Ocular Motility Disorders
Anterior Eye Segment
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
Corneal Wavefront Aberration
Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic
Lens Capsule, Crystalline
Host vs Graft Reaction
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Education of Hearing Disabled
Dry Eye Syndromes
Lens Implantation, Intraocular
Oncology Service, Hospital
Axial Length, Eye
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane
Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (1/610)PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications. (+info)
Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (2/610)PURPOSE: An association between tonic accommodation, the resting accommodative position of the eye in the absence of a visually compelling stimulus, and refractive error has been reported in adults and children. In general, myopes have the lowest (or least myopic) levels of tonic accommodation. The purpose in assessing tonic accommodation was to evaluate it as a predictor of onset of myopia. METHODS: Tonic accommodation was measured in children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia using an infrared autorefractor (model R-1; Canon, Lake Success, NY) while children viewed an empty lit field or a dark field with a fixation spot projected in Maxwellian view. Children aged 6 to 15 years were measured from 1991 through 1994 (n = 714, 766, 771, and 790 during the 4 years, successively). Autorefraction provided refractive error and tonic accommodation data, and videophakometry measured crystalline lens curvatures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two methods for measuring tonic accommodation shows a significant effect of age across all years of testing, with the lit empty-field test condition yielding higher levels of tonic accommodation compared with the dark-field test condition in children aged 6 through 11 years. For data collected in 1994, mean (+/-SD) tonic accommodation values for the lit empty-field condition were significantly lower in myopes, intermediate in emmetropes, and highest in hyperopes (1.02 +/- 1.18 D, 1.92 +/- 1.59 D, and 2.25 +/- 1.78 D, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001; between-group testing shows each group is different from the other two). Age, refractive error, and Gullstrand lens power were significant terms in a multiple regression model of tonic accommodation (R2 = 0.18 for 1994 data). Lower levels of tonic accommodation for children entering the study in the first or third grades were not associated with an increased risk of the onset of myopia, whether measured in the lit empty-field test condition (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.75, 1.08), or the dark-field test condition (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document an association between age and tonic accommodation. The known association between tonic accommodation and refractive error was confirmed and it was shown that an ocular component, Gullstrand lens power, also contributed to the tonic accommodation level. There does not seem to be an increased risk of onset of juvenile myopia associated with tonic accommodation. (+info)
Human dynamic closed-loop accommodation augmented by sympathetic inhibition. (3/610)PURPOSE: A ciliary alpha-adrenoceptor accommodative effect has been proposed, caused by a small population of alpha1-inhibitory receptors in excised human ciliary muscle. This study was intended to investigate the effect on the closed-loop dynamic accommodative process of modulating alpha1-adrenoceptor activity by topical instillation of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine hydrochloride. METHODS: A group of 10 visually normal subjects viewed a photopic (30 candela/m2) high-contrast Maltese cross, which was modulated sinusoidally (0.05-0.6Hz) and stepwise over a 2-D range (2-4 D). Monocular temporal accommodation responses were measured using a continuously recording dynamic tracking infrared optometer under two trial conditions: after instillation of saline control solution and 50 minutes subsequent to the instillation of 0.27 microl 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride and 0.27 microl 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride. Pupil size and accommodative amplitude were measured at 90-second intervals for 50 minutes after drug instillation. All accommodative measurements were recorded through a fixed 4-mm pupil. RESULTS: A significant reduction in accommodative amplitude (11%; P < 0.05) was recorded, whereas pupil size showed a significant increase (33%; P < 0.05). No significant change in step-response dynamics was observed. However, phenylephrine hydrochloride caused a significant increase in accommodative gain in the low and midtemporal frequency ranges compared with the effect of a saline control treatment. No significant variation in phase lag was observed. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in humans, this study shows that augmentation of the alpha1-inhibitory sympathetic contribution results in increased accommodative gain at low and midtemporal frequencies, which is consistent with findings in animal studies. (+info)
Age-related changes in human ciliary muscle and lens: a magnetic resonance imaging study. (4/610)PURPOSE: To use high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of the eye to directly measure the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction and lens response with advancing age. METHODS: A General Electric, 1.5-Tesla MR imager and a custom-designed eye imaging coil were used to collect high-resolution MR images from 25 subjects, 22 through 83 years of age. A nonmagnetic binocular stimulus apparatus was used to induce both relaxed accommodation (0.1 diopter [D]) and strong accommodative effort (8.0 D). Measurements of the ciliary muscle ring diameter (based on the inner apex), lens equatorial diameter, and lens thickness were derived from the MR images. RESULTS: Muscle contraction is present in all subjects and reduces only slightly with advancing age. A decrease in the diameter of the unaccommodated ciliary muscle ring was highly correlated with advancing age. Lens equatorial diameter does not correlate with age for either accommodative state. Although unaccommodated lens thickness (i.e., lens minor axis length) increases with age, the thickness of the lens under accommodative effort is only modestly age-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary muscle contractile activity remains active in all subjects. A decrease in the unaccommodated ciliary muscle diameter, along with the previously noted increase in lens thickness (the "lens paradox"), demonstrates the greatest correlation with advancing age. These results support the theory that presbyopia is actually the loss in ability to disaccommodate due to increases in lens thickness, the inward movement of the ciliary ring, or both. (+info)
Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth. (5/610)This paper deals with characteristics of accommodation evoked by perceived depth sensation and the dynamic relationship between accommodation and vergence, applying newly developed optical measurement apparatuses. A total of five subjects looked at three different two-dimensional stimuli and two different three-dimensional stimuli; namely a real image and a stereoscopic image. With regard to the two-dimensional stimuli, a manifest accommodation without any accompanying vergence was found because of an apparent depth sensation even though the target distance was kept constant. With regard to the three-dimensional stimuli, larger accommodation and clear vergence were evoked because of binocular parallax and a stronger depth sensation. As for the stereoscopic image, a manifest overshoot (the accommodation peaked first and receded considerably) was found while the vergence remained constant. On the other hand, the overshoot of accommodation was smaller when subjects were watching the real image. These results reveal that brain depth perception has a higher effect on accommodation than expected. The relationship of accommodation and vergence toward the stereoscopic image suggests a reason why severe visual fatigue is commonly experienced by many viewers using stereoscopic displays. It has also paved the way for the numerical analysis of the oculomotor triad system. (+info)
Optics of the developing fish eye: comparisons of Matthiessen's ratio and the focal length of the lens in the black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae, Teleostei). (6/610)Matthiessen's ratio (distance from centre of lens to retina:lens radius) was measured in developing black bream, Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae, Teleostei). The value decreased over the first 10 days post-hatch from 3.6 to 2.3 along the nasal and from four to 2.6 along temporal axis. Coincidentally, there was a decrease in the focal ratio of the lens (focal length:lens radius). Morphologically, the accommodatory retractor lentis muscle appeared to become functional between 10-12 days post-hatch. The results suggest that a higher focal ratio compensates for the relatively high Matthiessen's ratio brought about by constraints of small eye size during early development. Combined with differences in axial length, this provides a means for larval fish to focus images from different distances prior to the ability to accommodate. (+info)
The growing eye: an autofocus system that works on very poor images. (7/610)It is unknown which retinal image features are analyzed to control axial eye growth and refractive development. On the other hand, identification of these features is fundamental for the understanding of visually acquired refractive errors. Cyclopleged chicks were individually kept in the center of a drum with only one viewing distance possible. Defocusing spectacle lenses were used to stimulate the retina with defined defocus of similar magnitude but different sign. If spatial frequency content and contrast were the only cues analyzed by the retina, all chicks should have become myopic. However, compensatory eye growth was still always in the right direction. The most likely cues for emmetropization, spatial frequency content and image contrast, do therefore not correlate with the elongation of the eye. Rather, the sign of defocus was extracted even from very poor images. (+info)
Mechanics of accommodation of the human eye. (8/610)The classical Helmholtz theory of accommodation has, over the years, not gone unchallenged and most recently has been opposed by Schachar at al. (1993) (Annals of Ophthalmology, 25 (1) 5-9) who suggest that increasing the zonular tension increases rather than decreases the power of the lens. This view is supported by a numerical analysis of the lens based on a linearised form of the governing equations. We propose in this paper an alternative numerical model in which the geometric non-linear behaviour of the lens is explicitly included. Our results differ from those of Schachar et al. (1993) and are consistent with the classical Helmholtz mechanism. (+info)
The term "presbyopia" comes from the Greek words "presbys," meaning "old," and "ops," meaning "eye." It was first described by the English physician and surgeon Thomas Wharton in 1655, and has since become a widely recognized condition in the field of ophthalmology.
Presbyopia is caused by a loss of elasticity in the lens of the eye, which makes it less able to change shape and focus on close objects. This can be exacerbated by other age-related changes such as cataracts, glaucoma, or macular degeneration.
Symptoms of presbyopia include difficulty reading or performing other close-up tasks, headaches or eye strain from trying to focus, and blurred vision. Treatment options for presbyopia include corrective lenses such as glasses or contact lenses, bifocal or multifocal lenses, or surgical procedures such as refractive surgery or intraocular lens implantation.
Overall, presbyopia is a common and treatable condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, particularly as they age. It is important for individuals to have regular eye exams to monitor their vision and address any changes in their eyesight over time.
Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too steep, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. Hyperopia is the opposite, where the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina. Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea, which causes light to focus at multiple points instead of one. Presbyopia is a loss of near vision that occurs as people age, making it harder to see close objects clearly.
In addition to these common refractive errors, there are other, less common conditions that can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), and retinal detachment. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
Refractive errors can have a significant impact on daily life, affecting everything from work and school performance to social interactions and overall quality of life. Fortunately, with the help of corrective lenses or surgery, many people are able to achieve clear vision and lead fulfilling lives.
Myopia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Genetics: Myopia can run in families, and people with a family history of myopia are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Near work: Spending too much time doing close-up activities such as reading or using digital devices can increase the risk of developing myopia.
3. Poor posture: Slouching or leaning forward can cause the eye to focus incorrectly, leading to myopia.
4. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking in essential nutrients such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to the development of myopia.
5. Eye stress: Prolonged eye strain due to excessive near work or other activities can lead to myopia.
Symptoms of myopia include:
1. Difficulty seeing distant objects clearly
2. Headaches or eye strain from trying to focus on distant objects
3. Squinting or rubbing the eyes to try to see distant objects more clearly
4. Difficulty seeing in low light conditions
5. Blurry vision at a distance, with close objects appearing clear.
Myopia can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and retinoscopy. Treatment options for myopia include:
1. Glasses or contact lenses: These corrective lenses refract light properly onto the retina, allowing clear vision of both close and distant objects.
2. Laser eye surgery: Procedures such as LASIK can reshape the cornea to improve its curvature and reduce myopia.
3. Orthokeratology (ORTHO-K): A non-surgical procedure that uses a specialized contact lens to reshape the cornea while you sleep.
4. Myopia control: This involves using certain treatments or techniques to slow down the progression of myopia in children and young adults.
5. Multifocal lenses: These lenses have multiple focal points, allowing for clear vision of both near and distant objects without the need for glasses or contact lenses.
In conclusion, myopia is a common vision condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and symptoms can include difficulty seeing distant objects clearly, headaches, and eye strain. Treatment options include glasses or contact lenses, laser eye surgery, ORTHO-K, myopia control, and multifocal lenses. It is important to consult an eye doctor for a comprehensive evaluation and to determine the best course of treatment for your specific case of myopia.
Ocular hypertension refers to an increase in the pressure within the eye, which can lead to various eye problems if left untreated. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive overview of ocular hypertension, including its definition, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.
What is Ocular Hypertension?
Ocular hypertension is a condition characterized by an increase in the pressure within the eye, which can cause damage to the eye's delicate structures, such as the retina and optic nerve. The normal pressure range for the eye is between 10-21 mmHg, and anything above this range is considered hypertensive.
Causes of Ocular Hypertension
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of ocular hypertension. These include:
* Genetics: People with a family history of glaucoma are more likely to develop ocular hypertension.
* Age: The risk of developing ocular hypertension increases with age, especially after the age of 40.
* Race: African Americans are at a higher risk of developing ocular hypertension than other races.
* Other health conditions: Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can increase the risk of developing ocular hypertension.
* Medications: Long-term use of certain medications, such as steroids, can increase eye pressure.
Symptoms of Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension is often asymptomatic, meaning that there are no noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience the following symptoms:
* Blurred vision
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam. The exam includes:
* Visual acuity test: This test measures how well you can see at different distances.
* Dilated eye exam: This test allows your doctor to examine the inside of your eyes and check for any signs of ocular hypertension.
* Tonometry: This test measures the pressure inside your eyes.
* Ophthalmoscopy: This test allows your doctor to examine the back of your eyes and look for any signs of ocular hypertension.
Treatment of Ocular Hypertension
There is no cure for ocular hypertension, but there are several treatments that can help manage the condition and prevent vision loss. These include:
* Eye drops: Medicated eye drops can be used to lower eye pressure.
* Oral medications: Oral medications, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, can be used to lower eye pressure.
* Laser surgery: Laser surgery can be used to increase the drainage of fluid from the eye and lower eye pressure.
* Filtering surgery: Filtering surgery can be used to remove the vitreous gel and reduce eye pressure.
Prevention of Ocular Hypertension
There is no sure way to prevent ocular hypertension, but there are several steps you can take to lower your risk of developing the condition. These include:
* Getting regular eye exams: Regular eye exams can help detect ocular hypertension early, when it is easier to treat.
* Maintaining a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese can increase your risk of developing ocular hypertension.
* Eating a healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help keep your eyes healthy.
* Exercising regularly: Regular exercise can help improve blood flow and reduce eye pressure.
* Wearing protective eyewear: Wearing protective eyewear, such as sunglasses, can help protect your eyes from UV radiation and reduce your risk of developing ocular hypertension.
Prognosis of Ocular Hypertension
The prognosis for ocular hypertension is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to vision loss and even blindness. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of ocular hypertension, such as blurred vision, eye pain, or seeing flashes of light.
Treatment for ocular hypertension usually involves medication to lower eye pressure. In some cases, laser surgery may be necessary to improve drainage of fluid from the eye. If left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to more severe complications, such as glaucoma, which can cause permanent vision loss.
Ocular hypertension is a common condition that can increase your risk of developing glaucoma and other eye problems. While there is no cure for ocular hypertension, early detection and treatment can help prevent complications. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for ocular hypertension, you can take steps to protect your vision and maintain good eye health.
1. Can ocular hypertension be cured?
No, there is no cure for ocular hypertension. However, early detection and treatment can help prevent complications.
2. What are the symptoms of ocular hypertension?
Symptoms of ocular hypertension may include blurred vision, eye pain, seeing flashes of light, and blind spots in your peripheral vision.
3. How is ocular hypertension diagnosed?
Ocular hypertension is typically diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and tonometry.
4. Can ocular hypertension lead to other eye problems?
Yes, untreated ocular hypertension can increase your risk of developing glaucoma and other eye problems, such as cataracts and optic nerve damage.
5. What are the treatment options for ocular hypertension?
Treatment for ocular hypertension usually involves medication to lower eye pressure, but in some cases, laser surgery may be necessary.
6. Is ocular hypertension inherited?
Yes, ocular hypertension can be inherited, and certain genetic factors can increase your risk of developing the condition.
7. Can ocular hypertension cause blindness?
Yes, if left untreated, ocular hypertension can lead to blindness due to optic nerve damage or glaucoma.
8. How can I reduce my risk of developing ocular hypertension?
You can reduce your risk of developing ocular hypertension by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking. It is also important to have regular eye exams, especially if you have a family history of the condition.
Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common vision condition in which close objects appear blurry while distant objects appear clear. This occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light rays to focus behind the retina rather than directly on it. Hyperopia can be treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.
Word origin: Greek "hyper" (beyond) + "ops" (eye) + -ia (suffix denoting a condition or state)
First recorded use: 1690s
Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant. It can also occur in individuals who have been exposed to the parasite through contact with contaminated soil, cat feces, or undercooked meat.
Symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis can include blurred vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and floaters. If left untreated, the infection can lead to vision loss, retinal detachment, and even blindness.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as polymerase chain reaction or serology), and imaging studies (such as ultrasonography or fluorescein angiography). Treatment typically involves antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
Preventive measures include avoiding contact with cat feces, properly cooking meat, and avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb. Pregnant women should also take precautions to avoid exposure, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to the fetus and cause congenital infection.
1. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition in which the eyes do not align properly and point in different directions.
2. Esotropia (crossed eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes turn inward.
3. Exotropia (wide-eyed): A condition in which one or both eyes turn outward.
4. Hypertropia (upward-pointing eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes elevate excessively.
5. Hypotropia (downward-pointing eyes): A condition in which one or both eyes lower excessively.
6. Diplopia (double vision): A condition in which two images of the same object are seen due to improper alignment of the eyes.
7. Nystagmus (involuntary eye movements): A condition characterized by rapid, involuntary movements of the eyes.
8. Ocular flutter: A condition characterized by small, rapid movements of the eyes.
9. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): A rare degenerative disorder that affects movement and causes difficulty with eye movements.
10. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that can cause eye movements to be slow, stiff, or irregular.
These disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily tasks, read, drive, and participate in social activities. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, eye exercises, and surgery. In some cases, medications such as anticholinergic drugs or botulinum toxin injections may be used to help improve eye movements.
There are several types of ocular albinism, including:
1. Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) - This is the most common form of ocular albinism and affects both the eyes and skin. It is caused by mutations in the TYR gene, which codes for the enzyme tyrosinase, which is involved in the production of melanin.
2. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) - This is a rare form of ocular albinism that affects both the eyes and platelets. It is caused by mutations in the HPS gene, which codes for the protein hermansky-pudlak syndrome, which is involved in the production of melanin.
3. Juvenile macular degeneration (JMD) - This is a rare form of ocular albinism that affects only the eyes and is caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene, which codes for the protein RPE65, which is involved in the production of melanin.
The symptoms of ocular albinism can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but they may include:
* Poor visual acuity (blurred vision)
* Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
* Difficulty seeing colors and fine details
* Eye movements that are slow or uncoordinated
* Increased risk of eye problems such as cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal detachment
* Skin that is pale or freckled
There is no cure for ocular albinism, but treatment options may include glasses or contact lenses to improve vision, medication to reduce the risk of eye problems, and surgery to correct eye alignment or remove cataracts. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
Aniseikonia is characterized by an abnormal expansion or contraction of the visual field, resulting in a distorted perception of objects and their size. The condition can affect both the central and peripheral vision, and can cause difficulties with reading, driving, and other everyday tasks that require accurate visual acuity.
Diagnosis of aniseikonia typically involves a comprehensive eye exam to assess the visual acuity and refractive error, as well as imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans to rule out any underlying brain abnormalities. Treatment options for aniseikonia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include corrective glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, or surgery to correct refractive errors or other eye problems. In some cases, aniseikonia may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Asthenopia is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly those who spend long hours working on computers, reading, or engaging in other visually demanding activities. It can also be triggered by other factors such as poor lighting, incorrect posture, and eye conditions like myopia (nearsightedness) or hyperopia (farsightedness).
While asthenopia is usually a temporary condition that resolves on its own after resting the eyes, it can sometimes be a symptom of a more serious underlying eye condition. Therefore, if you experience persistent or severe symptoms of asthenopia, it's important to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.
Treatment options for asthenopia may include taking regular breaks to rest the eyes, adjusting lighting conditions, using artificial tears to lubricate dry eyes, and making changes to your workspace or reading habits to reduce visual strain. In some cases, prescription eyewear or vision therapy may be necessary to address underlying eye conditions that contribute to asthenopia.
Anisometropia is typically diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, refraction, and retinoscopy. Treatment options for anisometropia depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, or surgery. In some cases, anisometropia can be treated with orthokeratology (OK) or corneal reshaping, which involves wearing a specialized contact lens at night to reshape the cornea and improve vision during the day.
Anisometropia is relatively rare, but it can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly in children and young adults. If you suspect that you or your child may have anisometropia, it's important to schedule an eye exam as soon as possible to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Some common types of eye neoplasms include:
1. Uveal melanoma: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. It is the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
2. Retinoblastoma: This is a rare type of cancer that affects children and develops in the retina. It is usually diagnosed before the age of 5 and is highly treatable with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
3. Conjunctival melanoma: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye. It is more common in older adults and can be treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy.
4. Ocular sarcomas: These are rare types of cancer that develop in the eye tissues, including the retina, optic nerve, and uvea. They can be benign or malignant and may require surgical removal or radiation therapy.
5. Secondary intraocular tumors: These are tumors that metastasize (spread) to the eye from other parts of the body, such as breast cancer or lung cancer.
The symptoms of eye neoplasms can vary depending on their location and type, but may include:
* Blurred vision
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness or inflammation in the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in vision)
* Flashes of light
* Abnormal pupil size or shape
Early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms are important to preserve vision and prevent complications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy (removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options may include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells with medication
* Observation and monitoring if the tumor is slow-growing or benign
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual symptoms in your eye, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
The test works by shining a light into the eye and measuring the way the light is distorted as it passes through the cornea. This distortion is caused by the curvature of the cornea and by any imperfections or abnormalities in its surface. The resulting distortion is called a "wavefront aberration."
The CWA test produces a map of the wavefront aberrations in the eye, which can be used to identify specific conditions and to determine the appropriate treatment. The test is painless and takes only a few minutes to perform.
CWA is commonly used to diagnose and monitor a range of eye conditions, including:
1. Astigmatism: This is a condition in which the cornea is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
2. Nearsightedness (myopia): This is a condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
3. Farsightedness (hyperopia): This is a condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
4. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause distorted vision and increase the risk of complications such as corneal scarring or blindness.
5. Other conditions such as presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision), amblyopia (lazy eye), and ocular injuries.
Overall, CWA is a valuable diagnostic tool for assessing the quality of the cornea and for diagnosing and monitoring a range of eye conditions. It can help eye care professionals to identify the underlying causes of vision problems and to develop effective treatment plans to improve vision and prevent complications.
There are several types of strabismus, including:
* Esotropia: where one eye turns inward toward the nose
* Exotropia: where one eye turns outward away from the face
* Hypertropia: where one eye turns upward
* Hypotropia: where one eye turns downward
* Duane's syndrome: a rare type of strabismus that affects only one eye and is caused by nerve damage.
Strabismus can have both visual and social consequences, including:
* Difficulty with depth perception and binocular vision
* Blurred or double vision
* Difficulty with eye teaming and tracking
* Poor eye-hand coordination
* Social and emotional effects such as low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.
Treatment options for strabismus include:
* Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
* Prism lenses to align the eyes
* Eye exercises to strengthen the muscles and improve eye teaming
* Surgery to adjust the position of the muscles that control eye movement.
It is important for individuals with strabismus to receive timely and appropriate treatment to address the underlying cause of the condition and prevent long-term vision loss and social difficulties.
Pseudophakia is considered a rare condition, as most cataract surgeries involve removal of the entire natural lens. However, there are certain situations where leaving behind some residual lens material can be beneficial, such as in cases where the patient has severe astigmatism or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
The presence of pseudophakia can affect the visual outcome and refractive status of the eye, and may require additional surgical intervention to optimize visual acuity. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of this condition and consider it when evaluating patients with cataracts or other eye conditions.
Gastric dilatation can occur for various reasons, including:
1. Eating too quickly or consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time.
2. Swallowing air, which can happen when eating or drinking too quickly or sucking on hard candies.
3. Eating certain types of foods that are difficult to digest, such as beans or cabbage.
4. Medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastroparesis, or hiatal hernia.
5. Inflammation or infection of the stomach lining, such as gastritis.
Symptoms of gastric dilatation may include:
* Bloating and discomfort in the abdomen
* Pain or cramping in the abdomen
* Feeling nauseous or vomiting
* Gas and belching
* Diarrhea or constipation
Treatment for gastric dilatation usually involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating smaller, more frequent meals, avoiding foods that trigger symptoms, and reducing stress. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. If the condition is caused by an underlying medical condition, treating the underlying condition can help resolve the gastric dilatation.
In severe cases of gastric dilatation, surgical intervention may be necessary. This may involve laparoscopic or open surgery to repair any anatomical abnormalities or to remove any blockages in the digestive tract.
It's important to note that gastric dilatation can lead to more serious complications, such as gastric rupture or perforation, which can be life-threatening. If you experience severe abdominal pain, fever, or vomiting blood, seek medical attention immediately.
Preventing gastric dilatation involves maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, managing stress, and avoiding trigger foods. It's also important to drink plenty of water and exercise regularly to promote digestive health. If you experience any symptoms of gastric dilatation, it's important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications.
Astigmatism can occur in people of all ages and is usually present at birth, but it may not become noticeable until later in life. It may also develop as a result of an injury or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery, such as LASIK.
There are different types of astigmatism, including:
1. Corneal astigmatism: This is the most common type of astigmatism and occurs when the cornea is irregularly shaped.
2. Lens astigmatism: This type of astigmatism occurs when the lens inside the eye is irregularly shaped.
3. Mixed astigmatism: This type of astigmatism occurs when both the cornea and lens are irregularly shaped.
Astigmatism can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Blurred vision at all distances
* Distorted vision (such as seeing objects as being stretched out or blurry)
* Eye strain or fatigue
* Headaches or eye discomfort
* Squinting or tilting the head to see clearly
If you suspect you have astigmatism, it's important to see an eye doctor for a comprehensive eye exam. Astigmatism can be diagnosed with a visual acuity test and a retinoscopy, which measures the way the light enters the eye.
Astigmatism is a common vision condition that can be easily corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. If you have astigmatism, it's important to seek professional treatment to improve your vision and reduce any discomfort or strain on the eyes.
Types of Eye Injuries:
1. Corneal abrasion: A scratch on the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye.
2. Conjunctival bleeding: Bleeding in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
3. Hyphema: Blood in the space between the iris and the cornea.
4. Hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eyelid or under the retina.
5. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from the underlying tissue, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly.
6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain, which can cause vision loss or blindness.
7. Orbital injury: Injury to the bones and tissues surrounding the eye, which can cause double vision, swelling, or vision loss.
Symptoms of Eye Injuries:
1. Pain in the eye or around the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the eye or eyelid
3. Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Double vision or loss of vision
6. Discharge or crusting around the eye
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face
Treatment of Eye Injuries:
1. Depending on the severity and nature of the injury, treatment may include antibiotics, pain relief medication, or surgery.
2. In some cases, a tube may be inserted into the eye to help drain fluid or prevent pressure from building up.
3. In severe cases, vision may not return completely, but there are many options for corrective glasses and contact lenses to improve remaining vision.
4. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if there is a foreign object in the eye, as this can cause further damage if left untreated.
5. In cases of penetrating trauma, such as a blow to the eye, it is important to seek medical attention right away, even if there are no immediate signs of injury.
6. Follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are essential to monitor healing and address any complications that may arise.
* Blurred vision
* Redness and inflammation in the eye
* Pain in the eye
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in vision)
* Eye discharge
* Physical examination of the eye
* Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans
* Lymph node biopsy
* Culture tests to identify the presence of Mycobacterium TB
* Anti-TB medications for at least 12 months
* Surgical removal of the affected portion of the eye
* Corticosteroid eye drops or ointments to reduce inflammation
* Antibiotics to prevent infection
* With proper treatment, the prognosis is good and most patients regain their vision.
* However, if left untreated, the condition can lead to severe visual impairment and even blindness.
Dyspepsia is not a specific disease but rather a symptom complex that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:
1. Gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining)
2. Peptic ulcer
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
4. Functional dyspepsia
5. Inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
6. Food allergies or intolerances
7. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menstruation
8. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics
The diagnosis of dyspepsia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, gastric emptying studies, and blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of dyspepsia and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and dietary modifications.
Some common types of vision disorders include:
1. Myopia (nearsightedness): A condition where close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
2. Hyperopia (farsightedness): A condition where distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
3. Astigmatism: A condition where the cornea or lens of the eye is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
4. Presbyopia: A condition that occurs as people age, where the lens of the eye loses flexibility and makes it difficult to focus on close objects.
5. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye has reduced vision due to abnormal development or injury.
6. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions.
7. Color blindness: A condition where people have difficulty perceiving certain colors, usually red and green.
8. Retinal disorders: Conditions that affect the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or retinal detachment.
9. Glaucoma: A group of conditions that damage the optic nerve, often due to increased pressure in the eye.
10. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
Vision disorders can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and dilated eye exam. Treatment options for vision disorders depend on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
Gastroparesis can lead to complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances if left untreated. Treatment options for gastroparesis include medications to slow gastric emptying, antidepressants, anti-nausea drugs, and in severe cases, surgery or gastric pacemakers may be considered.
In some cases, gastroparesis can be a symptom of an underlying condition such as fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. It is important for individuals experiencing persistent gastrointestinal symptoms to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Example: "The patient was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis, a parasitic eye infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite."
1. Refractive errors: Diplopia can be caused by refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Eye alignment problems: Disorders such as strabismus (crossed eyes) or esotropia (eyes turned inward) can cause diplopia.
3. Cataracts: A cataract can cause diplopia due to the clouding of the lens in one or both eyes.
4. Glaucoma: Diplopia can be a symptom of glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve.
5. Retinal detachment: A retinal detachment can cause diplopia due to the separation of the retina from the underlying tissue.
6. Brain injuries or disorders: Diplopia can be a result of brain injuries or disorders such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, or multiple sclerosis.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, and chemotherapy drugs can cause diplopia as a side effect.
To diagnose diplopia, an eye examination is necessary. The doctor may perform a cover test to determine the type of diplopia and rule out other conditions. Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI may also be ordered to examine the eye and surrounding tissues.
The treatment of diplopia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, glasses or contact lenses can correct refractive errors and alleviate symptoms. Surgery may be necessary for eye alignment problems such as strabismus or cataracts. In cases where the condition is caused by a brain disorder or injury, treatment of the underlying condition can resolve diplopia.
The prognosis for diplopia varies depending on the underlying cause. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own or with simple correction such as glasses or contact lenses. In other cases, surgery or treatment of an underlying condition may be necessary to resolve diplopia. In rare cases, the condition can lead to complications such as amblyopia (lazy eye) or vision loss if left untreated.
Preventing diplopia is not always possible, but early detection and treatment of underlying conditions can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. Regular eye exams and monitoring of vision can also help detect diplopia early on. In some cases, prism lenses or glasses with a specific prescription may be recommended to alleviate symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.
In conclusion, diplopia is a common condition that can have various causes and underlying mechanisms. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Regular eye exams and monitoring of vision can help detect diplopia early on, and in some cases, simple correction such as glasses or contact lenses may be sufficient to resolve the condition. In other cases, surgery or treatment of an underlying condition may be necessary. With appropriate management, most people with diplopia can achieve good visual acuity and quality of life.
Here are some common types of conjunctival diseases:
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, often caused by a virus or bacteria. It can be highly contagious and can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
2. Pink eye: This is a common term for conjunctivitis that is caused by a virus or bacteria. It can be highly contagious and can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
3. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, itching, and irritation.
4. Allergic conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an allergic reaction to pollen, dust, or other substances. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and tearing.
5. Contact lens-related conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by wearing contact lenses that are not properly cleaned and maintained. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
6. Trachoma: This is a bacterial infection of the conjunctiva that is common in developing countries. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and scarring.
7. Blepharitis: This is an inflammation of the eyelids and conjunctiva caused by poor eyelid hygiene or a bacterial infection. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and tearing.
8. Meibomian gland dysfunction: This is a condition where the meibomian glands in the eyelids do not function properly, leading to dryness, itching, and irritation of the eyes.
9. Pink eye (viral conjunctivitis): This is an infection of the conjunctiva caused by a virus, such as the common cold or flu. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
10. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, and discharge.
It's important to note that while these conditions may have similar symptoms, they require different treatments and diagnoses. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis or any other eye condition, it's important to consult an eye doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Some common types of eye infections include:
1. Conjunctivitis - a highly contagious infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It can be caused by bacteria or virus and is commonly known as pink eye.
2. Keratitis - an inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It can be caused by bacteria, virus or fungi.
3. Uveitis - an inflammation of the uvea, which is the layer of tissue between the sclera and retina. It can cause pain, sensitivity to light and blurred vision.
4. Endophthalmitis - a severe infection inside the eye that can cause damage to the lens, retina and other structures. It is usually caused by bacteria or fungi and can be a complication of cataract surgery or other eye procedures.
5. Dacryocystitis - an inflammation of the tear ducts and sac that can cause pain, redness and swelling in the eyelid. It is usually caused by bacteria.
Eye infections can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, tonometry and imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment depends on the type of infection and severity of the condition, and may involve antibiotic or antiviral medication, anti-inflammatory medication or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated eye infections can lead to complications such as vision loss, corneal scarring and even blindness.
There are several different types of uveitis, including:
1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.
Symptoms of uveitis may include:
* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.
Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.
There are several types of dry eye syndromes, including:
1. Dry eye disease (DED): This is the most common type of dry eye syndrome and is characterized by a deficiency in the tear film that covers the surface of the eye. It can be caused by a variety of factors such as aging, hormonal changes, medications, and environmental conditions.
2. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD): This type of dry eye syndrome is caused by problems with the meibomian glands, which are located in the eyelids and produce the fatty layer of the tear film. MGD can be caused by inflammation, blockages, or other issues that prevent the glands from functioning properly.
3. Aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE): This type of dry eye syndrome is caused by a lack of the aqueous layer of the tear film, which is produced by the lacrimal gland. It can be caused by surgical removal of the lacrimal gland, injury to the gland, or other conditions that affect its function.
4. Evaporative dry eye (EDE): This type of dry eye syndrome is caused by a problem with the meibomian glands and the lipid layer of the tear film. It can be caused by inflammation, blockages, or other issues that prevent the glands from functioning properly.
5. Contact lens-related dry eye (CLDE): This type of dry eye syndrome is caused by wearing contact lenses, which can disrupt the natural tear film and cause dryness and irritation.
6. Sjögren's syndrome: This is an autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eye syndrome and other symptoms.
7. Medications: Certain medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, and blood pressure medications, can reduce tear production and lead to dry eye syndrome.
8. Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels, such as during menopause or pregnancy, can lead to dry eye syndrome.
9. Environmental factors: Dry air, smoke, wind, and dry climates can all contribute to dry eye syndrome.
10. Nutritional deficiencies: A lack of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet has been linked to an increased risk of dry eye syndrome.
It is important to note that dry eye syndrome can be a complex condition and may involve multiple factors. A comprehensive diagnosis from an eye doctor or other healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.
There are several different types of conjunctivitis, including:
1. Allergic conjunctivitis: This type is caused by an allergic reaction and is more common in people who have a history of allergies.
2. Bacterial conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a bacterial infection and is often accompanied by a thick discharge and redness of the eye.
3. Viral conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious.
4. Chemical conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to chemicals or foreign objects, such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
5. Irritant conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or foreign objects.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness and discharge of the eye, itching, burning, and tearing. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments for bacterial conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory medication for allergic conjunctivitis, and viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and requires supportive care only.
It's important to note that conjunctivitis can be highly contagious, so it's important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup, and not touching the eyes. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The normal IOP range for adults is between 10-21 mmHg, and any reading below 6 mmHg is considered hypotensive. Ocular hypotension can be caused by a variety of factors such as medication use, trauma, or certain medical conditions.
Symptoms of ocular hypotension include blurred vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications, laser surgery, or other interventions aimed at increasing IOP. Early diagnosis and management are essential to prevent more severe complications.
Pathological nystagmus can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination, including a visual acuity test, refraction test, cover test, and eyer movements assessment. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be ordered to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms.
Treatment for pathological nystagmus depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve correcting refractive errors or addressing any underlying brain disorders through medication, physical therapy, or surgery. Other treatments may include eye exercises, prisms, or specialized glasses to help improve eye movement and reduce the symptoms of nystagmus.
In summary, pathological nystagmus is an abnormal and involuntary movement of the eyeballs that can be caused by various neurological disorders. Diagnosis is through a comprehensive eye examination and imaging studies, and treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition.
1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause it to bulge into a cone-like shape, leading to blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: This is a condition in which the cells in the innermost layer of the cornea become damaged, leading to clouding and blurred vision.
3. Bullous keratopathy: This is a condition in which there is a large, fluid-filled bubble on the surface of the cornea, which can cause blurred vision and discomfort.
4. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by infection or other conditions.
5. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, irritation, and blurred vision.
6. Corneal abrasions: These are scratches on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by injury or other conditions.
7. Trachoma: This is an infectious eye disease that can cause scarring and blindness if left untreated.
8. Ocular herpes: This is a viral infection that can cause blisters on the surface of the cornea and lead to scarring and vision loss if left untreated.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an inflammation of the inner layer of the eye that can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, and can lead to severe vision loss if left untreated.
10. Corneal neovascularization: This is the growth of new blood vessels into the cornea, which can be a complication of other conditions such as dry eye syndrome or ocular trauma.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of corneal diseases that can affect the eyes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms such as pain, redness, or blurred vision in one or both eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve vision.
Some common types of eye abnormalities include:
1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, causing blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Amblyopia: This is a condition where the brain favors one eye over the other, causing poor vision in the weaker eye.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and increase the risk of glaucoma.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss.
5. Macular degeneration: This is a condition where the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, deteriorates, leading to vision loss.
6. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
7. Retinal detachment: This is a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
8. Corneal abnormalities: These are irregularities in the shape or structure of the cornea, such as keratoconus, that can cause blurry vision.
9. Optic nerve disorders: These are conditions that affect the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis, that can cause vision loss.
10. Traumatic eye injuries: These are injuries to the eye or surrounding tissue that can cause vision loss or other eye abnormalities.
Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include visual acuity tests, refraction tests, and imaging tests such as retinal photography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye abnormalities depends on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or other therapies.
A type of anxiety that occurs when an individual is separated from someone they have a strong emotional attachment to, such as a parent, child, or significant other. This can be a common experience for children who are separated from their parents, and it can also affect adults who are experiencing a long-distance relationship or the loss of a loved one.
* Feeling panicked or uneasy when away from the person they are attached to
* Difficulty sleeping or concentrating when separated
* Intrusive thoughts or dreams about the person they are attached to
* Avoidance of situations that might lead to separation
* Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with separation anxiety
* Medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, to help manage symptoms
* Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, to reduce physical symptoms of anxiety
* Support groups for individuals and families affected by separation anxiety
It's important to note that while some level of separation anxiety is normal, excessive or persistent separation anxiety can interfere with daily life and may be a sign of an underlying mental health condition. If you or someone you know is experiencing severe symptoms of separation anxiety, it's important to seek professional help from a mental health provider.
There are several different types of glaucoma, including:
* Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma, and is caused by slowed drainage of fluid from the eye.
* Closed-angle glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by a blockage in the drainage channels of the eye, leading to a sudden increase in pressure.
* Normal-tension glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by damage to the optic nerve even though the pressure in the eye is within the normal range.
* Congenital glaucoma: This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth, and is caused by a developmental defect in the eye's drainage system.
Symptoms of glaucoma can include:
* Blurred vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Eye pain or pressure
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights
Glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce pressure in the eye, but may also include surgery to improve drainage or laser therapy to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.
Early detection and treatment of glaucoma is important to prevent vision loss, so it is important to have regular eye exams, especially if you are at risk for the condition. Risk factors for glaucoma include:
* Age (over 60)
* Family history of glaucoma
* High blood pressure
* African or Hispanic ancestry
Overall, glaucoma is a serious eye condition that can cause vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing vision loss and maintaining good eye health.
Open-angle glaucoma can lead to damage to the optic nerve, which can cause vision loss and even blindness if left untreated. It is important for individuals at risk for open-angle glaucoma to receive regular eye exams to monitor their eye pressure and prevent any potential vision loss.
Risk factors for developing open-angle glaucoma include:
* Increasing age
* Family history of glaucoma
* African or Hispanic ancestry
* Previous eye injuries or surgeries
* Long-term use of corticosteroid medications
* Diabetes or other health conditions that can damage blood vessels.
There are several treatment options available for open-angle glaucoma, including:
* Eye drops to reduce eye pressure
* Oral medications to reduce eye pressure
* Laser surgery to improve drainage of fluid from the eye
* Incisional surgery to improve drainage of fluid from the eye.
It is important for individuals with open-angle glaucoma to work closely with their eye care professional to determine the best course of treatment and monitor their condition regularly.
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
2. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. Corneal ulcers can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection that occurs inside the eye, often as a complication of cataract surgery or other types of ocular surgery. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis.
4. Keratitis: This is an infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5. Retinitis: This is an infection of the retina, which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that senses light and sends visual signals to the brain. Retinitis can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Bacterial eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, pain, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments, and in more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a bacterial eye infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
A tonic pupil is a type of pupillary abnormality that is characterized by an irregular, asynchronous, or unstable response to light. It can be seen in various neurological and ophthalmological conditions, including brain injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and others.
There are several possible causes of a tonic pupil, including:
1. Brain injury or trauma: A blow to the head or a penetrating injury can damage the brainstem or other parts of the brain that control pupillary function, leading to an irregular pupillary response.
2. Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders: A stroke or conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, such as Moyamoya disease, can disrupt normal pupillary function.
3. Multiple sclerosis: This autoimmune disorder can damage the nerve fibers that control pupillary size and reaction to light.
4. Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra can lead to an irregular pupillary response, as well as other symptoms such as tremors and rigidity.
5. Other neurological conditions: Other conditions that can cause a tonic pupil include migraine, seizures, and various types of brain tumors.
Signs and Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of a tonic pupil may include:
1. Irregular or asynchronous pupillary response to light: The pupils may respond differently to light, or one pupil may react more slowly or asymmetrically than the other.
2. Unstable pupil size: The size of the pupils may fluctuate irregularly, even in the same lighting conditions.
3. Difficulty focusing: The irregular pupillary response can make it difficult to focus on objects or people.
4. Blurred vision: The abnormal pupillary response can lead to blurred vision and other visual disturbances.
5. Headaches: Tonic pupils can sometimes be associated with headaches, especially if the underlying cause is related to eye strain or tension.
6. Eye fatigue: Prolonged exposure to bright lights or screens can exacerbate tonic pupils and lead to eye fatigue.
7. Difficulty with depth perception: The abnormal pupillary response can affect depth perception, making it difficult to judge distances or navigate stairs.
The diagnosis of a tonic pupil requires a comprehensive evaluation by an eye doctor or a neurologist. The following tests and procedures may be performed to determine the underlying cause of the irregular pupillary response:
1. Visual acuity test: This test measures the sharpness of vision in each eye, including the ability to see objects at different distances.
2. Pupil reflex test: This test evaluates the reactivity of the pupils to light and can help identify any underlying neurological conditions.
3. Eye movement testing: This test assesses the movements of the eyes and can help diagnose conditions such as nystagmus or abnormal eye alignment.
4. Brain imaging: CT or MRI scans may be ordered to rule out other causes of the tonic pupil, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
5. EEG (electroencephalogram): This test measures the electrical activity of the brain and can help diagnose conditions such as seizures or encephalitis.
The treatment of a tonic pupil depends on the underlying cause. Some possible treatments include:
1. Glasses or contact lenses: Refractive errors, such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Prism lenses: Prism lenses can help align the images seen by each eye, reducing the effects of tonic pupil syndrome.
3. Eye exercises: Eye exercises, such as rotating the eyes in a circular motion, can help improve eye alignment and reduce the symptoms of tonic pupil syndrome.
4. Medications: Anticonvulsants or muscle relaxants may be prescribed to treat underlying conditions such as seizures or spasticity.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct eye alignment problems or to remove a tumor that is causing the tonic pupil.
It's important to note that tonic pupil syndrome can be a symptom of a serious underlying condition, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience this condition. A healthcare professional can help determine the cause and recommend appropriate treatment.
The parasite migrates to various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and eyes. In the eye, the parasite can cause inflammation and damage to the retina, optic nerve, and choroid, leading to visual impairment and blindness.
The most common form of ocular onchocerciasis is trachoma, which affects the conjunctiva and cornea. Trachoma is responsible for 2.8% of all global blindness and 9.6% of all infectious blindness.
Ocular onchocerciasis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as PCR or ELISA. Treatment options include antiparasitic drugs, such as ivermectin, which is effective against the adult worms, and surgery to remove inflamed tissue.
Prevention of ocular onchocerciasis includes vector control measures, such as using insecticides to kill infected blackflies, and mass drug administration (MDA) programs to eliminate the parasite in endemic areas.
The exact cause of pemphigoid, benign mucous membrane is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body. The condition is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 20 and 40.
Symptoms of pemphigoid, benign mucous membrane may include:
* Blisters and erosions on the lips, mouth, or throat
* Painful sores that do not heal quickly
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Redness and swelling of the affected area
* Fever or chills
Treatment for pemphigoid, benign mucous membrane usually involves antimicrobial medications to prevent infection and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, immunosuppressive drugs may be prescribed to suppress the immune system and prevent further damage to the mucous membranes.
Prognosis for pemphigoid, benign mucous membrane is generally good if the condition is diagnosed early and treated promptly. However, in rare cases, the condition can progress to more severe forms of pemphigus, a group of autoimmune disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes.
Anisocoria can cause problems with vision and can affect the ability to see clearly. It may also indicate an underlying eye condition that needs to be treated. Anisocoria is diagnosed by an eye exam and treatment options may include glasses, contact lenses, or surgery to correct any underlying issues.
The exact cause of OCD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Symptoms of OCD can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Recurrent and intrusive thoughts or fears (obsessions)
* Repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) such as checking, counting, or cleaning
* Feeling the need to perform compulsions in order to reduce anxiety or prevent something bad from happening
* Feeling a sense of relief after performing compulsions
* Time-consuming nature of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with daily activities and social interactions
OCD can be treated with a combination of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT helps individuals identify and challenge their obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors, while SSRIs help reduce the anxiety associated with OCD.
It's important to note that while individuals with OCD may recognize that their thoughts or behaviors are irrational, they are often unable to stop them without professional treatment. With appropriate treatment, however, many individuals with OCD are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Exotropia is a type of strabismus, or misalignment of the eyes, where one eye turns outward away from the nose. It is also known as divergent strabismus. In exotropia, the affected eye has a tendency to deviate away from the fixed gaze and may turn inward or outward. This can cause double vision and affect the development of depth perception.
Exotropia can be classified into several types based on the age of onset, the severity of the misalignment, and other factors. The most common type of exotropia is intermittent exotropia, where the misalignment is only present sometimes. Other types include constant exotropia, where the misalignment is always present, and vertical exotropia, where the eye turns up or down.
Treatment for exotropia typically involves glasses or prisms to correct any refractive errors, as well as exercises to strengthen the muscles that control eye movement. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign the eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the chances of successful management and prevent long-term complications such as amblyopia (lazy eye).
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Symptoms of chorioretinitis may include blurred vision, sensitivity to light, floaters, and flashes of light. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography or optical coherence tomography, and laboratory testing to rule out other conditions.
Treatment for chorioretinitis usually involves antibiotics or antiviral medication to clear the infection, as well as steroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected area of the retina. Prognosis is generally good if the disease is caught early and treated promptly, but vision loss may occur if the disease is left untreated for an extended period of time.
Library of Congress Classification:Class R -- Medicine
Spasm of accommodation
Prism cover test
One and a half syndrome
Congenital fourth nerve palsy
Fourth nerve palsy
Myopia in animals
Oculomotor nerve palsy
Mitochondrial optic neuropathies
Scleral reinforcement surgery
Blast-related ocular trauma
Christian Georg Theodor Ruete
Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute
Prism fusion range
List of syndromes
List of reflexes
Lourdes Medical Bureau
Laser blended vision
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- Changing accommodation behaviour during multifocal soft contact lens wear using auditory biofeedback training. (sunyopt.edu)
- Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS . (nih.gov)
- Today I'm going to talk about the molecular mechanisms underlying development of the ocular lens, the physiological processes in place to establish lenticular transparency, and the genes and proteins important in each of these processes. (hstalks.com)
- In this, the ocular lens is crucial. (hstalks.com)
- Via this changing of shape, the lens is able to alter this optical power to maintain clear focus on objects of varying distance in a process known as accommodation. (hstalks.com)
- His clinical research is focused on presbyopia and the restoration of ocular accommodation to the ageing eye. (college-optometrists.org)
- Presbyopia is an age-related eye condition where one of the signs is the reduction in the amplitude of accommodation, resulting in the loss of ability to change the eye's focus from far to near. (bmj.com)
- Presbyopia is an age-related reduction in the amplitude of accommodation and leads to the loss of ability in changing the eyes' focus between far and near. (bmj.com)
- Eye doctors use regular eye exams to diagnose and determine treatment for conditions such as ocular disease, presbyopia, astigmatism, farsightedness, and myopia. (clarendonvision.com)
- AGN-190584 also contracts the ciliary muscle, facilitating accommodation. (biospace.com)
- Allergan has launched over 125 eye care products and invested billions of dollars in treatments for the most prevalent eye conditions, including glaucoma, ocular surface disease, and retinal diseases such as diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion. (biospace.com)
- Injury to the eye, or ocular trauma, can also lead to retinal detachment. (medicaleyecenter.com)
- He has extensive experience in the treatment of ocular conditions including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular disorders, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, retinal tear, and detachment. (medicaleyecenter.com)
- These ocular effects are secondary to the localized absorption of GB vapor across the outermost layers of the eye, causing lacrimal gland stimulation (tearing), pupillary sphincter contraction (miosis), and ciliary body spasm (ocular pain). (medscape.com)
- There are significant knowledge gaps in understanding the role the nervous system in maintaining the health of the anterior segment and how disruption of normal nervous system functioning contributes to disorders and disease such as ocular surface pain, itch, inflammation, dry eye and other neurological symptoms such as migraine and photophobia. (nih.gov)
- RESTASIS ® and RESTASIS MultiDose ® ophthalmic emulsion are indicated to increase tear production in patients whose tear production is presumed to be suppressed due to ocular inflammation associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. (allerganeyecare.com)
- Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension is contraindicated in most viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva, including epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, and varicella, and also in mycobacterial infection of the eye and fungal diseases of ocular structures. (medlibrary.org)
- Prolonged use may also suppress the host immune response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections. (medlibrary.org)
- Use of ocular steroids may prolong the course and may exacerbate the severity of many viral infections of the eye (including herpes simplex). (medlibrary.org)
- Ocular or Periocular Infections: OZURDEX ® (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) is contraindicated in patients with active or suspected ocular or periocular infections including most viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva, including active epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, varicella, mycobacterial infections, and fungal diseases. (allerganeyecare.com)
- Disruptions in the health of the anterior segment manifest in a variety of ways including dry eye disease, ocular pain, Sjogren's syndrome, migraine, and uveitis. (nih.gov)
- Dissecting ocular sensation and tearing circuits is integral to understanding the processes that contribute to and result from certain types of disease, infection, and trauma. (nih.gov)
- Exposure to low concentrations of nerve agent vapor produces immediate ocular symptoms, rhinorrhea, and in some patients, dyspnea. (medscape.com)
- In conclusion, techniques to develop a progressive treatment approach are presented to improve symptoms related to BPPV, oculomotor issues such as gaze stabilization, accommodation deficits and convergence deficits, as well as static and dynamic balance motion sensitivity. (vestibular.org)
- Various ocular diseases and long-term use of topical corticosteroids have been known to cause corneal and scleral thinning. (medlibrary.org)
- Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and an ocular examination. (bvsalud.org)
- There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids. (medlibrary.org)
- Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (nih.gov)
- The premise of this FOA is that such basic biology will facilitate a deeper understanding of related pathobiology including neuropathic ocular pain and dry eye disease that will lay a foundation for future translational and clinical research on the anterior segment of the eye. (nih.gov)
- Searching for specific letters and sight words (and even certain toys) hidden among the filler targets reading skills, specifically ocular motor skills, such as figure ground (being able to discern what they're focusing on from what else is in view), visual perception, accommodation (adjusting focus as distance changes), and scanning abilities, which relate to the reading skill of decoding and overall stamina. (edutopia.org)
- The authors suggest that ergonom ic factors because of their effect on visual accomodation play a significant role in the visual strain experienced by VDT operators. (cdc.gov)
- If you need additional accommodations to participate in this workshop, please contact the Office of Data Science and Health Informatics staff at [email protected] at least 48 hours prior to the event. (nih.gov)
- The data were analyzed by stepwise regression techniques using the questionnaire data and ergonom ic factors as independent variables and ocular and perceptual discomfort as dependent variables. (cdc.gov)
- This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) aims to identify and support collaborative projects that will comprehensively delineate ocular surface innervation - from corneal sensation to pain circuits and tearing reflexes. (nih.gov)
- This virtual NEI, FDA, and ONC hosted workshop will focus on delineating the state of the science and improving interoperability among ocular imaging modalities and devices to improve biomedical research and patient care. (nih.gov)
- Scientific advances in areas such as ocular imaging present exciting research opportunities. (nih.gov)
- Elizabeth begins with an oculomotor screening then progresses to common tests utilized within the oculomotor exam in order to rule out convergence, accommodation, VOR deficits, ocular misalignment, and static and dynamic acuity issues. (vestibular.org)
- DURYSTA ® is indicated for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). (allerganeyecare.com)
- LUMIGAN ® 0.01% (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. (allerganeyecare.com)
- Audits will place any country where corrections or accommodations may necessitate to be made. (bluecrewsportsgrill.com)
- Variables related to reading distance and gaze angle explained 49 and 38% of the variance in ocular and perceptual discomfort, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- Type 508 Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. (cdc.gov)