Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The consumption of edible substances.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Glucose in blood.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
... the actual margin of victory was one percentage point lower. An article published in the AAPOR journal Survey Practice noted ... standing accurately." Suffolk has made use of polling methodologies that combine "traditional" statewide probability sampling ... the Suffolk University/Boston Herald poll sampled a much higher percentage of mobile phones (35%) than some other pollsters. ...
In the case of probability the only number to be updated is the single percentage number. Also, this number could be updated ... Gigerenzer argues that presenting information in frequency format would help in solving these puzzles accurately. He argues ... The first known existence of a representative form of percentages is in the seventeenth century. He also argues that more ... He argues that probability and percentages are rather recent forms of representation as opposed to frequency. ...
Highest slugging percentage, season - .847 by Ruth. July 18: Most career home runs - 139 by Babe Ruth; ended his career in 1935 ... Connor's career total of 138 was not accurately documented until the 1970s; at one time, he was thought to have hit only 131. ... April 30: Most franchises against which a pitcher has earned a win: 30 by Al Leiter Highest on-base percentage, season - .582 ... 262 by Ichiro Suzuki Highest on-base percentage, season - .609 by Bonds. June 8: Youngest player to reach 400 home run mark - ...
If rodents are injected with anxiolytic drugs, percentage of time spent in the light compartment will increase. Locomotion and ... A drug that has anxiolytic properties and increased locomotion properties cannot be accurately tested in the LDB. Increased ... locomotion effects can affect the percentage of time spent in the compartments and rearing. Preliminary screening for locomotor ...
About half the 1,154 participants in their studies accurately estimated their performance within 10 percentage points (ppts). ... They verified that women on average self-assessed more accurately than men, and did so across all ethnic groups that had ... Only about 6% of participants displayed wild overconfidence and were unable to accurately self-assess their abilities within 30 ... increases people's ability to accurately evaluate how good they are at it. In Self-insight: Roadblocks and Detours on the Path ...
To accurately portray your state's solar resource, we need two maps. That is because different collector types use the sun in ... Wyoming has a good hydropower resource as a percentage of the state's electricity generation. For additional resource ...
To hold serve, serves must be accurately placed, and a high priority should be placed on first serve percentage. In addition, ...
Clinton won by a slightly enlarged margin from Barack Obama's 2012 win in his home state; however, her overall percentage was ... news organizations accurately predicted that the state would be carried by Clinton, who was born in Illinois. ...
This more accurately models the loss of contrast that occurs on darker display luminance due to ambient light conditions. Two ... or more commonly described as a percentage like Michelson, 100%. A modification of Weber by Hwaung/Peli adds a glare offset to ... the denominator to more accurately model computer displays. Thus the modified Weber is: C m W = ( L H − L L ) ( L H + 0.05 ) {\ ...
It also accurately determines the element composition of all types of gold, white gold, platinum, silver, palladium, rhodium ... Using this technique, the precise percentage or karat (of karat) in a solid piece of jewellery can be determined in 30 seconds ...
In any case care should be taken to accurately describe what is meant by the chosen percentage so as to avoid ambiguity. Sydney ... As a percentage of the total expenditure As a total percentage including and above the original budget As a percentage of the ...
By accurately capturing unique data at the distribution transformer, DTM devices provide necessary reconciliation points ... percentage of rated load, duration of actual load, voltage and current information, etc…. 10. The DTM allows for the detection ... The DTM enables operators to accurately quantify the amount of Distributed Energy Resource (DER) inspired Reverse Energy being ... But, by installing a DTM, operators can accurately understand the condition and the associated demand burdens being inflicted ...
... although not the largest percentage of the popular vote. Debs received double this percentage in the election of 1912. The 1920 ... The distribution of the county vote accurately represents the overwhelming character of the majority vote. Harding received ... This single station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small percentage of the population that had ... The distribution of the vote by counties, and the study of percentages in sections, states, and counties, seem to show that it ...
The usage of percentages as labels on a pie chart can be misleading when the sample size is small. Making a pie chart 3D or ... Comparing pie charts of different sizes could be misleading as people cannot accurately read the comparative area of circles. ... Even when constructed to accurately display the characteristics of their data, graphs can be subject to different ... or because data cannot be accurately conveyed. Misleading graphs are often used in false advertising. One of the first authors ...
This equation accurately fits blood data over a very wide range of shear rates. μ a = μ 0 ( 1 − 0.5 k H ) − 2 {\displaystyle \ ... The large volume percentage of red blood cells at a normal hematocrit level leaves little room for cell motion and deformation ... Blood can more accurately be described as a fluidized suspension of elastic cells (or a sol). The red blood cells occupy about ... Calculations have shown that the maximum volume percentage of red blood cells without deformation is 58% which is in the range ...
The best way of measuring population change is using the intercensal percentage change. The intercensal percentage change is ... When this statistic is achieved, the population growth between two or more nations that differ in size, can be accurately ... Next, multiply this a hundredfold to receive a percentage. ...
A significant percentage of homes are occupied on a part-time basis, with their owners residing principally in New York City or ... Consequently, census data may not accurately reflect the population's demography. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,596 ... A substantial percentage of the houses in Washington were built prior to 1950, and many of the structures built since then have ...
The percentages pertaining to the origin of weapons confiscated from organized crime and drug cartels may not be accurately ... The November 2010 OIG analysis of ATF data suggest a low percentage of successful weapons traces, ranging from 27% to 44%. In ... percentage of their firearms originate from gun stores and other sources in the U.S. ATF also says it is well-established that ... the ATF could not provide updated information on the percentage of traced Mexican crime guns that were sourced to (that is, ...
Barrett was re-elected in 2008 with 79% of the vote, the largest percentage a Mayoral candidate had received in 40 years. In ... However, in retrospect the Marquette poll accurately reflected the Wisconsin electorate's vote. However, the same poll showed ... The poll's margin of error for likely voters was plus or minus 4.1 percentage points. Odysseas, a contributor to the ...
About half the 1,154 participants in their studies accurately estimated their performance within 10 percentage points (ppts). ... They verified that women on average self-assessed more accurately than men, and did so across all ethnic groups that had ... Only about 6% of participants displayed wild overconfidence and were unable to accurately self-assess their abilities within 30 ... Researchers express the measures either as percentages or as percentile scores scaled from 0 to 1 or from 0 to 100. By ...
Distortion (as a percentage) in digital systems increases as signal levels decrease, which is the opposite of the behavior of ... If there are more bits in each sample the waveform is more accurately traced, because each additional bit doubles the number of ... The distortion is roughly the percentage that the least significant bit represents out of the average value. ...
It was simply a hydrometer calibrated to display the percentage of charge remaining rather than the normal, but difficult to ... The Fritchle Milostat was a clever solution to the problem electric vehicle operators had accurately estimating the driving ...
However, a simple linear regression will not accurately model this. These are deviations from the common rule and give you a ... But, they only come into play in a fractional percentage of game outcomes. This point statistical distribution factor opens up ... to be able to accurately identify each variable that affects the outcome of the game. Also, regression analysis assigns a " ...
However, some birds cannot be accurately sexed on the sole basis of plumage.[7] The juvenile is paler in color than the adult ... and a small percentage retains a few juvenile wing coverts or other feathers.[15] ...
You then apply this percentage to your current period GST return. Under this option you pay provisional tax at the same time as ... so it is important that they estimate their profit accurately. A provisional tax payer can also pay provisional tax using the ...
While accuracy, as measured by quantitative errors, is important, it may be more crucial to accurately forecast the direction ... Many techniques, such as mean absolute percentage error or median absolute deviation, evaluate forecasting and provided ...
There is also an outflowing wind, whose origin however cannot be determined accurately. In the centre of NGC 7130 lies a ... The percentage attributed to the AGN exceeds 50% at higher energies, over 2 keV. The transition from the emission of the AGN to ...
... was detected with the transit method, where the planet blocked a small percentage of its host star's light when ... This allowed scientists to accurately determine the planet's radius at 0.910 R⊕, with a small uncertainty of about 166-172 km. ... scientists could accurately calculate the planet's density, surface gravity, and composition. TRAPPIST-1e is unusual in its ...
However, as the percentages of indirect or overhead costs rose, this technique became increasingly inaccurate, because indirect ... These traditional costing systems are often unable to determine accurately the actual costs of production and of the costs of ... Instead of using broad arbitrary percentages to allocate costs, ABC seeks to identify cause and effect relationships to ... Traditionally, cost accountants had arbitrarily added a broad percentage of analysis into the indirect cost. In addition, ...
The percentage was even as low as 8% in one of the 16 tests performed.[32][33] ... The results showed that experts did not count the passes more accurately than novices but did show that adult subjects were ... A much higher percentage of experts noticed the gorilla compared with novices and even the practiced children. 62% of the adult ...
Global LNG import trends, by volume (in red), and as a percentage of global natural gas imports (in black) (US EIA data) ... the gas being sent to the liquefaction process shall be accurately refined and tested in order to assure the minimum possible ...
... there was little variation among the best performers and the worst performers in their ability to accurately predict their ... with only a small percentage of the participants who were studied exhibiting performance that might merit the label "unskilled ... increases people's ability to accurately evaluate how good they are at it.[5] ...
Mitchell, Alison (April 25, 2018). Medicaid's Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional ... The lottery enabled studies to accurately measure the impact of health insurance on an individual's health and eliminate ... Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (April 2, 2013). "Medicaid program: Increased federal medical assistance percentage ... called Federal Medical Assistance Percentages), which generates payment rates that vary from state to state, depending on each ...
... although the actual level of complexity is very hard to define or measure accurately in biology, with properties such as gene ... but it involves increasingly small percentages of living things.[4] ...
... but may not accurately represent their performance in normal or intended use.[citation needed] ... AFR is the percentage of drive failures expected per year. Both AFR and MTBF tend to measure reliability only in the initial ... since they accurately represent the performance of consumer drives in the enterprise or under extreme stress, ...
The refractive index, nD, for sucrose solutions of various percentage by mass has been measured and tables of nD vs. °Bx ... For example, in sugar refining, dissolved solids can be accurately estimated from refractive index measurement corrected by an ... One degree Brix is 1 gram of sucrose in 100 grams of solution and represents the strength of the solution as percentage by mass ... which is the concentration of sucrose by percentage mass. Similarly, a vintner could enter the specific gravity of his must ...
Though Brazilians of at least partial African heritage make up a large percentage[172] of the population, few blacks have been ... Maulana Karenga argues that the term African-American is more appropriate because it accurately articulates their geographical ... in any discernible percentage). There are also certain cultural traits associated with being "African American", a term used ...
Only under a flat tax system would a percentage gain on gross income translate into a comparable inflation-offsetting gain at ... Such adjustments might more accurately be described as a per diem allowance or tied to a specific item, as with housing ... Annual escalation clauses in employment contracts can specify retroactive or future percentage increases in worker pay which ...
Algae fuel yields have not yet been accurately determined, but DOE is reported as saying that algae yield 30 times more energy ... In Germany, the minimum percentage of biodiesel in transport diesel is set at 7% so called "B7". ... Splash mixing in the tanker truck (adding specific percentages of biodiesel and petroleum diesel) ... area affects the feasibility of ramping up production to the huge industrial levels required to power a significant percentage ...
Relative humidity is normally expressed as a percentage; a higher percentage means that the air-water mixture is more humid. ... This fraction more accurately follows the ideal gas law. On the contrary the saturated volume is the volume a gas mixture would ... Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity ...
The percentage in column two was calculated on the basis of N.G. Butlin: Our Original Aggression and "others", by M. D. Prentis ... The life expectancy of Indigenous Australians is difficult to quantify accurately. Indigenous deaths are poorly identified, and ... The Northern Territory has the largest Indigenous population in percentage terms for a state or territory, with 25.5% of the ... Column one is the distribution percentage calculated on the estimates gathered and publicised in 1930 (Official Year Book of ...
Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of ... Roma estimate percentage of population in European countries[239]. Country. Percent. Bulgaria. ...
To accurately reproduce very low bass notes without unwanted resonances (typically from cabinet panels), subwoofer systems must ... The driving force covers a large percentage of the membrane surface and reduces resonance problems inherent in coil-driven flat ... Full-range (or more accurately, wide-range) drivers are most commonly heard in public address systems, in televisions (although ... most accurately called exciter/panel drivers.[citation needed] These can then be made in a neutral color and hung on walls ...
The aim of simulation is to accurately target or localize the volume which is to be treated. This technique is well established ... CT-based planning allows physicians to more accurately determine the dose distribution using axial tomographic images of the ... Percentage depth dose curve. *Radiation oncologist. *Radiation Therapist. *Radiation treatment planning. *Radiopharmacology ...
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database. ... 3 October 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late ...
... and the percentage free scale (length of free scale as a percentage of the total length of the scale) were most useful in this ... Yeh and Arnott (1986)[19] pointed out the difficulties of estimating accurately the degree of introgression between white and ...
C ratio can be accurately measured by mass spectrometry.[16] Typical values of δ13C have been found by experiment for many ... C for the northern and southern hemispheres, showing percentage excess above pre-bomb levels. The Partial Test Ban Treaty went ...
A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb ... This is the first device created to accurately measure and characterize light (intensity, spectrum, timing, and duration) ...
Official development assistance as a percentage of gross national income contributed by the top 10 DAC countries is as follows ... Considering transparency, the amount of aid that is recorded accurately has risen from 42% in 2005 to 48% in 2007.[19] ... Peter Singer argues that over the last three decades, "aid has added around one percentage point to the annual growth rate of ... Western nations should donate a percentage of their GDP as determined by the UN, and pump money into helping impoverished ...
When covaried for intracranial volume, height, and weight, Kelly (2007) indicates women have a higher percentage of gray matter ... "Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus ... whereas men have a higher percentage of white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. There is high variability between individuals in ...
The introduction of new products is also difficult to measure accurately and is not reflected in GDP despite the fact that it ... Percentage living in poverty. *Human Capital Index. *Household income. *Social Progress Index ...
This level of "noise" is measured as a percentage of "total harmonic distortion of the current" (THDI). Classic UPS rectifiers ... Due to the interface charge, brief UPS self-test functions lasting only a few seconds may not accurately reflect the true ...
The lower line of text simulates the acuity of vision with the relative acuity percentages. The difficulty of recognizing text ... to the extent that it is impossible for an experimenter to perceive and record the data fully and accurately without ... due to the difficulty of keeping all parts of the equipment perfectly aligned throughout a trial and accurately compensating ...
C ratio can be accurately measured by mass spectrometry.[21] Typical values of δ13C have been found by experiment for many ... The data on carbon percentages in each part of the reservoir is drawn from an estimate of reservoir carbon for the mid-1990s; ... as accurately as possible has been a goal of geologists for much of the 20th century.[95][96] At Two Creeks, in Wisconsin, a ...
The content now described as "mathematical coincidence" would perhaps be more accurately described as "mathematical curiosity". ... something like the simple percentage error to say how close the coincidence is might be OK, but including a numerical ...
Ingredients include game and beef, usually mixed with pork or lamb and with a high percentage of fat. Coriander and vinegar are ... and spiced to replicate the taste and texture of meat as accurately as possible; others such as the Glamorgan sausage rely on ...
Bra maker Triumph conducted a survey in 2007 to determine the percentage of women wearing four cup sizes, and found that 57% of ... fashion and bra-fitting practices combine to make those women who most need supportive bras the least likely to get accurately ... Research by plastic surgeons has suggested that bra size is imprecise because breast volume is not calculated accurately: .mw- ...
... and whether the fact that often only 3 of the 12 scales vary over time gives enough subtlety to accurately measure outcomes of ... compared to the percentage of people who are rating individuals described as being "troubled".[180] ... Former US First Lady Rosalynn Carter began the fellowships not only to train reporters in how to sensitively and accurately ... A US national survey found that a higher percentage of people rate individuals described as displaying the characteristics of a ...
If debt is above this threshold, each additional percentage point of debt costs 0.017 percentage points of annual real growth. ... A problem with these implicit government insurance liabilities is that it is hard to cost them accurately, since the amounts of ... reduced future annual economic growth by 0.02 percentage points for each percentage point of debt above the threshold.[25][26] ... the loss in annual real growth with each additional percentage point in public debt amounts to 0.02 percentage points.. ...
Simulation accurately describes a cast component's quality up-front before production starts. The casting rigging can be ... These rulers are mainly referred to by their percentage change. A pattern made to match an existing part would be made as ...
In this case, every other weekend custody percentage will be 17%.. Overnights Custody Percentage. Consider the above example. ... How to Accurately Determine Custodial Time. by Willick Law Group , Oct 21, 2020 , Lawyers Blog , 0 comments ... Thus, consider the 52 annual overnights then divide this by the number of days (a leap year can change the percentage). For 365 ... To get the percentage custody, youll divide this amount by 8,760 hours that constitute a year. ...
to a percentage basis.. FIGS. 8A-8B. illustrate examples of tailoring correlation analysis to observed levels of correlation to ... Methods and devices for accurately classifying cardiac activity. US8825145. Mar 14, 2013. Sep 2, 2014. Medtronic, Inc.. Beat- ... Methods and devices for accurately classifying cardiac activity. US8929977. Dec 4, 2013. Jan 6, 2015. Cameron Health, Inc.. ... Methods and devices for accurately classifying cardiac activity. US8954136. Aug 8, 2014. Feb 10, 2015. Cameron Health, Inc.. ...
There are several more complicated procedures that more accurately determine body fat percentage. Some, referred to as ... Child body fat percentage. =. 1.51. ×. BMI. −. 0.70. ×. age. −. 3.6. ×. sex. +. 1.4. {\displaystyle {\text{Child body fat ... Adult body fat percentage. =. 1.20. ×. BMI. +. 0.23. ×. age. −. 10.8. ×. sex. −. 5.4. {\displaystyle {\text{Adult body fat ... Adult) body fat percentage. =. 1.39. ×. BMI. +. 0.16. ×. age. −. 10.34. ×. gender. −. 9. {\displaystyle {\text{(Adult) body fat ...
Calculate Body Fat Percentage Accurately How to. Decide Whether or Not to Have a Baby ... but is indicative of the difficulty of accurately predicting height in the face of so many variables. ...
Values reported are percentage or mean ± standard deviation of patients with the finding. ... MELD accurately predicts mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis†. Authors. *. Winston Dunn,. *Advanced Liver Disease ... these limitations in accurately detecting the presence or absence of these physical examination parameters was a major reason ... 13-16 Because of the ability of MELD to accurately stratify patients according to mortality risk, it has now replaced the Child ...
What separates them is how quickly, accurately, and reliably they perform this task. 3AC 1 4 A I E C 3AC 1 4 A I E C C F 8 M ... Stability is expressed as ± percentage of URL per unit of time. Example: ±0.1% of URL / 7 years. 23 FLOW-TECH , WWW. ... Accurately measuring pressure is a powerful piece of process data. Ultimately, the drive of any good pressure transmitter is to ... Accurately is defined in the Reference Accuracy of Calibrated Span. Reference accuracy includes terminal based linearity, ...
Do official statistics accurately reflect the level of catch and effort?. Estimated percentage of overall catch ... Do official statistics, in your opinion, accurately reflect the level of catch and effort that is taking place in this country/ ... Such statistics cannot be used to influence management decisions as there is no way to accurately predict catch quantity or ...
Sensitivity is the percentage of accurately diagnosed NET cases. All participants underwent conventional imaging with either ... The reported values indicate the specificity of 68Ga-DOTATOC, which is the percentage of tumors detected by conventional ...
However, a high percentage of U.S.-born TST-positive patients suggests recent transmission was likely. Finally, obtaining exact ... First, accurately quantifying varying levels of exposure, especially among workplace contacts, was not possible. Beyond ...
Study Shows Amazons AI-Powered Halo App Can Accurately Assess Body Fat Percentage. ...
Study Shows Amazons AI-Powered Halo App Can Accurately Assess Body Fat Percentage. ...
Portland, USA). The percentage of haemolysis in erythrocytes was determined spettrophotometrically at 540nm. The methemoglobin ... The measurement of the absorbance due this azo-chromophore accurately determines NO2- concentration. For the determination of ...
Percentage of cancer on biopsy cores accurately predicts extracapsular extension and biochemical relapse after radical ... Determination of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen helps to avoid unnecessary biopsies in men with normal rectal ...
The percentage of men who did not accurately know their status dropped depending on how recently they were tested. Among those ... Sexual risk lower among U.S. gay and bisexual men who accurately know their HIV status. A new analysis of data from 20 major U. ... However, men who accurately knew they were HIV positive were 60 percent less likely to report recent unprotected anal sex with ... The report also provides an analysis of sexual risk over time, finding that the percentage of MSM reporting unprotected anal ...
e is percentage, put into decimal form (for example, 3% = 0.03).. The z-score is the number of standard deviations a given ... The probability that your sample accurately reflects the attitudes of your population. The industry standard is 95%.Confidence ... Margin of error: A percentage that tells you how much you can expect your survey results to reflect the views of the overall ... The range (measured as a percentage) that your populations responses may deviate from your samples.Margin of Error (%):. ...
New Equation Accurately Predicts Body Fat Percentage. WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28 (HealthDay News) -- A new prediction equation ... Serial Change in hsTnI or cTnI Accurately Rule In/Out AMI. TUESDAY, Dec. 27 (HealthDay News) -- For patients admitted with ... estimates body fat percentage (BF%) in adults with a low error rate and acceptable accuracy and may be a good first-screening ...
The enrollment strategy had aimed for a high-risk cohort; accordingly, the percentages of subjects with risk factors were high. ... Coronary Calcium Does Not Accurately Predict Near-Term Future Coronary Events in High-Risk Adults. Robert C. Detrano, Nathan D ... Coronary Calcium Does Not Accurately Predict Near-Term Future Coronary Events in High-Risk Adults ... Coronary Calcium Does Not Accurately Predict Near-Term Future Coronary Events in High-Risk Adults ...
The product name should accurately describe the contents and adhere to the "percentage" rules. The "95%" rule requires that if ... The guaranteed analysis ensures minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat and maximum percentages of crude fiber and ...
You can accurately describe how fractions are related to decimals and percentages. You can convert fractions to decimals and ... You know how fractions are related to decimals and percentages. You can convert fractions to decimals.. 2 points. You have a ... and percentages; how to convert fractions to decimals.. 0 points. You may have heard of the following before, but you do not ... and percentages; how to convert fractions to decimals.. 1 point. You have some major problems or misunderstandings with one or ...
How accurately will a fecal test find early stage colon cancer? The one that looks for cancer blood markers. Please help!! ...
What is a Healthy Body Fat Percentage? • Why Being Healthy Is More Important Than Being Slim • Making Healthy Lifestyle Changes ... What is a Healthy Body Fat Percentage? by Michael Greeves. Body fat is something that most people cringe at. The truth is, body ... Being able to accurately weigh benefits and risks when maki.... Similar Editorials : Living a Healthy Life ...
It accurately measures weight, body fat percentage, and heart rate. The free app can help you visualize trends and set goals so ... to accurately track your weight, BMI, lean mass, and body fat percentage. It is easy to set up and automatically recognizes up ...
N = population size • e = Margin of error (percentage in decimal form) • z = z-score The z-score is the number of standard ... Confidence level (%) ? The probability that your sample accurately reflects the attitudes of your population. The industry ... Margin of error: A percentage that tells you how much you can expect your survey results to reflect the views of the overall ... Margin of error (%) ? The range (measured as a percentage) that your populations responses may deviate from your samples. ...
Thus, 87% (n = 547) of the stems have been measured accurately. Data of stem planning accuracy are presented in Table 2. ... One reason for the higher percentage of accurate stem plannings might be the surgical procedure. The correct position and size ... With respect to the present data, higher levels of experience lead to a statistically significant higher percentage of adequate ...
Many current chargers show charging percentage pretty accurately. There is nothing extraordinary about it - they just measure ... Many current chargers show charging percentage pretty accurately. There is nothing extraordinary about it - they just measure ... It does not allow to accurately estimate total cell capacity, but that is completely unnecessary for the purpose.. Examples:. ... There are no consumer-level chargers that can quickly and accurately measure SOC in general, i.e. for arbitrary cells in ...
What Percentage of Americans are Gay?. To answer that question, we need to make an estimate as to the gay population. This, of ... course, is not easily done accurately. Various estimates have been made over the years ranging from 10% to 1%, with the ... An estimation of the total number of gay people is also difficult, even if one were able to have definitive percentages. Do we ... Although this is based on assumptions, by applying the above percentages it is reasonable to state that there are at least 5.3 ...
As I age that percentage of likelihood will rise. Eventually, it will be very near 100%. Thats life. Or more accurately, ... Get off statins right away, unless you are in the infinitely small percentage who have a special condition. Sounds like you are ...
Use the percentage method of income tax calculation to complete the following payroll roster. Marital Withhold... ... In each case, label the axes accurately and identify the per.... Trigonometry (MindTap Course List) ...
  • If the findings can be extrapolated to accurately predict the risk o. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If the findings can be extrapolated to accurately predict the risk of arrhythmia-related sudden death, MRI could soon turn out to be a gold standard in the screening of high-risk cardiac patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There have also been studies looking at whether the percentage of mosaicism can predict things, such as the baby's IQ or whether there will be a heart defect. (chkd.org)
  • These studies show that the percentage of mosaicism doesn't accurately predict outcome. (chkd.org)
  • Google is a very dynamic environment and it's hard to accurately predict when and if features will be released. (zdnet.com)
  • With the help of SAS' data analysis capabilities, the ministry created a register to accurately predict the prevalence of the condition and help design effective public health policies to support quality clinical improvements. (sas.com)
  • The table below from the American Council on Exercise shows how average percentages differ according to the specified groups and categories: Essential fat is the level at which physical and physiological health would be negatively affected, and below which death is certain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of cells in the muscle may differ from the percentage in the brain, blood, or skin. (chkd.org)
  • The ability to quickly, accurately, and reliably measure pressure is invaluable when trying to control a process. (slideshare.net)
  • Better retention means data can be more reliably retrieved and accurately recorded for effective care. (withings.com)
  • We used population-based data to evaluate how often groups of randomly selected clinical laboratories accurately estimated the prevalence of resistant pneumococci and captured trends in resistance over time. (cdc.gov)
  • At the national level, surveillance accurately reflect an area's prevalence of pneumococcal data can contribute to the development of clinical guidelines resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • While diabetes' prevalence continues to rise around the world, New Zealand's Ministry of Health found that it was difficult to accurately estimate the number of cases in the country since there was no consistent data collection across all general practices and hospitals. (sas.com)
  • A number of methods are available for determining body fat percentage, such as measurement with calipers or through the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • This natural process of inversion, however, makes it difficult to accurately assess the degree of invert sugar that will be produced. (fao.org)
  • In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In females, mean percentage body fat ranged from 32.0% at age 8-11 years to 42.4% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States charts the average body fat percentages of Americans from samples from 1999-2004: In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean percentage of correct answers to questions objectively assessing understanding was 59 % in patients, 78 % in medical specialists, and 74 % in other health professionals. (springer.com)
  • Thus, users are cautioned that analyses of these data to estimate the percentage of antacids used as dietary supplements would not be appropriate. (cdc.gov)
  • I have figured in parallel columns the percentages of decrease of different periods. (darwinproject.ac.uk)
  • What Percentage of Americans are Gay? (boxturtlebulletin.com)
  • Among African Americans, fully 29 percent said that they have no confidence that their vote will be counted accurately. (npr.org)
  • Do doctors accurately assess coronary risk in their patients? (bmj.com)
  • Flour-based recipes are more precisely conceived as baker's percentages, and more accurately measured using weight instead of volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, both cell concentration and percentage of viable cells must be determined accurately and precisely. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The percentage of delayed conversions is the same for all tested versions of the landing page. (clickz.com)
  • So the original baseline had a higher percentage of delayed conversions but a lower overall conversion rate at the end of the day. (clickz.com)
  • A yeast-dough formula could call for the following list of ingredients, presented as a series of baker's percentages: There are several common conversions that are used with baker's percentages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body fat percentage is a measure of fitness level, since it is the only body measurement which directly calculates a person's relative body composition without regard to height or weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • All ingredient weights are divided by the flour weight to obtain a ratio, then the ratio is multiplied by 100% to yield the baker's percentage for that ingredient: Due to the canceling of uniform weight units, the baker may employ any desired system of measurement (metric or avoirdupois, etc.) when using a baker's percentage to determine an ingredient's weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do official statistics, in your opinion, accurately reflect the level of catch and effort that is taking place in this country/island? (fao.org)
  • A percentage that tells you how much you can expect your survey results to reflect the views of the overall population. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Nevertheless, the survey was designed to reflect as accurately as possible the opinions of the broader population. (latimes.com)
  • It also doesn't accurately reflect the value being created. (adexchanger.com)
  • Target-to-background standardized uptake values (SUV) ratio and percentage myocardial radiotracer retention were higher in amyloid patients compared to hypertensive control subjects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Main outcome measures Children's body mass index z score (primary outcome), body fat percentage, waist circumference, physical activity, quality of diet, health related quality of life, self esteem, and body dissatisfaction and parents' body mass index (all 15 months post-enrolment). (bmj.com)
  • Various estimates have been made over the years ranging from 10% to 1%, with the percentage selected usually dependent on the agenda of the ones making the claims. (boxturtlebulletin.com)
  • New maps based on estimates of percentage canopy cover represent the variability of dry dipterocarp forests more accurately than maps of strict classes of habitat. (cambridge.org)
  • Percentage myocardial F-18-florbetaben retention was an independent determinant of myocardial dysfunction in cardiac amyloidosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Interpret clinical pictographs, diagrams and graphs accurately. (edu.au)
  • The margin of error is +/- 4 inches, which may seem like a large amount (consider the difference of ending up either 5'2" or 5'10"), but is indicative of the difficulty of accurately predicting height in the face of so many variables. (wikihow.com)
  • Accurately measuring pressure is a powerful piece of process data. (slideshare.net)
  • A new analysis of data from 20 major U.S. cities reveals continued signs of sexual risk among gay and bisexual men, but shows dramatically lower sexual risk among those who accurately know their HIV status. (cdc.gov)
  • Percentage canopy cover data derived from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor data, validated with field measurements, provide a useful tool for delineating Myanmar's Eld's deer ( Cervus eldi ) habitat. (cambridge.org)
  • Our aim was to evaluate the role of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) percentage variations at 24 hours and at discharge compared to its value at admission in order to demonstrate its predictive value for outcomes in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The report also provides an analysis of sexual risk over time, finding that the percentage of MSM reporting unprotected anal sex at least once during the past 12 months grew to 57 percent in 2011 from 48 percent in 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • The dramatic reductions in risk among those accurately aware of their status underscore the value of testing, however, 33 percent of MSM overall reported not being tested within the past 12 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Last season his pass-completion percentage fluctuated from 37.5 percent all the way up to 77.3 percent. (bleacherreport.com)
  • Due to rounding, percentages may not appear to add up to 100 percent. (fcnl.org)
  • Those percentages are 100 percent, 140 percent and 180 percent. (pcworld.com)
  • Yes, 58 percent say they're very confident that their votes will be counted accurately, but we have 29 percent only saying somewhat confident and as many as 12 percent saying not too or not at all confident. (npr.org)
  • Baker's percentage is a notation method indicating the proportion of an ingredient relative to the flour used in a recipe when making breads, cakes, muffins, and other baked goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • By identifying cells with abnormally high protein concentrations, the researchers could accurately differentiate between tumors and healthy tissue without waiting for stain to set in. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The probability that your sample accurately reflects the attitudes of your population. (surveymonkey.com)
  • A percentage that reveals how confident you can be that the population would select an answer within a certain range. (surveymonkey.com)
  • New Zealand's Ministry of Health sought to more accurately understand the percentage of its population that suffers from the condition. (sas.com)
  • The study shows that F-18-florbetaben PET imaging can accurately identify and differentiate between cardiac amyloidosis and hypertensive heart disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's also sparked concern among marketers regarding their ability to accurately measure display advertising performance. (adexchanger.com)
  • [1] Various theoretical approaches exist on the relationships between body fat percentage, health, athletic capacity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ministry of Health, in collaboration with experts from the New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes (NZSSD), established a Virtual Diabetes Register (VDR) that combines and filters various sources of health information to more accurately determine how many people are diagnosed with the condition, as well as predicting who is likely to develop it in the future. (sas.com)
  • In addition to more accurately predicting the number of people with diabetes, the VDR is used for planning health services and policies. (sas.com)
  • Rabe also said that the breakdown of Democrats, Republicans and Independents polled mirrors the national percentages. (latimes.com)
  • Conversion to true percentages, or based on total weight, is helpful to calculate unknown ingredient weights from a desired total or formula weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total or sum of the baker's percentages is called the formula percentage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Body Water % is the total amount of fluid in the body expressed as a percentage of total weight. (alkalizeforhealth.net)
  • While doctors accurately estimated the relative risk of a specific patient (compared with the average adult) they systematically overestimated the absolute baseline risk of developing coronary disease and the risk reductions associated with specific interventions. (bmj.com)
  • The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that for men, due to the demands of childbearing and other hormonal functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiologically , the percentage of body fat in an individual varies according to sex and age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole-body air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a recognised and scientifically validated densitometric method to measure human body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body composition analyzers can accurately show changes in muscle mass, body fat and body fat percentage. (openpr.com)
  • DSQ or RXQ) may not accurately represent the usage of that antacid. (cdc.gov)
  • That's up 15 percentage points from just two years ago. (npr.org)
  • As a result, Windows 8 calls for three standard scaling percentages that ensure applications written for the operating system are functional and attractive no matter what size screen they are on, so long as they meet the minimum display specs, according to the blog, written by David Washington, a senior program manager on the Windows user-experience team. (pcworld.com)
  • The range (measured as a percentage) that your population's responses may deviate from your sample's. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Thus, consider the 52 annual overnights then divide this by the number of days (a leap year can change the percentage). (willicklawgroup.com)
  • The first parameter to change was the sputum eosinophil percentage (20 days before the loss of asthma control). (hindawi.com)
  • What percentage of Google users actively use the Google Personalized Homepage? (zdnet.com)
  • Or simply because that site has a high percentage of users blocking those ads? (adexchanger.com)
  • This, of course, is not easily done accurately. (boxturtlebulletin.com)
  • Because these scaling percentages are predictable, developers who provide images for each percentage can easily avoid any blurriness or artifacts due to image stretching," he says. (pcworld.com)
  • Our subsequent analysis showed that the original version influenced a higher percentage of committed visitors to return later, and closed some of the performance gap against our simplified challenger over time. (clickz.com)
  • To get the percentage custody, you'll divide this amount by 8,760 hours that constitute a year. (willicklawgroup.com)
  • The amount of scar tissue was measured as a percentage of the thickn. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The amount of scar tissue was measured as a percentage of the thickness of the muscle wall, which is on average about 1 centimeter. (bio-medicine.org)
  • acquire information and to accurately convey messages. (edu.au)
  • The list of censuses is, I believe, quite complete & accurately transcribed. (darwinproject.ac.uk)
  • type is always large enough to read and objects remain large enough to finger tap accurately, he says. (pcworld.com)