Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.GuidebooksAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Peplomycin: An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.
(1/696) Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans.

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

(2/696) Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol.

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

(3/696) Inhibition and stimulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by chloroacetaldehyde and methylene blue in rats.

The effects of chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) and methylene blue, both alone and together, on mitochondrial metabolism, hepatic glutathione content, and bile flow were investigated in rats. Oxidation of [1-14C]palmitic acid, [1-14C]octanoic acid, and [1,4-14C]succinic acid allowed for the differentiation between carnitine-dependent long-chain fatty acid metabolism, medium chain fatty acid oxidation, and citric acid cycle activity, respectively. CAA, a metabolite of the anticancer drug ifosfamide, which may be responsible for ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, inhibited palmitic acid metabolism but not octanoic or succinic acid oxidation, depleted hepatic glutathione, and stimulated bile flow. Methylene blue, which is clinically used to either prevent or reverse ifosfamide-associated encephalopathy, markedly stimulated palmitic acid oxidation either in the presence or absence of CAA, but did not affect the oxidation of octanoic and succinic acid or hepatic glutathione. Taken together, this study demonstrates that CAA inhibits palmitic acid metabolism. Methylene blue stimulates long-chain fatty acid oxidation, most likely by facilitating the translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria, and compensates for the CAA effect in vivo.  (+info)

(4/696) Mechanisms of protection of catalase by NADPH. Kinetics and stoichiometry.

NADPH is known to be tightly bound to mammalian catalase and to offset the ability of the substrate of catalase (H2O2) to convert the enzyme to an inactive state (compound II). In the process, the bound NADPH becomes NADP+ and is replaced by another molecule of NADPH. This protection is believed to occur through electron tunneling between NADPH on the surface of the catalase and the heme group within the enzyme. The present study provided additional support for the concept of an intermediate state of catalase, through which NADPH serves to prevent the formation (rather than increase the removal) of compound II. In contrast, the superoxide radical seemed to bypass the intermediate state since NADPH had very little ability to prevent the superoxide radical from converting catalase to compound II. Moreover, the rate of NADPH oxidation was several times the rate of compound II formation (in the absence of NADPH) under a variety of conditions. Very little NADPH oxidation occurred when NADPH was exposed to catalase, H2O2, or the superoxide radical separately. That the ratio exceeds 1 suggests that NADPH may protect catalase from oxidative damage through actions broader than merely preventing the formation of compound II.  (+info)

(5/696) Modification of type III VLDL, their remnants, and VLDL from ApoE-knockout mice by p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a product of myeloperoxidase activity, causes marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages.

Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) from apolipoprotein (apo) E2/E2 subjects with type III hyperlipoproteinemia, VLDL remnants, and VLDL from apoE-knockout (EKO) mice are taken up poorly by macrophages. The present study examined whether VLDL modification by the reactive aldehyde p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (pHA) enhances cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation by J774A.1 macrophages. pHA is the major product derived from the oxidation of L-tyrosine by myeloperoxidase and is a component of human atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of J774A.1 cells with native type III VLDL, their remnants, and EKO-VLDL increased cellular CE by only 3-, 5-, and 5-fold, respectively, compared with controls. In striking contrast, cells exposed to VLDL modified by purified pHA (pHA-VLDL) exhibited marked increases in cellular CE of 38-, 47-, and 35-fold, respectively (P95%, CE accumulation induced by copper-oxidized VLDL. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the conversion of type III VLDLs, their remnants, and EKO-VLDL into atherogenic particles and suggest that macrophage uptake of pHA-VLDL (1) requires catalytically active lipoprotein lipase, (2) involves acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated cholesterol esterification, and (3) involves pathways distinct from the SR-A.  (+info)

(6/696) Development of a polyclonal antibody with broad epitope specificity for advanced glycation endproducts and localization of these epitopes in Bruch's membrane of the aging eye.

PURPOSE: To develop an antibody that recognizes a variety of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) epitopes. METHODS: Glycolaldehyde was used to modify bovine serum albumin and HPLC analysis was used to measure pentosidine formation as an indicator of AGE formation. A polyclonal anti-AGE antibody was synthesized by injecting glycolaldehyde-incubated keyhole limpet hemocyanin into rabbits, affinity purified using AGE modified bovine serum albumin coupled to an affinity resin column, and characterized by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: HPLC analysis of glycolaldehyde treated bovine serum albumin detected high levels of pentosidine formation, suggesting that glycolaldehyde is a potent precursor for pentosidine. By immunoblot analysis, our antibody recognized carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine, two well-characterized AGEs, as well as other AGE epitopes. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed evidence of AGEs in Bruch's membrane (including basal laminar deposits and drusen), choroidal extracellular matrix, and vessel walls in an 82 year old nondiabetic globe. A similar staining pattern was observed in an age-matched diabetic control. In contrast, no staining was seen with the antibody in a 20 month old nondiabetic globe. CONCLUSIONS: A unique anti-AGE antibody was synthesized that recognizes a variety of AGE epitopes including carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Its best use might be in broad surveys of the age-dependent accumulation of a large number of AGE epitopes that might not be revealed by antibodies to pentosidine or CML.  (+info)

(7/696) The effect of inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase on nasal uptake of inspired acetaldehyde.

At exposure concentrations of 750 ppm or more, acetaldehyde is a rodent inhalation carcinogen that induces nasal tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is thought to be an important detoxifying enzyme for aldehydes. Although nasal tissues express ALDH, the importance of this enzyme relative to delivered dosage rates at high-inspired concentrations is not well defined. To provide such information, uptake of inspired acetaldehyde was measured at an inspiratory flow rate that approximated the minute ventilation rate in the surgically isolated nasal cavity of F 344 rats pretreated with either saline (control) or the ALDH inhibitor, cyanamide (10 mg/kg s.c.). ALDH activities (substrate concentration 3 times the K(m)) in anterior (respiratory mucosa) and posterior (olfactory mucosa) nasal tissues averaged 160 and 210 nmol/min), respectively, in control animals (total activity 370 nmol/min), compared to 60 and 80 nmol/min, respectively, in cyanamide-pretreated rats (p < 0.05), indicating that approximately 60% inhibition was obtained. Nasal uptake was measured at 3 inspired concentrations: 10, 300, and 1500 ppm. At these concentrations, acetaldehyde uptake efficiency averaged 54, 37, and 34% in saline-pretreated rats, respectively (p < 0.05). In absolute terms, the delivered dosage rates at these exposure concentrations averaged 21, 420, and 1990 nmol/min. The concentration dependence on uptake suggests a saturable process was involved. At inspired concentrations of 300 ppm or more, the delivered dosage rates exceeded the measured specific activity for nasal ALDH of 370 nmol/min. Cyanamide pretreatment abolished the concentration dependence. Specifically, uptake efficiencies in cyanamide-pretreated rats averaged 30, 27, and 31% at inspired concentrations of 10, 300, and 1500 ppm, respectively (p > 0.05); delivered dosage rates were 12, 310, and 1780 nmol/min. Thus, cyanamide pretreatment reduced nasal-delivered dosage rates at inspired concentrations of 10, 300, and 1500 ppm, respectively by 9, 110, and 210 nmol/min, values that correspond well with the total nasal ALDH activity of 370 nmol/min. In toto, these results suggest that inspired acetaldehyde is metabolized in situ by ALDH, but at exposure concentrations of 300 ppm or greater, the delivered dosage rate may equal or exceed the capacity of this enzyme.  (+info)

(8/696) Kinetics of cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid via acetaldehyde.

The P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is characterized by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that increases K(m) with no effect on k(cat), and rate-limiting product release has been proposed to account for the lack of an isotope effect on k(cat) (Bell, L. C., and Guengerich, F. P. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29643-29651). Acetaldehyde is also a substrate for P450 2E1 oxidation to acetic acid, and k(cat)/K(m) for this reaction is at least 1 order of magnitude greater than that for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde. Acetic acid accounts for 90% of the products generated from ethanol in a 10-min reaction, and the contribution of this second oxidation has been overlooked in many previous studies. The noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic hydrogen isotope effects on acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid ((H)(k(cat)/K(m))/(D)(k(cat)/K(m)) = 4.5, and (D)k(cat) = 1.5) are comparable with the isotope effects typically observed for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, and k(cat) is similar for both reactions, suggesting a possible common catalytic mechanism. Rapid quench kinetic experiments indicate that acetic acid is formed rapidly from added acetaldehyde (approximately 450 min(-1)) with burst kinetics. Pulse-chase experiments reveal that, at a subsaturating concentration of ethanol, approximately 90% of the acetaldehyde intermediate is directly converted to acetic acid without dissociation from the enzyme active site. Competition experiments suggest that P450 2E1 binds acetic acid and acetaldehyde with relatively high K(d) values, which preclude simple tight binding as an explanation for rate-limiting product release. The existence of a rate-determining step between product formation and release is postulated. Also proposed is a conformational change in P450 2E1 occurring during the course of oxidation and the discrimination of P450 2E1 between acetaldehyde and its hydrated form, the gem-diol. This multistep P450 reaction is characterized by kinetic control of individual reaction steps and by loose binding of all ligands.  (+info)

*  Ethanol metabolism
ΔGf = Σ ΔGfp − ΔGfo C2H6O(Ethanol) + NAD+ →C2H4O(Acetaldehyde) + NADH + H+ Ethanol: −174.8 kJ/mol Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol ... Acetaldehyde) + NAD+ + H2O → C2H4O2(acetic acid) + NADH + H+ Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol Acetic Acid: −389.9 kJ/mol ΔGf2 = − ... The first three steps of the reaction pathways lead from ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetic acid to acetyl-CoA. Once acetyl-CoA ... In human adults, ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde using NAD+, mainly via the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase IB (class ...
*  Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate can be summarized as follows: Acetaldehyde + NAD+ + Coenzyme A ↔ Acetyl-CoA + NADH + ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.10) are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic ... In these people, acetaldehyde accumulates after drinking alcohol, leading to symptoms of acetaldehyde poisoning, including the ... by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is more toxic than alcohol and is responsible for many hangover symptoms. About 50 ...
*  Acetaldehyde (data page)
This page provides supplementary chemical data on acetaldehyde. The handling of this chemical may require safety precautions. ...
*  Indole-3-acetaldehyde
... belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indoles. These are compounds containing an indole ... Indole-3-acetaldehyde is a substrate for retina-specific copper amine oxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase X (mitochondrial), amine ...
*  Acetaldehyde ammonia trimer
... is a chemical compound described by the formula (CH3CHNH)3. The pure material is colourless but ... As implied by its name, it is a trimeric species formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde and ammonia: 3 CH3CHO + 3 NH3 → ( ...
*  Indole-3-acetaldehyde oxidase
In enzymology, an indole-3-acetaldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (indol-3-yl) ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ... Miyata S, Suzuki Y, Kamisaka S, Masuda Y (1981). "Indole-3-acetaldehyde oxidase of pea-seedlings". Physiol. Plant. 51 (4): 402- ... doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1981.tb05577.x. Rajagopal R (1971). "Metabolism of indole-3-acetaldehyde. III. Some characteristics of ...
*  Indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADPH)
In enzymology, an indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.1.1.191) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ( ... Brown HM, Purves WK (1976). "Isolation and characterization of indole-3-acetaldehyde reductases from Cucumis sativus". J. Biol ... acetaldehyde, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group ... indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADPH), and indole-3-ethanol:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in tryptophan ...
*  Indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADH)
In enzymology, an indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADH) (EC 1.1.1.190) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ( ... Brown HM, Purves WK (1976). "Isolation and characterization of indole-3-acetaldehyde reductases from Cucumis sativus". J. Biol ... Other names in common use include indoleacetaldehyde reductase, indole-3-acetaldehyde reductase (NADH), and indole-3-ethanol: ... acetaldehyde, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group ...
*  Prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain
The acetaldehyde dehydrogenase family of bacterial enzymes catalyses the formation of acetyl-CoA from acetaldehyde in the 3- ... In molecular biology, prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase dimerisation domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of ... prokaryotic acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, it adopts a structure consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha-beta(3) core, which mediates ...
*  Diesel exhaust
... includes ... acetaldehyde; antimony compounds; arsenic; benzene; beryllium compounds; bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate ...
*  1,1-Diethoxyethane
"Data sheet of acetaldehyde" (PDF). Merck. Retrieved 2014-06-02. Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and ... 1,1-Diethoxyethane (acetaldehyde diethyl acetal) is a major flavoring component of distilled beverages, especially malt whisky ... In sensory terms, 1,1-diethoxyethane and other acetals, acetoin, and sotolon are the main compounds formed from acetaldehyde in ... ISBN 0-8247-8390-5. Zea, Luis; Serratosa, María P.; Mérida, Julieta; Moyano, Lourdes (2015). "Acetaldehyde as Key Compound for ...
*  Aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+)
KING TE, CHELDELIN VH (1956). "Oxidation of acetaldehyde by Acetobacter suboxydans". J. Biol. Chem. 220 (1): 177-91. PMID ...
*  Alcoholic polyneuropathy
If the acetaldehyde is not metabolized quickly the nerves may be affected by the accumulation of acetaldehyde to toxic levels. ... Acetaldehyde is toxic to peripheral nerves. There are increased levels of acetaldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism. ... During the body's processing of alcohol, ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde is ... For example, in the process of breaking down alcohol, the body produces acetaldehyde, which can accumulate to toxic levels in ...
*  Tobacco smoking
There is also a formation of harmane (a MAO inhibitor) from the acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke. This may play a role in nicotine ... Talhout, R.; Opperhuizen, A.; Van Amsterdam, J. G. C. (Oct 2007). "Role of acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke addiction". European ... Acetaldehyde promotes unequivocal formation of 1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine in human cells". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (24): 9140 ...
*  Metaldehyde
It is the cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde. Metaldehyde is obtained in moderate yields by treatment of acetaldehyde with various ... Metaldehyde has a toxicity profile identical to that for acetaldehyde, being mildly toxic and a respiratory irritant at the 50 ... The reaction is reversible; upon heating to about 80 °C, metaldehyde reverts to acetaldehyde. Metaldehyde exists as a mixture ... Marc Eckert, Gerald Fleischmann, Reinhard Jira, Hermann M. Bolt, Klaus Golka "Acetaldehyde" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
*  Hangover
In addition, about half of all East Asians convert acetaldehyde to acetic acid more slowly (via acetaldehyde dehydrogenase), ... causing a higher buildup of acetaldehyde than normally seen in other groups. The high concentration of acetaldehyde causes the ... Acetaldehyde, the first by-product of ethanol, is between 10 and 30 times more toxic than alcohol itself and can remain at an ... Cigarette smoking: acetaldehyde which is absorbed from cigarette smoking during alcohol consumption is regarded as a ...
*  Health effects of tobacco
There is also a formation of harmane (a MAO inhibitor) from the acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke, which seems to play an ... Talhout R, Opperhuizen A, van Amsterdam JG (Oct 2007). "Role of acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke addiction". European ...
*  Colin Raston
Högberg, A. G. S. (1980). "Two stereoisomeric macrocyclic resorcinol-acetaldehyde condensation products". Journal of Organic ...
*  Resorcinarene
Högberg AGS (1980). "Two stereoisomeric macrocyclic resorcinol-acetaldehyde condensation products". Journal of Organic ...
*  Lactonitrile
It is the cyanohydrin derived from acetaldehyde. Lactonitrile is obtained by reacting hydrogen cyanide with acetaldehyde. ...
*  Ethylene oxide
... ethylene oxide isomerizes into acetaldehyde: ( CH 2 CH 2 ) O → Al 2 O 3 200 ∘ C CH 3 CHO acetaldehyde {\displaystyle {\ce {\ ... Its excess energy is about 355.6 kJ/mol, which exceeds by 29.3 kJ/mol the binding energy of the C-C bond in acetaldehyde. In ... By-products include acetaldehyde (due to isomerization). The selectivity and speed of dimerization can be increased by adding a ... Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ...
*  Beta-Aminobutyric acid
... acetaldehyde, and ammonia. In 1957, Zilkha reported a new simpler method based on adding amines to crotonic acid and then ...
*  Cysteine
It counteracts the poisonous effects of acetaldehyde. Cysteine supports the next step in metabolism, which turns acetaldehyde ... In a rat study, test animals received an LD50 dose of acetaldehyde. Those that received cysteine had an 80% survival rate; when ... Sprince H, Parker CM, Smith GG, Gonzales LJ (April 1974). "Protection against acetaldehyde toxicity in the rat by L-cysteine, ...
*  Acetoin
... a molecule of acetaldehyde is released. In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2, ...
*  Donald Bannerman Macleod
Macleod, Donald Bannerman (1910). "Rate of oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid". Transactions of the New Zealand Institute ...
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World Trimethyl Acetaldehyde Market 2016 - Jusheng Tech, Sixian Pharm, Huajun Chem, Julongtang Pharm, Liye Chem | Webnewswire  World Trimethyl Acetaldehyde Market 2016 - Jusheng Tech, Sixian Pharm, Huajun Chem, Julongtang Pharm, Liye Chem | Webnewswire
World Trimethyl Acetaldehyde Market 2016 - Jusheng Tech, Sixian Pharm, Huajun Chem, Julongtang Pharm, Liye Chem. Feb 27, 2017 ... Trimethyl Acetaldehyde market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and ... Global Trimethyl Acetaldehyde Market 2016, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Trimethyl ... The report analyzes the global Trimethyl Acetaldehyde market on the basis of various key segments based on the product types, ...
more infohttp://www.webnewswire.com/2017/02/27/world-trimethyl-acetaldehyde-market-2016-jusheng-tech-sixian-pharm-huajun-chem-julongtang-pharm-liye-chem/
Acetaldehyde increases dopaminergic neuronal activity in the VTA - UnissResearch  Acetaldehyde increases dopaminergic neuronal activity in the VTA - UnissResearch
Acetaldehyde is the first and principal metabolite of ethanol administered systemically. To its rise in blood, after ... In contrast, acetaldehyde fully retained its capacity to stimulate electrophysiological indices. The results indicate that ... Ethanol, acetaldehyde, alcoholism, dopamine neurons, electrophysiology. Subjects:. Area 05 - Scienze biologiche , BIO/14 ... Foddai, Marzia and Dosia, Gabriella and Spiga, Saturnino and Diana, Marco (2004) Acetaldehyde increases dopaminergic neuronal ...
more infohttp://eprints.uniss.it/259/
Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent - UnissResearch  Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent - UnissResearch
However, in the last two decades, research on acetaldehyde has seen a revitalized and uninterrupted interest. Acetaldehyde, per ... Acetaldehyde, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, catalase, CYP2E1, Dopamine, ethanol, salsolinol. Subjects:. Area ... Mainly known for its more famous parent compound, ethanol, acetaldehyde was first studied in the 1940s, but then research ... Here we present and discuss a wealth of experimental evidence that converges to suggest that acetaldehyde is an intrinsically ...
more infohttp://eprints.uniss.it/6382/
MAJOR ROLE OF ACETALDEHYDE IN UPPER GI TRACT CANCER | Isbra-Esbra Berlin 2016  MAJOR ROLE OF ACETALDEHYDE IN UPPER GI TRACT CANCER | Isbra-Esbra Berlin 2016
Acetaldehyde accumulates in the upper digestive tract because of the local oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by the normal ... Research Unit on Acetaldehyde and Cancer, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. A key factor in acetaldehyde associated ... In addition to acetaldehyde formed from ethanol, high concentrations of 'free' acetaldehyde are present in many alcoholic ... A dose of alcohol results in mutagenic salivary acetaldehyde concentrations, and the enhanced local acetaldehyde exposure ...
more infohttp://isbra-esbra-2016.org/essential_grid/major-role-of-acetaldehyde-in-upper-gi-tract-cancer/
Cyanamide
      - Calcium Carbimide
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Cyanamide - Calcium Carbimide Summary Report | CureHunter
Acetaldehyde 6. Cyanamide (Calcium Carbimide) 7. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 8. Messenger RNA (mRNA) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD003484-Cyanamide-Calcium-Carbimide.do
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase - Wikipedia  Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase - Wikipedia
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. (acetylating). Crystallographic structure of the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp.[1] ... The oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate can be summarized as follows: Acetaldehyde + NAD+ + Coenzyme A ↔ Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.10) are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic ... by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is more toxic than alcohol and is responsible for many hangover symptoms.[5] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetaldehyde_dehydrogenase_
Acetaldehyde | Encyclopedia.com  Acetaldehyde | Encyclopedia.com
acetaldehyde (ăs´Ĭtăl´dəhīd) or ethanal (ĕth´ənăl´), CH3CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde [1], sometimes simply called aldehyde. ... It is formed by the partial oxidation of ethanol; oxidation of acetaldehyde forms acetic acid. Acetaldehyde is made ... acetaldehyde (ăs´Ĭtăl´dəhīd) or ethanal (ĕth´ənăl´), CH3CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde, sometimes simply called aldehyde. It ... acetaldehyde World Encyclopedia © World Encyclopedia 2005, originally published by Oxford University Press 2005. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/organic-chemistry/acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde  Acetaldehyde
Holmes, J.L.; Lossing, F.P., Heats of formation of the ionic and neutral enols of acetaldehyde and acetone, J. Am. Chem. Soc., ... Jochims, H.-W.; Lohr, W.; Baumgartel, H., Photoionization mass spectrometry studies of deuterated acetaldehydes CH3CDO and CD3 ... Shigorin, D.N.; Filyugina, A.D.; Potapov, V.K., Ionization and dissociation of molecules of acetaldehyde, acetone, and acetic ... Walsh, A.D., The absorption spectrum of acetaldehyde in the vacuum ultra-violet, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 1946, A185, 176. [ ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1946WAL176&Units=SI&Mask=20
allylthio)acetaldehyde  allylthio)acetaldehyde
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttp://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C5H8OS/c1-2-4-7-5-3-6/h2-3H%2C1%2C4-5H2
Acetaldehyde 10241-F  Acetaldehyde 10241-F
Used in manufacture of paraldehyde, acetic acid, butanol, perfumes, flavors, aniline dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber, silvering mirrors, hardening gelatin fibers (Merck 1989). Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.. ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-10241-f.html
CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards -
Acetaldehyde  CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Acetaldehyde
APF = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus. Escape: ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0001.html
Acetaldehyde  Acetaldehyde
... This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Acetaldehyde in Tons. The Global market is further analyzed by the ... Acetaldehyde: A Vital Platform Chemical for Organic Chemicals Production Uses of Acetaldehyde Key Acetaldehyde Extraction ... Table 4: Permitted Acetaldehyde Concentration in Various Food and Beverages Categories 3. PRODUCT OVERVIEW Acetaldehyde: ... Acetaldehyde Usage in Butanediol Production Bode Well for the Market Major Challenges Hampering Acetaldehyde Consumption ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Global-Industry-Analysts-v1039/Acetaldehyde-9957937/
Acetaldehyde » DRAFT Beer Dictionary  Acetaldehyde » DRAFT Beer Dictionary
Home Dictionary Acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde. Rarely an intended component of a beer's profile, acetaldehyde is an ...
more infohttp://draftmag.com/term/acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde - Registered substances - ECHA  Acetaldehyde - Registered substances - ECHA
The data comes from registration dossiers submitted to ECHA by the date indicated as last update. The Total Tonnage Band is compiled from all the dossiers with two exceptions; any tonnages claimed confidential and any quantity used as an intermediate to produce a different chemical. The Total Tonnage band published does not necessarily reflect the registered tonnage band(s).. Please note that some of the information on registered substances may belong to third parties. The use of such information may therefore require the prior permission of the third party owners. Please consult the Legal Notice for further information.. ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/registered-substances/-/disreg/substance/100.000.761
Acetaldehyde oxime | C2H5NO - PubChem  Acetaldehyde oxime | C2H5NO - PubChem
Acetaldehyde oxime , C2H5NO , CID 5324279 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5324279
Triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetaldehyde, TCI America™  Triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetaldehyde, TCI America™
... triphenylphosphoranylidene acetaldehyde, 2-triphenyl-??-phosphanylidene acetaldehyde, acmc-209fjg, ksc492c5l. SMILES. C1=CC=C(C ... triphenylphosphoranylidene acetaldehyde, 2-triphenyl-??-phosphanylidene acetaldehyde, acmc-209fjg, ksc492c5l. IUPAC Name. 2-( ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/triphenylphosphoranylidene-acetaldehyde-tci-america/T200125G
Chemical Database: Acetaldehyde ammonia (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)  Chemical Database: Acetaldehyde ammonia (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Acetaldehyde ammonia including: 4 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Acetaldehyde ammonia. Identifications. *Synonyms/Related:*Acetaldehyde ammonia*Acetaldehyde ammonia trimer*Acetaldehyde ammonia ... Acetaldehyde ammonia (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Acetaldehyde ammonia ... Acetaldehyde ammonia. No. No. Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous Materials Table 49 CFR 172.101. An online version of the ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Acetaldehyde%A0ammonia.html
HepG2 nuclear lysate, acetaldehyde treated (ab14661)  HepG2 nuclear lysate, acetaldehyde treated (ab14661)
... acetaldehyde treated. ab14661 has been validated in electrophoretic mobility shift… ... Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with 200 µM Acetaldehyde for 4 hours at 37°C immediately prior to harvesting.. We ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/hepg2-nuclear-extract-lysate-acetaldehyde-treated-ab14661.html
SPECTRUM Acetaldehyde,Reagent,ACS,100mL - 39G077|A1002-100ML49 - Grainger  SPECTRUM Acetaldehyde,Reagent,ACS,100mL - 39G077|A1002-100ML49 - Grainger
Looking for SPECTRUM Acetaldehyde,Reagent,ACS,100mL (39G077)? Grainger's got your back. Price:$411.50. Easy ordering & ...
more infohttps://www.grainger.com/product/SPECTRUM-Acetaldehyde-39G077
  • Trimeric Acetaldehyde Report by Material, Application, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 is a professional and in-depth research report on the world's major regional market conditions, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, united Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China). (marketresearch.com)
  • As discovered by site-directed mutagenesis , glutamate -268 is a key component of liver acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and is also critical to catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the report is to describe the state of the acetaldehyde market in the GCC countries, to present actual and retrospective information about the volumes, dynamics, structure and characteristics of production, imports, exports and consumption and to build a forecast for the market in the next five years. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The concentration of acetaldehyde in milk was always ca. 50% of that in blood, whereas that of ethanol varied within the range of 44-80% of the blood levels. (nih.gov)
  • The time course of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration in blood and milk were determined in normal lactating rats after cyanamide (40 mg/kg) and ethanol administration (2 or 4 g/kg). (nih.gov)
  • The Acetaldehyde market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (pitchengine.com)
  • The Acetaldehyde industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (pitchengine.com)
  • This report presents a strategic analysis of the acetaldehyde market in the GCC countries and a forecast for its development in the medium term. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Vinyl alcohol and acetaldehyde are isoelectronic products of incomplete butanol combustion. (rsc.org)
  • Crystallographic structure of the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp . (wikipedia.org)
  • Utilized in the bacterial degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, the enzyme's crystal structure indicates that intermediates are shuttled directly between active sites through a hydrophobic intermediary channel, providing an unreactive environment in which to move the reactive acetaldehyde intermediate from the aldolase active site to the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase active site. (wikipedia.org)