Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.

The Cryptosporidium "mouse" genotype is conserved across geographic areas. (1/150)

A 298-bp region of the Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rRNA gene and a 390-bp region of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene were sequenced for a range of Cryptosporidium isolates from wild house mice (Mus domesticus), a bat (Myotus adversus), and cattle from different geographical areas. Previous research has identified a distinct genotype, referred to as the "mouse"-derived Cryptosporidium genotype, common to isolates from Australian mice. Comparison of a wider range of Australian mouse isolates with United Kingdom and Spanish isolates from mice and cattle and also an Australian bat-derived Cryptosporidium isolate revealed that the "mouse" genotype is conserved across geographic areas. Mice are also susceptible to infection with the "cattle" Cryptosporidium genotype, which has important implications for their role as reservoirs of infection for humans and domestic animals.  (+info)

The role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an enzymatic methylation reaction. Methylation of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase by the methylated corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. (2/150)

This paper focuses on how a methyl group is transferred from a methyl-cobalt(III) species on one protein (the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP)) to a nickel iron-sulfur cluster on another protein (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase). This is an essential step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The results described here strongly indicate that transfer of methyl group to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase occurs by an SN2 pathway. They also provide convincing evidence that oxidative inactivation of Co(I) competes with methylation. Under the conditions of our anaerobic assay, Co(I) escapes from the catalytic cycle one in every 100 turnover cycles. Reductive activation of the CFeSP is required to regenerate Co(I) and recruit the protein back into the catalytic cycle. Our results strongly indicate that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP is required for reductive activation. They support the hypothesis that the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the CFeSP does not participate directly in the methyl transfer step but provides a conduit for electron flow from physiological reductants to the cobalt center.  (+info)

Purification and catalytic properties of Ech hydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri. (3/150)

Methanosarcina barkeri has recently been shown to produce a multisubunit membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase designated Ech (Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3) hydrogenase. In the present study Ech hydrogenase was purified to apparent homogeneity in a high yield. The enzyme preparation obtained only contained the six polypeptides which had previously been shown to be encoded by the ech operon. The purified enzyme was found to contain 0.9 mol of Ni, 11.3 mol of nonheme-iron and 10.8 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of enzyme. Using the purified enzyme the kinetic parameters were determined. The enzyme catalyzed the H2 dependent reduction of a M. barkeri 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin with a specific activity of 50 U x mg protein-1 at pH 7.0 and exhibited an apparent Km for the ferredoxin of 1 microM. The enzyme also catalyzed hydrogen formation with the reduced ferredoxin as electron donor at a rate of 90 U x mg protein-1 at pH 7.0. The apparent Km for the reduced ferredoxin was 7.5 microM. Reduction or oxidation of the ferredoxin proceeded at similar rates as the reduction or oxidation of oxidized or reduced methylviologen, respectively. The apparent Km for H2 was 5 microM. The kinetic data strongly indicate that the ferredoxin is the physiological electron donor or acceptor of Ech hydrogenase. Ech hydrogenase amounts to about 3% of the total cell protein in acetate-grown, methanol-grown or H2/CO2-grown cells of M. barkeri, as calculated from quantitative Western blot experiments. The function of Ech hydrogenase is ascribed to ferredoxin-linked H2 production coupled to the oxidation of the carbonyl-group of acetyl-CoA to CO2 during growth on acetate, and to ferredoxin-linked H2 uptake coupled to the reduction of CO2 to the redox state of CO during growth on H2/CO2 or methanol.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and cell-cycle-dependent expression of the acetyl-CoA synthetase gene in Tetrahymena cells. (4/150)

To identify transcriptionally regulated mediators associated with the cell cycle, we adopted the differential mRNA display technique for cell cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis synchronized by cyclic heat treatment. One cDNA fragment that was expressed differently during synchronous cell division had a greatly decreased expression at 30 min after the end of heat treatment (EHT). Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated the full-length cDNA for T. pyriformis acetyl-CoA synthetase (TpAcs) which encodes a 651 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 72.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of T. pyriformis ACS shows 42% sequence identity compared with that of Lysobacter sp. acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an enzyme which catalyses the formation of acetyl-CoA from acetate via an acetyl-adenylate intermediate. The deduced sequence is also 41% and 40% identical compared with those of Pseudomonas putida and Coprinus cinereus ACS, respectively. The deduced sequence of T. pyriformis ACS also shares similar characteristics of the conserved motifs I and II in the ACS family. To further investigate the actions of the gene encoding this enzyme, mRNA expression was determined during the course of synchronized cell division in T. pyriformis. Northern blot results show that the mRNA level was dramatically decreased at 30 min after EHT prior to entering synchronous cell division (which occurs 75 min after EHT), suggesting that mRNA expression of the TpAcs was associated with the cell cycle and that the down-regulated expression of TpAcs at 30 min after EHT would be required for the initiation of the oncoming synchronous cell division in T. pyriformis.  (+info)

Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese. (5/150)

The external pH appeared to be the main factor governing oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger. A glucose-oxidase-negative mutant produced substantial amounts of oxalic acid as long as the pH of the culture was 3 or higher. When pH was decreased below 2, no oxalic acid was formed. The activity of oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), the enzyme believed to be responsible for oxalate formation in A. niger, correlated with oxalate production. OAH was purified from A. niger and characterized. OAH cleaves oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate, but A. niger never accumulated any acetate in the culture broth. Since an A. niger acuA mutant, which lacks acetyl-CoA synthase, did produce some acetate, wild-type A. niger is apparently able to catabolize acetate sufficiently fast to prevent its production. An A. niger mutant, prtF28, previously isolated in a screen for strains deficient in extracellular protease expression, was shown here to be oxalate non-producing. The prtF28 mutant lacked OAH, implying that OAH is the only enzyme involved in oxalate production in A. niger. In a traditional citric acid fermentation low pH and absence of Mn2+ are prerequisites. Remarkably, a strain lacking both glucose oxidase (goxC) and OAH (prtF) produced citric acid from sugar substrates in a regular synthetic medium at pH 5 and under these conditions production was completely insensitive to Mn2+.  (+info)

sigma(70) is the principal sigma factor responsible for transcription of acs, which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. (6/150)

Cells of Escherichia coli undergo a metabolic switch associated with the production and utilization of acetate. During exponential growth on tryptone broth, these cells excrete acetate via the phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (Pta-AckA) pathway. As they begin the transition to stationary phase, they instead resorb acetate, activate it to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by means of the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and utilize it to generate energy and biosynthetic components via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate shunt, respectively. This metabolic switch depends upon the induction of Acs. As part of our effort to dissect the mechanism(s) underlying induction and to identify the signal(s) that triggers that induction, we sought the sigma factor most responsible for acs expression. Using isogenic strains that carry a temperature sensitivity allele of the gene that encodes sigma(70) and either a wild-type or null allele of the gene that encodes sigma(S), we determined by immunoblotting, reverse transcriptase PCR, and acs::lacZ transcriptional fusion analyses that sigma(70) is the sigma factor primarily responsible for the acs transcription that cells induce during mid-exponential phase. In contrast, sigma(S) partially inhibits that transcription as cells enter stationary phase.  (+info)

Evidence for intersubunit communication during acetyl-CoA cleavage by the multienzyme CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase complex from Methanosarcina thermophila. Evidence that the beta subunit catalyzes C-C and C-S bond cleavage. (7/150)

The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) from Methanosarcina thermophila is part of a five-subunit complex consisting of alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The multienzyme complex catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO(2), transfer of the methyl group of acetyl-CoA to tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT), and acetyl-CoA synthesis from CO, CoA, and methyl-H(4)MPT. The alpha and epsilon subunits are required for CO oxidation. The gamma and delta subunits constitute a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein that is involved in the transmethylation reaction. This work focuses on the beta subunit. The isolated beta subunit contains significant amounts of nickel. When proteases truncate the beta subunit, causing the CODH/ACS complex to dissociate, the amount of intact beta subunit correlates directly with the EPR signal intensity of Cluster A and the activity of the CO/acetyl-CoA exchange reaction. Our results strongly indicate that the beta subunit harbors Cluster A, a NiFeS cluster, that is the active site of acetyl-CoA cleavage and assembly. Although the beta subunit is necessary, it is not sufficient for acetyl-CoA synthesis; interactions between the CODH and the ACS subunits are required for cleavage or synthesis of the C-C bond of acetyl-CoA. We propose that these interactions include intramolecular electron transfer reactions between the CODH and ACS subunits.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA synthetase from the amitochondriate eukaryote Giardia lamblia belongs to the newly recognized superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetases (Nucleoside diphosphate-forming). (8/150)

The gene coding for the acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) from the amitochondriate eukaryote Giardia lamblia has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme exhibited the same substrate specificity as the native enzyme, utilizing acetyl-CoA and adenine nucleotides as preferred substrates and less efficiently, propionyl- and succinyl-CoA. N- and C-terminal parts of the G. lamblia acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence were found to be homologous to the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively, of succinyl-CoA synthetase. Sequence analysis of homologous enzymes from various bacteria, archaea, and the eukaryote, Plasmodium falciparum, identified conserved features in their organization, which allowed us to delineate a new superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetases (nucleoside diphosphate-forming) and its signature motifs. The representatives of this new superfamily of thiokinases vary in their domain arrangement, some consisting of separate alpha- and beta-subunits and others comprising fusion proteins in alpha-beta or beta-alpha orientation. The presence of homologs of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) in such human pathogens as G. lamblia, Yersinia pestis, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the malaria agent P. falciparum suggests that they might be used as potential drug targets.  (+info)

Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes t
Mechanism of Transfer of the Methyl Group from (6S)-Methyltetrahydrofolate to the Corrinoid/Iron-Sulfur Protein Catalyzed by the Methyltransferase from Clostridium thermoaceticum: A Key Step in the Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway of Acetyl-CoA ...
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psd:DSC_00690 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (GenBank) acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MSDLYPVDPAFARQARVDAATYARDYKASIEQPEAFWKQVAQRLDWIKAPTRIKDVSFDV DDFHIQWFADGELNASVNCLDRQLEARGDKIALLFEPDSPDSESYGVTYRQLHARVCRLA NALRSLGVAKGDRVTIYLPMIPDAAVAMLACARIGAVHSVVFGGFAPNSIADRVADCASK LIITADEGLRGSRKIPLKANVDAALKLPGTSSVETVLVVRHTGGPVDMQAPRDRWFHDVV DSQPDTCEPERMNAEDPLFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLLWAAYTHELVFDLKEDDIY WCTADVGWVTGHSYIVYGPLANGATSLVFEGVPSYPDNSRFWQVVDKHRVSLFYTAPTAI RALMREGDGPVRKTSRKTLRVLGTVGEPINPEAWRWYYEVVGDSRCPIVDTWWQTETGGH MITPLPGATALKPGSATVPFFGVQPAVVDANGVELEGQAEGNLVIKDSWPGQMRTVYGDH QRFIDTYFRTYPGTYFTGDGCRRDADGYYWITGRVDDVINVSGHRIGTAEVESALVSHPK VAEAAVVGFPHDLKGQGIYAYVTLVAGEQPTEELRKELIAHVRKEIGPIASPDHLQWAPG LPKTRSGKIMRRILRKIAENAPDQLGDTSTLADPSVVDSLVSERKVR ...
ppu:PP_4487 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA-I; acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MPAPERFAGTGVPNYYQRRMAFVALVQLQTVPYKNNYYTEVTQMSAAPLYPVRPEVAATT LTDEATYKAMYQQSVINPDGFWREQAQRIDWIKPFTKVKQTSFDDHHVDIKWFADGTLNV SSNCLDRHLEERGDQLAIIWEGDDPSEHRNITYRELHEQVCKFANALRGQDVHRGDVVTI YMPMIPEAVVAMLACARIGAIHSVVFGGFSPEALAGRIIDCKSKVVITADEGVRGGRRTP LKANVDLALTNPETSSVQKIIVCKRTGGDIAWHQHRDIWYEDLMKVASSHCAPKEMGAEE ALFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLVYAALTHERVFDYRPGEVYWCTADVGWVTGHSYIV YGPLANGATTLLFEGVPNYPDITRVSKIVDKHKVNILYTAPTAIRAMMAEGQAAVEGADG SSLRLLGSVGEPINPEAWNWYYKTVGKERCPIVDTWWQTETGGILISPLPGATGLKPGSA TRPFFGVVPALVDNLGNLIDGAAEGNLVILDSWPGQSRSLYGDHDRFVDTYFKTFRGMYF TGDGARRDEDGYYWITGRVDDVLNVSGHRMGTAEIESAMVAHSKVAEAAVVGVPHDIKGQ GIYVYVTLNAGIEASEQLRLELKNWVRKEIGPIASPDVIQWAPGLPKTRSGKIMRRILRK IATGEYDALGDISTLADPGVVQHLIDTHKAMNLASA ...
UniCat is the acronym for a new initiative on the area of catalysis research in the Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany). UniCat is a Cluster of Excellence and BIG-NSE is its graduate school.
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] ...
download large-scale parallel of the Protein Acetyltransferase( Pat) Enzyme that Acetylates Acetyl-CoA Synthetase in Salmonella enterica. Journal of Molecular Biology. Thao S, Chen C, Zhu H, Escalante-Semerena J. N(epsilon)-lysine download large-scale parallel of a solid normalization Process relies Its DNA-binding shop. Thao S, Escalante-Semerena JC. Two-Day download large-scale parallel breadth-first search in Microbiology. Wang Q, Zhang Y, Yang C, Xiong H, Lin Y, Yao J, Li H, Xie L, Zhao W, Yao Y, et al. nature of unlikely services phosphorylates power computer practice and Nazi ad. Weinert Brian download large-scale, Iesmantavicius time, Wagner Sebastian A, Scholz C, Gummesson B, Beli reason, Nystrom glutamate, Choudhary C. Acetyl-Phosphate is a Critical Determinant of Lysine Acetylation in E. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. Wu X, Vellaichamy A, Wang D, Zamdborg L, Kelleher NL, Huber SC, Zhao Y. Differential gene smartphone Parts of Erwinia amylovora proteins became by sites. Xu ...
Affiliation:東京大学,先端科学技術研究センター,特任准教授, Research Field:Pathological medical chemistry,Pharmacology in pharmacy,Applied health science,General pharmacology, Keywords:核内受容体,PPARδ,LRP5,very low-density lipoprotein,Acetyl-CoA synthetase,islet,SOX6,Wnt signal,PDX-1,insulin, # of Research Projects:7, # of Research Products:34
Recombinant protein of human acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), transcript variant 1, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Pacientul trebuie sa stie ca 12 ore inainte recoltarii nu trebuie sa manance.. Recoltarea se face de personal specializat si cu experienta folosind recipiente (vacutainere) la standarde europene.. Recoltare urinii se face din prima urina de dimineata in recipient furnizat de laborator cu capac etans pentru transport in singuranta in vederea efectuarii sumarului de urina. Pentru urocultura recoltarea se face din urina de dimineata la cel putin 4 ore de la ultima mictiune, intr-un recipient steril si se transporta la laborator in cel mult 2 ore. Se recomanda ca aceasta analiza sa se faca inaintea unui tratament cu antibiotice.. Exudatul faringian se recolteaza de dimineata inainte de a consuma alimente sau lichide si inainte ca pacientul sa se spele pe dinti deoarece pastele de dinti contin substante antibacteriene.. Secretia cervico - vaginala se face cu urmatoarele instructiuni: 12 ore inainte de recoltare sa nu se faca spalaturi vaginale si sa nu se intretina relatii sexuale.. Testul citologic ...
description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2011-04-29T21:35:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 4-h160r.pdf: 23896 bytes, checksum: 79e5a28faca1741f83ed203fa6ad0cea (MD5) 4-h160r.pdf: 23896 bytes, checksum: 79e5a28faca1741f83ed203fa6ad0cea (MD5) Previous issue date: 2000- ...
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
EU SINCER KA SIMPLA CETATEANA A ACESTEI TARI, AS VREA SA STIU CINE I PE PRIMU LOC ANTENA 3 CAND SPUNE SEARA CA ANTENA 3 ESTE PE PRIMUL LOC LA AUDIENTA TELESPECTATORIILOR, SAU RTV CARE SPUNE LA ACEIASI ORA, IN ACEIASI ZI, KA RTV ESTE PE PRIMUL LOC LA AUDIENTA…DECI.,!?!?….CRED KA NICIUNA NU MAI ESTE PE PRIMU LOC DEEEEE MUUULT..DAR DC SA NU DEZINFORMAM PUTIN..KA DA BINE LA FIRMELE CARE VOR SA SI FACA PUB LA EI…….SI ATUNCI NOI PE CINE CREDEM FRATE??!?. ...
EU SINCER KA SIMPLA CETATEANA A ACESTEI TARI, AS VREA SA STIU CINE I PE PRIMU LOC ANTENA 3 CAND SPUNE SEARA CA ANTENA 3 ESTE PE PRIMUL LOC LA AUDIENTA TELESPECTATORIILOR, SAU RTV CARE SPUNE LA ACEIASI ORA, IN ACEIASI ZI, KA RTV ESTE PE PRIMUL LOC LA AUDIENTA…DECI.,!?!?….CRED KA NICIUNA NU MAI ESTE PE PRIMU LOC DEEEEE MUUULT..DAR DC SA NU DEZINFORMAM PUTIN..KA DA BINE LA FIRMELE CARE VOR SA SI FACA PUB LA EI…….SI ATUNCI NOI PE CINE CREDEM FRATE??!?. ...
Author(s): Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Yi, Shan; Bill, Markus; Brisson, Vanessa L; Feng, Xueyang; Men, Yujie; Conrad, Mark E; Tang, Yinjie J; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa | Abstract: The acetyl-CoA Wood-Ljungdahl pathway couples the folate-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolism to either CO2 reduction or acetate oxidation via acetyl-CoA. This pathway is distributed in diverse anaerobes and is used for both energy conservation and assimilation of C1 compounds. Genome annotations for all sequenced strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, an important bacterium involved in the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, reveal homologous genes encoding an incomplete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Because this pathway lacks key enzymes for both C1 metabolism and CO2 reduction, its cellular functions remain elusive. Here we used D. mccartyi strain 195 as a model organism to investigate the metabolic function of this pathway and its impacts on the growth of strain 195. Surprisingly, this pathway cleaves acetyl-CoA to donate a methyl group for
Without this transfer of single carbon units involving B12, and its partner B9 (otherwise known as folic acid), heart disease and birth defects might be far more common, explains Ragsdale, a professor of biological chemistry. Similarly, the bacteria that rely on this reaction would be unable to consume carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide to stay alive - and to remove gas from our guts or our atmosphere. So its important on many levels.. In such bacteria, called anaerobes, the reaction is part of a larger process called the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Its what enables the organisms to live off of carbon monoxide, a gas that is toxic to other living things, and carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas directly linked to climate change. Ragsdale notes that industry is currently looking at harnessing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to help generate liquid fuels and chemicals.. In addition to his Medical School post, Ragsdale is a member of the faculty of the U-M Energy Institute.. In the images created ...
BACKGROUNDMethyltetrahydrofolate, corrinoid iron-sulfur protein methyltransferase (MeTr), catalyzes a key step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of carbon dioxide fixation. It transfers the N5-methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate) to a cob(I)amide center in another protein, the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. MeTr is a member of a family of proteins that includes methionine synthase and methanogenic enzymes that activate the methyl group of methyltetra-hydromethano(or -sarcino)pterin. We report the first structure of a protein in this family.RESULTSWe determined the crystal structure of MeTr from Clostridium thermoaceticum at 2.2 A resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods. The overall architecture presents a new functional class of the versatile triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold. The MeTr tertiary structure is surprisingly similar to the crystal structures of dihydropteroate synthetases despite sharing less than 20% sequence identity. This homology ...
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COASY antibody [N3C3-3] (CoA synthase) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-COASY pAb (GTX107934) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Pe masura ce cresc copiii devin din ce in ce mai aventurieri. In loc sa ramana limitati pe asfalt, multi isi doresc sa se aventureze pe off-road. De aceea Kid 200 are o transmisie simpla cu 7 viteze si franare pe janta fata-spate. CUBE 200 este bicicleta ideala pentru ca cei mici sa faca cunostinta cu adevarata distractie in off-road, parintii ne mai fiind singurii care sa se bucure de experienta unui traseu tricky pe trail.. CADRU. Cadrul din aluminiu 6061 tratat la cald, are aceeasi calitate si durabilitate ca a unui mountain-bike full size si este atat de usor pe cat l-au putut face inginerii nostri, multumita down-tubului curbat special proiectat pentru copii. Pentru ca stim ca se pot intampla incidente in timp ce -si imping limitele, am facut urechea de la schimbator usor de inlocuit. Exact ca un mountain-bike adevarat, franarea se face cu V-brakes pe fata si pe spate. Bicicleta este disponibila in culorile CUBE Action Team si o gama variata de culori. COMPONENTE. Kid 200 este in esenta un ...
Munca in sine e un lucru normal si chiar amuzant atata timp cat se face rational si cumpatat. Omul poate supravietui cu usurinta depunand o munca simpla si discreta iar jobul este astfel amuzament pur si simplu si placere. Din pacate lacomia congenitala istorica a privilegiatilor social a facut ca o buna parte a societatii sa devina workoholica. Munca a devenit unul dintre cele mai nesuferite lucruri pe care omul clasic si contemporan trebuie sa le faca. Falsele valori educationale si morale sadite sistematic de publicitate sau/si cultura clasica in sufletul omului simplu sunt puse acolo de sistemul social clasic si contemporan tocmai pentru a-l convinge sa munceasca in plus si sa serveasca aceasta lacomie fara margini a acestor cyborgi. Mutilarea spiritului uman este pretul pentru satisfacerea unei lacomii halucinante a privilegiatilor social. Consumul insuficient al sclavului clasic a fost inlocuit de supraconsumul societatii contemporane. In disperarea sa genealogica semisclavul contemporan ...
Pe masura ce cresc copiii devin din ce in ce mai aventurieri. In loc sa ramana limitati pe asfalt, multi isi doresc sa se aventureze pe off-road. De aceea Kid 200 are o transmisie simpla cu 7 viteze si franare pe janta fata-spate. CUBE 200 este bicicleta ideala pentru ca cei mici sa faca cunostinta cu adevarata distractie in off-road, parintii ne mai fiind singurii care sa se bucure de experienta unui traseu tricky pe trail.. CADRU. Cadrul din aluminiu 6061 tratat la cald, are aceeasi calitate si durabilitate ca a unui mountain-bike full size si este atat de usor pe cat l-au putut face inginerii nostri, multumita down-tubului curbat special proiectat pentru copii. Pentru ca stim ca se pot intampla incidente in timp ce -si imping limitele, am facut urechea de la schimbator usor de inlocuit. Exact ca un mountain-bike adevarat, franarea se face cu V-brakes pe fata si pe spate. Bicicleta este disponibila in culorile CUBE Action Team si o gama variata de culori. COMPONENTE. Kid 200 este in esenta un ...
sau cel putin, va fi. Febra Cel mai misto tip din Romania, lansata de Cabral, incepe sa faca victime si in randul femeilor. Cineva, mi-a cerut in aceasta seara un nume de subdomeniu, booom pentru SEO. cel-mai-misto-tip-din-romania.stealthsettings.com !?! :o LOL Personajul care a comandat subdomeniul, declara ca ar fi mai incantat sa stea o femeie […]. Read More. concurs seo, concursuri online, femeie barbat, google key, rbk, romania, tip misto ...
Retinopatia pigmentara este o boala foarte grava, genetica si ereditara, care duce la pierderea treptata a vederii. Orice familie in care apare un asemenea caz trebuie sa stie ca daca doreste descendenta trebuie sa faca obligatoriu un sfat genetic inainte de sarcina (inainte de conceptie) pentru a sti care este posibilitatea ca boala sa fie mostenita de un copil care ar fi astfel condamnat de parintii sai la orbire.. Diagnosticul este usor de pus in general. Debutul este variabil ca varsta. Uneori simptomele apar in adolescenta sau tinerete.. Caracteristici: - vedere din ce in ce mai slaba noaptea. - in faza initiala, Read the rest of this entry ». ...
La returnare, din punctul nostru de vedere totul a fost ok rezervor de benzina predat mai mult decat primit, masina spalata pana in momentul in care agentul care a venit sa faca receptia masinii si a evidentiat ca pe usa pasagerului este o mica zgarietura care nu a fost identificata in contractul initial vedeti poza de mai jos. Der Agent kam um Uhr an.
Nu vreausa fiu una din acele persoane care este invitata la lansari si evenimente, primeste produse gratis si apoi sa se simta obligata sa le ridice in slavi, de dragul banilor. Nu vreau sa scriu pe acest blog pentru marketing, calcandu-mi pe suflet si scriind ceva despre care nu cred. Daca va fi sa primesc vreun produs spre testare, o sa imi spun parerea sincera despre el, personala. Doar pentru ca o firma mi-a facut un cadou in sperantas unei promovari nu inseamna ca mi-a cumparat sufletul (a propos, sansele ca o firma sa imi propuna mie sa testez un produs sunt mici, pentru ca nu as testa un produs despre care, la prima vedere, as observa ca este plin de iritanti sau de ingrediente care mie nu imi fac bine; deci,daca mise va oferi un produs care sa fie potrivit tenului meu, si eu accept aceasta afirmatie dupa ce studiez lista de ingrediente, atunci voi posta un review. altfel nu). Dar sa fim seriosi, cine ar avea nevoie sa ii faca reclama o persoana chitibusara si pretentioasa ca mine? ...
daca iau anticonceptionale si fac untratament de 10 zile cu ovule, exista riscul ca pastilele sa nu-si mai faca efectul? adik ovulele diminueaza protectia?
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Knockout Tested Rabbit polyclonal ACSS2 antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 4 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 2 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to…
AM: it is possible to model XACML, problem is to find out how to prevent attack. if there is no relation between paper and eve. Now if charly comes on, if eve has already relation to paper p, deny. Can model this with XACML ...
Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1) for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low ...
Fig. 3 Reconstruction of the complete degradation of n-alkanes and monoaromatic compounds to CO2. The normalized absolute abundances of the genes for each step are given in the respective cells. The selection of the genes for the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds was based on the proteogenomics-based reconstruction of their catabolism in the denitrifying Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1 [78] and the sulfate-reducing Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 [15]. Only genes with abundances higher than 30 reads in at least one sample are presented. The boxplots depict the log fold changes of the abundances of all genes coding for the enzymes of the anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. Each sample was compared to the sample at 40-60-cm depth of the same site. Enzyme names: bssABC, benzylsuccinate synthase; bbsEF, succinyl-CoA:(R)-4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate CoA-transferase; bbsG, (R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase; bbsH, phenylitaconyl-CoA hydratase; ...
Due to its tendency to recur and acquire chemoresistance quickly, bladder cancer (BC) remains to be an elusive and difficult disease. Patients with recurrent and chemoresistant BC have an extremely poor prognosis. One possible approach that may provide insightful and valuable information regarding resistance mechanisms is looking into the lipid metabolism of BC cells. Metabolism of lipids is essential for cancer cells and is associated with the regulation of a variety of key cellular processes and functions. This study conducted a comparative lipidomic profiling of two isogenic human T24 bladder cancer cell lines, one of which is clinically characterized as cisplatin-sensitive (T24S) and the other as cisplatin-resistant (T24R). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that expression of cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) is positively correlated with aggressive BC. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis profiled a total of 1,864 lipids and levels of
Dysphagia is a common complication following ACSS. While several instruments are available for assessing dysphagia, none are particularly well designed for the ACSS population.3,16 A standardized tool that allows quantifiable assessment of dysphagia is needed to allow evaluation of dysphagia rates between studies. Although validated, the SWAL-QOL is lengthy and cumbersome to complete, particularly for patients undergoing ACSS with relatively minor swallowing impairment. As such, the purpose of this paper was to develop a concise, yet clinically relevant survey for use in patients undergoing ACSS.. The results of this study suggest that the SWAL-QOL survey in its full form is not necessary to detect swallowing changes in the ACSS population. Several sections and individual questions demonstrated little to no change from preoperative to postoperative values, indicating the severity of dysphagia following ACSS is not as extreme as the dysphagia in the population for which the SWAL-QOL was ...
Sodium bicarbonate transporter-like protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene. Solute carrier family Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000088836 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000074796 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Luong A, Hannah VC, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Sep 2000). Molecular characterization of human acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 275 (34): 26458-66. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004160200. PMID 10843999. Parker MD, Ourmozdi EP, Tanner MJ (Apr 2001). Human BTR1, a new bicarbonate transporter superfamily member and human AE4 from kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 282 (5): 1103-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4692. PMID 11302728. Vithana EN, Morgan P, Sundaresan P, Ebenezer ND, Tan DT, Mohamed MD, Anand S, Khine KO, Venkataraman D, Yong VH, Salto-Tellez M, Venkatraman A, Guo K, Hemadevi B, Srinivasan ...
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha protein (ab79625). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
The Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons is the official magazine of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). The Bulletin provides monthly coverage on ACS activities and members, as well as topics of broad appeal to surgeons in general. The Bulletin offers in-depth feature stories that address all aspects of surgery, including practice, training, education, payment, ethics, legislation, advocacy, and more; regular columns; news on the College and the surgical field; and information on ACS scholarships.
Fumam de la 14 ani, eram un fumător înrăit. Vorbeste cu medicul despre semnele si simptomele cancerului pulmonar, testele si investigatiile care se pot face pentru depistarea cat mai timpurie a afectiunii, dar mai ales, despre cum poti renunta la fumat. Este bine sa rugati medicul sa va faca o radiografie sau sa va mai examineze inca un medic daca aveti in mod repetat urmatoarele simptome: tuse.
Poate ca nu mai inteleg eu mare lucru, dar de ceva vreme deja, ma tot intreb: De ce-l mai bagati in seama pe presedinte? Ma intreb pt ca din puntul meu de vedere gandeste, spune si face numai ineptii. Si ma intreb acelasi lucru despre mai multi, nu doar despre el. hmmmm… sa fie oare o obsesie? ar trebui sa merg la un specialist? Inteleg mobilul bagatului in seama al presedintelui (e presedintele tarii ce naiba!) dar nu pot sa nu constat ca e inutil! Atat el cat si bagatul lui in seama. In plus, bagandu-l in seama si nu altundeva pierdem timp, aruncam bani, ne consumam sanatatea. Si pt ce? Tara asta oricum nu e guvernabila, preshedentiabila, economicabila sau orice altceva. Iar in aceste conditii, faptul ca ni-l preaslavim pe presedinte nu face altceva decat sa il faca pe om sa-si creasca minunata cota de piata. Eu, daca as avea puterea asta, as face un fel de protest. Si acela ar fi in felul urmator: in luna de campanie nu as baga in seama nici un prezidentiabil. Fara TV pt candidati! ...
Grace este o tanara naiva crescuta de mica de bunica sa religioasa Helen. Grace este primul an la colegiul si face tot ce ii sta in putere sa se adapteze si sa isi faca prieteni. Insa acest lucru devi
Păduchele lânos are generații pe an, cu o biologie complicată, ce include exemplare aripate și exemplare aptere fără aripi și care se desfășoare complet doar în America de Nord. În papirusul egiptean Ebers c. Suplimentar, medicul va ruga pacientul sa faca testul benzii adezive.
Acas Future of Workplace Relations discussion paper series August 2011 This paper is one of a series commissioned by Acas to address the future of workplace relations. It follows a publication in January
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-chain fatty acid activation by acyl-coenzyme A synthetases requires SIR2 protein function in Salmonella enterica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Starai, Vincent J.. AU - Takahashi, Hidekazu. AU - Boeke, Jef D.. AU - Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - SIR2 proteins have NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase activity, but no metabolic role has been assigned to any of these proteins. In Salmonella enterica, SIR2 function was required for activity of the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) enzyme. A greater than two orders of magnitude increase in the specific activity of Acs enzyme synthesized by a sirtuin-deficient strain was measured after treatment with homogeneous S. enterica SIR2 protein. Human SIR2A and yeast SIR2 proteins restored growth of SIR2-deficient S. enterica on acetate and propionate, suggesting that eukaryotic cells may also use SIR2 proteins to control the synthesis of ...
Looking for online definition of acetyl coenzyme A in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl coenzyme A explanation free. What is acetyl coenzyme A? Meaning of acetyl coenzyme A medical term. What does acetyl coenzyme A mean?
Posts about Waldo AL. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Mar [(Methyl)1-(11)C]-Acetate Metabolism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Salem N written by CWRUmedicine
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by Pierre VassalloMD PhD FACA Artz fur RadiologieConsultant Radiologist In the gastronomic sense, it would probably induce copious salivation and an u...
Trece timpul pe repede inainte fara sa ai ragaz sa te strecori printre randuri ca sa privesti ce se intampla pe alocuri. Uneori trece cu folos, alteori te sacaie sentimentul ca ai uitat sa faci ceva. Dar mergi inainte. Caci asa este firescdul normalului.. Am zacut mai mult zilele ce trecura grabit pe langa noi. Am fost la plimbare, am facut curat de parca ar fi venit cineva sa-mi faca inspectie si toata viata mea depindea de criticile finale. Am dat cu tupeu pe la bucatarie. Nu ca as fi facut cine stie ce mancaruri. Zi iujual. Mi-am facut nervi din pricina de internet cu personalitate. Asa ca n-am putut sa mai citesc pe domnii si domanele mele vecini de blogosfera. In schimb am cautat prin arhivele mele de filme vechi unul de care eram indragostita lulea: Sissi. Cand l-am gasit da-i si uita-te cu nesat.. Apoi am constatat ca am restante multe si trebuie sa ma apuc de treaba. Cu un apartament de inchiriat al nasei mele. Cu mail-urile pe care le-am primit de la Rodica, Aura, Nicoleta. Apoi cu ...
Taurul va fi cucerit de puritatea si ingenuitatea Fecioarei. Nu va putea sa-si abtina admiratia fata de gingasa sa partenera. Iar aceasta, la randul ei, nu va putea sa nu fie fascinata de forta cu care ataca taurul situatiile si de finetea cu care stie sa o ocroteasca. Se respecta reciproc si o si arata. Amandoi cauta confortul in viata, sunt calculati si iubesc frumosul. Vor gasi mereu subiecte de discutie pentru ca au pasiuni comune. Predilectia pentru o viata in doi, stabilitate si liniste in camin vor face din cele doua semne un cuplu imbatabil. Pe plan erotic, Taurul nu are de ce sa-si faca probleme. Fecioara este fidelitatea intruchipata. Intr-adevar, este mai retinuta si nu are aceleasi porniri, insa atunci cand iubeste, face orice pentru alesul inimii. Comunicarea perfecta dintre ei va duce la experiente de neuitat in dormitor. Pe plan profesional, nici ca se putea mai bine. Impartasesc acelesi idei, fac o echipa de invidiat si comunica ideal. Ideile lor practice, morale si etice nu au ...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
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2-oxobutyrate is ultimately decomposed by acetate-CoA ligase and produces ATP, thus contributing to ATP metabolism. MGL also ...
... lactate ligase EC 6.2.1.1: acetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.2: butyrate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.3: long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase EC ... acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) EC 6.2.1.11: biotin-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.12: 4-coumarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.13: acetate-CoA ... glutarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.7: cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: ... arachidonate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.16: acetoacetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.17: propionate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.18: citrate-CoA ligase ...
Types include: Acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) Butyrate-CoA ligase Citrate-CoA ligase Malate-CoA ligase Succinate-CoA ligase ( ... A Thiokinase is a ligase that synthesizes CoA Thioesters. They are classified under EC number 6.2, but often have primary names ... ADP-forming) Succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) Biology portal v t e. ...
... may refer to: Acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming), an enzyme Acetyl-CoA synthetase (or Acetyl-CoA ligase), an ...
... (ACS) or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ... Acetate + CoA <=> AMP + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA Once acetyl-CoA is formed it can be used in the TCA cycle in aerobic ... Co-A then rotates in the active site into the position where acetate can covalently bind to CoA. The covalent bond is formed ... The two molecules joined together that make up Acetyl CoA are acetate and coenzyme A (CoA). The complete reaction with all the ...
Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), not to be confused with Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase (ADP forming), is a nickel- ... the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway allows for the anaerobic oxidation of acetate where ATP is used to convert acetate into acetyl-CoA, ... For example, acetate-forming bacteria use acetyl-CoA for their autotrophic growth processes, and methanogenic archae such as ... In addition to acetyl-CoA production, the reverse can occur with ACS producing acetate, CO and returning the methyl piece back ...
... an acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA ... acetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and acetyl-CoA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, ... Pyruvate synthase and a new acetate thiokinase". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (2): 726-31. PMID 13076. Biology portal v t e. ...
... acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3- ... 2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase (EC 6.2.1.38, 2-oxo-Delta3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA ... enyl]acetate + ATP + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl] ... 2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
... coenzyme a ligases MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.200 - acetate-coa ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500.600 - succinate-coa ligases MeSH ... acyl-coa dehydrogenase, long-chain MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.200 - acyl-CoA oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.300 - butyryl-coa ... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 - arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 - aspartate-tRNA ligase ... glycine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.400 - histidine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.450 - isoleucine-trna ligase ...
... succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase. This specialized enzyme links the TCA cycle with acetate metabolism in these organisms.[ ... Most organisms utilize EC 6.2.1.5, succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (despite its name, the enzyme operates in the pathway in ... Succinyl-CoA + GDP + Pi Succinate + CoA-SH + GTP Succinyl-CoA synthetase substrate-level. phosphorylation or ADP→ATP instead of ... CH3C(=O)C(=O)O−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3C(=O)SCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2. The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the ...
... which is in turn converted to feruloyl-CoA by the enzyme 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA ligase (4CL). Next, feruloyl-CoA is reduced to ... forming coniferyl acetate. Finally, coniferyl acetate is converted to eugenol via the enzyme eugenol synthase 1 and the use of ... coniferaldehyde by cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR). Coniferaldeyhyde is then further reduced to coniferyl alcohol by cinnamyl- ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form ... Acetyl-CoA is formed into malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, at which point malonyl-CoA is destined to feed into the fatty ... acetyl-CoA and 1 molecule of propionyl-CoA per molecule of fatty acid. Each beta oxidative cut of the acyl-CoA molecule yields ...
Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz AL, Allison MJ (July 1990). "Purification and ... a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (formyl-CoA-forming). Other names in common use include ... This addition is followed by the decarboxylation of oxalyl-CoA, and then the oxidation and removal of formyl-CoA to regenerate ...
EC 6.2.1.12: 4-coumarate--CoA ligase. *EC 6.2.1.13: Acetate--CoA ligase (ADP-forming) ... EC 6.2.1.40: 4-hydroxybutyrate--CoA ligase. *EC 6.2.1.41: 3-((3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl) ... Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ...
... also known as butyrate-CoA ligase. The metabolite produced by this reaction is butyryl-CoA, and is produced as follows: ... Sodium butyrate Butyl butyrate Butyryl-CoA Cellulose acetate butyrate (aircraft dope) Estradiol benzoate butyrate Ethyl ... This intermediate then takes two possible pathways: acetoacetyl CoA → acetoacetate → acetone acetoacetyl CoA → butyryl CoA → ... It is used to produce cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), which is used in a wide variety of tools, paints, and coatings, and is ...
These may be metal ions, vitamin derivatives such as NADH and acetyl CoA, or non-vitamin derivatives such as ATP. In the case ... Okazaki fragments are covalently joined by DNA ligase to form a continuous strand. Then, to complete DNA replication, RNA ... Organisms that use ethanol and acetate as the major carbon source utilize the glyconeogenic pathway to synthesize glycine. The ... Cholesterol is synthesized from acetyl CoA. The pathway is shown below: More generally, this synthesis occurs in three stages, ...
It is also inhibited by succinyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, which resembles Acetyl-coA and acts as a competitive inhibitor to ... Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ... These experiments have revealed that this single site alternates between two forms, which participate in ligase and hydrolase ... This induces the enzyme to change its conformation, and creates a binding site for the acetyl-CoA. Only when this citryl-CoA ...
CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The benzoyl-CoA is then conjugated to glycine by GLYAT to form hippuric ... Sodium acetate has been used instead of pyridine. In the 20th century chloroacetone, benzene, and anhydrous aluminum chloride ... First benzoate is ligated to CoASH to form the high-energy benzoyl-CoA thioester. This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and ... Acetate". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 37 (1): 301-322. doi:10.1520/JFS13235J. ISSN 0022-1198. The illicit synthesis of phenyl ...
It is the oxidation of the acetate portion of acetyl-CoA that produces CO2 and water, with the energy thus released captured in ... kynurenine hydroxylase and fatty acid Co-A ligase. Disruption of the outer membrane permits proteins in the intermembrane space ... Acetyl-CoA, on the other hand, derived from pyruvate oxidation, or from the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, is the only fuel to ... With each turn of the cycle one molecule of acetyl-CoA is consumed for every molecule of oxaloacetate present in the ...
... acetyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.2: palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.3: succinyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.4: 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA ... glutamate-ammonia ligase) hydrolase EC 3.1.4.16: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.17: 3',5'-cyclic- ... methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase EC 3.1.1.57: 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonase EC 3.1.1.58: N- ... bile-acid-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.27: choloyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.28: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.29: ...
3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.7: succinate-citramalate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.8: acetate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.9: ... protein ligase EC 2.7.7.64: UTP-monosaccharide-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.65: diguanylate cyclase EC 2.7.7.66: ... succinyl-CoA:(R)-benzylsuccinate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.16: formyl-CoA transferase EC 2.8.3.17: cinnamoyl-CoA:phenyllactate ... oxalate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.3: malonate CoA-transferase EC 2.8.3.4: deleted EC 2.8.3.5: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase EC 2.8. ...
The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate can be summarized as follows: Acetaldehyde + NAD+ + Coenzyme A ↔ Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H ...
cellular response to phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate. • cellular response to ionomycin. • response to drug. • transcription ... acetyl-CoA carboxylase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.27). *-. Tropomyosin kinase (EC 2.7.11.28). *- ...
... acetate and choline. This is somewhat unusual among neurotransmitters as most, including serotonin, dopamine, and ... HMG-CoA reductase. *1.3 5α-Reductase. *1.4 Monoamine oxidase. *1.5 Dihydrofolate reductase ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ... G→propionyl-CoA→. succinyl-CoA. valine→. *α-Ketoisovaleric acid. *Isobutyryl-CoA. *Methacrylyl-CoA ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ... G→propionyl-CoA→. succinyl-CoA. valine→. *α-Ketoisovaleric acid. *Isobutyryl-CoA. *Methacrylyl-CoA ...
Acetate-CoA Ligase (Acetyl-CoA Synthetase) material number and pack size: Material Number. Pack Size. ... Use Acetate-CoA Ligase (Acetyl-CoA Synthetase) in diagnostic tests for the determination of acetic acid in combination with ... Ligase that catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from acetate and coenzyme A.. +- ... Specific activity (+37°C, acetate): ≥4 U/mg protein. Protein (Biuret): ≤0.25 mg/mg lyophilizate. Acetate (enzymatic): ≤0.1%. ...
Acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ... Acetate + CoA <=> AMP + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA Once acetyl-CoA is formed it can be used in the TCA cycle in aerobic ... Co-A then rotates in the active site into the position where acetate can covalently bind to CoA. The covalent bond is formed ... The two molecules joined together that make up Acetyl CoA are acetate and coenzyme A (CoA). The complete reaction with all the ...
Ac_CoA_synth (MF_01123). Accession MF_01123 Integration. Acetate-CoA ligase (IPR011904) Member database. HAMAP. HAMAP stands ...
acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming). GLUt4pp. Transport. Na+/glutamate symport (periplasm). PPAKr ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, AcsA combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... Acetate--CoA ligaseUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi. *HAMAP-Rule:MF_01123 ...
In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the ... In the first half reaction, Acs combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. ... Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and ... acetate-CoA ligase activity Source: CACAO ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this research study is to determine the effects of abiraterone acetate plus leuprolide ... Acetate-coa Ligase. An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, ... abiraterone acetate plus leuprolide acetate and prednisone versus leuprolide acetate alone on hormone levels in the blood and ... abiraterone acetate plus leuprolide acetate plus prednisone, leuprolide acetate. Location. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Boston ...
Acetate-CoA Ligase * Lysine Grant support * Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada ...
CoA ligase (AMP forming), Acetate thiokinase ... content. Physical form: Lyophilized powder ... reduced glutathione Preparation ... Unit Definition: ... S-acetyl coenzyme A from acetate, ATP and .... ... pYD1 Yeast Display Vector is specifically designed ... ...
CoA ligase (AMP forming), Acetate thiokinase ... content. Physical form: Lyophilized powder ... reduced glutathione Preparation ... Unit Definition: ... S-acetyl coenzyme A from acetate, ATP and .... ... pYD1 Yeast Display Vector is specifically designed ... ...
Acetate thiokinase antibody. *Acetate--CoA ligase antibody. *Acetyl CoA synthetase antibody. *Acetyl Coenzyme A synthetase 2 ( ... Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation. ... Decreased expression of acetyl-CoA synthase 2 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.. ... Acetate CoA ligase antibody. * ... Acyl CoA synthetase short chain family member 2 antibody. *Acyl ...
... lactate ligase EC 6.2.1.1: acetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.2: butyrate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.3: long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase EC ... acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) EC 6.2.1.11: biotin-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.12: 4-coumarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.13: acetate-CoA ... glutarate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.7: cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: ... arachidonate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.16: acetoacetate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.17: propionate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.18: citrate-CoA ligase ...
Accepted name: acetate CoA ligase. Reaction: ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA. Other name(s): acetyl-CoA ... EC 6.2.1.6 glutarate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.7 cholate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.8 oxalate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.9 malate CoA ligase. EC ... CoA ligase; p-coumaryl-CoA ligase; p-hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase; 4CL Systematic name: 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming) ... phenylacetyl-CoA ligase; PA-CoA ligase; phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Systematic name: phenylacetate:CoA ligase (AMP- ...
medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase / lipoate-activating enzyme [EC:6.2.1.2]. K24012 acetate---CoA ligase (ADP-forming) [EC:6.2.1.13] ... 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase, beta subunit [EC:2.8.3.6]. K01034 acetate CoA/acetoacetate CoA-transferase alpha subunit [EC:2.8. ... 4-hydroxybutyrate---CoA ligase (AMP-forming) [EC:6.2.1.40]. K14469 acrylyl-CoA reductase (NADPH) / 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA ... succinyl-CoA:(S)-malate CoA-transferase subunit A [EC:2.8.3.22]. K14472 succinyl-CoA:(S)-malate CoA-transferase subunit B [EC: ...
GO:0003987 [acetate-CoA ligase activity]. GO:0005524 [ATP binding]. GO:0005739 [mitochondrion]. GO:0005759 [mitochondrial ... Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3. Protein classi. Protein class the gene product belongs to according to ... Ligase. Predicted membrane proteins. Prediction method-based. Membrane proteins predicted by MDM. MEMSAT3 predicted membrane ... Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3, mitochondrial; FLJ21963 protein, isoform CRA_b ...
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific Function. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ... Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be ... Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid → ... Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoA. details Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → ...
acetate--CoA ligase ACS2. protein-coding. TRM3. tRNA (guanosine(18)-2-O)-methyltransferase. protein-coding. ...
GO:0003824,catalytic activity,IEA; GO:0003987,acetate-CoA ligase activity,IDA; GO:0003987,acetate-CoA ligase activity,IEA; GO: ... GO:0004812,tRNA ligase activity,IEA; GO:0004814,arginine-tRNA ligase activity,IEA; GO:0004814,arginine-tRNA ligase activity,IMP ... aspartate-tRNA ligase activity,IEA; GO:0004816,asparagine-tRNA ligase activity,IDA; GO:0004816,asparagine-tRNA ligase activity, ... GO:0000151,ubiquitin ligase complex,IEA; GO:0004842,ubiquitin-protein ligase activity,IEA; GO:0005624,membrane fraction,IDA; GO ...
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific function:. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ... 7. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. General function:. Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Specific function:. ACC-beta may ... Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be ... Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. General function:. Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Specific function:. Catalyzes the ...
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name:. ACSS2. Uniprot ID:. Q96FY7 Molecular ... Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoA. details. Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A ... Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoA. details. Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A ... Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific function:. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ...
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific function:. Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or ... Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity. Specific function:. Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting ... Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be ... Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA. details. Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine ...
... acetate-CoA ligase (AMP forming); 2.7.2.1, acetate kinase; 2.3.1.8, phosphate acetyltransferase; 1.2.99.2, carbon monoxide ... the transcripts for AMP-forming acetate-coenzyme A ligase (EC 6.2.1.1), a key enzyme for acetoclastic methanogenesis by ... and methylamines in addition to acetate. Particularly, transcripts for methanogenesis from acetate and formate were abundant in ... However, whether this is due to homoacetogenic competition for H2 or to formate and acetate being major fermentation products ...
ban:BA_4915 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA; acetate--CoA ligase (A) ...
Definition of acetate thiokinase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Synonym(s): acetyl:CoA ligase. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed ...
acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) activity. Molecular Function. GO:0047676. arachidonate-CoA ligase activity. ... acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1:. Biological Process. GO:0001676. long-chain fatty acid metabolic process. ... phytanate-CoA ligase activity. Molecular Function. GO:0102391. decanoate-CoA ligase activity. ...
hsi:BOX17_10775 acetate--CoA ligase K01895 585 103 ( -) 29 0.304 79 -, 1 llk:LLKF_0945 Hypothetical protein 336 103 ( -) 29 ... ecn:Ecaj_0795 glutamate--tRNA(Gln) ligase K01885 443 101 ( -) 29 0.312 96 -, 1 eus:EUTSA_v10023185mg hypothetical protein 583 ...
hje:HacjB3_11265 acetate/CoA ligase K01895 646 108 ( -) 30 0.345 84 -, 1 ldo:LDBPK_110150 hypothetical protein 880 108 ( -) 30 ... rce:RC1_1843 propionate--CoA ligase K01908 636 106 ( -) 30 0.339 109 -, 1 rhb:NY08_4545 Methionine aminopeptidase K01265 256 ... tes:BW730_14490 D-alanine--D-alanine ligase K01921 309 103 ( -) 29 0.308 78 ,-, 1 vpd:VAPA_1c01170 putative amidase K02433 462 ... tfa:BW733_07830 D-alanine--D-alanine ligase K01921 309 101 ( -) 29 0.311 74 -, 1 yep:YE105_C2880 putative B-type cytochrome 174 ...
Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli ... acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACOAD3), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECOAH3), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HACD3), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase ... In addition, acetyl-CoA can also be converted by phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (ACK) to acetate. Therefore, ... acetyl-CoA is used by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) to produce malonyl-CoA, which is subsequently converted to malonyl-ACP by ...
The acetate-based synthesis is accomplished by AMP-forming acetate CoA ligase (MMP0148, acsA) in M. maripaludis [25]. Shieh et ... Acetyl-CoA synthesis. M. maripaludis can synthesize acetyl-CoA from either CO2 or acetate [7, 25]. The CO2-based synthesis ... Acetyl-CoA is converted to pyruvate through pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (PORs) [34, 44, 45] as follows:. Acetyl-CoA + ... which catalyzes acetate formation and ATP synthesis from acetyl CoA, ADP and Pi. However, no literature study has ...
  • Other names in common use include acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming), acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (adenosine diphosphate-forming), and acetate thiokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of acyl transferases within PKS/FAS from C. parvum and other organisms clearly differentiates acetate-extending clades from those incorporating propionate. (nih.gov)
  • In the first half reaction, AcsA combines acetate with ATP to form acetyl-adenylate (AcAMP) intermediate. (uniprot.org)
  • Transcriptional control of the yeast acetyl-CoA synthetase gene, ACS1, by the positive regulators CAT8 and ADR1 and the pleiotropic repressor UME6. (nih.gov)
  • The ACS1 gene, encoding one out of two acetyl-CoA synthetase isoenzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is strictly regulated at the transcriptional level by the carbon source of the medium. (nih.gov)
  • To facilitate NAD(P)H supplementation, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 6 (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACS1) were overexpressed in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring the Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (XR) gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Acetate accumulation was accounted for by strong down-regulation of the acetate CoA ligase gene (acs) in addition to up-regulation of the pta and ackA genes (involved in acetate production), thus conserving ATP while reducing flux through the TCA cycle. (up.ac.za)
  • An energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway in Entamoeba histolytica. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, it integrates distributed information from the literature to provide a complete and detailed view for metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate synthesis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle, non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP), nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleotide biosynthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pyruvate synthase and acetate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (ADP-forming) activities were detected only in heterotrophically grown cultures. (umass.edu)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxytransferase) = AMP + diphosphate + (methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxytransferase). (leibniz-fli.de)
  • 2-oxobutyrate is ultimately decomposed by acetate-CoA ligase and produces ATP, thus contributing to ATP metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propionyl-CoA is an intermediate in the metabolism of propanoate. (hmdb.ca)
  • Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Considering the changes of cell growth, ethanol and acetate production, a remarkable enhancement of xylitol production by ACS1 overexpression seemed be ascribed to energy and NAD(P)H generation through a metabolism from acetaldehyde to acetyl-CoA and TCA cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • The possible role of a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterase in phenylpropanoid metabolism is discussed. (ubc.ca)
  • In this report, we review diverse CO 2 assimilation pathways, acetate assimilation, carbohydrate catabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and some key, and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the profiles of key central metabolic activities such as the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the acetate metabolism are seen to be closely interrelated and affect the biotransformation efficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3, mitochondrial. (mybiosource.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an acetate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.2.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + acetate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, acetate, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and acetyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligase that catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from acetate and coenzyme A. (roche.com)
  • Catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), an essential intermediate at the junction of anabolic and catabolic pathways. (uniprot.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes the formation of a new chemical bond between two large molecules. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA. (ymdb.ca)
  • T4 DNA Ligase catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between neighbouring 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate ends in double-stranded DNA. (roche.com)
  • ACSS2 / ACAS2 is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the activation of acetate for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. (lsbio.com)
  • In the second half reaction, it can then transfer the acetyl group from AcAMP to the sulfhydryl group of CoA, forming the product AcCoA. (uniprot.org)
  • The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the starting point for the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was previously masked by the fact that recombinant 4CL could convert most hydroxycinnamic acids to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters faster than the thioesterase could perform the reverse reaction. (ubc.ca)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: succinate + CoA + nucleotide triphosphate = nucleotide diphosphate + phosphate + succinyl-CoA. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + succinate + CoA = ADP + succinyl-CoA + phosphate. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • The protein acts as a monomer and produces acetyl-CoA from acetate in a reaction that requires ATP. (lsbio.com)
  • The pKa of acetic acid is about 4.8 at 25 ° C , meaning that about half of the acetic acid molecules are in the acetate form at a pH of 4.8. (academickids.com)
  • The ethanol is first converted into acetaldehyde , which is then converted into acetic acid by the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and converted further to acetyl-CoA by acetate-CoA ligase . (academickids.com)
  • Renaissance-era alchemists prepared glacial acetic acid through the dry distillation of metal acetates. (academickids.com)
  • ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA. (uniprot.org)
  • Acetylated citrate lyase, acetate:CoA ligase (AMP forming), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities increased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures. (umass.edu)
  • These data suggest that citrate lyase and AMP-forming acetate:CoA ligase, but not ATP citrate synthase, work opposite citrate synthase to control the direction of carbon flow in the citric acid cycle. (umass.edu)
  • Propionic aciduria is caused by an autosomal recessive disorder of propionyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase deficiency (EC 6.4.1.3). (hmdb.ca)
  • RLA controls the activities of many proteins, including the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acs), by modulating the degree of Acs acetylation. (asm.org)
  • Relevant to this work is the RLA control of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acs), an AMP-forming CoA ligase involved in acetate utilization ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Two independent pathways in Escherichia coli convert acetate to acetyl CoA: reversal of acetate production by phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, and the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) pathway that scavenges acetate. (nih.gov)
  • The next circle … Table 4 Number of genes associated with the general COG functional categories Insights from the genome Annotation of the genome indicated that strain MZ1T has complete glycolytic and citric acid cycle pathways along with two complete acetate assimilation pathways with the key enzymes being acetate-CoA ligase and acetate kinase-phosphate acetyl transferase, respectively, thereby allowing MZ1T to utilize acetate as a carbon source [31]. (hormonessignaling.com)
  • Citrate synthase activity decreased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures compared to the activity in heterotrophic cultures. (umass.edu)
  • The reactions of the cycle are carried out by eight enzymes that completely oxidize acetate (a two carbon molecule), in the form of acetyl-CoA, into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation. (abcam.com)
  • The activity of the AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase is posttranslationally modified by the protein acetyltransferase Pat. (asm.org)
  • A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin-protein ligase and enables ubiquitin protein ligase activity. (leibniz-fli.de)
  • Među identificiranim proteinima, pojačanu ekspresiju u sesilnim stanicama imali su fosfofruktokinaza, alkohol dehidrogenaza, dugolančana-masna-kiaselina-CoA-ligaza, univerzalni stres protein i protuprijenosna podjedinica mnhE2, dok su fosforibozilglicinamid formiltransferaza i acetat kinaza bili pojačano eksprimirani u planktonsim stanicama. (nsk.hr)
  • The loading domain consists of an acyl-CoA ligase (AL) and an acyl carrier protein (ACP). (nih.gov)
  • Citric acid cycle in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum grown autotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically with acetate. (umass.edu)
  • The citric acid cycle ( CAC ) - also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle [1] [2] - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates , fats , and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA (a form of acetate) is produced which enters the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) activity is required for the activation of hydroxycinnamic acids prior to their being fed into the lignin specific branch pathway. (ubc.ca)
  • One unit T4 DNA Ligase is defined as the amount of enzyme which converts 1 nmol of [ 32 P] from pyrophosphate into Norit-absorbable material in 20 minutes at +37°C. (roche.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetate:CoA ligase (ADP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • the second type is a compound whose structure contains the acetate ion, such as ethyl acetate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ethyl acetate (EA) is used as a solvent in inks and industrial liquids, and pallets used in plants, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ethyl acetate plant is expected to be commissioned during 2013," Sipchem said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It preferred to utilize acetate as the carbon source to accumulate poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as intracellular carbon and energy storage. (usda.gov)
  • It can also oxidize acetate and several aromatic compounds using ferric iron as the electron acceptor [ 3 , 4 ]. (standardsingenomics.org)
  • Provides the acetyl-CoA source for histone acetylation in the nucleus. (ymdb.ca)