Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Weissella: A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oenococcus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE. It is the primary bacteria involved in carrying out malolactic conversion in winemaking.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods: A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Lactate Dehydrogenases: Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Inbred C57BLFatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.MalatesAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.PyruvatesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.ButanonesPropionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.XyloseHumulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.D-Aspartic Acid: The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.GlycogenCondiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Listeria: A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism, while the formation of proteins from amino acids is an ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... Palmitic acid is a commonly studied example of the saturated fatty acid molecule. The overall equation for the substrate ...
Sahlin K (1986). "Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation". Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 556: 83-91. PMID 3471061.. ... Lactic acid[edit]. It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue.[2] The assumption was lactic ... lactic acid, ADP, magnesium (Mg2+), reactive oxygen species, and inorganic phosphate. Accumulation of metabolites can directly ... Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the chloride ions in the muscles, reducing their inhibition of contraction and ...
... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ... It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... The insufficiency of energy, i.e. sub-optimal aerobic metabolism, generally results in the accumulation of lactic acid and ... Sahlin K (1986). "Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation". Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 556: 83-91. PMID 3471061. Jun ...
If the oxygen supply is not soon restored, this may lead to accumulation of lactic acid. This is the case even without exercise ... This normal function is called aerobic metabolism and does not produce lactic acid if enough oxygen is present. During heavy ... Anaerobic metabolism to some degree then takes place in the muscle and this less ideal energy production produces lactic acid ... the second wind to be a result of the body finding the proper balance of oxygen to counteract the buildup of lactic acid in the ...
He and Fletcher showed that oxygen depletion causes an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle. Their work paved the way for ... His study in 1907 with Sir Walter Morley Fletcher of the connection between lactic acid and muscle contraction was one of the ... At the time he proposed that the compound was a dipeptide of glutamic acid and cysteine. The structure was controversial for ... He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901. He was President of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935. Hopkins was ...
Professor Conconi found a point at which aerobic efficiency was overcome by accumulation of lactic acid. At this "threshold" ...
The onset of acidosis during periods of intense exercise is commonly attributed to accumulation of lactic acid. From this ... LDH is measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test (also known as the LDH test or lactic acid dehydrogenase test). ... This leads to the addition of seven amino acid acids to the normal LDH-H protein. The extension contains a peroxisomal ... The LDHBx protein is seven amino acids longer than the LDHB (LDH-H) protein. This amino acid extension is generated by ...
During the first day after death, glycolysis continues until the accumulation of lactic acid causes the pH to reach about 5.5. ... They include proteolytic enzymes, acids, salt and phosphate. Dedicated antimicrobials include lactic, citric and acetic acid, ... Acidifiers, most often lactic or citric acid, can impart a tangy or tart flavor note, extend shelf-life, tenderize fresh meat ... All muscle tissue is very high in protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, and in most cases is a good source of ...
Accumulation of G6P inhibits conversion of lactate to pyruvate. The lactic acid level rises during fasting as glucose falls. In ... and lactic acid. Free fatty acids from triglycerides are converted to ketones, and to acetyl-CoA. Amino acids and lactic acid ... Uric acid competes with lactic acid and other organic acids for renal excretion in the urine. In GSD I increased availability ... A further effect of chronic lactic acidosis in GSD I is hyperuricemia, as lactic acid and uric acid compete for the same renal ...
Another, more promising approach, is the coating of polyalkylcyanoacrylate or poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles ... However, this method is not yet ready for clinical trials, due to the accumulation of the nanospheres in surrounding healthy ... No difference in brain uptake of glucose, amino acids, organic acids, purines, nucleosides, or choline was observed between ... Anti-oxidants such as lipoic acid may be able to stabilize a weakening blood-brain barrier. Neuromyelitis optica, also known as ...
... a key enzyme in lactic acid fermentation. In non-contiguous patients an aggravated form of adolase-a deficiency has been seen ... Lactate accumulation has also been noted in some patients, potentially linked to reciprocal stimulation of pyruvate kinase, ... The conversion of the 128th aspartic acid to glycine causes conformational change according to CD spectral analysis and thermal ... Elevated liver glycogen in one patent was rationalised through an accumulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate leading to impaired ...
... when the pH of tissues decreases due to accumulation of lactic and other acids. The saturated iron concentration in lactoferrin ... N-lobe corresponds to amino acid residues 1-333 and C-lobe to 345-692, and the ends of those domains are connected by a short α ... There are differences in amino acid sequences: 8 in Homo sapiens, 6 in Mus musculus, 6 in Capra hircus, 10 in Bos taurus and 20 ... X-ray diffraction reveals that lactoferrin is based on one polypeptide chain that contains about 700 amino acids and forms two ...
... as concentric contractions which also produce lactic acid have been unable to cause DOMS.[5] Additionally, lactic acid is known ... This accumulation of calcium may activate proteases and phospholipases which in turn break down and degenerate muscle protein.[ ... An earlier theory posited that DOMS is connected to the build-up of lactic acid in the blood, which was thought to continue ... This build-up of lactic acid was thought to be a toxic metabolic waste product that caused the perception of pain at a delayed ...
... delaying the accumulation of lactic acid and by improving the energy storage." A laboratory study in mice found that high doses ...
Aerobic training will not help with lactic acid tolerance however it will increase the lactate threshold. The body will build a ... The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often confused with the lactate threshold. With a higher exercise intensity ... Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins ... It is important to understand the difference between lactate threshold and lactic acid. ...
Due to the lack of oxygen, the cells perform lactic acid fermentation. Since oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor in the ... resulting in its accumulation. Accumulating pyruvate is converted to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase and hence lactate ... If shock progresses anaerobic metabolism will begin to occur with an increased blood lactic acid as the result. While many ... Boyd, JH; Walley, KR (August 2008). "Is there a role for sodium bicarbonate in treating lactic acidosis from shock?". Current ...
The pH falls when muscle is functioning anaerobically and producing excessive quantities of lactic acid (although lactic acid ... This inhibitory effect serves to protect the muscle from damage that would result from the accumulation of too much acid. ... Phosphoenolpyruvic acid is a product further downstream the glycolytic pathway. Although citrate does build up when the Krebs ... Each subunit of the tetramer is 319 amino acids and consists of two domains: one that binds the substrate ATP, and the other ...
... and they must deal with the accumulation of lactic acid due to anaerobic metabolism.[1] Beaked whales have several anatomical ...
Metabolic acidosis may result from either increased production of metabolic acids, such as lactic acid, or disturbances in the ... which is associated with an accumulation of urea and creatinine as well as metabolic acid residues of protein catabolism. An ... increase in the production of other acids may also produce metabolic acidosis. For example, lactic acidosis may occur from: ... ability to excrete acid via the kidneys, such as either renal tubular acidosis or the renal acidosis of renal failure, ...
... and the resulting lactic acid accumulation in tissues and blood during strenuous exercise, constitute a partial avoidance of ...
... an accumulation of lactic acid due to increased cellular metabolism. Activation of the channel causes increased permeability of ... Play media Each acid-sensing ion channel is composed of a 500-560 amino acid sequence, which is constructed into a six ... The specific amino acid residue of aspartate on the extracellular side lumen of TMD2 in ASIC1 has been linked to the channel's ... Acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) are observed to be activated at pH's under ~6 with variability depending on the type of ...
The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different ... where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid. Prolonged fermentation may render the milk ... the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The ... During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed. In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept ...
... to produce a variety of substances including propionic acid, lactic acid, methane, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. The process ... The accumulation of gases within the bodily cavity causes the distention of the abdomen and gives a cadaver its overall bloated ... The skeleton itself is not permanent; acids in soils can reduce it to unrecognizable components. This is one reason given for ... Maggot feeding, and the accumulation of gases within the body, eventually leads to post-mortem skin ruptures which will then ...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are anaerobic. In the absence of oxygen, they metabolize sugar into lactic acid. LAB improves soil ... Mycorrhizal soil inoculation increases soil carbon accumulation by depositing glomalin, which increases soil structure by ... "Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Cho Global Natural Farming. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016. Reddy 2011, p. 41. Reddy 2011, p. 42 ... Four types of bacteria common in KNF include lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and yeast. Mycorrhizae ...
... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ... Azelaic acid is an effective acne treatment due to its ability to reduce skin cell accumulation in the follicle and its ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism, while the formation of proteins from amino acids is an ...
Sahlin K (1986). "Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation". Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 556: 83-91. PMID 3471061.. ... Lactic acid[edit]. It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue.[2] The assumption was lactic ... lactic acid, ADP, magnesium (Mg2+), reactive oxygen species, and inorganic phosphate. Accumulation of metabolites can directly ... Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the chloride ions in the muscles, reducing their inhibition of contraction and ...
Does exercise intensity or diet influence lactic acid accumulation in breast milk?. QUINN, TIMOTHY J.; CAREY, GALE B. ... Does exercise intensity or diet influence lactic acid accumulation in breast milk?. QUINN, TIMOTHY J.; CAREY, GALE B. ...
Lactic Acid Accumulation The Mutagenesis of Lactobacillus Thermophilus for Enhanced L-(+)-Lactic Acid Accumulation Induced by ... lactic acid accumulation from wild type. In conclusion, a mutant strain with improved production profiles for L-(+)-lactic acid ... lactic acid production from wild type. When glucose or fructose was the sole carbon source, the L(+)-lactic acid production by ... lactic acid accumulation, which also had a significant increase from that of wild type (P,0.01). Under different fermentation ...
muscle fatigue can be due to __ __ accumulation. lactic acid. a functional characteristic of muscle fiber type, slow & fast ... lactic acid. lactic acid is produced when bulging muscles (from vigorous activity) compress blood vessels within them causing. ... excessive intracellular accumulation of lactic acid raises concentration of H+ and alters __ __. contractile proteins. ... lactic acid. product of anaerobic glycolysis. fast oxidative fibers. muscle fibers that contract quickly and rely on aerobic ...
Lactic acid production. Production of lactic acid was measured using a lactate colorimetric assay (Kit II K627; BioVision), ... Intracellular fumarate accumulation. Accumulation of intracellular fumarate was measured using a fumarate colorimetric assay ( ... OD was measured at 450 nm and concentration of extracellular lactate was calculated based on a lactic acid calibration curve ... Fold changes were calculated as lactic acid production of trained-unstimulated macrophages relative to untrained- unstimulated ...
The energy due to lactic acid corresponds to 37±3.5 ml of O2 per g of lactic acid increase in 1 l of blood, or 50 ml of O2 (or ... The rate of increase of lactic acid is higher in the less fit than in the athletic subjects, to compensate for the lower oxygen ... On 12 subjects of different muscular fitness the rate of lactic acid appearance in blood, while performing the same ... Lactate accumulation in response to supramaximal exercise in rowers.. *Hugo Maciejewski, Muriel Bourdin, J R Lacour, Christian ...
M4/D2: Disadvantage of the Lactic Acid System. Accumulation of lactic acid which can make glycolytic enzymes acidic. This ... Any lactic acid that has accumulated can be converted back into glycogen M4/D2: Advantages of the Aerobic Energy System More ... P7/M4: Lactic Acid System Most activities last longer than the 10 second threshold of the ATP-PC system. If strenuous exercise ... Lactic acid energy system Aerobic energy system Learning Outcomes For movement to occur, chemical energy must be transferred ...
This can then lead to lactic acidosis, an accumulation of lactic acid in the body. Researchers believe that lactic acid could ... Lactic acid. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) is the main electron carrier in energy-producing cells that ... When alcohol is metabolized, an excess of NADH is made, which produces lactic acid. ... The body breaks methanol down into the highly toxic formaldehyde and formic acid. ...
Wells, JG; Balke, B; Van Fossan, DD (1957). "Lactic acid accumulation during work; a suggested standardization of work ... saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol, and trans fatty acid. From a ... more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and ... Palmitic acid is a commonly studied example of the saturated fatty acid molecule. The overall equation for the substrate ...
The underlying cause is not lactic acid accumulation. is a sign of microinflammation. but sarcomere microtrauma. The muscle ... Peripheral fatigue is caused by the exhaustion of energy reserves and the accumulation of metabolic products in the active ... is used to measure longer term aerobic exercise performance achieved through oxidation of glucose and free fatty acids. ...
We suggest to use the term `exhaustion for force reduction (fatigue) that is caused by combined Pi and ADP accumulation along ... 3), lactic acid (Tesch et al., 1978; Westerblad et al., 2002), pH value (Westerblad and Allen, 2002; Cooke, 2007), potassium ... 2007), the accumulation of Pi as a consequence of ATP turnover accounts for the main reason for short-term force decay. ... Westerblad, H., Allen, D. G., and Lännergren, J. (2002). Muscle fatigue: lactic acid or inorganic phosphate the major cause? ...
The accumulation rate of metabolite i (xi) in the metabolic network was quantified using the following equation:. x. i. =. ∑. j ... were mainly lactic acid, formic acid, tartaric acid and acetic acid. The most abundant product of the fermentation was lactic ... Tartaric acid. Propionic acid. Lactic acid. Acetic acid. Ethanol and other. Total. ... Lactic acid is an organic acid that is popularly employed in many fields and is in huge demand. Polylactic acid plastics ...
... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesnt actually cause the ... It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... The insufficiency of energy, i.e. sub-optimal aerobic metabolism, generally results in the accumulation of lactic acid and ... Sahlin K (1986). "Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation". Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 556: 83-91. PMID 3471061. Jun ...
The result of low-oxygen energy production is an accumulation of lactic acid. When lactic acid builds up in your muscles, it ...
Synonyms include dihydrogen sulfide, sulfur hydride, sulfurated hydrogen, hydrosulfuric acid, ,sewer gas,swamp gas,hepatic acid ... Anaerobic metabolism causes accumulation of lactic acid leading to an acid-base imbalance. The nervous system and cardiac ... Higher concentrations can provoke bronchitis and cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which may be immediate or delayed ... Hydrogen sulfide is used to produce elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, and heavy water for nuclear reactors. ...
Lactic acid accumulation in the tumor microenvironment suppresses 18F-FDG uptake. Cancer research Turkcan, S., Kiru, L., ... The accumulation of 50 nm phosphor nanoparticles in a 2-mm-diameter target can be detected and quantified with subpicomolar ... However, owing to non-specific accumulation of the contrast agent and its efflux from the cells, most of these imaging methods ... We therefore conclude that lactic acidosis-the combination of lactate ion buildup and acidic pH-can increase the heterogeneity ...
Zeng J, Li YQ, Zuo XL, Zhen YB, Yang J, Liu CH (2008) Clinical trial: effect of active lactic acid bacteria on mucosal barrier ... Holzapfel WH, Wood BJ (2014) Lactic acid bacteria: biodiversity and taxonomy. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle ... Masood MI, Qadir MI, Shirazi JH, Khan IU (2011) Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings. Crit Rev Microbiol ... The gut microbiota suppresses insulin-mediated fat accumulation via the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43. Nat Commun 4: ...
lactic acid + G. haima, blood] lactacidemia. (lakt-as?i-deme-a) [ lactacid + -emia] Excessive accumulation of lactic acid in ... Synonym: lactic acidemia; lacticemia.. lactacidemia. an excess of lactic acid in the blood; lacticemia; lactic acidemia. ... lac·tic ac·i·de·mi·a. (laktik asi-dēmē-ă), The presence of dextrorotatory lactic acid in the circulating blood. ...
... slowed accumulation of lactic acid and other neurotoxins; (3) enhanced glucose utilization; (4) modulation of gene expression ... Nakashima, K., and Todd, M. M. (1996). Effects of hypothermia on the rate of excitatory amino acid release after ischemic ... In addition, decreased glutamate accumulation leads to reduced calcium influxes and lipid peroxidation, which then attenuates ... Additionally, slowed metabolism following TH reduces interstitial lactate accumulation and maintains physiological tissue PH ...
Studies on gynecological hydrophilic lactic acid preparations. Part 8: use of chitosan as lactic acid carrier in intravaginal ... Accumulation of zinc by the Lentinus edodes (Berk.) mycelium cultivated in submerged culture.. Jadwiga Turło, Bożenna Gutkowska ... Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol. Tomasz Drewa, Zbigniew Wolski, Marzena Gruszka, Bartosz ... Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats. Lalit Lakhwani, Sudheer K. Tongia, ...
Contains histidine which buffers lactic acid accumulation Powered by TurnTo. Review More Purchases , My Posts ... GU Energy Gel Nutritional Supplements are formulated with all 3 branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine, and ... Formulated with all 3 branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine, and valine ...
Accumulation of a precursor of lactic acid in muscle after epinephrine injections. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 27: 934. ... The role of lactic acid in the development of biochemistry. In Reflections on Biochemistry, ed. A. Kornberg et al., p. 17. ... Lactic acid formation in medullated nerve. Am. J. Physiol. 106:339.. With G. T. Cori. Carbohydrate metabolism. Annu. Rev. ... The glucose-lactic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis. In Current Topics in Cellular Regulation, vol. 18, ed. R. W. Estabrook and P ...
Acetate accumulation enhances mixed culture fermentation of biomass to lactic acid Way Cern Khor (UGent) , Hugo Roume (UGent) ... Electrolytic extraction drives volatile fatty acid chain elongation through lactic acid and replaces chemical pH control in ... Fermentation and recovery of bio-refinery thin stillage to volatile fatty acids with zero-chemical input Pieter Candry (UGent) ... Electro-fermentation production and recovery of volatile fatty acids from thin stillage with zero chemical input Stephen ...
Helps to reduce lactic acid accumulation. Citrulline Malate:. *Reduces Lactic Acid and Ammonia ... Also, we chose not to include the amino acid glutamine since it is not an essential amino acid, and our bodies can synthesize ... Other Amino Acids Controlled Labs Purple Wraath 2.10 Pounds (90 Servings). 4.4 Stars. Controlled Labs Purple Wraath Reviews ... While essential amino acids function cohesively as a group to aid in your training, additionally they each produce a ...
  • Lactic acid may still be behind the burning sensation during intense exercise but new research has confirmed that delayed onset muscle soreness is from microscopic tears and trauma as a result of physical exertion. (verywellfit.com)
  • Normal results for lactic acid are 0.4 - 2.0 mmol/liter with results over than 4.0 mmol/liter considered to be critical. (brighthub.com)
  • The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. (pnas.org)
  • The lactic acid along with carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream as it cannot be cleared through the lungs. (brighthub.com)
  • Fatty acids can only be transported through the mitochondrial membranes bound to L-carnitine. (sponser.ch)
  • Inflammation and fat accumulation are closely associated with obesity, arteriosclerosis, fatty liver, and other chronic diseases. (medindia.net)
  • This potent beta adrenergic agonist plays an integral role in kick starting the thermogenic pathways to maximize energy and fatty acid release. (anabolicminds.com)
  • This is accompanied by accumulation of lactic acid and a fall of pH (increase in acidity), which leads to stiffening and firmness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • http://www.ehow.com/info_10053444_effects-citric-acid-plants.html"The Krebs Cycle, or Citric Acid Cycle, is used by plants to convert various citric acids into phosphates, which serve as a source of energy for the cell. (justanswer.com)
  • 1986. Acid tolerance, proton permeabilities, and membrane ATPases of oral streptococci. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, in the example, lactic acid is formed in response to abnormal circumstances and is not directly formed in the pathways of carbohydrate catabolism. (britannica.com)
  • However, the biofilm character of plaque allows for survival of a diverse flora, including less acid-tolerant organisms, some of which can produce ammonia from arginine or urea to counter acidification. (springer.com)
  • After 48 h, C. albicans did not induce differences in total biofilm formation, lactic acid accumulation (cariogenic phenotype) or protease activity (periodontitis phenotype). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)