Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.United StatesUniversal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)AmidohydrolasesCytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Dystonia Musculorum Deformans: A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Extrapyramidal Tracts: Uncrossed tracts of motor nerves from the brain to the anterior horns of the spinal cord, involved in reflexes, locomotion, complex movements, and postural control.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Burning Mouth Syndrome: A group of painful oral symptoms associated with a burning or similar sensation. There is usually a significant organic component with a degree of functional overlay; it is not limited to the psychophysiologic group of disorders.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Pruritus Vulvae: Intense itching of the external female genitals.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Paranoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Architectural Accessibility: Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
(1/13) Prediction of N-acetylprocainamide disposition kinetics in rat by combination of gamma variate and physiological pharmacokinetic model.

Clearances and tissue/blood drug concentration ratios of N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA) in rats were determined. The clearances of NAPA in rat blood, liver, and kidney were 13.1, 4.88, and 8.24 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. Disposition kinetics of NAPA in rats was predicted with combination of gamma variate and physiological pharmacokinetic model. Equation for estimating the concentration of NAPA in rat blood following iv NAPA 40 mg.kg-1 was C = 55.06t(-0.220) exp(-0.00713t). Using r2 value as a criterion, we found a good agreement between predicted and observed concentrations in blood, lung, small intestine, heart, brain, and skin.  (+info)

(2/13) Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on phospholipid metabolism in Jurkat T cells. The potassium channel blocker, clofilium, specifically increases phosphatidylserine synthesis.

Five antiarrhythmic drugs (bretylium, clofilium, propranolol, N-acetylprocainamide and amiodarone) were tested for their ability to modify phospholipid metabolism in Jurkat T lymphocytes. The five drugs, decreased in a dose-dependent mode the biosynthesis of both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, this effect was essentially due to impairment of either choline or ethanolamine uptake by the cells. The efficiency of the drugs to inhibit phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis was in the order: clofilium greater than amiodarone much greater than propranolol = bretylium much greater than N-acetylprocainamide. The IC50 varied from 3-5 microM for clofilium to greater than 200 microM for N-acetylprocainamide. In contrast, only clofilium, a voltage-gated K(+)-channel blocker, was able to increase phosphatidylserine synthesis with an EC50 = 50 microM. The effect of clofilium on phosphatidylserine synthesis thus mimics the effect of three other K(+)-channel blockers, quinine, 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, suggesting close relationships between phosphatidylserine synthesis and K+ channel activity.  (+info)

(3/13) Levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin decrease procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide renal clearances.

Ten healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover drug interaction study testing procainamide only, procainamide plus levofloxacin, and procainamide plus ciprofloxacin. During levofloxacin therapy, most procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA) pharmacokinetic parameters, including decreased renal clearances and renal clearance/creatinine clearance ratios, changed (P < 0.05). During ciprofloxacin treatment, only procainamide and NAPA renal clearances decreased significantly.  (+info)

(4/13) Application of a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to the estimation of xenobiotic levels in human plasma.

Estimation of xenobiotic kinetics in humans frequently relies upon extrapolation from experimental data generated in animals. In an accompanying paper, we have presented a unique, generic, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and described its application to the prediction of rat plasma pharmacokinetics from in vitro data alone. Here we demonstrate the application of the same model, parameterized for human physiology, to the estimation of plasma pharmacokinetics in humans and report a comparative evaluation against some recently published predictive methods that involve scaling from in vivo animal data. The model was parameterized through an optimization process, using a training set of in vivo data taken from the literature, and validated using a separate test set of published in vivo data. On average, the vertical divergence of the predicted plasma concentrations from the observed data, on a semilog concentration-time plot, was 0.47 log unit. For the training set, more than 80% of the predicted values of a standardized measure of the area under the concentration-time curve were within 3-fold of the observed values; over 70% of the test set predictions were within the same margin. Furthermore, in terms of predicting human clearance for the test set, the model was found to match or exceed the performance of three published interspecies scaling methods, all of which showed a distinct bias toward overprediction. We conclude that the generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, as a means of integrating readily determined in vitro and/or in silico data, is potentially a powerful, cost-effective tool for predicting human xenobiotic kinetics in drug discovery and risk assessment.  (+info)

(5/13) Procainamide, but not N-acetylprocainamide, induces protein free radical formation on myeloperoxidase: a potential mechanism of agranulocytosis.

 (+info)

(6/13) More-sensitive enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique for procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide in plasma, serum, and urine.

A commercially available (Syva Co.) enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) for the quantitative determination of procainamide (PA) and N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA) was modified to allow automated quantitative analysis of approximately 100 samples per day, in a working range of 0.1 to 2.0 micrograms/mL. Such a test was needed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of controlled-release dosage forms characterized by long half-lives at low plasma concentration. Analytical recovery of PA and NAPA from serum, plasma, and urine was satisfactory, but at extreme ratios for PA:NAPA the accuracy of determining the lower-concentration component became unsatisfactory. In fact, however, we found no such ratios in 5400 clinical samples assayed by this procedure.  (+info)

(7/13) Metabolites of procainamide and practolol inhibit complement components C3 and C4.

Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus arises from toxic side-effects of administration of hydralazine, isoniazid, procainamide and practolol. Hydralazine and isoniazid are nucleophilic drugs and inhibit the covalent binding reaction of complement components, C3 and C4, an effect likely to lead to deposition of immune complexes (a feature of systemic lupus erythematosus). Procainamide and practolol do not themselves inhibit C3 and C4. A range of metabolites and putative metabolites of procainamide and practolol were synthesized, and tested for their ability to inhibit the covalent binding reactions of C3 and C4. The highly nucleophilic hydroxylamine metabolite of procainamide was strongly inhibitory in both tests, as was a putative hydroxylamine metabolite of practolol. These studies indicate a potential role for the hydroxylamine metabolites in mediating the toxic side-effects of procainamide and practolol, and emphasize the need for adequate measurements of hydroxylamine metabolites in human tissue.  (+info)

(8/13) Four fluorescence polarization immunoassays for therapeutic drug monitoring evaluated.

We evaluated four fluorescence polarization immunoassays--those for phenytoin, procainamide, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), and quinidine--from Roche Diagnostic Systems, done in the Cobas Bio FP centrifugal analyzer. The assays for phenytoin, NAPA, and quinidine demonstrated a linear response over the expected ranges of concentrations, and analytical recovery of test drug added to drug-free sera was greater than 90%. However, recovery in the procainamide assay was poor (69-82%) for samples containing greater than 8 mg/L, owing to nonlinearity. Results of method-comparison studies of the four assays paralleled the recovery studies, although the quinidine assay demonstrated a bias (1.0 mg/L higher) when compared with EMIT (Syva). The precision of the phenytoin assay was acceptable at all concentrations tested (total CV less than 7.0%). Imprecision of the other assays was significant at certain concentrations: total CV greater than 10.0% at subtherapeutic values for NAPA and quinidine, and greater than 9.0% for low (2.4 mg/L) and moderate concentrations (9.6 mg/L) of procainamide. Interferences were not significant for hemolyzed, icteric, or lipemic specimens or for specimens with added drug metabolites. The calibration curves for all four assays had good stability (greater than 60 days).  (+info)

*  Acecainide
Some acecainide can convert to procainamide. The deacetylation clearance of acecainide is 0.39 L/h compare to a total NAPA ... acecainide can cause cardiac toxicity that effects in torsades de pointes. Also acecainide can decrease renal function when it ... Acecainide is considered comparable in activity to its parent compound; however, acecainide levels will vary widely. Serum ... However, hypotension has been reported in association with a rapid injection of acecainide. In animals, acecainide has positive ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... acecainide MeSH D02.241.223.100.054.055.105 --- benzocaine MeSH D02.241.223.100.054.055.650 --- procainamide MeSH D02.241. ...
*  List of drugs: Ac
... acecainide (INN) acecarbromal (INN) aceclidine (INN) aceclofenac (INN) acedapsone (INN) acediasulfone (INN) acedoben (INN) ...
Acecainide - Wikipedia  Acecainide - Wikipedia
Some acecainide can convert to procainamide. The deacetylation clearance of acecainide is 0.39 L/h compare to a total NAPA ... acecainide can cause cardiac toxicity that effects in torsades de pointes. Also acecainide can decrease renal function when it ... Acecainide is considered comparable in activity to its parent compound; however, acecainide levels will vary widely. Serum ... However, hypotension has been reported in association with a rapid injection of acecainide. In animals, acecainide has positive ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acecainide
Norpramin Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com  Norpramin Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com
Detailed drug Information for Norpramin. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cons/norpramin.html
Iquix Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com  Iquix Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com
Detailed drug Information for Iquix. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cons/iquix.html
Ofloxacin (Ophthalmic Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic  Ofloxacin (Ophthalmic Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/ofloxacin-ophthalmic-route/proper-use/DRG-20065155?p=1
Phenothiazine (Oral Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic  Phenothiazine (Oral Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
Do not take this medicine within 2 hours of taking antacids or medicine for diarrhea. Taking these products too close together may make this medicine less effective.. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, other allergies, or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; prescription pain medicine or narcotics; barbiturates; medicine for seizures; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any of the above while you are using this medicine.. Before using any prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicine for colds or allergies, check with your doctor. These medicines may increase the chance of developing heatstroke or other unwanted effects, such as dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation, while ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/phenothiazine-oral-route-parenteral-route-rectal-route/proper-use/DRG-20070394?p=1
Category:Acetanilides - Wikimedia Commons  Category:Acetanilides - Wikimedia Commons
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Acetanilides
Meylers Side Effects of Drugs - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by Credo  Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by Credo
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
more infohttps://corp.credoreference.com/component/booktracker/edition/11102.html
Narcotic analgesics  Narcotic analgesics
... will add to the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system, possibly causing drowsiness). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, other allergies, or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; other prescription pain medicines including other narcotics; barbiturates; medicine for seizures; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Do not drink alcoholic beverages, and check with your medical doctor or dentist before taking any of the medicines listed above, while you are using this medicine. This medicine may cause some people to become drowsy, dizzy, or lightheaded, or to feel a false sense of well-being. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or are not alert and clearheaded. Dizziness, light-headedness, or fainting may ...
more infohttps://www.allinahealth.org/CCS/doc/Thomson%20Detailed%20Drugs/47/602169.htm
Buprenorphine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & Reviews - GoodRx  Buprenorphine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & Reviews - GoodRx
Buprenorphine (Generic Butrans, Buprenex, Subutex) is used to treat Pain and Opioid Dependence. Learn about Buprenorphine uses before beginning treatment with Pharmacist Tips and User Reviews!
more infohttps://www.goodrx.com/buprenorphine/side-effects
Antifungal, azole (Oral route, parenteral route)  Antifungal, azole (Oral route, parenteral route)
If you have achlorhydria (absence of stomach acid) or hypochlorhydria (decreased amount of stomach acid), and you are taking itraconazole or ketoconazole, your doctor may want you to take your medicine with an acidic drink. You may dissolve your medicine in cola or seltzer water and drink the solution, or your may take your medicine with a glass of cola or seltzer water. Your doctor may suggest that you dissolve each capsule or tablet in a teaspoonful of weak hydrochloric acid solution to help you absorb the medicine better. Your health care professional can prepare the solution for you. After you dissolve the tablet in the acid solution, add this mixture to a small amount (1 or 2 teaspoonfuls) of water in a glass. Drink the mixture through a plastic or glass drinking straw. Place the straw behind your teeth, as far back in your mouth as you can. This will keep the acid from harming your teeth. Be sure to drink all the liquid to get the full dose of medicine. Next, swish around in your mouth ...
more infohttps://ssl.adam.com/content.aspx?productid=47&isarticlelink=false&pid=47&gid=602181&site=summithealth.adam.com&login=SUMM2111
Eliglustat (Oral route)  Eliglustat (Oral route)
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of eliglustat in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established. Older adults- Although appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of eliglustat have not been performed in the geriatric population, no geriatric-specific problems have been documented to date. Breast-feeding- There are no adequate studies in women for ...
more infohttps://ssl.adam.com/content.aspx?productid=47&isarticlelink=false&pid=47&gid=604019&site=summithealth.adam.com&login=SUMM2111
Xenazine (Tetrabenazine) Oral: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects  Xenazine (Tetrabenazine) Oral: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects
Xenazine is used to treat chorea (a movement disorder) that is caused by Huntington disease. Xenazine works in the central nervous system (CNS) to prevent the absorption of certain...
more infohttps://www.findatopdoc.com/Medical-Library/Drugs-and-Supplements/Xenazine
vasopressin Injection - patient information, description, dosage and directions.  vasopressin Injection - patient information, description, dosage and directions.
Description of the drug vasopressin Injection. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is vasopressin Injection!
more infohttp://drugster.info/drug/medicament/24340
coyle.1@osu.edu | College of Pharmacy  [email protected] | College of Pharmacy
Acecainide pharmacokinetics in normal subjects of known acetylator phenotype. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition. 1991 Nov;12( ...
more infohttp://pharmacy.osu.edu/faculty-staff/users/coyle1
Octreotide (Injection route, intramuscular route)  Octreotide (Injection route, intramuscular route)
This medicine is given as a shot under your skin, into a muscle or vein. A nurse or other trained health professional may give you this medicine or this medicine may be given at home to patients who do not need to be in the hospital or clinic. If you are using this medicine at home, your doctor or nurse will teach you how to prepare and inject the medicine. Be sure that you understand how to use the medicine. You will be shown the body areas where this shot can be given. Use a different body area each time you give yourself a shot. Keep track of where you give each shot to make sure you rotate body areas. You might not use all of the medicine in each ampul or vial (glass container). Do not save an opened ampul or vial. If the medicine in the ampul or vial has changed color, or if you see particles in it, do not use it. Some patients may feel pain, stinging, tingling, or burning sensations at the place where they inject the medicine. Injecting the medicine after it has been warmed to room ...
more infohttps://www.allinahealth.org/CCS/doc/Thomson%20Detailed%20Drugs/47/601739.htm
Antihistamine (Oral route, parenteral route, rectal route)
                            - Loyola University Health System  Antihistamine (Oral route, parenteral route, rectal route) - Loyola University Health System
Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Serious side effects, such as convulsions (seizures), are more likely to occur in younger patients and would be of greater risk to infants than to older children or adults. In general, children are more sensitive to the effects of antihistamines. Also, nightmares or unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability may be more likely to occur in children. Do not give any over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicine to a baby or child under 4 years of age. Using these medicines in very young children might cause serious or possibly life-threatening side effects . Older adults- Elderly patients are usually more sensitive to the ...
more infohttp://loyolauniversity.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=47&pid=47&gid=602319
Cipro - Ciprofloxacin (Oral Route) - Drugs & Supplements  Cipro - Ciprofloxacin (Oral Route) - Drugs & Supplements
Ciprofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. Ciprofloxacin oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure. Ciprofloxacin may mask or delay the symptoms of syphilis. It is not effective against syphilis infections.
more infohttps://pharmacypedia.org/drugs-and-supplements/cipro-ciprofloxacin-oral-route/
Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim - Healthery  Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim - Healthery
Acecainide. Taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combination in combination with any of the following medications could ...
more infohttps://healthery.com/drug/sulfamethoxazoletrimethoprim/
MEDICAL - THE ND PHARMA & BIOTECH COMPANY  MEDICAL - THE ND PHARMA & BIOTECH COMPANY
Acecainide. Amfomycin. Amidefrine Mesylate. Aspoxicillin. Amyloid Beta-protein (1-42) (human). Amyloid Beta-protein (1-43) ( ...
more infohttp://www.ndpharmabiotech.net/medical.html
Allres PD - Cough And Cold Combinations (Oral Route) - Drugs & Supplements  Allres PD - Cough And Cold Combinations (Oral Route) - Drugs & Supplements
Cough/cold combinations are used mainly to relieve the cough due to colds, influenza, or hay fever. They are not to be used for the chronic cough that occurs with smoking, asthma, or emphysema or when there is an unusually large amount of mucus or phlegm (pronounced flem) with the cough.
more infohttps://pharmacypedia.org/drugs-and-supplements/allres-pd-cough-and-cold-combinations-oral-route/