrane acts as transporter, allowing the antiporter exchange ... Finally, they produce antimicrobial compounds, such as organic acids (lactate, acetate, and others), bacteriocins, and ...
242), and acts by inhibiting the enzymes acetate kinase and L-glutamic acid decarboxylase. It has also been proposed that DMDC ...
Creatine conversion to phosphocreatine is catalyzed by creatine kinase; spontaneous formation of creatinine occurs during the ... guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine) by S-adenosyl methionine. It is then ...
... acetate and sugar kinases, Hsp70, actin). In A. aeolicus, the active site of the enzyme exists in a cleft between the two ... This can be accomplished via inhibition of polyphosphate kinase, enhancement of exopolyphosphatase activity, or both. ... which includes polyphosphate kinase [PPK] and PPX) and develop a wide variety of assays and techniques for quantification of ... by the lab of Nobel laureate Arthur Kornberg in 1993 and is part of the polyphosphate operon along with polyphosphate kinase, ...
NM23 is a suppressor active in melanoma, breast and colon cancers and apparently inhibits the functioning of a kinase enzyme ... Treating human breast cancer cells with dexamethasone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases NM23 expression. Genes for ...
... acetate, carbon dioxide and ATP by the combined actions of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxido-reductase, hydrogenase, acetate:succinate ... Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase ...
An example is the teratogen and carcinogen phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which is a plant terpene that activates protein ... kinase C, which promotes cancer, making it a useful investigative tool. There is also interest in creating small molecule ...
... was found to be 5-10 times more potent in cell lines sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) agonists, 12-o- ... tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and was shown to cause cell death via apoptosis. Torreyanic acid also promoted G1 ...
... increase the production efficiency of isoamyl acetate. Isoamyl acetate is used industrially for artificial flavoring and for ... Recent experiments have shown that over expression of the enzyme pantothenate kinase and supplementation of pantothenic acid in ... In addition to the production of isoamyl acetate, the manipulation of CoA biosynthesis during the pyruvate hydrogenase reaction ... This increased concentration of cofactors resulted in an increased carbon flux in the isoamyl acetate synthesis pathway, ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, VEGF, or Akt. Tumor progression Phorbol myristate acetate Seth Rakoff-Nahoum (Dec 2006 ...
... decaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferase and a three-amino-acid insertion in acetate kinase, both of which are found only ...
In addition to the previously known steroid compounds ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol acetate and ergosta-4,6,8-(14),22-tetraene-3-one ... The activation of macrophages by AE2 might be mediated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway of signal transduction. ... "Activation of RAW 264.7 cells by Astraeus hygrometricus-derived heteroglucan through MAP kinase pathway". Cell Biology ...
González MI, Bannerman PG, Robinson MB (2003). "Phorbol myristate acetate-dependent interaction of protein kinase Calpha and ...
Protein kinase C is involved in a number of important cell signaling pathways. Thus, phorbol ester exposure can show a wide ... Tseng SS, van Duuren BL, Solomon JJ (1977). "Synthesis of 4aα-Phorbol 9-Myristate 9a-Acetate and Related Esters". J. Org. Chem ... Protein kinase C is also involved in activation of inflammation pathways such as the NF-KB pathway. Thus, exposure to phorbol ... Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, María T; Rennert, Paul (January 2003). "NF-κB activation by protein kinase C isoforms and B-cell ...
Ballongue, Jean; Amine, Jamel; Gay, Peptitdemange; Gay, Robert (July 1986). "Regulation of acetate kinase and butyrate kinase ... Butyrate kinase is active within the human colon. To form butyrate, two molecules of acetyl-CoA are combined and reduced to ... One study has previously found that butyrate kinase is not regulated by its end-products or other acids such as acetic acid, ... Butyryl-phosphate is then converted into butyrate by using butyrate kinase and in the process, releases ATP. Butyrate plays an ...
... (EC 2.7.2.15, PduW, TdcD, propionate/acetate kinase) is an enzyme with systematic name ATP:propanoate ... "Characterization of the acetate binding pocket in the Methanosarcina thermophila acetate kinase". J. Bacteriol. 187: 2386-2394 ... comparison with members of acetate and sugar kinase/heat shock cognate 70/actin superfamily". J. Mol. Biol. 352: 876-892. doi: ... Propionate kinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal ...
Synthetic progestogens (e.g., norethisterone, levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate, dydrogesterone, ... In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041.. ... Selective progesterone receptor modulators (e.g., ulipristal acetate, telapristone acetate, vilaprisan, asoprisnil, asoprisnil ...
Recombinant Protein and Probable acetate kinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Probable acetate kinase. Probable acetate kinase ELISA Kit. Probable acetate kinase Recombinant. Probable acetate kinase ... CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + acetate = ADP + acetyl phosphate. .. Below are the list of possible Probable acetate kinase products ... Serine-threonine-protein kinase ppk22 (ppk22), partial Recombinant Protein. • DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC1 ( ...
Acetate/propionate kinase (IPR004372). Short name: Ac/propionate_kinase Family relationships *Aliphatic acid kinase, short- ... For example, Acetate kinase, which catalyses the reaction ATP + acetate = ADP + acetyl phosphate [PMID: 9484901]. ... GO:0016301 kinase activity GO:0016774 phosphotransferase activity, carboxyl group as acceptor ... Novel keto acid formate-lyase and propionate kinase enzymes are components of an anaerobic pathway in Escherichia coli that ...
In molecular biology, acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), which is predominantly found in micro-organisms, facilitates the production ... The growth of a bacterial mutant lacking acetate kinase has been shown to be inhibited by glucose, suggesting that the enzyme ... Grundy FJ, Waters DA, Allen SH, Henkin TM (November 1993). "Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis acetate kinase gene by CcpA". J ... Salmonella typhimurium propionate kinase (StTdcD) catalyzes reversible transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to propionate during ...
Reeves RE, Guthrie JD (1975). "Acetate kinase (pyrophosphate). A fourth pyrophosphate-dependent kinase from Entamoeba ... an acetate kinase (diphosphate) (EC 2.7.2.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction diphosphate + acetate ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is diphosphate:acetate phosphotransferase. This enzyme is also called pyrophosphate- ... the two substrates of this enzyme are diphosphate and acetate, whereas its two products are phosphate and acetyl phosphate. ...
Acetate kinase catalyzes transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to acetate. The only crystal structure reported for acetate ... Acetate kinase catalyzes transfer of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to acetate. The only crystal structure reported for acetate ... Acetate Kinase complexed with ADP, AlF3 and acetate. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1TUY/pdb ... Acetate kinase. A, B. 399. Methanosarcina thermophila. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ackA, ack. EC: 2.7.2.1. ...
Structure of acetate kinase. The structure of the acetate kinase dimer (A) and a view with a 90° rotation around a horizontal ... Architecture of acetate kinase.The structure of M. thermophila acetate kinase was solved through the combination of two ... In acetate kinase, following aspartate-148, there is a helical insert (domain IC) which is unique to acetate kinase and which ... from the acetate kinases and have eliminated certain peripheral secondary-structure elements. Acetate kinase also has an ...
ackA catalyzes the formation of acetyl phosphate from acetate and ATP. This protein can also catalyze the reverse reaction. ... Background of Acetate kinase antibody. ackA catalyzes the formation of acetyl phosphate from acetate and ATP. This protein can ...
Mutations in the ack (acetate kinase) and pta (phosphotransacetylase) genes in Salmonella typhimurium were characterized and ... Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ... Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ... Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; ara-C, 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine; PBS-T, ... The Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor (CDKI) Flavopiridol Disrupts Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Differentiation and ... The Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor (CDKI) Flavopiridol Disrupts Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Differentiation and ... The Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor (CDKI) Flavopiridol Disrupts Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Differentiation and ...
Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase. / Ferry, James G.. Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press Inc., 2011. p. 219-231 ( ... Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by ... Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by ... Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by ...
The role of arginines in this acetate kinase was investigated. Five arginines (R91, R175, R241, R285, and R340) in the M. ... this approach has only recently become available for acetate kinase. The enzyme from Methanosarcina thermophila has been cloned ... thermophila enzyme were selected for individual replacement based on their high conservation among sequences of acetate kinase ... The K(m) value for acetate of the R91K variant increased greater than 10-fold relative to recombinant wild-type, suggesting an ...
... protein kinase C; MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; DiOC6, 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide; z-VAD-fmk, N- ... ABBREVIATIONS: MG, methylglyoxal; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; PMA, phorbol 12- ... Ballif BA and Blenis J (2001) Molecular mechanisms mediating mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK)- ... of this antiapoptotic signal depends on the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK ...
Looking for abbreviations of ASKHA? It is Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/Actin. Acetate and Sugar Kinases/ ... Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/Actin. ... acetate. *Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/ ... Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/Actin - How is Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/Actin ... redirected from Acetate and Sugar Kinases/Hepatic Stellate Cells 70/Actin) Acronym. Definition. ...
Two protein kinase C activators, bryostatin-1 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, have different effects on haemopoietic cell ... Ng, S.B.,Guy, G.R. (1992). Two protein kinase C activators, bryostatin-1 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, have different ... have also been shown to bind to and activate protein kinase C. Although bryostatin-1 and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ( ... Analysis of competition assays between bryostatin-1 and TPA leads us to put forward a model where protein kinase C is required ...
... test kit for specific measurement analysis of acetic acid acetate in beverages and food products. ... acetate kinase). (1) Acetic acid + ATP → acetyl-phosphate + ADP. (pyruvate kinase). (2) ADP + PEP → ATP + pyruvate. (D-lactate ... Current densities were 6.3 and 8.9 A m-2 on average at −0.4 and +0.1 V/SCE respectively, with acetate 10 mM. The catalytic ... Microbial bioanodes formed from a salt marsh inoculum under constant acetate feeding generated up to 85 A•m-2 in media ...
... facilitates the production of acetyl-CoA by phosphorylating acetate in ... acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), which is predominantly found in micro-organisms, ... Acetate kinase is used to phosphorylate acetate to acetyl phosphate. Acetate Kinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been ... Acetate kinase (phosphorylating); Acetic kinase; Acetokinase; EC 2.7.2.1; 9027-42-3; Acetate kinase ...
Acetate kinase - Also known as ACKA_ACTP2, ackA. Catalyzes the formation of acetyl phosphate from acetate and ATP. Can also ... Catalyzes the formation of acetyl phosphate from acetate and ATP. Can also catalyze the reverse reaction. Homodimer. ... Catalyzes the formation of acetyl phosphate from acetate and ATP. Can also catalyze the reverse reaction. Homodimer. ...
Acetate formation requires two enzymes: phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase.[8] The Mixed Acid Fermentation pathway ... Many industrial solvents are acetates, including methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, ethylhexyl acetate. Butyl ... acetate and basic zinc acetate. Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetate, used in dyeing, ammonium acetate, a ... "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) ...
protein kinase C. PMA. phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate. ANS. anti-neutrophil serum. MPO. myeloperoxidase. ECL. enhanced ... protein kinase C-δ antibody (1:800), protein kinase C-ε antibody (1:800), or protein kinase C-ζ antibody (1:800) at room ... In further experiments, groups of rats were treated with the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 3 ... Protein kinase C consists of a family of at least 12 serine-threonine protein kinases that have been implicated in many ...
acetate kinase. ACS. Pyruvate Metabolism. acetyl-CoA synthetase. SERt2rpp. Transport. L-serine reversible transport via proton ...
ACK, acetate kinase; G6PDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.. Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme ...
... acetate kinase; Pta, phosphotransacetylase. (C) The gene clusters identified in this study. In B. wadsworthia, two separate ...
... acetate kinase; Ald2, alcohol dehydrogenase 2; Pgk, phosphoglycerate kinase; Gpm, phophoglycerate mutase; Eno, enolase; Pyk, ...
Paired incubations were carried out by adding 1 μmol/l phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA) or 1 μmol/l thapsigargin dissolved ... Ha H, Yu MR, Choi YJ, Lee HB (2001) Activation of protein kinase c-delta and c-epsilon by oxidative stress in early diabetic ... Meier M, Park JK, Overheu D et al (2007) Deletion of protein kinase C-{beta} isoform in vivo reduces renal hypertrophy but not ... Koya D, Jirousek MR, Lin YW, Ishii H, Kuboki K, King GL (1997) Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform activation on ...
80 mM potassium acetate; 5 mM DTT; 7.5 mM magnesium acetate; 5% (vol/vol) glycerol; 2 mM ATP; 0.8 mM UTP, TTP, and GTP; 40 ... 8 mg/mL creatine kinase, and 10 mM phosphocreatine for 30 min at room temperature in a reaction volume of 25 μL. After histone ... 80 mM potassium acetate; 5 mM DTT; 7.5 mM magnesium acetate; 5% (vol/vol) glycerol; 2 mM ATP; 0.8 mM UTP, TTP, and GTP; 40 ... Peak fractions were pooled and dialyzed against gel filtration buffer (40 mM Hepes-KOH, pH 7.4, 200 mM potassium acetate, 1 mM ...
  • Carcinogenesis usually occurs as a result of chemical or biological damage to normal cells in a multistep and multifactor process composed of genetic derangement, aberrant signal transduction, and protein kinase activation. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, this suggests that Syk kinase physically and functionally associates with the IL-15Rα chain in B cells and that Syk plays a key role in mediating IL-15-induced signal transduction, thus accounting for the distinct functional consequences of IL-15 vs IL-2 binding to B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identifying kinase substrates is an important step in mapping signal transduction pathways, but remains a difficult and time-consuming process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and phorbol ester-induced changes in rat colonic cellular integrity and Ca 2+ -independent inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was investigated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phorbol ester is knawn as a tumor promoter and is competitive with diacyl glycerol to activate protein kinase C. The pseudopodia is being a mobility of the cell. (unikom.ac.id)
  • However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. (osti.gov)
  • aciditrophicushad low or undetectable acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase activities but had high acetyl-CoA synthetase activity under all growth conditions tested. (osti.gov)
  • The Acetic Acid analyser format test kit is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of acetic acid (acetate) in beverages and food products. (megazyme.com)
  • An acetate / ˈ æ s ɪ t eɪ t / is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline , earthy , metallic or nonmetallic and other base . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, HOAc is the abbreviation for acetic acid, NaOAc for sodium acetate , and EtOAc for ethyl acetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost half of acetic acid production is consumed in the production of vinyl acetate , precursor to polyvinyl alcohol , which is a component of many paints . (wikipedia.org)
  • The second largest use of acetic acid is consumed in the production of cellulose acetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Grape juice, like any other acidic liquid, will dissolve a small amount of many metals - copper pots were thought to impart an off-taste to the reduction, and lead was said to give the best flavor (ostensibly because of the sweet lead acetate - the vessel provided the lead cations, and the partial fermentation of the juice provided some acetic acid). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Subsequent steps involve the oxidation of such alcohols and fatty acids with carbon chain longer than C2 to acetate by syntrophic bacteria and their activity depends on the removal of hydrogen either by CO 2 or sulfate reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • For mass production of PGB-2 it is necessary to obtain whole biochemical information in BL-4 when acetate is available as a sole carbon source because the bacteria produced PGB-2 under acetate feeding only. (ijbs.com)
  • The receptor kinases are activated and through the recruitment of the growth factor receptor binding protein 2/son of sevenless complex to autophosphorylated sites on the receptors, the G protein Ras is induced to its active GTP-bound state. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5. A method according to claim 1 wherein the inactivating enzyme is a phosphotransferase selected from the group consisting of glycerokinase and adenylate kinase. (google.com.au)
  • Superiority of the PCR-based Approach for Cloning the Acetate Kinase Gene of Clostridium Thermocellum," Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology , Springer Verlag, Sep 1998. (mst.edu)
  • As the previous report demonstrated, acetate has been known to be toxic to bacterial cells [ 8 ] and inhibit growth because its free acid forms quickly penetrate the cell membrane and acidify the cytoplasm with dissociation, conferring the gradient of protons through the membrane cannot be maintained and the energy generation is decoupled [ 8 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The ability of ARRY-142886 to inhibit purified MEK1 as well as other kinases was evaluated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of sodium acetate (20 or 60 mg per kg body mass) was found to induce headache in sensitized rats, and it has been proposed that acetate resulting from oxidation of ethanol is a major factor in causing hangovers . (wikipedia.org)
  • By immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, we show that treatment of Raji cells and activated primary B cells with IL-15 induces coprecipitation of Syk kinase with the IL-15Rα chain. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, the role of calcium signalling and PKC activation on facilitative glucose transport was examined by measuring glucose uptake in BBM vesicles prepared from proximal tubules that had been incubated either with thapsigargin, which increases cytosolic calcium, or with the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA). (springer.com)
  • The PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate significantly increased vascular O 2 ·− production, which was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, diphenyleneiodonium, chelerythrine, or removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . (ahajournals.org)
  • In cells treated with TPA and apigenin, the inhibition of COX-2 expression correlated with inhibition of Akt kinase activation. (nih.gov)
  • The lipid solubility of silybin (1) was enhanced by methylation (5′7′4″trimethylsilybin: 2), whereas a decrease in lipid-solubility by acetylation of compound 2 (5′,7,′4″-trimethylsilybin-acetate: 3) or all the hydroxyl groups of silybin (peracetyl-silybin: 4) attenuated the antioxidant capacity by decreasing the inhibition in PKC translocation and NADPH oxidase activation. (usp.br)
  • Deletion of the Spt5 CTD showed the same defect in PAF recruitment as rapid inhibition of Bur1 kinase activity, and this Spt5 mutation led to a decrease in histone H3K4 trimethylation. (nih.gov)
  • In molecular biology, acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), which is predominantly found in micro-organisms, facilitates the production of acetyl-CoA by phosphorylating acetate in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed previously that Jurkat cells treated with MG rapidly undergo apoptosis via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can prevent MG-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To find clues about the mechanism by which kinase C epsilon (PKC ε ) may impart susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), we compared PKC ε transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for (1) the effects of UVR exposures on percent of putative hair follicle stem cells (HSCs) and (2) HSCs proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • GHRP-6 stimulates GH release from rat pituitary cells by activating protein kinase C (PKC) ( 17 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) constitutes a key event in the upregulation of secretory strength in neurons and neurosecretory cells during extensive stimulation, presumably by speeding up vesicle supply. (jneurosci.org)
  • Analog-sensitive kinases (AS-kinases) have been used to selectively tag and identify direct kinase substrates in lysates from whole cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)