A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349)
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. The different clinical types based on symptoms correspond to the presence of a variety of mutations in several different proteins including transthyretin (PREALBUMIN); APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; and GELSOLIN.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
A familial disorder marked by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Relating to the size of solids.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
The amyloid hypothesis points to the cytotoxicity of mature aggregated amyloid fibrils, which are believed to be the toxic form ... due to the accumulation of abnormally folded Amyloid-beta proteins in the brains of AD patients. Abnormal amyloid-beta ... in less dense aggregates as diffuse plaques, and sometimes in the walls of small blood vessels in the brain in a process called ... Tangles are insoluble twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell. Though many older people develop some plaques and ...
It is characterized by a remodeling of arteries leading to subendothelial accumulation of fatty substances called plaques. The ... The multiple and focal development of atherosclerotic changes is similar to that in the development of amyloid plaques in the ... The fibrous plaque contains collagen fibers (eosinophilic), precipitates of calcium (hematoxylinophilic) and, rarely, lipid- ... with aggregate inpatient hospital costs of $10.4 billion. An indication of the role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on ...
... signaling appears to be closely related to the presence of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins, which aggregate and ... The protein, now called mTOR, was originally named FRAP by Stuart L. Schreiber and RAFT1 by David M. Sabatini; FRAP1 was used ... has been shown to function as an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton through its stimulation of F-actin stress fibers ... discovery represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for glycogen storage disease that involve glycogen accumulation in ...
... s form abnormal aggregates of proteins called amyloids, which accumulate in infected tissue and are associated with tissue ... They also polymerise into filamentous amyloid fibers which initiate regulated cell death in the case of a viral infection to ... Beekes M, Baldauf E, Diringer H (August 1996). "Sequential appearance and accumulation of pathognomonic markers in the central ... in which the protein polymerises into an aggregate consisting of tightly packed beta sheets. Amyloid aggregates are fibrils, ...
... called amyloid β (Aβ). Aβ exists in both soluble and fibrillar forms. Misprocessing of APP results in the accumulation of ... Harris EW, Cotman CW (September 1986). "Long-term potentiation of guinea pig mossy fiber responses is not blocked by N-methyl D ... PKMzeta aggregates with limbic neurofibrillary tangles and AMPA receptors in Alzheimer disease". Journal of Neuropathology and ... So-called place cells located in this region become active only when the rat is in a particular location - called a place field ...
... and reducing amyloid beta or alpha-synuclein accumulation. Therapies under study as of 2019 aim to reduce brain levels of alpha ... Goedert M, Spillantini MG (May 2017). "Propagation of Tau aggregates". Molecular Brain. 10 (1): 18. doi:10.1186/s13041-017-0298 ... these are called the prodromal, or pre-dementia, phase of the disease. These early signs can appear 15 years or more before ... and increasing fluids or dietary fiber to treat constipation. Stool softeners and exercise also help with constipation. Excess ...
"Infrared nanospectroscopy characterization of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates during amyloid formation". Nature ... The CEO of Anasys Instruments recognised this achievement by calling it " an exciting major advance" in a letter written to the ... Polymers Polymers blends, composites, multilayer films and fibers AFM-IR has been used to identify and map polymer components ... Deiset-Besseau, A.; Prater, C. B.; Virolle, M.J.; Dazzi, A. (2014). "Monitoring TriAcylGlycerols Accumulation by Atomic Force ...
ISBN 978-0-912423-29-6. Ushiki T (2002). "Collagen fibers, reticular fibers and elastic fibers. A comprehensive understanding ... Within the latter type, the hairs occur in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and ... minute aggregate keratosis) Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (basal cell nevus syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Gorlin-Goltz ... pheochromocytoma and amyloid-producing medullary thyroid carcinoma, PTC syndrome, Sipple syndrome) Multiple endocrine neoplasia ...
... called amyloid β (Aβ). Aβ exists in both soluble and fibrillar forms. Misprocessing of APP results in the accumulation of ... Harris EW, Cotman CW (September 1986). "Long-term potentiation of guinea pig mossy fiber responses is not blocked by N-methyl D ... "Atypical protein kinase C in neurodegenerative disease I: PKMzeta aggregates with limbic neurofibrillary tangles and AMPA ... So-called place cells located in this region become active only when the rat is in a particular location - called a place field ...
The CST3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cystatin C. Learn about this gene and related health conditions ... aggregate) than the normal protein. The aggregated protein forms clumps called amyloid deposits that accumulate in the blood ... In the brain, the amyloid plaques replace the muscle fibers and elastic fibers that give blood vessels flexibility, causing ... The accumulation of these amyloid deposits, known as plaques, does not appear to have any health effects outside of the brain. ...
Aggregates of prions appear to compose the amyloid plaques ("clumps") and fibrils (tiny fibers) seen in the brains of infected ... They are characterized by accumulations of prions, abnormal forms of a protein called prion protein. Unlike viruses or bacteria ... called amyloid precursor protein (APP), is modified into a form called beta (A4). This modified form is deposited in plaques, ... Compared to PrPC, PrPSc has a diminished amount of α-helix and an increased amount of another folding pattern called α-sheet, ...
... sticky fibers called amyloids. Amyloids coalesce into fibrillar aggregates that have a characteristic structure. The insoluble ... and an accumulation of imperfect proteins. Many scientists now believe that accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins ... developed the so-called Gulf War syndrome has risen to about one-third of the 800,000 U.S. forces deployed, and unknown ... Gatti, A. M., and Montanari, S. So-called Balkan syndrome: A Bioengineering Approach. Laboratory of Biomaterials of the ...
It is not only the accumulation of amyloid fibers (made up of aggregated light chains) around the heart muscle cells which ... This seems to be caused by activation of a signaling protein called p38-alpha MAPK inside the cells (click here to see the ... Generally, the more heart-involvement by amyloid, the worse the outcome. This is the basis of the cardiac staging system for AL ... When the heart is filled with amyloid, it becomes thick and stiff. The thickness can be measured using echocardiography (an " ...
Although the origin and evolution of these diseases are completely different, characteristic deposits of protein aggregates ( ... in which the errors of protein folding lead to the irreversible formation of insoluble fibrillar aggregates called amyloids. ... Currently, it is not known whether the presence of amyloid fibers in these pathologies is the cause or effect of cellular ... Accumulation of CAF produced amyloid hydrogel composed of fine nanoscaled three-dimensional protein fibrillar network resulting ...
... suggest that the movement of water molecules could be a marker for the presence of amyloid tau fibres and contribute to the ... The accumulation of individual tau protein molecules into amyloid fibres occurs in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases, ... "Amyloid fibres develop as the intrinsically disordered individual tau proteins aggregate, forming a fibre core surrounded by a ... More information: "Hydration water mobility is enhanced around tau amyloid fibers." PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1422824112 Journal ...
... aggregate) than the normal protein. The aggregated protein forms clumps called amyloid deposits that accumulate in the blood ... In the brain, the amyloid plaques replace the muscle fibers and elastic fibers that give blood vessels flexibility, causing ... The accumulation of these amyloid deposits, known as plaques, does not appear to have any health effects outside of the brain. ... The CST3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cystatin C. This protein is part of a family of proteins called ...
The amyloid hypothesis points to the cytotoxicity of mature aggregated amyloid fibrils, which are believed to be the toxic form ... due to the accumulation of abnormally folded Amyloid-beta proteins in the brains of AD patients. Abnormal amyloid-beta ... in less dense aggregates as diffuse plaques, and sometimes in the walls of small blood vessels in the brain in a process called ... Tangles are insoluble twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell. Though many older people develop some plaques and ...
Amyloid plaques consisting of insoluble agglomerates of beta-amyloid peptide are one of the most obvious features of the ... In Parkinsons disease, the most distinctive pathological feature is the formation of so-called Lewy bodies. They consist ... The accumulation of agglomerates themselves can also have detrimental effect on the cell functioning. ... Neurofibrillary tangles are formed inside the neurons and consist of insoluble twisted fibers of modified protein tau. Normal ...
These plaques are composed of a tangle of regularly ordered fibrillar aggregates called amyloid fibers, a protein fold shared ... Atherosclerotic Plaque the deposit or accumulation of lipid containing plaques in the arterial wall (also known as atheroma). ... Beta Amyloid Plaque an aggregation of Beta Amyloid, a peptide of 39-43 amino acids. Beta Amyloid appears to be the main ... Statin a class of drugs that block cholesterol production in the body by inhibiting an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase. ...
... and the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau. Regardless of the pathological ... and the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau. Regardless of the pathological ... β-Amyloid. The extracellular senile plaques are composed of accumulated small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ) derived from the ... or further grow into insoluble fibers and finally amyloid plaques. The "amyloid hypothesis" is based on the idea that the ...
For example, amyloid plaques in several cases of AD have been reported to contain aggregated PrP [30], [31]. Similar ... Accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates is a hallmark event in diverse diseases. These structures are able to seed their ... This aggregation process is divided into two phases, the so-called nucleation/lag phase and the polymerization/elongation phase ... solid lines). Since nuclei are formed, the aggregation increases in an exponential manner from small oligomers to fibers. The ...
Recently, it has been reported the increased synthesis and accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 in muscle fibers and cultured human ... of ubiquitin-positive multiprotein aggregates containing misfolded proteins in the pleated sheet conformation of amyloid, and ... The 26S proteasome, also called the ubiquitin-proteasome system, is a major degradation mechanism for (i) normal regulatory and ... Increased accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 in sIBM muscle fibers is also an indicator of inadequate protein disposal system. ...
... and applications of diffusion imaging fibers; the effects of neuromodulation using MRI; the use of Pittsburgh Compound B for ... the use of DTI to examine fiber bundle length; the backgrounds, methodologies, ... technology has been developed to help quantify aggregate structural anatomical properties of white matter fiber bundles. ... The paper also reviews what the authors call no-b-zero, or NBZ, approaches, which have been shown to be effective in ...
... aggregates, or by enlargement of individual aggregates, e.g. due to reduced shearing of growing amyloid fibers. The first ... rich domains that facilitate the accumulation of the protein into amyloid-like aggregates. Efficient transmission of these ... The best-studied yeast prions [PSI+], [PIN+] (often called [RNQ+]) and [URE3] are, respectively, self-propagating conformations ... Overexpressed Pin4C forms amyloid-like aggregates, which do not colocalize with [PSI+] aggregates. As expected of a [PSI+]- ...
... oxidized proteins have high propensity form aggregates to build up amyloid deposits inside and/or outside cells [15] [16] [17 ... which is also called as "ceroid" or "age pigment", once it becomes visible in the skin in old people with the naked eye [12] . ... Accumulation of AGEs in specific tissues has been implicated in multiple diseases and age-related lesions such as diabetes and ... particularly the destruction of collagens and elastic fibers, which provide strength and resilience to the skin [2] . These ...
Amyloid-beta (a-beta or amyloid-beta 42) A toxic 42 amino acid peptide that aggregates and forms plaques in the brain with age ... Whats the pathway? I think its probably a bunch of nerve fibers from the brain into the body called the vagus nerve. And ... accumulation of amyloid-beta, and impairment of hippocampal-dependent of memory. "If you look at how amyloid builds up in the ... One of them is a sticky toxic protein called beta amyloid that accumulates in these clumps outside of brain cells. And that ...
As with the rest of the body, the timely removal of waste from the brain is essential to prevent the unchecked accumulation of ... The brain is essentially closed off from the rest of the body by a complex system of molecular gateways, called the blood-brain ... Tau helps stabilize the fibers, or axons, that nerve cells send out to communicate with their neighbors. ... meaning that we believed the brain was producing too much tau or amyloid beta," said Benjamin Plog, an M.D./Ph.D. student in ...
... protein fragments known as amyloid plaques and neuron-choking tangles of a protein called tau. Abnormal accumulations of both ... The resulting neurofibrillary tangles - twisted fibers laden with tau - destroy synaptic communication between neurons, ... Oligomerized beta-arrestin2 plays a central role in impairing tau clearance and the development of tau aggregates (magenta) in ... "This study identifies beta-arrestin2 as a key culprit in the progressive accumulation of tau in brains of dementia patients," ...
"Alzheimers disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid proteins in the brain. These proteins form plaques around ... The call for abstracts has been made for the 3rd International Conference on Healthy Ageing and Longevity, to be held in ... In addition, the transplanted cells also induced an unanticipated reorganization of host nerve fibers within the brain." ... which microglia, the central nervous systems immune cells, aggregate. These microglia appear to be incapable of eliminating ...
The released beta amyloids tend to aggregate with each other and these are called as oligomers. These oligomer molecules are ... These tangles are nothing but twisted fibers inside the neuronal cells. Neuronal cells have what is called microtubules or ... This results in their accumulation between the neuron cells forming hardened protein structures known as the amyloid plaques. ... The beta amyloid is particularly found to be toxic and one of the important factors in the formation of the amyloid plaques. ...
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques are an accumulation of small fibers called beta-amyloid fibrils and are present in the brains of ... Because of the parallels between huntingtin protein aggregates and beta-amyloid fibrils, these results are promising ... Research has also shown that resveratrol activates an enzyme called SIRT1, the human analog of the Sir2 protein, which is found ... to be tested and other substances that have decreased beta-amyloid fibrils have had no effect on huntingtin protein aggregates. ...
Accumulation of insoluble TDP-43 aggregates could impair normal TDP-43 function and initiate disease progression. Oxidation of ... Protein misfolding occurs in AD, manifested by accumulation of abnormally folded beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins in the ... NO• is generated from l-arginine by a family of enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), including neuronal NOS (nNOS), ... Weisskopf, M.G.; Castillo, P.E.; Zalutsky, R.A.; Nicoll, R.A. Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by ...
Bcl-xL forms aggregates in three states, micelles, native-like fibrils, and amyloid fibers, and their biophysical ... Jan, 2012 , Pubmed ID: 22119486 The accumulation of amyloid fibers due to protein misfolding is associated with numerous human ... Surprisingly, such defects, already depicted in the absence of the so-called dimer-specific subunits e and g, were found in a ... Finally, we provide evidence of a direct relationship between the amyloid character of the fibers and the tertiary-structure ...
And the fiber-fiber lateral sites could allow larger aggregate forms -- bonds here can be weakly positive since there are many ... The other option is that the amyloid fiber uses a second docking surface distinct from the dimer interface. This would be like ... A animal with an allele ineffectual in cis but highly active in trans might be called a (carrier species). Note 85% of human ... Scrapie is a transmissible neurodegenerative disease that appears to result from an accumulation in the brain of an abnormal ...
... at the University of Sheffield is using their AF2000 Field Flow Fractionation system to investigate the mechanism of amyloid ... These two diseases are characterized by the accumulation of fibrous material called amyloid in the brain. Amyloid has been ... This is because aggregating species usually adhere to the solid phase of chromatography columns: beneficially in FFF, the ... However, it is clear to all that these proteinaceous fibers are closely associated with the pathology: mutations in genes ...
S1A). These data indicate that the accumulation of fibrils and decrease in number and diameter of ILVs are accompanied by the ... The tendency to aggregate fibrils into sheets or not must therefore be regulated either by inherent features of ... shed light on a critical step of melanogenesis and open an avenue for understanding how pathological amyloid fibers are formed ... Melanins are synthesized by skin and eye pigment cells within lysosome-related organelles called melanosomes. Melanosomes form ...
Many of these disorders are closely associated with filamentous aggregates, such as those containing amyloid, tau, and - ... The Fix: If loss of neural innervation to the muscle fiber is the primary cause for the loss of muscle mass, then muscle fiber ... The accumulation over time of unrepaired damage caused by free radicals has been linked to a host of diseases and has been ... A biomolecule with the same properties as silver halide and other materials used in so-called Transitions lenses would darken ...
... deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid, look like clumps in the spaces between neurons. Tangles, twisted fibers of ... Amyloid-β plaques, the protein aggregates that form in the brains of Alzheimers patients, disrupt many brain functions and can ... and in Alzheimers disease shows up after the initial accumulation of amyloid-β. This sequence of events may be due in part to ... Researchers have now developed a tissue model that mimics the effects of amyloid-β on the blood-brain barrier, and used it to ...
So-called amyloid deposits are an example of this type of protein accumulation. These different states of matter are likely ... 2012) Cell-free formation of RNA granules: low complexity sequence domains form dynamic fibers within hydrogels Cell 149:753- ... hypothesized that stress granules could be a kind of useful aggregate and that misfolded proteins might help stress granules to ... Protein and RNA accumulations can take on multiple forms within a cell.. Kroschwald et al. report that, under healthy ...
  • The CST3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cystatin C. This protein is part of a family of proteins called cysteine protease inhibitors that help control several types of chemical reactions by blocking (inhibiting) the activity of certain enzymes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cystatin C inhibits the activity of enzymes called cathepsins that cut apart other proteins in order to break them down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, a link between cholinergic neuronal activity and the activity of alpha-secretase has been highlighted, which can discourage Amyloid-beta proteins deposition in brain of patients with Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid fibres develop as the intrinsically disordered individual tau proteins aggregate, forming a fibre core surrounded by a so-called 'fuzzy coat'", explains Dr. Jacques-Philippe Colletier, a co-author on the study. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Drs Yann Fichou and Giorgio Schirò of the research team were surprised to observe that the amyloid fibres formed after tau aggregation showed enhanced water mobility in their vicinity compared to non-aggregated tau proteins , and explained the additional steps taken. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Again, like in the case of beta-amyloid, the seeds of misfolded tau proteins can be transferred between neurons. (brainblogger.com)
  • It seems that acquiring the wrong form of beta-amyloid peptide or tau protein by the cell through one or another mechanism initiates the process of conversion of soluble proteins into insoluble aggregates, leading to damage to the brain functions in general. (brainblogger.com)
  • Disease-associated misfolded proteins usually organize in β-sheet conformations that tend to form large aggregates and accumulate in different organs in the form of amyloid deposits, becoming toxic and leading to diverse protein misfolding diseases (PMDs), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), Parkinson's disease (PD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D), among many others [1] . (plos.org)
  • We explore in detail the events leading to the loss (curing) of [ PSI + ] by the overexpression of one of these proteins, the Q/N-rich domain of Pin4, which causes Sup35 aggregates to increase in size and decrease in transmissibility to daughter cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • As with the rest of the body, the timely removal of waste from the brain is essential to prevent the unchecked accumulation of toxic proteins and other debris. (eurekalert.org)
  • Abnormal accumulations of both proteins are needed to drive the death of brain cells, or neurons, in Alzheimer's, although the tau accumulations now appear to correlate better with cognitive dysfunction than Aβ, and drugs targeting Ab have been disappointing as a treatment. (usf.edu)
  • Amyloid has been shown to consist of naturally occurring proteins assembled into fibrils, carefully organized thread-like molecules. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it is clear to all that these proteinaceous fibers are closely associated with the pathology: mutations in genes coding for these proteins cause the early onset of the disease and premature death. (news-medical.net)
  • The integral membrane protein Pmel17 is a component of the fibrils, can nucleate fibril formation in the absence of other pigment cell-specific proteins, and forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • Most scientists have agreed that, while many proteins seem to be involved in the disease, two, namely β-amyloid and tau, are critical for disease progression. (prescouter.com)
  • Moreover, the accumulation of these two proteins is characteristic of Alzheimer's. (prescouter.com)
  • That's in part because the relative contribution of accumulation of specific misfolded proteins and proteasome dysfunction to pathogenesis remains unclear. (alzforum.org)
  • Proteins that fail to configure properly are called misfolded proteins (MP). (frontiersin.org)
  • These three proteins thus seem to influence the development and maintenance of neuromuscular junctions by regulating the activity of a fourth protein, called MuSK, which is present on the surface of muscle cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The crucial role of water in amyloid-β(Aβ) fibril proteins is evaluated in several ways including the water's thermodynamic and kinetic solvation effects. (degruyter.com)
  • A variety of amyloid diseases begin as benign amyloid-β monomer fibril proteins which then develop into toxic amyloid dimers/oligomers ( 15 ). (degruyter.com)
  • Namely, both experimental and theoretical thermodynamic stabilities of a series of amyloid fibrils proteins revealed that this structural form is likely to be the most stable one, a stability that can be acquired even under physiological conditions. (degruyter.com)
  • Mutations in the APP , CST3 , or ITM2B gene lead to the production of proteins that are less stable than normal and that tend to cluster together (aggregate). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These aggregated proteins form protein clumps called amyloid deposits that accumulate in certain areas of the brain and in its blood vessels . (medlineplus.gov)
  • NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and aspirin are possible treatments to inhibit the aggregation of proteins (synuclein, beta amyloid) on charged polymers in amyloid diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. (blogspot.com)
  • The amyloid proteins are stacked up in the fibers in a very organized way, so that the same portions of the protein are lined up on each side of the fibers. (blogspot.com)
  • To Quisinostat mouse reproduce the excellent characteristics of natural fibers like wool and proteins, a novel two-spinneret electrospinning technology was demonstrated in this communication, which can generate three-dimensional self-crimp fibers of HSPET/PTT, HSPET/PAN and PU/PAN directly. (fgfrinhibitors.com)
  • Disease, b-Amyloid proteins derived from APP are the main component of neuritic plaques. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Many earlier studies found that prion peptides and b-amyloid proteins activate microglial cells by secreting cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and other neurotoxins. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Analogous to typical inflammatory signaling response such as those mediated through classical immune receptors, b-amyloid and prion proteins activate a common tyosine kinase-dependent pathway. (artscolumbia.org)
  • The proteins the Emory team spotlights are not the usual suspects that scientists have been grinding on for years in the Alzheimer's field, such as beta-amyloid and tau. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
  • Our most notable finding is that proteins involving mitochondrial activities or synaptic functions had increased abundance among individuals with cognitive stability regardless of the burden of β-amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles," the authors write. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
  • Inherited illnesses, so-called "experiments of nature," extend our understanding of genes and proteins we may have thought we understood while opening windows to the heretofore unimaginable. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They arise when proteins in the eye form aggregates due to incorrect three-dimensional structure. (lifeextension.com)
  • There are several factors that cause proteins to aggregate, including oxidative stress and glycation. (lifeextension.com)
  • MERRF (Myoclonus Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers) (maternally transmitted): mutated tRNA-Lys → can't make proper mitochondrial proteins. (caribbeanmedstudent.com)
  • however, in Alzheimer's disease, hyperphosphorylated tau accumulates as paired helical filaments that in turn aggregate into masses inside nerve cell bodies known as neurofibrillary tangles and as dystrophic neurites associated with amyloid plaques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are clearly visible by microscopy in AD brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease - amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles - are typically observed in the brain of patients with this condition. (brainblogger.com)
  • Neurofibrillary tangles are formed inside the neurons and consist of insoluble twisted fibers of modified protein tau. (brainblogger.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by the deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau. (frontiersin.org)
  • The resulting neurofibrillary tangles - twisted fibers laden with tau - destroy synaptic communication between neurons, eventually killing the brain cells. (usf.edu)
  • At critical levels in the brain tissue, β-amyloid aggregates into plaque, disrupting cell function, while tau forms neurofibrillary tangles, thus blocking neuronal transport systems. (prescouter.com)
  • Another abnormal protein aggregate, called a neurofibrillary tangle, also accumulates in the Alzheimer's disease brain. (brainfacts.org)
  • Q: You have been demonstrating an increased appreciation for the role of neurofibrillary tangles (tangled aggregates of tau protein) as a potential cause and treatment target resulting in the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • It is also accompanied by the deposition of amyloid in plaques and cerebrovasculature, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles in neurons. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Second, amyloid deposition temporally precedes the formation of neurofibrillary changes. (artscolumbia.org)
  • AD is characterized by two abnormalities in the brain: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. (alzheimersweekly.com)
  • Researchers do not know if amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are harmful or if they are merely side effects of the disease process that damages neurons and leads to the symptoms of AD. (alzheimersweekly.com)
  • however, three hallmarks are commonly encountered: extra and intracellular accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide plaques, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and inevitable neuronal death. (usf.edu)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative dementia characterized by the deposition of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles. (journalofoptometry.org)
  • Amyloid fibrils are made up of aggregated light chains. (amyloidplanet.com)
  • however, at sufficiently high concentration, they undergo a dramatic conformational change to form a beta sheet-rich tertiary structure that aggregates to form amyloid fibrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fibrils deposit outside neurons in dense formations known as senile plaques or neuritic plaques, in less dense aggregates as diffuse plaques, and sometimes in the walls of small blood vessels in the brain in a process called cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using high-pressure freezing of MNT-1 melanoma cells and freeze substitution to optimize ultrastructural preservation followed by double tilt 3D electron tomography, we show that the amyloid-like fibrils begin to form in multivesicular compartments, where they radiate from the luminal side of intralumenal membrane vesicles. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the melanosome fibrils resemble amyloids that form under pathological situations such as Alzheimer's disease and the prion encephalopathies ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Expression of Pmel17 alone in nonmelanocytic HeLa cells induces the formation of similar fibrils within late endosomes ( 11 ), and a recombinant luminal Pmel17 Mα fragment forms amyloid-like fibrils upon renaturation in vitro ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aβ peptides can exist in multiple conformations, including soluble monomers, aggregated soluble oligomers, and insoluble fibrils [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AFM and KPFM images of β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils. (intechopen.com)
  • b) AFM topography and surface potential images of β-lg amyloid fibrils when they are prepared in buffer solutions, whose pH values are pH 3 and pH 6, respectively. (intechopen.com)
  • a) AFM images of amyloid fibrils that are synthesized based on microwave-assisted chemistry using different λ values. (intechopen.com)
  • Quantum dots made from the carbon material graphene prevent alpha-synuclein from aggregating into strand-like structures known as fibrils. (bio-graphene.com)
  • In this work different N-terminus, C-terminus, and Mid-domain antibodies were used against Abeta peptide species (monomers, oligomers, and fibrils) to probe peptide aggregates modification and disruption. (usf.edu)
  • The amyloid plaques found in AD patient brains, which serve as a hallmark for AD, have been found to contain vast amounts of Aβ organized into amyloid fibrils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the hallmark of AD is represented by the accumulation, in the brain, of microscopic extracellular deposits composed of amyloid fibrils of the 40-42 residue-long amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, it is now widely recognised that the severity of the observed symptoms rather correlates with the concentration of transient extracellular assemblies of the Aβ peptide known as oligomers ( olígos = few, merós = parts) [1]. (laboratory-journal.com)
  • Amyloid beta is a short peptide that is an abnormal proteolytic byproduct of the transmembrane protein amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP), whose function is unclear but thought to be involved in neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid-beta, also written Aβ, is a short peptide that is a proteolytic byproduct of the transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose function is unclear but thought to be involved in neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is generated by the cleavage of a precursor protein, and mutations in the gene that encodes amyloid precursor protein greatly increase the risk of developing a familial, early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease in middle age. (elifesciences.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein and the receptors for ApoE-in particular one called LRP4-are also essential for the development of the specialized synapse that forms between motor neurons and muscles. (elifesciences.org)
  • have shown that amyloid precursor protein and LRP4 interact at the developing neuromuscular junction. (elifesciences.org)
  • A protein called agrin, which is produced by motor neurons and which must bind to LRP4 to induce neuromuscular junction formation, also binds directly to amyloid precursor protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • This latter interaction leads to the formation of a complex between LRP4 and amyloid precursor protein that robustly promotes the formation of the neuromuscular junction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mutations that remove the part of LRP4 that anchors it to the cell membrane weaken this complex and thus reduce the development of neuromuscular junctions in mice, especially if the animals also lack amyloid precursor protein. (elifesciences.org)
  • have now shown that amyloid precursor protein can, by interacting directly with LRP4, also activate MuSK even in the absence of agrin, albeit only to a small extent. (elifesciences.org)
  • suggests that the complex formed between agrin, amyloid precursor protein and LRP4 helps to focus the activation of MuSK, and thus the clustering of acetylcholine receptors, to the site of the developing neuromuscular junction. (elifesciences.org)
  • They include the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21 as well as mutations in the closely related presenilin 1 and 2 genes. (brainfacts.org)
  • The APP gene provides instructions for making a protein called amyloid precursor protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the brain, the amyloid precursor protein plays a role in the development and maintenance of nerve cells (neurons). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Additionally, the ITM2B protein may be involved in processing the amyloid precursor protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The APP gene provides guidelines in making a protein called precursor protein that is amyloid. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Minimal is https://datingmentor.org/foot-fetish-dating famous in regards to the purpose of amyloid protein that is precursor. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Amyloid protein that is precursor cut by enzymes to generate smaller fragments (peptides), a few of that are released outside of the mobile. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Two of those fragments are known as dissolvable amyloid protein that is precursor) and amyloid beta (РћР†) peptide. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • The most frequent APP mutation changes one of several protein foundations (amino acids) within the amyloid protein that is precursor. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • These mutations change solitary amino acids into the amyloid precursor protein. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • However, the APP(Amyloid Precursor Protein) and its proteolytic fragments have been implicated more often than not and is the focus of most current studies. (artscolumbia.org)
  • In spite of this, it remains unclear exactly what happens to Aβ in vivo after it is cleaved from the amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amyloid plaques consisting of insoluble agglomerates of beta-amyloid peptide are one of the most obvious features of the disease. (brainblogger.com)
  • Beta Amyloid Plaque an aggregation of Beta Amyloid, a peptide of 39-43 amino acids. (resverlogix.com)
  • It is well known, that the accumulation of the Aβ peptide in the brain is responsible for debilitating diseases, as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases ( 12 ). (degruyter.com)
  • Microscopic examination of brain tissue from people who died from Alzheimer's shows abnormal fibrillar accumulations of a small peptide, termed beta amyloid. (brainfacts.org)
  • Amyloid РћР† peptide is probably active in the cap ability of neurons to alter and adjust in the long run (plasticity). (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Mutations within the APP gene can cause an elevated amount for the РћР† that is amyloid or even to the creation of a somewhat longer and stickier kind of the peptide. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Caused by a few of these mutations may be the creation of a amyloid РћР† peptide that is prone to group together (aggregate) as compared to normal peptide. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Hypothetically, a possible scenario provoking or involved in the onset of AD is a cascade effect that starts with an imbalance in the production and clearance of Abeta peptide that consequently leads to its accumulation, formation of tau protein tangles and neuronal death. (usf.edu)
  • The culprit behind amyloid beta peptide related neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease: oligomer size or conformation? (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result has been the identification of a host of molecular assemblies containing from two up to a hundred molecules of the amyloid beta peptide, which were all found to impair memory formation in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review we discuss the interplay between oligomer size and peptide conformation as the key determinants of the neurotoxicity of the amyloid beta peptide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig. 1: Aggregation of the Aβ peptide from unstructured monomers (A), to oligomers rich in antiparallel β-sheets (B), and to amyloid fibers with cross-β architecture. (laboratory-journal.com)
  • Nevertheless, remarkable structural details can be deduced by interpretation of infrared bands arising from vibrations of the peptide groups of a protein or peptide, such as the so called "amide" bands. (laboratory-journal.com)
  • The extracellular senile plaques are composed of accumulated small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ) derived from the sequential cleavage of APP. (frontiersin.org)
  • The large extracellular plaque aggregates appear to be toxic, but the small, oligomeric aggregate of protein appear to be the toxic form in cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Expression of curli is linked to cellulose biosynthesis, which leads to the production of an extracellular matrix and results in tight cell-cell and cell-surface interactions and in the so-called rdar morphotype in Salmonella ( 45 , 57 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • The aggregated protein forms clumps called amyloid deposits that accumulate in the blood vessel walls primarily in the brain, but also in blood vessels in other areas of the body such as the skin, spleen, and lymph nodes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The accumulation of these amyloid deposits, known as plaques, does not appear to have any health effects outside of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the origin and evolution of these diseases are completely different, characteristic deposits of protein aggregates (huntingtin and α-synuclein resp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Whether these changes may be a cause or consequence of AD remains to be fully understood, but inflammation within the brain, including increased reactivity of the resident microglia towards amyloid deposits, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • In amyloidosis, deposits of amyloid within vessels in the skin and subcutaneous tissues produce increased vascular fragility and purpura. (bostonpads.com)
  • The protein that is aggregated amyloid deposits called plaques that accumulate within the arteries associated with the mind. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Amyloid neuropathy: Amorphic endoneurial deposits. (librepathology.org)
  • Amyloid deposits in the tg mice were very similar to those found in AD and was readily recognized by anti-b-amyloid antibody. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Since nuclei are formed, the aggregation increases in an exponential manner from small oligomers to fibers. (plos.org)
  • β-arrestin2 can also form multiple interconnecting units, called oligomers. (usf.edu)
  • Muchowski hypothesized that mutant huntingtin forms spherical or annular oligomers, and that chaperones prevent their accumulation. (alzforum.org)
  • When the scientists added the chaperones Hsp40/70 right after turning on mutant ht expression, the oligomers never appeared but instead more fibers formed. (alzforum.org)
  • Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is proposed as a cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with Aβ oligomers hypothesized to be the primary mediators of neurotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crenezumab binds to multiple forms of amyloid β (Aβ), particularly oligomeric forms, and localizes to brain areas rich in Aβ oligomers, including the halo around plaques and hippocampal mossy fibers, but not to vascular Aβ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inside it appears that the large aggregates are not as toxic as small clumps, oligomers, of the protein. (blogspot.com)
  • At least one mutation in the CST3 gene has been found to cause hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a condition characterized by stroke and a decline in intellectual function (dementia), which begins in mid-adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CST3 gene mutation that has been identified causes a form of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy known as the Icelandic type. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition that can cause a progressive loss of intellectual function (dementia), stroke, and other neurological problems starting in mid-adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many different types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The various types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are named after the regions where they were first diagnosed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Dutch type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the most common form. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with the Flemish and Italian types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy are prone to recurrent strokes and dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first sign of the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is typically a stroke followed by dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Strokes are rare in people with the Arctic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which the first sign is usually memory loss that then progresses to severe dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, known as familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia, are characterized by dementia and movement problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the APP gene are the most common cause of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the least six mutations within the APP gene were discovered to cause hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a disorder seen as an swing and a decrease in intellectual function (dementia), which starts in mid-adulthood. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • The accumulation of individual tau protein molecules into amyloid fibres occurs in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases, damaging the neurons and preventing effective cognitive functions and mental abilities. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Particularly troublesome are two kinds of cells in the body that generally stop replicating past the stage of growth and development - neurons and muscle fibers. (the-scientist.com)
  • He chose to study aggregation of glutamine-expanded (polyQ) huntingtin, which in Huntington disease forms amyloid-like inclusions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of affected neurons in the striatum and cortex. (alzforum.org)
  • a accumulation of toxic РћР† that is amyloid and amyloid plaques can lead to the loss of neurons together with modern signs and symptoms of the disorder. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • In a laboratory abnormal neurons are stimulated and the irritation produces a protein called synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. (targetwoman.com)
  • In addition, b-amyloid has been shown to be toxic to neurons. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Amyloid plaques, which are found in the tissue between the nerve cells, are unusual clumps of a protein called beta amyloid along with degenerating bits of neurons and other cells. (alzheimersweekly.com)
  • Recent research findings demonstrate that the seeds of incorrectly folded beta-amyloid peptides can be transferred from one neuron to another, thus causing progression of the disease. (brainblogger.com)
  • Also, the range of species that can be analyzed in a single run by FFF is enormous, from small peptides to our larger aggregates microns in size. (news-medical.net)
  • The AD brain is characterized by a number of histopathologic hallmarks, including the deposition of amyloid plaques, which are composed primarily of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has recently been shown that in test tube experiments, NSAIDs also decrease the formation of amyloid fibers from synuclein. (blogspot.com)
  • The final section focuses on the structure and mechanism of formation of amyloid aggregates and comments on the prospects for treating the diseases with which their formation is associated. (jci.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been identified as a proteopathy a protein misfolding disease due to the accumulation of abnormally folded amyloid beta (Aβ) protein in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fundamental to the understanding of Alzheimer's disease is the biochemical events that leads to accumulation of the amyloid-beta and tau-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • the findings, reported in PNAS ( Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America), suggest that the movement of water molecules could be a marker for the presence of amyloid tau fibres and contribute to the detection of Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These pathological fibres develop early on in Alzheimer's disease and understanding the mechanism by which tau aggregates is integral to understanding the disease's development and progression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Beta Amyloid appears to be the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. (resverlogix.com)
  • The effort to find ways to detect and diagnose preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) has taken a big step forward with the use of positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging processes in the body when PET is coupled with a special 'tracer' that can detect clinically relevant aspects of AD when the tracer binds to amyloid plaques in the brain, an abnormality characteristic of AD. (eurekalert.org)
  • One area of interest focuses on identifying 'vulnerability windows' during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Oligomerized beta-arrestin2 plays a central role in impairing tau clearance and the development of tau aggregates (magenta) in frontotemporal lobe degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. (usf.edu)
  • The study focused on frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), also called frontotemporal dementia - second only to Alzheimer's disease as the leading cause of dementia. (usf.edu)
  • Like Alzheimer's disease, FTLD displays an accumulation of tau, and has no specific treatment or cure. (usf.edu)
  • The two primary hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are clumps of sticky amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein fragments known as amyloid plaques and neuron-choking tangles of a protein called tau. (usf.edu)
  • The histopathological presence of misfolded protein (MP) aggregates has been associated as the primary evidence of multiple neurological diseases, including Prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the formation of plaques in the brain by a protein called β-amyloid. (elifesciences.org)
  • Individuals with a particular variant of a lipoprotein called ApoE (ApoE4) are also more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease at a younger age than the rest of the population. (elifesciences.org)
  • Outside the cell, the regions with basic amino acids interact with heparin, and in Alzheimer's disease, for example, the beta amyloid plaque is half heparin. (blogspot.com)
  • Amyloid fibers also form inside cells in the case of the tau fibers of Alzheimer's disease or the synuclein aggregates in Parkinson's disease. (blogspot.com)
  • For more than 25 years, academics, pharmaceutical companies, patient groups, and government-funded researchers have pinned their hopes and their investment - upward of $15 billion - on a single path to treat Alzheimer's disease: beta amyloid. (pharmavoice.com)
  • Since the reformulation of the amyloid cascade hypothesis to focus on oligomeric aggregates of amyloid beta as the prime toxic species causing Alzheimer's disease, many researchers refocused on detecting a specific molecular assembly of defined size thatis the main trigger of Alzheimer's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The team measured and compared the mobility of water molecules on the surface of non-aggregated tau monomers and tau fibres. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In vitro data show that amyloid fibers grow by recruiting protein monomers to fiber ends [14] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Levy E, Jaskolski M, Grubb A. The role of cystatin C in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and stroke: cell biology and animal models. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Every one of the APP gene mutations that cause hereditary cerebral angiopathy that is amyloid to modifications nearby the start of the protein sequence. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • The Piedmont style of hereditary cerebral angiopathy that is amyloid brought on by the replacement associated with amino acid leucine at place 34 aided by the amino acid valine (written as Leu34Val or L34V). (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • In addition, prion propagation requires fibers to be fragmented to create new ends for conversion and to allow efficient transmission of seeds to daughter cells [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • This abnormal cystatin C protein is less stable and is more prone to cluster together (aggregate) than the normal protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although little is known about the process of filament assembly, it has recently been shown that a depletion of a prolyl isomerase protein in the parvulin family accelerates the accumulation of abnormal tau. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal amyloid-beta accumulation can first be detected using cerebrospinal fluid analysis and later using positron emission tomography (PET). (wikipedia.org)
  • While examining the brain of one of his deceased mental illness patients, he observed dramatic morphological changes in the tissue such as abnormal clumps and tangled bundles of fibers. (prescouter.com)
  • Abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias-the heart beating either too slowly or too quickly-are another consequence of ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the brain, the amyloid plaques replace the muscle fibers and elastic fibers that give blood vessels flexibility, causing them to become weak and prone to breakage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is the color curtain in front of the lens and it contains 2 sets of involuntary muscle fibers, one set contract the size of the pupil & other set dilates the pupil Pupil: - It is the dark central spot which is an opening in the iris through which light reaches the retina Nervous layer (retina): - Composed of number of layers of fibers, nerve cells, rods and cones. (bostonpads.com)
  • αS is normally a wavy-like structure but in Parkinson's, the αS protein misfolds forming a toxic clump or aggregate. (genengnews.com)
  • Contradictory studies show that intracellular aggregate formation may be protective, since dimers are more toxic than aggregates. (blogspot.com)
  • The large aggregates outside are toxic. (blogspot.com)
  • Tiny particles called quantum dots reduce symptoms in mice primed to develop a type of Parkinson's disease, and also block formation of the toxic protein clumps in Alzheimer's. (bio-graphene.com)
  • Observing this scientific - literature we can say that some neurologic disease can present common aspect: Accumulation of some metabolic- catabolic toxic substantia and related to the progression of disease and involved with immune system activation. (heighpubs.org)
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathies: a pathologic, biochemical, and genetic view. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Galactosemia at this age is associated with mental retardation due to accumulation of galactose and galactose 1 - phosphate in cerebral cortex. (bostonpads.com)
  • Tangles are insoluble twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAMPA, Fla. (Feb. 18, 2020) - The protein β-arrestin2 increases the accumulation of neurotoxic tau tangles, a cause of several forms of dementia, by interfering with removal of excess tau from the brain, a new study by the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Morsani College of Medicine found. (usf.edu)
  • New brain imaging strategies that may one day be used for diagnosis use a mildly radioactive chemical marker that shows amyloid plaques and tau tangles in living people. (brainfacts.org)
  • These tangles are largely made up of a protein called tau. (alzheimersweekly.com)
  • The reformulated amyloid cascade hypothesis by Hardy and Selkoe [ 2 ] to include oligomeric species . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This aggregation process is divided into two phases, the so-called nucleation/lag phase and the polymerization/elongation phase (solid lines). (plos.org)
  • Aβ aggregation is absent in the FTLD brain, where the key feature of neurodegeneration appears to be excessive tau accumulation, known as tauopathy. (usf.edu)
  • Their most recent work has shown that HSV1 infection in cultured cells triggers β-amyloid and tau protein aggregation. (prescouter.com)
  • Hence, these findings may lead to new treatments for Alzheimer's, as antiherpes antiviral drugs might reduce the levels of β-amyloid and tau aggregation caused by HSV1. (prescouter.com)
  • Curli fibers (also known as thin aggregative fimbriae) are a major factor in adhesion to surfaces, cell aggregation, and biofilm formation in many enterobacteria ( 11 , 36 , 42 , 43 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Elastic fibers contain two unique amino acids called desmosine and isodesmosine, which are involved in cross-linking. (guwsmedical.info)
  • They consist of long, looping or folding chains of smaller compounds called amino acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Whenever these protein fragments are released through the cellular, they could accumulate when you look at the brain and kind clumps called plaques that are amyloid. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • In each case a protein starts to accumulate in fibers that form amyloid plaques inside or outside the cells. (blogspot.com)
  • The term was coined in 1982 by Stanley B. Prusiner, a neurologist at the University of California at San Francisco , who proposed that a new type of pathogen consisting solely of protein is responsible for a school of deadly neurodegenerative diseases called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates is a hallmark event in diverse diseases. (plos.org)
  • The coexistence of misfolded protein aggregates has been described in patients affected by several protein misfolding disorders, suggesting a possible molecular cross-talk between pathological processes associated with different diseases. (plos.org)
  • Postnova Analytics reports that the Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology at the University of Sheffield (UK) is using their AF2000 Field Flow Fractionation system to investigate the mechanism of amyloid formation, a protein mis-folding process implicated to be the cause of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • These two diseases are characterized by the accumulation of fibrous material called 'amyloid' in the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • It is exciting to think that understanding the mechanism of amyloid formation may be a step towards a universal cure since, so far, therapies have only been targeted at alleviating symptoms but cannot prevent or halt the onset of these devastating diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Aging (whatever parts of the decline one is willing to say are not age-related disease) and age-related diseases (the large declines in function that everyone acknowledges are bad) arise from the same underlying mechanisms, the accumulation of cell and tissue damage and the consequences of that damage. (fightaging.org)
  • Paul Muchowski tied chaperones into the growing recognition that large protein aggregates may be a lesser culprit in neurodegenerative diseases than early assemblies, however elusive they may be in vivo. (alzforum.org)
  • He started out by noting that today's version of the amyloid hypothesis-protein misfolding leads to amyloids, and somewhere along the process the cell dies-applies to many neurodegenerative diseases. (alzforum.org)
  • The list of amyloid diseases is long and there are few effective treatments. (blogspot.com)
  • Recent experiments show that facilitating the formation of large intracellular aggregates minimizes the toxicity in animal models of Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), which hydrolyzes cGMP in the inactive form, 5ʹGMP, is present throughout the body and brain and has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for diseases related to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, since their inhibition leads to accumulation of cGMP. (intechopen.com)
  • For many decades, clinicians have been aware of the formation of insoluble protein aggregates in particular diseases. (jci.org)
  • Thus, these data have implications in diseases associated with accumulation of damaged mitochondria such as cancer and/or neurodegeneration. (antibodyassay.com)
  • For the time being, the only safe treatments that focus on amyloid fiber formation are the NSAIDs, curcumin and perhaps berberine. (blogspot.com)
  • This singular focus on amyloid plaques overshadowed other hypotheses and other lines of research. (pharmavoice.com)
  • It is widely held that the heart dysfunction in amyloidosis is the result of amyloid infiltrating the heart tissue - like impregnating the tissue with wax or concrete, making it impossible for the heart muscle cells (myocardiocytes) to contract, and disrupting the electrical circuitry of the organ. (amyloidplanet.com)
  • AD, Parkinson disease, Lewy Body Dementia, Pick disease and other CNS amyloidosis) Neurodegenereative Protein Related Disease (tau-patie), with brain accumulation and interference with many cognitive functions. (heighpubs.org)
  • University of Texas Southwestern researchers may have discovered what they call the Alzheimer's "Big Bang" relating to tau pathology, which refers to the earliest point of dementia. (prescouter.com)
  • In an exclusive interview, Professor Claude Wischik, M.D., Ph.D., executive chairman and co-founder of TauRx Therapeutics and professor of Old Age Psychiatry at the University of Aberdeen, discusses his 30-year journey of tau research, the divergent scientific views on the role of beta amyloid and tau pathology in Alzheimer's, and what success from TauRx's upcoming Phase III clinical trials denotes for the market and patients. (pharmavoice.com)
  • Can we consider waste of immune systems some accumulation substanties' in some brain Pathology? (heighpubs.org)
  • The findings help explain how elderly people with vascular pathology could show similar rates of cognitive decline as age-matched people with amyloid pathology. (memory-key.com)
  • B. Elastic fibers consist of an amorphous core of the elastin protein surrounded by microfibrils of the fibrillin protein. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The amyloid plaques exchange the muscle mass materials and elastic fibers that provide arteries freedom, resulting in the bloodstream to be weak and vulnerable to breakage. (notaioalfredotamburino.it)
  • Moreover, fibrinogen had this effect even in brains that lack amyloid plaques. (memory-key.com)
  • These aggregates are called neuritic plaques and they are found in the spaces between cells rather than in the cells themselves. (brainfacts.org)
  • If you're wondering where Alzheimer's research might be headed after the latest large-scale failure of a clinical trial based on the "amyloid hypothesis," check this out. (emoryhealthsciblog.com)
  • Since the establishment of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, significant research effort has been focused on the identification of specific Aβ species in the brain that could be related to AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • (F) Tau aggregates develop in the locus coeruleus, then in the transentorhinal and ENT regions and subsequently in the hippocampal formation and in broad areas of the NC ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo studies in the PS2APP mouse showed that crenezumab localizes to regions surrounding the periphery of amyloid plaques in addition to the hippocampal mossy fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Longitudinal studies in humans have revealed that accumulation of β-amyloid, thinning of the cortex, and decreased hippocampal volume precedes cognitive dysfunction. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study identifies beta-arrestin2 as a key culprit in the progressive accumulation of tau in brains of dementia patients," said coauthor David Kang, PhD, professor of molecular medicine and director of basic research for the Byrd Alzheimer's Center. (usf.edu)
  • Alpha Secretase can render a non-pathological (non-amyloidogenic) Amyloid Beta (DOI: 10.2174/156720512799361655). (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that similar processes regulate amyloid formation in pathological models. (pnas.org)
  • Although there have been several discussions as to whether OPCA, SDS, and SND comprise a single disease or not, the discovery of the pathological hallmark, argyrophilic aggregates in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes, termed glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), resolved the dispute [ 6 , 7 ]. (e-jmd.org)
  • Apart from these two examples, there is a number of other studies that consider nanomaterials for use in novel imaging methods that can provide in vivo means to detect, or study, pathological markers of the disease, particularly the amyloid plaques. (nanowerk.com)
  • In Gangliogliomas are also found supportive tissue known as stroma, which contain fibers and blood vessels. (targetwoman.com)
  • Macroautophagy involves the formation of subcellular double-membrane-bound structures called autophagosomes that contain degradable contents of cytoplasm materials and deliver them into lysosomes for breakdown by lysosomal enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Hyaluronic acid is found in most connective tissues and binds to the link protein of a large number of proteoglycans to form a proteoglycan aggregate. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Aggregates of the protein alpha-synuclein form clumps known as Lewy bodies that disrupt neuronal function and eventually kill the cells. (asbmb.org)
  • One other thing: Muchowski suspects that oligomer formation may represent an offshoot from huntingtin's major fiber-forming pathway. (alzforum.org)
  • However, recent clinical failures with products addressing the beta amyloid pathway now have some believing that a tau-based product is industry's next best hope for a successful Alzheimer's treatment. (pharmavoice.com)
  • Microglial treated with inhibitors of specific protein in the tyrosine kinase-based pathway successfully blocked amyloid-stimulated secretion of neurotoxins and reduced the number of cell death. (artscolumbia.org)
  • This Perspective first revisits some of the seminal developments in protein biochemistry that led to the idea that protein aggregates contain specific, organized, polymeric structures formed from partly structured folding intermediates by alternative, off-pathway folding steps. (jci.org)
  • The altered Tau function may cause aberrant mitochondria accumulation, oxidative stress, mtDNA damage, and autophagy impairment in the axon. (springer.com)
  • One study on transgenic mice with human APP717(associated with familial AD) displayed subcellular neurodegeneration similar to those observed in AD, including dystrophic neurites, disruption of synaptic junction, and intracellular amyloid and reactive gliosis. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human blood (aka IVIG) is investigated as a possible therapy because it contains a population of antibodies that target b-amyloid aggregates. (uw.edu)
  • Her review focuses on the use of PiB-PET across the spectrum of AD, from the earliest PiB studies where PiB retention in the brain was shown to be higher in patients when amyloid plaques were present than when they were not present. (eurekalert.org)
  • The brain is essentially closed off from the rest of the body by a complex system of molecular gateways, called the blood-brain barrier, that tightly control what enters and exits the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Parkinson's disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in the part of the brain called the substantia nigra. (genengnews.com)
  • Nerve cells in this part of the brain are responsible for producing a chemical called dopamine. (genengnews.com)
  • Beneath the cortex are long nerve fibers (axons) that connect brain areas to each other - called white matter. (deathtodiabetes.com)
  • In article Amyotropyc Lateral Sclerosis and Endogenous -Exogenous Toxicological Movens: New model to verify other Pharmacological Strategies 2018 is reported that: "This work start from some question related neuro-degenerative disease and related other science: in article Brain and immune system: KURU disease a toxicological process was written observing also the different degenerative brain disease, with accumulation we can verify if exist an immune systems role. (heighpubs.org)
  • All are capable of impairing memory formation in mice and their formation and significant accumulation in the brain should thus be considered a potential cause of AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tau helps stabilize the fibers, or axons, that nerve cells send out to communicate with their neighbors. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is thought to be caused by a protein called synuclein found in nerve cells folding into the wrong shape, which triggers a chain reaction of misfolding in nearby synuclein molecules. (bio-graphene.com)