A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.
A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.

A previously unidentified acepromazine metabolite in humans: implications for the measurement of acepromazine in blood. (1/45)

High-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection results obtained during the investigation of two cases involving acepromazine prompted us to study the stability of the drug in blood. It was found that acepromazine can undergo in vitro conversion by human red blood cells to 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)promazine, a product that has been reported as a minor urinary metabolite in horse urine but not previously identified in humans. Further, our analytical findings in the two cases examined suggest that 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)promazine may be the major unconjugated metabolite of acepromazine in humans. These findings have important implications for the analytical toxicology of acepromazine.  (+info)

The effect of opioid and acepromazine premedication on the anesthetic induction dose of propofol in cats. (2/45)

The median effective dosage (ED50) for induction of anesthesia with propofol was determined by using the up-and-down method in 31 unpremedicated cats, in 30 cats premedicated with butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly, and in 30 cats premedicated with morphine, 0.2 mg/kg BW, and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly. The dose required for a satisfactory anesthetic induction in 50% of unpremedicated cats (ED50) was 7.22 mg/kg BW and of premedicated cats was 5.00 mg/kg BW. The reduction in dose was statistically significant in both premedicated groups compared with no premedication. There was no significant difference in ED50 between premedication regimes. Cyanosis was the most common adverse effect observed in all groups following anesthetic induction with propofol.  (+info)

Effect of general anesthetics on IOP in rats with experimental aqueous outflow obstruction. (3/45)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of several common general anesthetics on intraocular pressure (IOP) after experimental aqueous outflow obstruction in the rat. METHODS: A single episcleral vein injection of hypertonic saline was used to sclerose aqueous humor outflow pathways and produce elevated IOP in Brown Norway rats. Animals were housed in either standard lighting or a constant low-level light environment. Awake IOPs were determined using a TonoPen (Mentor, Norwell, MA) immediately before induction of anesthesia by either isoflurane, ketamine, or a mixture of injectable anesthetics (xylazine, ketamine, and acepromazine). For each anesthetic, IOPs were measured immediately after adequate sedation (time 0) and at 5-minute intervals, up to 20 minutes. RESULTS; Awake IOPs ranged from 18 to 52 mm Hg. All anesthetics resulted in a statistically significant (P: < 0.01) reduction in measured IOP at every duration of anesthesia when compared with the corresponding awake IOP. With increasing duration of anesthesia, measured IOP decreased approximately linearly for both the anesthetic mixture and isoflurane. However, with ketamine, IOP declined to 48% +/- 11% (standard lighting) and 60% +/- 7% (constant light) of awake levels at 5 minutes of anesthesia, where it remained stable. In fellow eyes, the SD of the mean IOP in animals under anesthesia was always greater than the corresponding SD of the awake mean. Anesthesia's effects in normal eyes and eyes with elevated IOP were indistinguishable. CONCLUSIONS: All anesthetics resulted in rapid and substantial decreases in IOP in all eyes and increased the interanimal variability in IOPs. Measurement of IOP in awake animals provides the most accurate documentation of pressure histories for rat glaucoma model studies.  (+info)

Self-mutilation in rabbits following intramuscular ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine injections. (4/45)

Following hind leg intramuscular injections of ketamine, xylazine, and acepromazine, 4 of 6 rabbits exhibited self-mutilation of the digits. At necropsy, the affected sciatic nerve appeared enlarged. Lymphohistiocytic perineural inflammation and fibrosis were observed, together with nerve degeneration. Neuronal regeneration as the reason for self-mutilation is discussed.  (+info)

Structure of TAR RNA complexed with a Tat-TAR interaction nanomolar inhibitor that was identified by computational screening. (5/45)

HIV-1 TAR RNA functions critically in viral replication by binding the transactivating regulatory protein Tat. We recently identified several compounds that experimentally inhibit the Tat-TAR interaction completely at a 100 nM concentration. We used computational screening of the 181,000-compound Available Chemicals Directory against the three-dimensional structure of TAR [1]. Here we report the NMR-derived structure of TAR complexed with acetylpromazine. This structure represents a new class of compounds with good bioavailability and low toxicity that bind with high affinity to TAR. NMR data unambiguously show that acetylpromazine binds only to the unique 5' bulge site to which the Tat protein binds. Specificity and affinity of binding are conferred primarily by a network of base stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Acetylpromazine alters the structure of free TAR less than Tat peptides and neomycin do.  (+info)

Physiology and behavior of dogs during air transport. (6/45)

Twenty-four beagles were used to measure physiological and behavioral reactions to air transport. Each of 3 groups of 4 sedated (with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of acepromazine maleate) and 4 non-sedated (control) dogs was flown on a separate flight between Montreal, Quebec, and Toronto, Ontario, after being transported by road from Quebec City to Montreal. Saliva and blood samples were taken before ground and air transport and after air transport. The heart rate was monitored during the whole experiment except during ground transport, and behavior was monitored by video during air transport. Sedation did not affect any of the variables measured. The mean plasma cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after ground transport than at baseline (225.3 vs 134.5 nmol/L); the mean salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (16.2 and 14.8, respectively, vs 12.6 nmol/L). The mean neutrophil count was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (80.6 and 81.4, respectively, vs 69.5 per 100 white blood cells), whereas the mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower (P < 0.05) (13.2 and 13.7, respectively, vs 22.4 per 100 white blood cells). Loading and unloading procedures caused the largest increase in heart rate. On average, the dogs spent more than 50% of the time lying down, and they remained inactive for approximately 75% of the time, except during take-off. These results suggest that transportation is stressful for dogs and that sedation with acepromazine, at the dosage and timing used, does not affect the physiological and behavioral stress responses of dogs to air transport.  (+info)

Inhibition has little effect on response latencies in the inferior colliculus. (7/45)

The inferior colliculi of all mammals are characterized by a wide range of first-spike response latencies that can greatly exceed the minimum time required for the transmission of input through the lower brainstem. The mechanisms that account for long response latencies of up to 50 ms are unclear, but one hypothesis is that an early inhibition plays a role in shaping latency. To test this hypothesis, response latencies were measured in the inferior colliculi of the pallid and mustached bats before and during the blockade of GABAa and glycine receptors. The effect of blocking inhibition on response latency was compared under stimulus conditions that produced the shortest latency in the predrug condition. Multibarrel "piggyback" electrodes were used to iontophoretically apply bicuculline and strychnine sequentially while recording from single neurons. Predrug latencies ranged from 9 to 26 ms in the pallid bat and from 4 to 17 ms in the mustached bat. Despite large increases in response magnitude and response duration following disinhibition, the blockade of inhibitory receptors had modest effects on response latency. In the pallid bat, blocking GABA receptors produced latency changes that ranged from -3.8 to +0.2 ms, while blocking glycine receptors produced changes from -0.1 to +1.7 ms. Similarly, in the mustached bat, blocking GABA receptors caused changes ranging from -10.3 to +1.4 ms; blocking glycine receptors in the mustached bat caused changes from -3.6 to +1.0 ms. The large change of -10.3 ms was an exception. In both species, the majority of neurons showed changes of <1 ms. We conclude that a fast, early inhibitory input does not appear to play a significant role in shaping the wide range of response latencies present in the inferior colliculi of mustached and pallid bats.  (+info)

Application of pulsed Doppler ultrasound for the evaluation of small intestinal motility in dogs. (8/45)

The purpose of this study was to verify whether small intestinal peristalsis could be observed and quantitatively assessed using pulsed-Doppler ultrasound. Pulsed-Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate small intestinal peristalsis after a meal in ten normal dogs and ten sedated dogs. The small intestinal peristalses were measured 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after a 24-hour fast and after feeding. The number of small intestinal peristalsis were 0.133/min, 0.100/min, 0.033/min, 0.167/min, 0.070/min, 0.067/min, and 0.100/min in the fasted dogs, and 1.667/ min, 0.933/min, 1.133/min, 1.234/min, 1.933/min, 1.533/ min, and 0.533/min in fed dogs, respectively. In the dogs sedated with xylazine HCl, the number of small intestinal peristalsis was significantly reduced (p<0.01). However, in the dogs treated with ketamine HCl and acepromazine, the number of small intestinal peristalsis remained unchanged. Therefore, it can be concluded that pulsed-Doppler ultrasound allows graphic visualization of the intestinal movements, which can be subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis, and may be suitable for a non-invasive study of small intestinal motility.  (+info)

Acepromazine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called phenothiazine derivatives. It acts as a tranquilizer and is commonly used in veterinary medicine to control anxiety, aggression, and excitable behavior in animals. It also has antiemetic properties and is sometimes used to prevent vomiting. In addition, it can be used as a pre-anesthetic medication to help calm and relax animals before surgery.

Acepromazine works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate movement, emotion, and cognition. This leads to sedation, muscle relaxation, and reduced anxiety. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and transdermal gels, and is typically given to dogs, cats, and horses.

As with any medication, acepromazine can have side effects, including drowsiness, low blood pressure, decreased heart rate, and respiratory depression. It should be used with caution in animals with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or liver disease, and should not be given to animals that are pregnant or lactating. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a veterinarian carefully and to monitor the animal for any signs of adverse reactions.

Xylazine is a central alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, often used in veterinary medicine as a sedative and analgesic. It can produce profound sedation, muscle relaxation, and analgesia. Xylazine is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States, due to its potential for severe side effects such as respiratory depression, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and hypotension (low blood pressure).

Promazine is a type of medication known as a phenothiazine antipsychotic. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in emotion and thought. Promazine is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, as well as to manage agitation and anxiety in certain medical conditions. It may also be used for its sedative effects in the management of insomnia or related sleep disturbances.

Promazine was first synthesized in the 1940s and has been used in clinical practice since then. It is available in various forms, including tablets and injectable solutions, and is typically administered two to four times a day. Common side effects of promazine include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing). Less commonly, it can cause extrapyramidal symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity, and akathisia (restlessness and inability to sit still).

It is important to note that promazine and other phenothiazine antipsychotics have been largely replaced by newer, atypical antipsychotic medications due to their greater efficacy and lower risk of extrapyramidal side effects. However, promazine may still be used in certain cases where its specific properties are desired or when other treatments have failed. As with any medication, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor for potential adverse effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine derivative with antiemetic, antipsychotic, and sedative properties. It works as a dopamine receptor antagonist and has been used in the management of various conditions such as nausea and vomiting, schizophrenia, anxiety, and agitation.

It is important to note that Methotrimeprazine can have significant side effects, including sedation, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms (such as involuntary movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially life-threatening reaction). Its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to follow their instructions carefully.

Veterinary drugs, also known as veterinary medicines, are substances or combinations of substances used to treat, prevent, or diagnose diseases in animals, including food-producing species and pets. These drugs can be administered to animals through various routes such as oral, topical, injectable, or inhalation. They contain active ingredients that interact with the animal's biological system to produce a therapeutic effect. Veterinary drugs are subject to regulatory control and must be prescribed or recommended by a licensed veterinarian in many countries to ensure their safe and effective use.

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to the opiate receptors in the brain, which reduces the perception of pain. Butorphanol is available as an injectable solution and a nasal spray.

The medical definition of 'Butorphanol' is:

A synthetic opioid analgesic with agonist-antagonist properties. It is used in the management of moderate to severe pain, as a veterinary analgesic, and for obstetrical analgesia. Butorphanol has a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor, a lower affinity for the mu-opioid receptor, and little or no affinity for the delta-opioid receptor. Its actions at the mu-opioid receptor are antagonistic to those of morphine and other mu-opioid agonists, while its actions at the kappa-opioid receptor are similar to those of other opioids.

Butorphanol has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect. It may cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and other side effects common to opioid analgesics. Butorphanol is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

Preanesthetic medication, also known as premedication, refers to the administration of medications before anesthesia to help prepare the patient for the upcoming procedure. These medications can serve various purposes, such as:

1. Anxiolysis: Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation in patients before surgery.
2. Amnesia: Causing temporary memory loss to help patients forget the events leading up to the surgery.
3. Analgesia: Providing pain relief to minimize discomfort during and after the procedure.
4. Antisialagogue: Decreasing saliva production to reduce the risk of aspiration during intubation.
5. Bronchodilation: Relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, which can help improve respiratory function in patients with obstructive lung diseases.
6. Antiemetic: Preventing or reducing the likelihood of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
7. Sedation: Inducing a state of calmness and drowsiness to facilitate a smooth induction of anesthesia.

Common preanesthetic medications include benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), opioids (e.g., fentanyl), anticholinergics (e.g., glycopyrrolate), and H1-antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). The choice of preanesthetic medication depends on the patient's medical history, comorbidities, and the type of anesthesia to be administered.

Forensic medicine, also known as legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, is a branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues and questions. It involves the examination, interpretation, and analysis of medical evidence for use in courts of law. This may include determining the cause and manner of death, identifying injuries or diseases, assessing the effects of substances or treatments, and evaluating the competency or capacity of individuals. Forensic medicine is often used in criminal investigations and court cases, but it can also be applied to civil matters such as personal injury claims or medical malpractice suits.

Combined anesthetics refer to the use of two or more types of anesthetic agents together during a medical procedure to produce a desired level of sedation, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. This approach can allow for lower doses of individual anesthetic drugs, which may reduce the risk of adverse effects associated with each drug. Common combinations include using a general anesthetic in combination with a regional or local anesthetic technique. The specific choice of combined anesthetics depends on various factors such as the type and duration of the procedure, patient characteristics, and the desired outcomes.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

"Acepromazine Maleate Injection for Animal Use". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2017-06-11. "Acepromazine: Pet Anxiety Medication for Dogs ... While acepromazine is also used in cats, its absorption is erratic and can vary between individuals. It also generally induces ... Acepromazine should not be used in horses intended for human consumption. Side effects are not common, but the use of ... Additionally, acepromazine is used as a vasodilator in the treatment of laminitis, where an oral dose equivalent to "mild ...
... low doses of intramuscular acepromazine; and pentoxifylline. While a vaccine is available for PHF, it does not cover all ...
Acepromazine • Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • ...
Article X. Fong, D. W. (1982). "Immobilization of caribou with etorphine plus acepromazine". The Journal of Wildlife Management ...
Sedatives commonly used include acepromazine, hydromorphone, midazolam, diazepam, xylazine, and medetomidine. α2 agonists like ... dogs frequently receive buprenorphine and acepromazine). The next step is induction, usually with an intravenous drug. Dogs and ...
It is structurally related to the phenothiazine derivative veterinary drug acepromazine. Note: The reason for the rearrangement ...
Large Animal Immobilon is a combination of etorphine plus acepromazine maleate. An etorphine antidote Large Animal Revivon ...
The injectable, clear liquid is a mixture of ketamine, xylazine, and acepromazine. The ratio used depends on the species of ...
Diazepam or acepromazine is used to control the symptoms of Scotty Cramp. Vitamin E may also be of some benefit. Because Scotty ...
Harbison WD, Slocombe RF, Watts SJ, Stewart GA (December 1974). "Thiambutene and acepromazine as analgesic and preanaesthetic ...
The veterinary use of chlorpromazine has generally been superseded by use of acepromazine. Chlorpromazine may be used as an ...
Unlike dimenhydrinate and acepromazine, which are used for motion sickness, maropitant does not cause sedation. Maropitant has ...
"Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic ... different aspects of manifestation and characteristics with medetomidine and acepromazine preanaesthetic medication (PDF). ...
Examples of preanesthetic agents are: Acepromazine atropine diazepam Scopolamine Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, pethidine ...
Systemic acepromazine as a vasodilator with the fringe benefit of mild sedation which reduces the horse/pony's movements and ... 1997). "Effects of acepromazine maleate, isoxsuprine hydrochloride and prazosin hydrochloride on laminar blood flow in healthy ... Pentafusion, or the administration of ketamine, lidocaine, morphine, detomidine, and acepromazine at a constant rate of ...
... acepromazine). Giving apomorphine after giving acepromazine, however, will no longer stimulate vomiting, because apomorphine's ...
The widely used tranquilizer acepromazine, and any number of related or equivalent agents, have been used in this way. Higher ...
... acepromazine-butorphanol-ketamine, and xylazine-butorphanol-ketamine in ferrets". Journal of the American Animal Hospital ...
Acetazolamide is not to be confused with acepromazine ("Ace"), a tranquilizer, which is illegal in all forms of competition. " ...
... and maintained by intravenous administration of a climazolam-ketamine combination in ponies premedicated with acepromazine and ...
... diazepam or midazolam and acepromazine. It is considerably important to make patients calm before the surgery because it can ...
For sedation, it may be combined with tranquilizers such as alpha-2 agonists (medetomidine), benzodiazepines, or acepromazine ...
... diazepam and acepromazine both in his car and at his house until he became unconscious. He then injected Howell with a heavy ...
He drives Scully's car to Nutter's Feed Store in a small town near the abductions, as the human remains contain acepromazine, ...
... including acepromazine, butorphanol, doxorubicin, erythromycin, ivermectin, loperamide, milbemycin, moxidectin, rifampin, ...
Alkene: thiambutene, loratadine Alkylamine: A-86929, amfonelic acid Nitrogen: promethazine, imipramine, acepromazine, ...
... acepromazine MeSH D03.494.741.080 - azure stains MeSH D03.494.741.198 - chlorpromazine MeSH D03.494.741.326 - fluphenazine MeSH ...
THC Aminorex Amfepramone Fenproporex Phendimetrazine Phentermine Mazindol Mefenorex Sibutramine Acepromazine Valproic acid ...
... a non-sperm component of semen Acepromazine, veterinary sedative Acetophenone, a chemical compound ACP1 (low molecular weight ...
Vasodilators, such as acepromazine, can help improve blood flow to the muscles, but acepromazine only should be administered if ...
"Acepromazine Maleate Injection for Animal Use". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2017-06-11. "Acepromazine: Pet Anxiety Medication for Dogs ... While acepromazine is also used in cats, its absorption is erratic and can vary between individuals. It also generally induces ... Acepromazine should not be used in horses intended for human consumption. Side effects are not common, but the use of ... Additionally, acepromazine is used as a vasodilator in the treatment of laminitis, where an oral dose equivalent to "mild ...
Get up-to-date information on Acepromazine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Since acepromazine is rarely used in humans, it has not been categorized by the FDA. Caution should be used when acepromazine ... Acepromazine is rarely used in humans.. Acepromazine belongs to a group of drugs called phenothiazines. These work by blocking ... Acepromazine may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset.. Common side effects of acepromazine in animals include aggression ...
Acepromazine is a prescription medication for dogs who need tranquilization. ... Decrease quantity for Acepromazine Compound Suspension 3 mg/ml 30 ml Increase quantity for Acepromazine Compound Suspension 3 ... Acepromazine has strong anti-nausea properties which make this medication an excellent choice for traveling pets prone to both ... Acepromazine Maleate is a prescription medication for dogs who need tranquilization or who suffer from motion sickness. Its ...
What Dosage of Acepromazine Should Be Given to Dogs?. Its important to give a low dosage of acepromazine to your dog at first ... How Long Does It Take For Acepromazine To Work On Dogs?. The time it takes for acepromazine to work on dogs will depend on a ... What is Acepromazine?. Acepromazine is an FDA-approved sedative/tranquilizer used for dogs and cats. It was actually originally ... How To Administer Acepromazine To Dogs Correctly? Acepromazine can be administered either through injection or ingested by ...
Acepromazine side effects. Our westie was prescribed .25mg of Acepromazine prior to being clipped.10 hours later he is still ... How long does it take for the Acepromazine to wear off and will he now continue to suffer seizures in the future.He is 14 years ...
Acepromazine 2mg (as acepromazine maleate 2.71mg). Excipients:. Phenol (as preservative) 3mg ...
Before they were inoculated, the animals were sedated by intramuscular injection of 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine malate (Bayer, Seoul ...
Acepromazine maleate 2mg/ml. Pack Size: 20ml. Product Code: XVD020. Legal Category: POM-V. ...
The effect of xylazine and xylazine-etorphine-acepromazine combination on some clinical and haematological parameters in impala ...
Rescue analgesia (butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg, IV or SC) or administration of acepromazine (0.025 to 0.05 mg/kg [0.011 to 0.023 mg/ ...
... and acepromazine (0.5 mg ml−1) and were placed in a stereotaxic frame. Using a surgical drill (Foredom Electric, Bethel, CT), a ...
Have questions about sedating your pet for travel? Our comprehensive guide provides insights into safety, alternatives, and more. Contact PETport today!
Sedation with acepromazine and/or butorphanol is recommended for agitation and tachycardia and methocarbamol for tremors. ...
Many herding breeds have adverse reactions to a particular list of drugs, and collies are known to be one of these breeds. This adverse reaction is the result of a mutation in the multidrug resistance gene, or MDR1 gene. Not all collies have this mutation, but many of them do, so most collie owners will avoid these drugs or have their dogs tested for the gene. This drug sensitivity can result in blindness, coma and death, so it is very important that collie owners, and the owners of other herding breeds like Aussies or Border Collies, become familiar with the names of these drugs. There are veterinarians who seem to be unaware of this issue, and prescribe drugs or anesthesia that can be potentially fatal to your dog, so you need to make sure your veterinarian is aware of the risk. You need to make sure that your dog is not given any of the following drugs if he/she has not been tested or if they have tested positive for the MDR1 gene ...
When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
Let your horse experience the power of our Bupralex Injection for sale with the selections available in stock. Buy now and see results fast!
Acepromazine Maleate. Acetazolamide. Acetyl-D-Glucosamine. Acetylcysteine. Altrenogest. Chlorpromazine HCl. Chromium Picolinate ...
Sedation: At higher dose rates acepromazine is a sedative.. Travel Sickness: A dose of 1 mg per kg given orally a quarter to ... Acepromazine is a phenothiazine. It is a central nervous system depressant with associated activity on the autonomic system. ... Large breeds: it has been noted that large breeds of dog are particularly sensitive to acepromazine and the minimum dose ... Acepromazine is additive to the actions of other depressants and will potentiate general anaesthesia (see section 4.2, ...
Animal Owners and Caregivers Rood and Riddle Veterinary Pharmacy welcomes you to place your prescription order online by using our website. However, to have the order fully processed and filled, your veterinarian will have to provide a prescription for the medication(s) you would like to order.. This can be accomplished in three ways: Your Veterinarian may call one of our pharmacists directly, you may download our Prescription Form and ask your veterinarian to complete and fax or mail it directly to our pharmacy, or your veterinarian can order and verify prescriptions directly on our website. The form must be faxed directly from your veterinarians office. Otherwise, the completed, original form must be mailed to: 2150 Georgetown Rd. Building 25, Lexington, KY 40511 before your prescription can be shipped. Our fax number is (859) 406-1200.. Click Here to Download the Prescription Form. If you have any issues or would like to place your order over the phone, please call our pharmacy at ...
N05AA04 Acepromazine. N05AA05 Triflupromazine. N05AA06 Cyamemazine. N05AA07 Chlorproethazine. N05AB Phenothiazines with ...
Acepromazine (sedative). *Several antiparasitics (macrocyclic lactones), including the commonly available ivermectin. *Diarrhea ...
Acepromazine Maleate use Acepromazine Acer Acer negundo use Acer Acer negundos use Acer ...
ACEPROMAZINE (Atrovet®, Notesil®, PromAce®) Testing Threshold10 nanograms per milliliter as 2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine ... Dosing Specification Single intravenous dose of acepromazine at 0.05 milligrams per kilogram ...
... acepromazine, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine sulfoxide (2-HEPS), chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine, promethazine, allobarbital, ...
ACE - (Acepromazine): Precautions, Side-Effects, Overdose Last post by Hayley92 « Wed Oct 24, 2012 6:15 am. ...
Anesthesia included acepromazine, thiopenate, and lidocaine infiltration anesthesia. In the experimental group (n=12) defects ...
These medications usually include acepromazine, chlorpromazine, aminopentamide, and others.. They can be great in treating ...
Muscle relaxants and alpha blockers (acepromazine, bethanechol, phenoxybenzamine) can be tried. The tube should be kept in ...
Acepromazine is also widely used in veterinary medicine as a sedative. It is a member of the phenothiazine class of sedatives ... When used in combination with other drugs (e.g., opioids, ketamine, acepromazine, dexmedetomidine), midazolam provides more ...
  • The standard pharmaceutical preparation, acepromazine maleate, is used in veterinary medicine in dogs and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine Maleate is a prescription medication for dogs who need tranquilization or who suffer from motion sickness. (thrivingpets.com)
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline) is contra-indicated in the treatment of acute hypotension produced by overdosage of acepromazine maleate, since further depression of systemic blood pressure can result. (imedi.co.uk)
  • The most common uses of acepromazine in animals are as an oral sedative before stressful events (such as thunderstorms), an injectable tranquilizer for particularly aggressive or fractious animals, and in combination with analgesics and other sedatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original seizure cautions reported in the 1950s were in human patients on relatively high doses of the antipsychotic chlorpromazine while the doses of acepromazine used in the two published veterinary studies cited above are much lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is achieved with low doses of acepromazine. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Normally single doses of acepromazine are administered (see section 4.3, Contraindications). (imedi.co.uk)
  • In giant-breed dogs and sighthounds, the sedative effects of acepromazine may last for 12-24 hours, which is much longer than the usual 3-4 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine is typically used prior to anesthesia and surgery because of its sedative effects and because it can prevent vomiting. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Acepromazine is an FDA-approved sedative/tranquilizer used for dogs and cats. (qualitydogresources.com)
  • At higher dose rates acepromazine is a sedative. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Acepromazine is frequently used before surgery (in combination with other sedatives and anesthetics), to provide smoother sedation in patients. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Continue to give acepromazine and notify your veterinarian if your pet shows signs of sedation, depression, incoordination, low blood pressure, slower heart rate and breathing. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Acepromazine tranquillisation (ataraxy) involves a modification of temperament which is not associated with hypnosis, narcosis, or marked sedation. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Forty-three client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study and anaesthetised using a standardized protocol that included premedication with acepromazine (0,03-0,05 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (0,01 mg/kg) intramuscularly. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acepromazine is a tranquilizer approved only for use in dogs. (thrivingpets.com)
  • Acepromazine is a prescription tranquilizer use by veterinarians in dogs and cats. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • The most important drugs to be concerned about are ivermectin, the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and doxorubicin, acepromazine (tranquilizer), and butorphanol (pain control). (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as multidrug resistant protein 1 (MDR1), is a protein found in cell membranes which is important in the metabolism and excretion of some drugs,: 41-58 such as acepromazine and ivermectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine possesses anti-emetic, anti-convulsant, hypothermic, hypotensive and anti-spasmodic properties, and shows a marked potentiating effect on barbiturate anaesthesia. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Acepromazine, acetopromazine, or acetylpromazine (commonly known as ACP, Ace, or by the trade names Atravet or Acezine 2, number depending on mg/ml dose) is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical pharmacology of acepromazine is similar to that of other phenothiazine derived anti-psychotic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine is classified as a phenothiazine neuroleptic, which means it modifies the chemicals in your pets brain to change their behavior. (californiapetpharmacy.com)
  • Acepromazine is a phenothiazine. (imedi.co.uk)
  • If you're using acepromazine regularly, you might need to increase the dosage by half a tablet at a time. (qualitydogresources.com)
  • Following acepromazine administration, the amount of anaesthetic dose necessary to induce anaesthesia is considerably reduced. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Acepromazine is a prescription medication used to tranquilize animals during examinations, treatments, or surgical procedures. (rxwiki.com)
  • In the case of acepromazine, there are no specific foods that you must exclude from your diet when receiving this medication. (rxwiki.com)
  • Acepromazine has strong anti-nausea properties which make this medication an excellent choice for traveling pets prone to both anxiety and motion sickness. (thrivingpets.com)
  • In some boxers, acepromazine can cause vasovagal syncope (due to a decreased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system) and hypotension (due to vasodilation), leading to collapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may occur only in certain families of boxers, but the unknown risk to an individual dog means that acepromazine should be used at reduced doses, or not at all, in this breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some dogs, particularly Boxers and other short-nosed breeds, spontaneous fainting or syncope may occur, due to sinoatrial block caused by excessive vagal tone, and an attack may be precipitated by acepromazine, so a low dose should be used. (imedi.co.uk)
  • While acepromazine is also used in cats, its absorption is erratic and can vary between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-six cats were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and meperidine (6 mg/kg). (bvsalud.org)
  • Common side effects of acepromazine in animals include aggression, biting or chewing, and nervousness. (rxwiki.com)
  • Acepromazine decreases anxiety, drops blood pressure and heart rate, and causes muscular relaxation. (qualitydogresources.com)
  • What Dosage of Acepromazine Should Be Given to Dogs? (qualitydogresources.com)
  • It's important to give a low dosage of acepromazine to your dog at first to stop any adverse reactions from happening! (qualitydogresources.com)
  • However, acepromazine is generally still safe if you go beyond the proper dosage, a safety study showed no adverse reactions when dogs were given three times the recommended daily dosage. (qualitydogresources.com)
  • More current studies, however, have failed to show a positive association between use of acepromazine and seizure activity: 116 and show a possible role for acepromazine in seizure control: in a retrospective study at University of Tennessee, acepromazine was administered for tranquilization to 36 dogs with a prior history of seizures and to decrease seizure activity in 11 dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine is rarely used in humans. (rxwiki.com)
  • Since acepromazine is rarely used in humans, it has not been categorized by the FDA. (rxwiki.com)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance -Measurements of renal function and blood flow in dogs during anesthesia with thiopentone and isoflurane did not differ significantly between treatments, which suggested that acepromazine protects renal function despite inducing reduction in blood pressure, compared with effects of administration of saline. (avma.org)
  • This study aims to evaluate and compare the effects of the combination of ketamine-medetomidine and ketamine-acepromazine anesthesia on pig electrocardiogram (ECG) images. (usk.ac.id)
  • For this reason, caution has typically been advised when contemplating acepromazine use in epileptic canine patients, as it was widely believed to lower the seizures threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caution should be used when acepromazine is administered to a pregnancy woman, and the risks and benefits of administration should be considered by the healthcare provider and the woman. (rxwiki.com)
  • Acepromazine is used to help tranquilize animals during procedures. (rxwiki.com)
  • Study on anaesthetic effects of ketamine and acepromazine in Tor grypus. (usk.ac.id)
  • A second retrospective study also concluded that administration of acepromazine to dogs with prior or acute seizure history did not potentiate seizures, and there was some trend toward seizure reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious side effects have bene reported with acepromazine. (rxwiki.com)
  • This is not a complete list of acepromazine side effects. (rxwiki.com)
  • Objective -To investigate the effects of IM administration of acepromazine on indices of relative renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by means of scintigraphy, as well as the effects on physiologic, hematologic, and serum biochemical variables in anesthetized dogs, compared with effects of administration of saline. (avma.org)
  • No seizures were seen within 16 hours of acepromazine administration in the 36 dogs that received the drug, and the seizures abated for 1.5 to 8 hours (n=6) or did not recur (n=2) in eight of 10 dogs that were actively seizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • rehydration should precede acepromazine administration. (imedi.co.uk)
  • It takes about 15 minutes for acepromazine to reach its full effect. (rxwiki.com)
  • What tips would you provide a friend before taking Acepromazine? (rxwiki.com)
  • How likely would you be to recommend Acepromazine to a friend? (rxwiki.com)
  • This is not a complete list of acepromazine drug interactions. (rxwiki.com)
  • See the "Acepromazine Precautions" section. (rxwiki.com)
  • Acepromazine is additive to the actions of other depressants and will potentiate general anaesthesia (see section 4.2, indications for use). (imedi.co.uk)
  • A mutation in ABCB1 prevents P-gp from being correctly produced, so that dogs with this mutation have an increased sensitivity to drugs (such as acepromazine) which are substrates of P-gp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acepromazine belongs to a group of drugs called phenothiazines. (rxwiki.com)
  • Acepromazine compound suspension is sold by the 30 ml bottle and expires after 30 days. (thrivingpets.com)