Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Coenzyme ACinnamatesRNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Megestrol Acetate: Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.RING Finger Domains: A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Zinc Acetate: A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Phorbols: The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Polyubiquitin: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins: A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT: A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Sumoylation: A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Phenylmercuric Acetate: A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Megestrol: 17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.

The Cryptosporidium "mouse" genotype is conserved across geographic areas. (1/150)

A 298-bp region of the Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rRNA gene and a 390-bp region of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene were sequenced for a range of Cryptosporidium isolates from wild house mice (Mus domesticus), a bat (Myotus adversus), and cattle from different geographical areas. Previous research has identified a distinct genotype, referred to as the "mouse"-derived Cryptosporidium genotype, common to isolates from Australian mice. Comparison of a wider range of Australian mouse isolates with United Kingdom and Spanish isolates from mice and cattle and also an Australian bat-derived Cryptosporidium isolate revealed that the "mouse" genotype is conserved across geographic areas. Mice are also susceptible to infection with the "cattle" Cryptosporidium genotype, which has important implications for their role as reservoirs of infection for humans and domestic animals.  (+info)

The role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an enzymatic methylation reaction. Methylation of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase by the methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. (2/150)

This paper focuses on how a methyl group is transferred from a methyl-cobalt(III) species on one protein (the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP)) to a nickel iron-sulfur cluster on another protein (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase). This is an essential step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The results described here strongly indicate that transfer of methyl group to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase occurs by an SN2 pathway. They also provide convincing evidence that oxidative inactivation of Co(I) competes with methylation. Under the conditions of our anaerobic assay, Co(I) escapes from the catalytic cycle one in every 100 turnover cycles. Reductive activation of the CFeSP is required to regenerate Co(I) and recruit the protein back into the catalytic cycle. Our results strongly indicate that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP is required for reductive activation. They support the hypothesis that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP does not participate directly in the methyl transfer step but provides a conduit for electron flow from physiological reductants to the cobalt center.  (+info)

Purification and catalytic properties of Ech hydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri. (3/150)

Methanosarcina barkeri has recently been shown to produce a multisubunit membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase designated Ech (Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3) hydrogenase. In the present study Ech hydrogenase was purified to apparent homogeneity in a high yield. The enzyme preparation obtained only contained the six polypeptides which had previously been shown to be encoded by the ech operon. The purified enzyme was found to contain 0.9 mol of Ni, 11.3 mol of nonheme-iron and 10.8 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of enzyme. Using the purified enzyme the kinetic parameters were determined. The enzyme catalyzed the H2 dependent reduction of a M. barkeri 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin with a specific activity of 50 U x mg protein-1 at pH 7.0 and exhibited an apparent Km for the ferredoxin of 1 microM. The enzyme also catalyzed hydrogen formation with the reduced ferredoxin as electron donor at a rate of 90 U x mg protein-1 at pH 7.0. The apparent Km for the reduced ferredoxin was 7.5 microM. Reduction or oxidation of the ferredoxin proceeded at similar rates as the reduction or oxidation of oxidized or reduced methylviologen, respectively. The apparent Km for H2 was 5 microM. The kinetic data strongly indicate that the ferredoxin is the physiological electron donor or acceptor of Ech hydrogenase. Ech hydrogenase amounts to about 3% of the total cell protein in acetate-grown, methanol-grown or H2/CO2-grown cells of M. barkeri, as calculated from quantitative Western blot experiments. The function of Ech hydrogenase is ascribed to ferredoxin-linked H2 production coupled to the oxidation of the carbonyl-group of acetyl-CoA to CO2 during growth on acetate, and to ferredoxin-linked H2 uptake coupled to the reduction of CO2 to the redox state of CO during growth on H2/CO2 or methanol.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and cell-cycle-dependent expression of the acetyl-CoA synthetase gene in Tetrahymena cells. (4/150)

To identify transcriptionally regulated mediators associated with the cell cycle, we adopted the differential mRNA display technique for cell cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis synchronized by cyclic heat treatment. One cDNA fragment that was expressed differently during synchronous cell division had a greatly decreased expression at 30 min after the end of heat treatment (EHT). Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated the full-length cDNA for T. pyriformis acetyl-CoA synthetase (TpAcs) which encodes a 651 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 72.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of T. pyriformis ACS shows 42% sequence identity compared with that of Lysobacter sp. acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an enzyme which catalyses the formation of acetyl-CoA from acetate via an acetyl-adenylate intermediate. The deduced sequence is also 41% and 40% identical compared with those of Pseudomonas putida and Coprinus cinereus ACS, respectively. The deduced sequence of T. pyriformis ACS also shares similar characteristics of the conserved motifs I and II in the ACS family. To further investigate the actions of the gene encoding this enzyme, mRNA expression was determined during the course of synchronized cell division in T. pyriformis. Northern blot results show that the mRNA level was dramatically decreased at 30 min after EHT prior to entering synchronous cell division (which occurs 75 min after EHT), suggesting that mRNA expression of the TpAcs was associated with the cell cycle and that the down-regulated expression of TpAcs at 30 min after EHT would be required for the initiation of the oncoming synchronous cell division in T. pyriformis.  (+info)

Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese. (5/150)

The external pH appeared to be the main factor governing oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger. A glucose-oxidase-negative mutant produced substantial amounts of oxalic acid as long as the pH of the culture was 3 or higher. When pH was decreased below 2, no oxalic acid was formed. The activity of oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), the enzyme believed to be responsible for oxalate formation in A. niger, correlated with oxalate production. OAH was purified from A. niger and characterized. OAH cleaves oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate, but A. niger never accumulated any acetate in the culture broth. Since an A. niger acuA mutant, which lacks acetyl-CoA synthase, did produce some acetate, wild-type A. niger is apparently able to catabolize acetate sufficiently fast to prevent its production. An A. niger mutant, prtF28, previously isolated in a screen for strains deficient in extracellular protease expression, was shown here to be oxalate non-producing. The prtF28 mutant lacked OAH, implying that OAH is the only enzyme involved in oxalate production in A. niger. In a traditional citric acid fermentation low pH and absence of Mn2+ are prerequisites. Remarkably, a strain lacking both glucose oxidase (goxC) and OAH (prtF) produced citric acid from sugar substrates in a regular synthetic medium at pH 5 and under these conditions production was completely insensitive to Mn2+.  (+info)

sigma(70) is the principal sigma factor responsible for transcription of acs, which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. (6/150)

Cells of Escherichia coli undergo a metabolic switch associated with the production and utilization of acetate. During exponential growth on tryptone broth, these cells excrete acetate via the phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-AckA) pathway. As they begin the transition to stationary phase, they instead resorb acetate, activate it to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by means of the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and utilize it to generate energy and biosynthetic components via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate shunt, respectively. This metabolic switch depends upon the induction of Acs. As part of our effort to dissect the mechanism(s) underlying induction and to identify the signal(s) that triggers that induction, we sought the sigma factor most responsible for acs expression. Using isogenic strains that carry a temperature sensitivity allele of the gene that encodes sigma(70) and either a wild-type or null allele of the gene that encodes sigma(S), we determined by immunoblotting, reverse transcriptase PCR, and acs::lacZ transcriptional fusion analyses that sigma(70) is the sigma factor primarily responsible for the acs transcription that cells induce during mid-exponential phase. In contrast, sigma(S) partially inhibits that transcription as cells enter stationary phase.  (+info)

Evidence for intersubunit communication during acetyl-CoA cleavage by the multienzyme CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase complex from Methanosarcina thermophila. Evidence that the beta subunit catalyzes C-C and C-S bond cleavage. (7/150)

The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) from Methanosarcina thermophila is part of a five-subunit complex consisting of alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The multienzyme complex catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO(2), transfer of the methyl group of acetyl-CoA to tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT), and acetyl-CoA synthesis from CO, CoA, and methyl-H(4)MPT. The alpha and epsilon subunits are required for CO oxidation. The gamma and delta subunits constitute a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein that is involved in the transmethylation reaction. This work focuses on the beta subunit. The isolated beta subunit contains significant amounts of nickel. When proteases truncate the beta subunit, causing the CODH/ACS complex to dissociate, the amount of intact beta subunit correlates directly with the EPR signal intensity of Cluster A and the activity of the CO/acetyl-CoA exchange reaction. Our results strongly indicate that the beta subunit harbors Cluster A, a NiFeS cluster, that is the active site of acetyl-CoA cleavage and assembly. Although the beta subunit is necessary, it is not sufficient for acetyl-CoA synthesis; interactions between the CODH and the ACS subunits are required for cleavage or synthesis of the C-C bond of acetyl-CoA. We propose that these interactions include intramolecular electron transfer reactions between the CODH and ACS subunits.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA synthetase from the amitochondriate eukaryote Giardia lamblia belongs to the newly recognized superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetases (Nucleoside diphosphate-forming). (8/150)

The gene coding for the acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) from the amitochondriate eukaryote Giardia lamblia has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme exhibited the same substrate specificity as the native enzyme, utilizing acetyl-CoA and adenine nucleotides as preferred substrates and less efficiently, propionyl- and succinyl-CoA. N- and C-terminal parts of the G. lamblia acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence were found to be homologous to the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively, of succinyl-CoA synthetase. Sequence analysis of homologous enzymes from various bacteria, archaea, and the eukaryote, Plasmodium falciparum, identified conserved features in their organization, which allowed us to delineate a new superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetases (nucleoside diphosphate-forming) and its signature motifs. The representatives of this new superfamily of thiokinases vary in their domain arrangement, some consisting of separate alpha- and beta-subunits and others comprising fusion proteins in alpha-beta or beta-alpha orientation. The presence of homologs of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) in such human pathogens as G. lamblia, Yersinia pestis, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the malaria agent P. falciparum suggests that they might be used as potential drug targets.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes t
Mechanism of Transfer of the Methyl Group from (6S)-Methyltetrahydrofolate to the Corrinoid/Iron-Sulfur Protein Catalyzed by the Methyltransferase from Clostridium thermoaceticum: A Key Step in the Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway of Acetyl-CoA ...
psd:DSC_00690 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (GenBank) acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MSDLYPVDPAFARQARVDAATYARDYKASIEQPEAFWKQVAQRLDWIKAPTRIKDVSFDV DDFHIQWFADGELNASVNCLDRQLEARGDKIALLFEPDSPDSESYGVTYRQLHARVCRLA NALRSLGVAKGDRVTIYLPMIPDAAVAMLACARIGAVHSVVFGGFAPNSIADRVADCASK LIITADEGLRGSRKIPLKANVDAALKLPGTSSVETVLVVRHTGGPVDMQAPRDRWFHDVV DSQPDTCEPERMNAEDPLFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLLWAAYTHELVFDLKEDDIY WCTADVGWVTGHSYIVYGPLANGATSLVFEGVPSYPDNSRFWQVVDKHRVSLFYTAPTAI RALMREGDGPVRKTSRKTLRVLGTVGEPINPEAWRWYYEVVGDSRCPIVDTWWQTETGGH MITPLPGATALKPGSATVPFFGVQPAVVDANGVELEGQAEGNLVIKDSWPGQMRTVYGDH QRFIDTYFRTYPGTYFTGDGCRRDADGYYWITGRVDDVINVSGHRIGTAEVESALVSHPK VAEAAVVGFPHDLKGQGIYAYVTLVAGEQPTEELRKELIAHVRKEIGPIASPDHLQWAPG LPKTRSGKIMRRILRKIAENAPDQLGDTSTLADPSVVDSLVSERKVR ...
ppu:PP_4487 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA-I; acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MPAPERFAGTGVPNYYQRRMAFVALVQLQTVPYKNNYYTEVTQMSAAPLYPVRPEVAATT LTDEATYKAMYQQSVINPDGFWREQAQRIDWIKPFTKVKQTSFDDHHVDIKWFADGTLNV SSNCLDRHLEERGDQLAIIWEGDDPSEHRNITYRELHEQVCKFANALRGQDVHRGDVVTI YMPMIPEAVVAMLACARIGAIHSVVFGGFSPEALAGRIIDCKSKVVITADEGVRGGRRTP LKANVDLALTNPETSSVQKIIVCKRTGGDIAWHQHRDIWYEDLMKVASSHCAPKEMGAEE ALFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLVYAALTHERVFDYRPGEVYWCTADVGWVTGHSYIV YGPLANGATTLLFEGVPNYPDITRVSKIVDKHKVNILYTAPTAIRAMMAEGQAAVEGADG SSLRLLGSVGEPINPEAWNWYYKTVGKERCPIVDTWWQTETGGILISPLPGATGLKPGSA TRPFFGVVPALVDNLGNLIDGAAEGNLVILDSWPGQSRSLYGDHDRFVDTYFKTFRGMYF TGDGARRDEDGYYWITGRVDDVLNVSGHRMGTAEIESAMVAHSKVAEAAVVGVPHDIKGQ GIYVYVTLNAGIEASEQLRLELKNWVRKEIGPIASPDVIQWAPGLPKTRSGKIMRRILRK IATGEYDALGDISTLADPGVVQHLIDTHKAMNLASA ...
UniCat is the acronym for a new initiative on the area of catalysis research in the Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany). UniCat is a Cluster of Excellence and BIG-NSE is its graduate school.
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] ...
download large-scale parallel of the Protein Acetyltransferase( Pat) Enzyme that Acetylates Acetyl-CoA Synthetase in Salmonella enterica. Journal of Molecular Biology. Thao S, Chen C, Zhu H, Escalante-Semerena J. N(epsilon)-lysine download large-scale parallel of a solid normalization Process relies Its DNA-binding shop. Thao S, Escalante-Semerena JC. Two-Day download large-scale parallel breadth-first search in Microbiology. Wang Q, Zhang Y, Yang C, Xiong H, Lin Y, Yao J, Li H, Xie L, Zhao W, Yao Y, et al. nature of unlikely services phosphorylates power computer practice and Nazi ad. Weinert Brian download large-scale, Iesmantavicius time, Wagner Sebastian A, Scholz C, Gummesson B, Beli reason, Nystrom glutamate, Choudhary C. Acetyl-Phosphate is a Critical Determinant of Lysine Acetylation in E. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. Wu X, Vellaichamy A, Wang D, Zamdborg L, Kelleher NL, Huber SC, Zhao Y. Differential gene smartphone Parts of Erwinia amylovora proteins became by sites. Xu ...
Affiliation:東京大学,先端科学技術研究センター,特任准教授, Research Field:Pathological medical chemistry,Pharmacology in pharmacy,Applied health science,General pharmacology, Keywords:核内受容体,PPARδ,LRP5,very low-density lipoprotein,Acetyl-CoA synthetase,islet,SOX6,Wnt signal,PDX-1,insulin, # of Research Projects:7, # of Research Products:34
Recombinant protein of human acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), transcript variant 1, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Author(s): Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Yi, Shan; Bill, Markus; Brisson, Vanessa L; Feng, Xueyang; Men, Yujie; Conrad, Mark E; Tang, Yinjie J; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa | Abstract: The acetyl-CoA Wood-Ljungdahl pathway couples the folate-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolism to either CO2 reduction or acetate oxidation via acetyl-CoA. This pathway is distributed in diverse anaerobes and is used for both energy conservation and assimilation of C1 compounds. Genome annotations for all sequenced strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, an important bacterium involved in the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, reveal homologous genes encoding an incomplete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Because this pathway lacks key enzymes for both C1 metabolism and CO2 reduction, its cellular functions remain elusive. Here we used D. mccartyi strain 195 as a model organism to investigate the metabolic function of this pathway and its impacts on the growth of strain 195. Surprisingly, this pathway cleaves acetyl-CoA to donate a methyl group for
Without this transfer of single carbon units involving B12, and its partner B9 (otherwise known as folic acid), heart disease and birth defects might be far more common," explains Ragsdale, a professor of biological chemistry. "Similarly, the bacteria that rely on this reaction would be unable to consume carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide to stay alive - and to remove gas from our guts or our atmosphere. So its important on many levels.". In such bacteria, called anaerobes, the reaction is part of a larger process called the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Its what enables the organisms to live off of carbon monoxide, a gas that is toxic to other living things, and carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas directly linked to climate change. Ragsdale notes that industry is currently looking at harnessing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to help generate liquid fuels and chemicals.. In addition to his Medical School post, Ragsdale is a member of the faculty of the U-M Energy Institute.. In the images created ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
COASY antibody [N3C3-3] (CoA synthase) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-COASY pAb (GTX107934) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Pe masura ce cresc copiii devin din ce in ce mai aventurieri. In loc sa ramana limitati pe asfalt, multi isi doresc sa se aventureze pe off-road. De aceea Kid 200 are o transmisie simpla cu 7 viteze si franare pe janta fata-spate. CUBE 200 este bicicleta ideala pentru ca cei mici sa faca cunostinta cu adevarata distractie in off-road, parintii ne mai fiind singurii care sa se bucure de experienta unui traseu tricky pe trail.. CADRU. Cadrul din aluminiu 6061 tratat la cald, are aceeasi calitate si durabilitate ca a unui mountain-bike full size si este atat de usor pe cat l-au putut face inginerii nostri, multumita down-tubului curbat special proiectat pentru copii. Pentru ca stim ca se pot intampla incidente in timp ce -si imping limitele, am facut urechea de la schimbator usor de inlocuit. Exact ca un mountain-bike adevarat, franarea se face cu V-brakes pe fata si pe spate. Bicicleta este disponibila in culorile CUBE Action Team si o gama variata de culori. COMPONENTE. Kid 200 este in esenta un ...
Munca in sine e un lucru normal si chiar amuzant atata timp cat se face rational si cumpatat. Omul poate supravietui cu usurinta depunand o munca simpla si discreta iar jobul este astfel amuzament pur si simplu si placere. Din pacate lacomia congenitala istorica a privilegiatilor social a facut ca o buna parte a societatii sa devina workoholica. Munca a devenit unul dintre cele mai nesuferite lucruri pe care omul clasic si contemporan trebuie sa le faca. Falsele valori educationale si morale sadite sistematic de publicitate sau/si cultura clasica in sufletul omului simplu sunt puse acolo de sistemul social clasic si contemporan tocmai pentru a-l convinge sa munceasca in plus si sa serveasca aceasta lacomie fara margini a acestor cyborgi. Mutilarea spiritului uman este pretul pentru satisfacerea unei lacomii halucinante a privilegiatilor social. Consumul insuficient al sclavului clasic a fost inlocuit de supraconsumul societatii contemporane. In disperarea sa genealogica semisclavul contemporan ...
Pe masura ce cresc copiii devin din ce in ce mai aventurieri. In loc sa ramana limitati pe asfalt, multi isi doresc sa se aventureze pe off-road. De aceea Kid 200 are o transmisie simpla cu 7 viteze si franare pe janta fata-spate. CUBE 200 este bicicleta ideala pentru ca cei mici sa faca cunostinta cu adevarata distractie in off-road, parintii ne mai fiind singurii care sa se bucure de experienta unui traseu tricky pe trail.. CADRU. Cadrul din aluminiu 6061 tratat la cald, are aceeasi calitate si durabilitate ca a unui mountain-bike full size si este atat de usor pe cat l-au putut face inginerii nostri, multumita down-tubului curbat special proiectat pentru copii. Pentru ca stim ca se pot intampla incidente in timp ce -si imping limitele, am facut urechea de la schimbator usor de inlocuit. Exact ca un mountain-bike adevarat, franarea se face cu V-brakes pe fata si pe spate. Bicicleta este disponibila in culorile CUBE Action Team si o gama variata de culori. COMPONENTE. Kid 200 este in esenta un ...
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daca iau anticonceptionale si fac untratament de 10 zile cu ovule, exista riscul ca pastilele sa nu-si mai faca efectul? adik ovulele diminueaza protectia?
Nu vreausa fiu una din acele persoane care este invitata la lansari si evenimente, primeste produse gratis si apoi sa se simta obligata sa le ridice in slavi, de dragul banilor. Nu vreau sa scriu pe acest blog pentru marketing, calcandu-mi pe suflet si scriind ceva despre care nu cred. Daca va fi sa primesc vreun produs spre testare, o sa imi spun parerea sincera despre el, personala. Doar pentru ca o firma mi-a facut un cadou in sperantas unei promovari nu inseamna ca mi-a cumparat sufletul (a propos, sansele ca o firma sa imi propuna mie sa testez un produs sunt mici, pentru ca nu as testa un produs despre care, la prima vedere, as observa ca este plin de iritanti sau de ingrediente care mie nu imi fac bine; deci,daca mise va oferi un produs care sa fie potrivit tenului meu, si eu accept aceasta afirmatie dupa ce studiez lista de ingrediente, atunci voi posta un review. altfel nu). Dar sa fim seriosi, cine ar avea nevoie sa ii faca reclama o persoana chitibusara si pretentioasa ca mine? ...
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Knockout Tested Rabbit polyclonal ACSS2 antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 4 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 2 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to…
AM: it is possible to model XACML, problem is to find out how to prevent attack. if there is no relation between paper and eve. Now if charly comes on, if eve has already relation to paper p, deny. Can model this with XACML ...
Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low ...
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of the complete degradation of n-alkanes and monoaromatic compounds to CO2. The normalized absolute abundances of the genes for each step are given in the respective cells. The selection of the genes for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds was based on the proteogenomics-based reconstruction of their catabolism in the denitrifying Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 [78] and the sulfate-reducing Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 [15]. Only genes with abundances higher than 30 reads in at least one sample are presented. The boxplots depict the log fold changes of the abundances of all genes coding for the enzymes of the anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. Each sample was compared to the sample at 40-60-cm depth of the same site. Enzyme names: bssABC, benzylsuccinate synthase; bbsEF, succinyl-CoA:(R)-4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate CoA-transferase; bbsG, (R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase; bbsH, phenylitaconyl-CoA hydratase; ...
Dysphagia is a common complication following ACSS. While several instruments are available for assessing dysphagia, none are particularly well designed for the ACSS population.3,16 A standardized tool that allows quantifiable assessment of dysphagia is needed to allow evaluation of dysphagia rates between studies. Although validated, the SWAL-QOL is lengthy and cumbersome to complete, particularly for patients undergoing ACSS with relatively minor swallowing impairment. As such, the purpose of this paper was to develop a concise, yet clinically relevant survey for use in patients undergoing ACSS.. The results of this study suggest that the SWAL-QOL survey in its full form is not necessary to detect swallowing changes in the ACSS population. Several sections and individual questions demonstrated little to no change from preoperative to postoperative values, indicating the severity of dysphagia following ACSS is not as extreme as the dysphagia in the population for which the SWAL-QOL was ...
Sodium bicarbonate transporter-like protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene. Solute carrier family Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000088836 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000074796 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Luong A, Hannah VC, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Sep 2000). "Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins". J Biol Chem. 275 (34): 26458-66. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004160200. PMID 10843999. Parker MD, Ourmozdi EP, Tanner MJ (Apr 2001). "Human BTR1, a new bicarbonate transporter superfamily member and human AE4 from kidney". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 282 (5): 1103-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4692. PMID 11302728. Vithana EN, Morgan P, Sundaresan P, Ebenezer ND, Tan DT, Mohamed MD, Anand S, Khine KO, Venkataraman D, Yong VH, Salto-Tellez M, Venkatraman A, Guo K, Hemadevi B, Srinivasan ...
We offer a complete catalog and product descriptions in our line of spectrophotometers. Also included is the contact information. Labomed, Inc. High quality spectrophotometers,fantastic prices.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha protein (ab79625). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
The Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons is the official magazine of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). The Bulletin provides monthly coverage on ACS activities and members, as well as topics of broad appeal to surgeons in general. The Bulletin offers in-depth feature stories that address all aspects of surgery, including practice, training, education, payment, ethics, legislation, advocacy, and more; regular columns; news on the College and the surgical field; and information on ACS scholarships.
Grace este o tanara naiva crescuta de mica de bunica sa religioasa Helen. Grace este primul an la colegiul si face tot ce ii sta in putere sa se adapteze si sa isi faca prieteni. Insa acest lucru devi
Acas Future of Workplace Relations discussion paper series August 2011 This paper is one of a series commissioned by Acas to address the future of workplace relations. It follows a publication in January
Looking for online definition of acetyl coenzyme A in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl coenzyme A explanation free. What is acetyl coenzyme A? Meaning of acetyl coenzyme A medical term. What does acetyl coenzyme A mean?
Posts about Waldo AL. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Mar [(Methyl)1-(11)C]-Acetate Metabolism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Salem N written by CWRUmedicine
Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Beta Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
by Pierre VassalloMD PhD FACA Artz fur RadiologieConsultant Radiologist In the gastronomic sense, it would probably induce copious salivation and an u...
Trece timpul pe repede inainte fara sa ai ragaz sa te strecori printre randuri ca sa privesti ce se intampla pe alocuri. Uneori trece cu folos, alteori te sacaie sentimentul ca ai uitat sa faci ceva. Dar mergi inainte. Caci asa este firescdul normalului.. Am zacut mai mult zilele ce trecura grabit pe langa noi. Am fost la plimbare, am facut curat de parca ar fi venit cineva sa-mi faca inspectie si toata viata mea depindea de criticile finale. Am dat cu tupeu pe la bucatarie. Nu ca as fi facut cine stie ce mancaruri. Zi iujual. Mi-am facut nervi din pricina de internet cu personalitate. Asa ca n-am putut sa mai citesc pe domnii si domanele mele vecini de blogosfera. In schimb am cautat prin arhivele mele de filme vechi unul de care eram indragostita lulea: Sissi. Cand l-am gasit da-i si uita-te cu nesat.. Apoi am constatat ca am restante multe si trebuie sa ma apuc de treaba. Cu un apartament de inchiriat al nasei mele. Cu mail-urile pe care le-am primit de la Rodica, Aura, Nicoleta. Apoi cu ...
Taurul va fi cucerit de puritatea si ingenuitatea Fecioarei. Nu va putea sa-si abtina admiratia fata de gingasa sa partenera. Iar aceasta, la randul ei, nu va putea sa nu fie fascinata de forta cu care ataca taurul situatiile si de finetea cu care stie sa o ocroteasca. Se respecta reciproc si o si arata. Amandoi cauta confortul in viata, sunt calculati si iubesc frumosul. Vor gasi mereu subiecte de discutie pentru ca au pasiuni comune. Predilectia pentru o viata in doi, stabilitate si liniste in camin vor face din cele doua semne un cuplu imbatabil. Pe plan erotic, Taurul nu are de ce sa-si faca probleme. Fecioara este fidelitatea intruchipata. Intr-adevar, este mai retinuta si nu are aceleasi porniri, insa atunci cand iubeste, face orice pentru alesul inimii. Comunicarea perfecta dintre ei va duce la experiente de neuitat in dormitor. Pe plan profesional, nici ca se putea mai bine. Impartasesc acelesi idei, fac o echipa de invidiat si comunica ideal. Ideile lor practice, morale si etice nu au ...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
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Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
Five groups of five lactating rabbits each were used. Milk yield was recorded from the 8th day of lactation onwards and on the 10th day of lactation the rabbits received the following treatments: Group S, sham-operation with saline (1 ml/12 h); Group P, hypophysectomy with sheep prolactin (1 mg/12 h); Group H, hypophysectomy with human growth hormone (1 mg/12 h); Group B, hypophysectomy with bovine growth hormone (1 mg/12 h) and Group C, hypophysectomy with saline (1 ml/12 h). The injections of saline or hormones were continued for 5 days and at the end of this period a blood sample was taken, the animals were killed and their mammary glands removed for histological examination and assay of the following enzymes: 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2), acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) and ATP-citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8). On the 5th day ...
Looking for online definition of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic explanation free. What is acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic? Meaning of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic medical term. What does acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic mean?
Etomidate (marketed as Amidate) is a general anesthetic with GABA modulatory and GABA-mimetic actions. Buy GABA Receptor inhibitor Etomidate (Amidate, R16659) from AbMole BioScience.
In enzymology , a valine-tRNA ligase ( EC 6.1.1.9 ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP , L-valine , and tRNA(Val) , whereas its 3 products are AMP , diphosphate , and L-valyl-tRNA(Val) . This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases , to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-valine:tRNAVal ligase (AMP-forming) . Other names in common use include valyl-tRNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase , valyl-transfer RNA synthetase , valyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase , valine transfer ribonucleate ligase , and valine translase . This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis . Structural studies As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GAX , 1IVS , 1IYW , 1WK9 , and 1WKA . See also VARS References Berg P, Bergmann FH, Ofengand
Acetic Acid UniFlex Reagent (=AA-F): An enzymatic test kit for determination of acetic acid in foods, beverages and other samples. Contains ready to use aqueous buffer, MDH/Citrate synthase enzyme suspension, ACS enzyme diluent, and acetic acid standard. Also contains in dry form Acetyl Co-A Synthetase, which is dis
July 30, 2012. At its June 27-30, 2012 Annual meeting in Chicago, Illinois, the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education took the following actions:. NOTE: The date behind the names of the programs below is the next currently scheduled full evaluation visit.. 1. Preaccreditation Actions. The following program was granted candidacy pending status following review of its self-study:. ...
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Era vorba despre discriminarea pozitiva si practica institutiilor de invatamant superior americane de a avea un anumit numar de locuri rezervate pentru minoritatile nu socio-economice, cum s-ar zice din replyul tau de mai sus, ci rasiale. Ma revoltam impotriva acestui sistem si eram de parere ca admiterea ar trebui sa se faca pe baza rezultatelor academice, in mod complet colour-blind. Pozitia ta era, ca si acuma, ca este vorba despre protectia minoritatilor socio-economice si nu rasiale. Desigur, asta ridica intrebarea de ce sistemul este asa cum este si locurile sunt rezervate pentru minoritatile hispanica, neagra si care or mai fi (nu cred ca se tine cont de starea materiala - !), in loc sa fie rezervate doar pentru persoanele cu o stare socio-economica definita independent de culoare (impotriva acestui din urma sistem nu as ridica nicio obiectie). Intrucat explicatia ta nu era, in mod evident, suficienta, am propus ca sistemul se datoreaza, in realitate, rezultatelor academice inferioare ale ...
De cateva zile am o pofta nebuna si ciudata de dulce. De ce zic ciudata? Pentru ca eu in general mananc foarte rar dulciuri, dar acum nu stiu ce m-a apucat de salivez la napolitane, la prajiturele, la cacao cu lapte..Noroc ca nu are cine sa-mi faca, iar cofetariile si rafturile de patiserie din supermaketuri incerc sa…
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72-89-9:C23H38N7O17P3S, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, Acetyl CoA, Acetyl coenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, S-acetilcoenzima A, S-Acetyl coenzyme A, S-Acetylcoenzym A, S-acetylcoenzyme A
Cloning of Clostridium thermocellum acetate kinase (ack) and/or phosphotransacetylase (pta) genes in Escherichia coli by functional complementation of ack and/or pta mutants was complicated by an alternative acetate assimilation pathway involving acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). In addition to the problems encountered with the complementation approach, cloning of these genes was not readily achieved using heterologous probing with corresponding genes from Escherichia coli and Methanosarcina thermophila due to the lack of sufficient homology. The use of a PCR-based approach, on the other hand, yielded a specific C. Thermocellum gene fragment which showed significant sequence identity to the ack gene for which primers were designed. The subcloned ack fragment was then successfully used as a probe for the isolation of the corresponding gene and restriction analysis of that region.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases. AU - Narita, Tomomi. AU - Naganuma, Tatsuro. AU - Sase, Yurie. AU - Kihara, Akio. PY - 2016/5/3. Y1 - 2016/5/3. N2 - Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
1b) ATP + XMP + NH3 = AMP + diphosphate + GMP. For diagram of reaction click here.. Glossary: XMP = xanthosine 5-phosphate. Other name(s): GMP synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing); guanylate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing); guanosine monophosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing); xanthosine 5-phosphate amidotransferase; guanosine 5-monophosphate synthetase. Systematic name: xanthosine-5-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming). Comments: Involved in the de novo biosynthesis of guanosine nucleotides. An N-terminal glutaminase domain binds L-glutamine and generates ammonia, which is transferred by a substrate-protective tunnel to the ATP-pyrophosphatase domain. The enzyme can catalyse the second reaction alone in the presence of ammonia.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37318-71-1. References:. 1. Lagerkvist, U. Biosynthesis of guanosine 5-phosphate. II. Amination of xanthosine 5-phosphate by purified enzyme from pigeon liver. J. ...
O-phospho-L-serine---tRNA ligase ( EC 6.1.1.27 , O-phosphoseryl-tRNA ligase, non-canonical O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase, SepRS) is an enzyme with systematic name O-phospho-L-serine:tRNACys ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction : In organisms like Archaeoglobus fulgidus , this enzyme ligates O-phosphoserine to tRNACys. References Fukunaga, R.; Yokoyama, S. (2007).
by: Elizabeth Kolar. To start, let me introduce myself as I am a new writer for HBN! I am a Ph.D. candidate in the Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology graduate program at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. I work on the fourth floor of the Kennedy Krieger Institute for Paul Watkins, M.D., Ph.D. As a lab, we study the role of fatty acid metabolism and the associated enzymes in different neurological diseases. My thesis research focuses on one enzyme that belongs to the acyl-CoA synthetase family of enyzmes known as ACSVL3.. Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) are a family of proteins that "activate" fatty acids that have been synthesized de novo by the cell or those that have been brought into the cell. This occurs by adding a Coenzyme A via a thioester bond. After this step, the fatty acid can be metabolized in a number of different pathways. These activated fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids, used in beta-oxidation to create energy, or be used for post-translational ...
It wasnt clear from Dr. Levines presentation whether she drafted the recommendations on her own, or if the working group had collaborated on drafting them. Whatever the working groups process, it was abundantly clear that the draft was not ready for prime time, thus leading to the two hours of refinement.. Lack of clarity was pervasive throughout the recommendation language. What disease are we trying to educate doctors about? How should we define integrative medicine? Do we mean physicians or medical professionals? And on and on and on. The committee spent two hours hammering out all this stuff that could have been done partially in advance. FACA requires that the recommendations be discussed and approved in public. It does not require that they be written by the full committee in real time during a public meeting. There is no reason why the working group could not have spent two hours working out the details and supporting evidence, and then present a more polished version to the full ...
Average yields in S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A glucose-limited chemostat (D = 0.1 h-1) cultures. Average yields of biomass (41.6 C-mmol g biomass-1 [19]), CO2, et
The Open Door Web Site : IB Biology : Respiration : Describes the two main steps of the Krebs Cycle - Step 1: Synthesising ACETYL COENZYME A and Step 2: Oxidising Acetyl CoA
SUCLA2 antibody [N2C3] (succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-SUCLA2 pAb (GTX109728) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Editor-in-Chief Diabetes In Control) A graduate of University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, he has practiced in the Tampa Bay area since 1986, has been providing diabetes and cardiovascular care in Tampa Bay since 1995, and spent 2 years as an Eckerd Patient Care Pharmacist managing over 100 diabetes patients. Dave currently sees patients in over 30 primary care and endocrinologists offices.. ...
Editor-in-Chief Diabetes In Control) A graduate of University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, he has practiced in the Tampa Bay area since 1986, has been providing diabetes and cardiovascular care in Tampa Bay since 1995, and spent 2 years as an Eckerd Patient Care Pharmacist managing over 100 diabetes patients. Dave currently sees patients in over 30 primary care and endocrinologists offices.. ...
We introduce an in silico model for the initial spread of an aberrant phenotype with Warburg-like overflow metabolism within a healthy homeostatic tissue in contact with a nutrient reservoir (the blood), aimed at characterizing the role of the microenvironment for aberrant growth. Accounting for cellular metabolic activity, competition for nutrients, spatial diffusion and their feedbacks on aberrant replication and death rates, we obtain a phase portrait where distinct asymptotic whole-tissue states are found upon varying the tissue-blood turnover rate and the level of blood-borne primary nutrient. Over a broad range of parameters, the spreading dynamics is bistable as random fluctuations can impact the final state of the tissue. Such a behaviour turns out to be linked to the re-cycling of overflow products by non-aberrant cells. Quantitative insight on the overall emerging picture is provided by a spatially homogeneous version of the model ...
Its a new year, and federal employees working for the Army Corps of Engineers (ACoE) are not sure whats in store for them. The agency is embarking on a five-year pilot project that could involve handing over control of its locks and dams, which are vital to the nations security, to for-profit companies. Its talking with industry about these possibilities but is not involving the union, whose members will be directly impacted by the project.
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab117239 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…ATP citrate lyase抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
There’s some competition for the 2010 “Worst media move of the year award”. There’s Julius Malema’s “bloody agents” tirade, Sepp Blatter’s let’s-arrest-good-looking-girls-in-mini-skirts moment and, of course, “don’t touch me on my studio”. Now the head of Acsa, Monhla Hlahla, joins this esteemed group.
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Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS; fatty acid:CoA ligase, AMP binding forming, EC 6.2.1.3) catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA thioesters from free fatty acids in the presence of CoA, ATP, and Mg2+. This activation is a critical step in fatty acid metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In fact, fatty acyl-CoAs represent important bioactive compounds, which are involved in many cellular processes in addition to serving as substrates for lipid biosynthesis and β-oxidation (Schulz, 1991).. Recent published papers have confirmed the importance of ACSs in various organisms. In Escherichia coli, ACS plays a pivotal role in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and in regulating of the global transcriptional regulator FadR (Black et al., 1997). The E. coli ACS gene was cloned and its sequence is found to have a segment of 25 highly conserved amino acid residues that Black et al. (1997) proposed as a signature motif common to the family of fatty ACSs. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the activation of ...
Accepted name: serine tRNA ligase. Reaction: ATP + L-serine + tRNASer = AMP + diphosphate + L-seryl-tRNASer. Other name(s): seryl-tRNA synthetase; SerRS; seryl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase; seryl-transfer RNA synthetase; seryl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase; serine translase. Systematic name: L-serine:tRNASer ligase (AMP-forming). Comments: This enzyme also recognizes tRNASec, the special tRNA for selenocysteine, and catalyses the formation of L-seryl-tRNASec, the substrate for EC 2.9.1.1, L-seryl-tRNASec selenium transferase.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-48-7. References:. 1. Katze, J.R. and Konigsberg, W. Purification and properties of seryl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 923-930. [PMID: 4906848]. 2. Makman, M.H. and Cantoni, G.L. Isolation of seryl and phenylalanyl ribonucleic acid synthetases from bakers yeast. Biochemistry 4 (1965) 1434-1442.. 3. Webster, L.T. and ...
A physical sciences network characterization of non-tumorigenic and metastatic cells. Sci Rep. 2013; 3:1449. View in: PubMed. Agus DB, Gell-Mann M. Perspective: Meeting of minds. Nature. 2012 Nov 22; 491(7425):S61. View in: PubMed. Agus DB. Reframe the health debate. Fortune. 2012 Oct 29; 166(7):22. View in: PubMed. Chambers MC, Maclean B, Burke R, Amodei D, Ruderman DL, Neumann S, Gatto L, Fischer B, Pratt B, Egertson J, Hoff K, Kessner D, Tasman N, Shulman N, Frewen B, Baker TA, Brusniak MY, Paulse C, Creasy D, Flashner L, Kani K, Moulding C, Seymour SL, Nuwaysir LM, Lefebvre B, Kuhlmann F, Roark J, Rainer P, Detlev S, Hemenway T, Huhmer A, Langridge J, Connolly B, Chadick T, Holly K, Eckels J, Deutsch EW, Moritz RL, Katz JE, Agus DB, Maccoss M, Tabb DL, Mallick P. A cross-platform toolkit for mass spectrometry and proteomics. Nat Biotechnol. 2012 Oct 10; 30(10):918-20. View in: PubMed. Kani K, Faca VM, Hughes LD, Zhang W, Fang Q, Shahbaba B, Luethy R, Erde J, Schmidt J, Pitteri SJ, Zhang Q, ...
Conturile de Google+ devin din ce in ce mai putin utile pentru cei care le au. Acum, Google mai face un pas inainte si renunta la obligativitatea logarii cu Google+ in serviciul Play Games.. In urmatoarele cateva saptamani, modul de logare in Google Play Games se va schimba si se va orienta catre Google ID. Utilizatorii care nu mai au rabdare ca schimbarea sa se faca automat, o pot face direct din aplicatia Google Play Games, de unde isi pot alege si o imagine de profil sau un avatar. Noile tipuri de ursername sunt legate de conturile de e-mail ale utilizatorilor, iar acestia pot decide daca fac sa nu publica activitatea pe care o au. Pe langa asta, utilizatorii vor putea sa introduca datele doar o data pentru fiecare cont, nu de fiecare data, pentru fiecare joc (asa cum era necesar pana acum).. Utilizatorii care nu au incercat inca Google Play Games vor fi invitati sa isi aleaga un Gamer ID atunci cand se logheaza. Utilizatorii deja existenti vor putea face acest lucru atunci cand vor incerca ...
Mathivanan S, Ahmed M, Ahn NG, Alexandre H, Amanchy R, Andrews PC, Bader JS, Balgley BM, Bantscheff M, Bennett KL, Björling E, Blagoev B, Bose R, Brahmachari SK, Burlingame AS, Bustelo XR, Cagney G, Cantin GT, Cardasis HL, Celis JE, Chaerkady R, Chu F, Cole PA, Costello CE, Cotter RJ, Crockett D, DeLany JP, De Marzo AM, DeSouza LV, Deutsch EW, Dransfield E, Drewes G, Droit A, Dunn MJ, Elenitoba-Johnson K, Ewing RM, Van Eyk J, Faca V, Falkner J, Fang X, Fenselau C, Figeys D, Gagné P, Gelfi C, Gevaert K, Gimble JM, Gnad F, Goel R, Gromov P, Hanash SM, Hancock WS, Harsha HC, Hart G, Hays F, He F, Hebbar P, Helsens K, Hermeking H, Hide W, Hjernø K, Hochstrasser DF, Hofmann O, Horn DM, Hruban RH, Ibarrola N, James P, Jensen ON, Jensen PH, Jung P, Kandasamy K, Kheterpal I, Kikuno RF, Korf U, Körner R, Kuster B, Kwon MS, Lee HJ, Lee YJ, Lefevre M, Lehvaslaiho M, Lescuyer P, Levander F, Lim MS, Löbke C, Loo JA, Mann M, Martens L, Martinez-Heredia J, McComb M, McRedmond J, Mehrle A, Menon R, Miller ...
We have designed and synthesized a number of organometallic catalysts for more efficient reactions and for unprecedented reactions compared to known catalysts and their reactions. The most recent example includes novel NHC-amidate ligands and their metal complexes as generally depicted in the structure below. While developing the ligand design, we decided to utilize two heteroatom ligands, in addition to NHCs, based on previous studies. We hoped this would ultimately offer a "Pd(OAc)2 mimic". In our general ligand design, we include one oxygen as a donor ligand to replace one of the AcO? ligands in Pd(OAc)2. Inclusion of an amidate nitrogen ligand could also induce stronger coordination and/or chelation. Our designed NHC-amidate-Pd(II) complexes have a highly electron- rich Pd center, due to the strong σ-donating ability of the NHC. This in turn would furnish a stronger trans effect to allow the catalyst to react efficiently. In addition, an amidate ligand, which has strong σ-donating and ...
2-oxobutyrate is ultimately decomposed by acetate-CoA ligase and produces ATP, thus contributing to ATP metabolism. MGL also ...
... or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase ... Acetate + CoA <=> AMP + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA Once acetyl-CoA is formed it can be used in the TCA cycle in aerobic ... Co-A then rotates in the active site into the position where acetate can covalently bind to CoA. The covalent bond is formed ... The two molecules joined together that make up Acetyl CoA synthetase are acetate and coenzyme A (CoA). The complete reaction ...
... lactate ligase EC 6.2.1.1: acetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.2: butyrate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.3: long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase EC ... acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) EC 6.2.1.11: biotin-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.12: 4-coumarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.13: acetate-CoA ... glutarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.7: cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: ... arachidonate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.16: acetoacetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.17: propionate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.18: citrate-CoA ligase ...
Types include: Acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) Butyrate-CoA ligase Citrate-CoA ligase Malate-CoA ligase Succinate-CoA ligase ( ... A Thiokinase is a ligase that synthesizes CoA Thioesters. They are classified under EC number 6.2, but often have primary names ... ADP-forming) Succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
Acetyl-CoA Synthase (ACS), not to be confused with Acetyl-CoA Synthetase or Acetate-CoA Ligase (ADP forming), is a Nickel ... the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway allows for the anaerobic oxidation of acetate where ATP is used to convert acetate into acetyl-CoA, ... For example, acetate-forming bacteria use acetyl-CoA for their autotrophic growth processes, and methanogenic archae such as ... In addition to acetyl-CoA production, the reverse can occur with ACS producing acetate, CO and returning the methyl piece back ...
... acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3- ... 2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase (EC 6.2.1.38, 2-oxo-Delta3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA ... enyl]acetate + ATP + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl] ... 2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
... an acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA ... acetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and acetyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... Reeves RE, Warren LG, Susskind B, Lo HS (1977). "An energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway in Entamoeba histolytica. ...
... coenzyme a ligases MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.200 --- acetate-coa ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.600 --- succinate-coa ligases ... isoleucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.500 --- leucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.550 --- lysine-trna ligase ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 --- arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 --- aspartate-tRNA ...
... succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase. This specialized enzyme links the TCA cycle with acetate metabolism in these organisms.[ ... Most organisms utilize EC 6.2.1.5, succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (despite its name, the enzyme operates in the pathway in ... Succinyl-CoA + GDP + Pi Succinate + CoA-SH + GTP Succinyl-CoA synthetase substrate-level. phosphorylation or ADP→ATP instead of ... CH3C(=O)C(=O)O−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3C(=O)SCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2. The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the ...
... succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase. This specialized enzyme links the TCA cycle with acetate metabolism in these organisms. ... Most organisms utilize EC 6.2.1.5, succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (despite its name, the enzyme operates in the pathway in ... The cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste ... It is the oxidation of the acetate portion of acetyl-CoA that produces CO2 and water, with the energy thus released captured in ...
... which is in turn converted to feruloyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA ligase (4CL). Next, feruloyl-CoA is reduced to ... forming coniferyl acetate. Finally, coniferyl acetate is converted to eugenol via the enzyme eugenol synthase 1 and the use of ... coniferaldehyde by cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR). Coniferaldeyhyde is then further reduced to coniferyl alcohol by cinnamyl- ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form ... Acetyl-CoA is formed into malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, at which point malonyl-CoA is destined to feed into the fatty ... acetyl-CoA and 1 molecule of propionyl-CoA per molecule of fatty acid. Each beta oxidative cut of the acyl-CoA molecule yields ...
EC 6.2.1.12: 4-coumarate--CoA ligase. *EC 6.2.1.13: Acetate--CoA ligase (ADP-forming) ... EC 6.2.1.40: 4-hydroxybutyrate--CoA ligase. *EC 6.2.1.41: 3-((3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl) ... Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ...
Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz, A.L. and Allison, M.J. "Purification and ... a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). Other names in common use include ... This addition is followed by the decarboxylation of oxalyl-CoA, and then the oxidation and removal of formyl-CoA to regenerate ...
These may be metal ions, vitamin derivatives such as NADH and acetyl CoA, or non-vitamin derivatives such as ATP. In the case ... Okazaki fragments are covalently joined by DNA ligase to form a continuous strand. Then, to complete DNA replication, RNA ... Organisms that use ethanol and acetate as the major carbon source utilize the glyconeogenic pathway to synthesize glycine. The ... Cholesterol is synthesized from acetyl CoA. The pathway is shown below: More generally, this synthesis occurs in three stages, ...
The enzyme is inhibited by high ratios of ATP:ADP, acetyl-CoA:CoA, and NADH:NAD, as high concentrations of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and ... Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ... These experiments have revealed that this single site alternates between two forms, which participate in ligase and hydrolase ... This induces the enzyme to change its conformation, and creates a binding site for the acetyl-CoA. Only when this citroyl-CoA ...
... acetyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.2: palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.3: succinyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.4: 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA ... glutamate-ammonia ligase) hydrolase EC 3.1.4.16: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.17: 3',5'-cyclic- ... methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase EC 3.1.1.57: 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonase EC 3.1.1.58: N- ... bile-acid-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.27: choloyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.28: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.29: ...
3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.7: succinate-citramalate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.8: acetate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.9: ... protein ligase EC 2.7.7.64: UTP-monosaccharide-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.65: diguanylate cyclase EC 2.7.7.66: ... succinyl-CoA:(R)-benzylsuccinate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.16: formyl-CoA transferase EC 2.8.3.17: cinnamoyl-CoA:phenyllactate ... oxalate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.3: malonate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.4: deleted EC 2.8.3.5: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase EC 2.8. ...
The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate can be summarized as follows: Acetaldehyde + NAD+ + Coenzyme A ↔ Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H ...
... acetate and choline. This is somewhat unusual among neurotransmitters as most, including serotonin, dopamine, and ... HMG-CoA reductase. *1.3 5α-Reductase. *1.4 Monoamine oxidase. *1.5 Dihydrofolate reductase ...
cellular response to phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate. • cellular response to ionomycin. • response to drug. • transcription ... acetyl-CoA carboxylase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.27). *-. Tropomyosin kinase (EC 2.7.11.28). *- ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ... G→propionyl-CoA→. succinyl-CoA. valine→. *α-Ketoisovaleric acid. *Isobutyryl-CoA. *Methacrylyl-CoA ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ... G→propionyl-CoA→. succinyl-CoA. valine→. *α-Ketoisovaleric acid. *Isobutyryl-CoA. *Methacrylyl-CoA ...

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