Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a country, specifically the Plurinational State of Bolivia, located in South America. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.

The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats. (1/1981)

A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training.  (+info)

Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species. (2/1981)

The genome sequence of the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their homologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50 degrees C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G+C contents are nearly identical. The properties most correlated with the proteins of the thermophile include higher residue volume, higher residue hydrophobicity, more charged amino acids (especially Glu, Arg, and Lys), and fewer uncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln). These are recurring themes, with all trends applying to 83-92% of the proteins for which complete sequences were available. Nearly all of the amino acid replacements most significantly correlated with the temperature change are the same relatively conservative changes observed in all proteins, but in the case of the mesophile/thermophile comparison there is a directional bias. We identify 26 specific pairs of amino acids with a statistically significant (P < 0.01) preferred direction of replacement.  (+info)

Desiccation resistance in interspecific Drosophila crosses. Genetic interactions and trait correlations. (3/1981)

We used crosses between two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila serrata and D. birchii, to examine the genetic basis of desiccation resistance and correlations between resistance, physiological traits, and life-history traits. D. serrata is more resistant to desiccation than D. birchii, and this may help to explain the broader geographical range of the former species. A comparison of F2's from reciprocal crosses indicated higher resistance levels when F2's originated from D. birchii mothers compared to D. serrata mothers. However, backcrosses had a resistance level similar to that of the parental species, suggesting an interaction between X-linked effects in D. serrata that reduce resistance and autosomal effects that increase resistance. Reciprocal differences persisted in hybrid lines set up from the different reciprocal crosses and tested at later generations. Increased desiccation resistance was associated with an increased body size in two sets of hybrid lines and in half-sib groups set up from the F4's after crossing the two species, but size associations were inconsistent in the F2's. None of the crosses provided evidence for a positive association between desiccation resistance and glycogen levels, or evidence for a tradeoff between desiccation resistance and early fecundity. However, fecundity was positively correlated with body size at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. This study illustrates how interspecific crosses may provide information on genetic interactions between traits following adaptive divergence, as well as on the genetic basis of the traits.  (+info)

Thermal compensation in protein and RNA synthesis during the intermolt cycle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. (4/1981)

1. The in vitro rates of incorporation of precursors into protein and RNA and the concentration of RNA were measured in tissues of intermolt and premolt lobsters acclimated to 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Midgut gland, abdominal muscle and gill of intermolt lobsters respond to temperature acclimation by a compensatory translation of the rate-temperature (R-T) curves with respect to the rates of incorporation of 3H-leucine and 3H-uridine into the acid-insoluble fraction. Midgut gland and muscle of premolt animals exhibit either no compensation or inverse compensation; gill tissue exhibits a rotation of the R-T curve. 2. The existence of the complete de novo pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis is demonstrated in the class Crustacea. NaH14 CO2 is incorporated into orotic acid and orotic-14 C-acid is incorporated into the acid-insoluble fraction. 3. Both the concentration of RNA and the rates of incorporation of precursors of both the salvage and de novo pyrimidine pathways are enhanced in the midgut gland of premolt lobsters, relative to intermolt tissue, under conditions of warm-acclimation.  (+info)

Acclimation of Arabidopsis leaves developing at low temperatures. Increasing cytoplasmic volume accompanies increased activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle and in the sucrose-biosynthesis pathway. (5/1981)

Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23 degrees C and then shifted to 5 degrees C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5 degrees C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5 degrees C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23 degrees C. Leaf development at 5 degrees C resulted in the recovery of photosynthesis to rates comparable with those achieved by control leaves at 23 degrees C. There was a shift in the partitioning of carbon from starch and toward sucrose (Suc) in leaves that developed at 5 degrees C. The recovery of photosynthetic capacity and the redirection of carbon to Suc in these leaves were associated with coordinated increases in the activity of several Calvin-cycle enzymes, even larger increases in the activity of key enzymes for Suc biosynthesis, and an increase in the phosphate available for metabolism. Development of leaves at 5 degrees C also led to an increase in cytoplasmic volume and a decrease in vacuolar volume, which may provide an important mechanism for increasing the enzymes and metabolites in cold-acclimated leaves. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such structural changes during leaf development in the cold could result in novel approaches to increasing plant yield.  (+info)

Cold acclimation of guinea pig depressed contraction of cardiac papillary muscle. (6/1981)

Guinea pigs were exposed to 5 degrees C for 3 wk, and the contractions of myocardial papillary muscle were compared with preparations dissected from control animals kept at approximately 25 degrees C. Developed tension of the papillary muscle per cross-sectional area was significantly (t-test, P < 0.05) decreased after cold exposure (19,200 +/- 8,160 vs. 3,020 +/- 2,890 dyne/cm2; 1 Hz). Time to peak tension was significantly faster in cold-exposed guinea pigs (126.4 +/- 11.1 ms; 1 Hz) than in controls (162.7 +/- 8. 7 ms). The magnitude of the developed tension after application of ryanodine (2 mM) to muscles from cold-exposed animals was decreased to 37.5 +/- 8.3% of control at 1 Hz, whereas in muscles from control animals, tension was decreased to 82.4 +/- 7.7%. The ryanodine-sensitive component of contraction was not significantly changed in control guinea pigs at frequencies >0.5 Hz, whereas in muscles from cold-acclimated guinea pigs, there was a "positive staircase." These results suggested that reversal of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is predominantly involved in the positive staircase in control guinea pigs, whereas rate-dependent increases in the Ca2+ store in the sarcoplasmic reticulum may be involved in the staircase after cold acclimation.  (+info)

Core temperature and sweating onset in humans acclimated to heat given at a fixed daily time. (7/1981)

The thermoregulatory functions of rats acclimated to heat given daily at a fixed time are altered, especially during the period in which they were previously exposed to heat. In this study, we investigated the existence of similar phenomena in humans. Volunteers were exposed to an ambient temperature (Ta) of 46 degrees C and a relative humidity of 20% for 4 h (1400-1800) for 9-10 consecutive days. In the first experiment, the rectal temperatures (Tre) of six subjects were measured over 24 h at a Ta of 27 degrees C with and without heat acclimation. Heat acclimation significantly lowered Tre only between 1400 and 1800. In the second experiment, six subjects rested in a chair at a Ta of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 40% with both legs immersed in warm water (42 degrees C) for 30 min. The Tre and sweating rates at the forearm and chest were measured. Measurements were made in the morning (0900-1100) and afternoon (1500-1700) on the same day before and after heat acclimation. Heat acclimation shortened the sweating latency and decreased the threshold Tre for sweating. However, these changes were significant only in the afternoon. The results suggest that repeated heat exposure in humans, limited to a fixed time daily, alters the core temperature level and thermoregulatory function, especially during the period in which the subjects had previously been exposed to heat.  (+info)

Heat acclimation increases the basal HSP72 level and alters its production dynamics during heat stress. (8/1981)

It has been previously shown that heat acclimation leads to an elevated basal level of 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72). Augmented expression of HSP72 is considered as a cytoprotective response. This led us to hypothesize that alterations in the heat shock protein (HSP) defense pathway are an integral part of the heat acclimation repertoire. To investigate this, we studied the temporal profile of basal HSP expression upon acclimation and the dynamics of their accumulation subsequent to acute heat stress (HS). In parallel, HSP72 mRNA level before and after HS was measured. For comparison, HSC mRNA [the constitutive member of 70-kDa HSP (HSP70) family] was measured in similar conditions. Heat acclimation was attained by continuous exposure of rats to 34 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 30 days. HS was attained by exposure to 41 or 43 degrees C for 2 h. Thermoregulatory capacity of the rats was defined by rectal temperature, heating rate, and the cumulative heat strain invoked during HS. HSP72 and HSP70 gene transcripts were measured in the left ventricle of the heart by means of Western immunoblotting and semiquantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The resultant acclimatory change comprised a higher resting level of the encoded 72-kDa protein (Delta175%, P < 0.0001). After HS, peak HSP72 mRNA level was attained, 40 and 20 min post-HS at 41 and 43 degrees C, respectively, vs. 60 and 40 min in the nonacclimated group. The subsequent HSP synthesis, however, was dependent on the severity of the cumulative heat strain. At the initial phase of heat acclimation, augmented HSP72 transcription unaccompanied by HSP synthesis was observed. It is concluded that upon heat acclimation, the HSP defense pathway is predisposed to a faster response. At the initial phases of heat acclimation, inability to elevate the HSP cytosolic level rules out their direct cytoprotective role.  (+info)

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

Altitude is the height above a given level, especially mean sea level. In medical terms, altitude often refers to high altitude, which is generally considered to be 1500 meters (about 5000 feet) or more above sea level. At high altitudes, the air pressure is lower and there is less oxygen available, which can lead to altitude sickness in some people. Symptoms of altitude sickness can include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. It's important for people who are traveling to high altitudes to allow themselves time to adjust to the lower oxygen levels and to watch for signs of altitude sickness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mountaineering" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the sport or recreational activity of climbing mountains.

However, if we are talking about potential medical aspects related to mountaineering, it would be appropriate to discuss terms like "altitude sickness," "hypothermia," or "frostbite" which are conditions that a mountaineer might experience during their activities. But without further context, I can't provide a specific medical definition directly related to 'mountaineering'.

Altitude sickness, also known as mountain sickness or hypobaropathy, is a condition that can occur when you travel to high altitudes (usually above 8000 feet or 2400 meters) too quickly. At high altitudes, the air pressure is lower and there is less oxygen available for your body to use. This can lead to various symptoms such as:

1. Headache
2. Dizziness or lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Rapid heart rate
5. Nausea or vomiting
6. Fatigue or weakness
7. Insomnia
8. Swelling of the hands, feet, and face
9. Confusion or difficulty with coordination

There are three types of altitude sickness: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). AMS is the mildest form, while HAPE and HACE can be life-threatening.

Preventive measures include gradual ascent to allow your body time to adjust to the altitude, staying hydrated, avoiding alcohol and heavy meals, and taking it easy during the first few days at high altitudes. If symptoms persist or worsen, immediate medical attention is necessary.

A "cold climate" is not a medical term, but rather a geographical and environmental term. However, it is often used in the context of discussing health and medical issues, as cold climates can have various effects on human health.

In general, a cold climate is defined as a region where the average temperature remains below 15°C (59°F) throughout the year or where winter temperatures are consistently below freezing. These climates can be found in high latitudes, such as in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, as well as in mountainous areas at higher altitudes.

Exposure to cold temperatures can have both positive and negative effects on human health. On the one hand, cold weather can help to reduce inflammation and may have some benefits for people with certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. However, exposure to extreme cold can also increase the risk of hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries.

Additionally, cold climates can exacerbate respiratory problems, such as asthma and bronchitis, and may increase the risk of developing respiratory infections like the common cold or flu. People with heart conditions may also be at greater risk in cold weather, as their blood vessels constrict to conserve heat, which can increase blood pressure and put additional strain on the heart.

Overall, while cold climates are not inherently "medical" in nature, they can have significant impacts on human health and well-being, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly, young children, and people with chronic medical conditions.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bolivia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Plurinational State of Bolivia. If you have any questions related to geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try and help with those. However, for medical advice or information, it's always best to consult a qualified healthcare professional.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure, is the force per unit area exerted by the Earth's atmosphere on objects. It is measured in units of force per unit area, such as pascals (Pa), pounds per square inch (psi), or, more commonly, millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi) or 760 mmHg (29.92 inches of mercury). Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, as the weight of the air above becomes less. This decrease in pressure can affect various bodily functions, such as respiration and digestion, and may require adaptation for individuals living at high altitudes. Changes in atmospheric pressure can also be used to predict weather patterns, as low pressure systems are often associated with stormy or inclement weather.

Sweating, also known as perspiration, is the production of sweat by the sweat glands in the skin in response to heat, physical exertion, hormonal changes, or emotional stress. Sweat is a fluid composed mainly of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, lactate, and urea. It helps regulate body temperature by releasing heat through evaporation on the surface of the skin. Excessive sweating, known as hyperhidrosis, can be a medical condition that may require treatment.

An Atmosphere Exposure Chamber (AEC) is a controlled environment chamber that is designed to expose materials, products, or devices to specific atmospheric conditions for the purpose of testing their durability, performance, and safety. These chambers can simulate various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and contaminants, allowing researchers and manufacturers to evaluate how these factors may affect the properties and behavior of the materials being tested.

AECs are commonly used in a variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices, to ensure that products meet regulatory requirements and industry standards for performance and safety. For example, an AEC might be used to test the durability of a new aircraft material under extreme temperature and humidity conditions, or to evaluate the performance of a medical device in a contaminated environment.

The design and operation of AECs are subject to various regulations and standards, such as those established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These standards ensure that AECs are designed and operated in a consistent and controlled manner, allowing for accurate and reliable test results.

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glycolysis, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy. PFK catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a source of energy. This reaction is a key regulatory step in glycolysis and is subject to allosteric regulation by various metabolites, such as ATP, ADP, and citrate, that signal the cell's energy status.

There are several isoforms of PFK found in different tissues, including PFK-1 (or muscle PFK) and PFK-2 (or liver PFK), which exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression and regulation. Mutations in the genes encoding PFK can result in various inherited metabolic disorders, such as Tarui's disease, characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, and myoglobinuria.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

The carotid body is a small chemoreceptor organ located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of respiration, blood pressure, and pH balance by detecting changes in the chemical composition of the blood, particularly oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and hydrogen ion concentration (pH).

The carotid body contains specialized nerve endings called glomus cells that are sensitive to changes in these chemical parameters. When there is a decrease in oxygen or an increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ions, the glomus cells release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine, which activate afferent nerve fibers leading to the brainstem's nucleus tractus solitarius. This information is then integrated with other physiological signals in the brainstem, resulting in appropriate adjustments in breathing rate, depth, and pattern, as well as changes in heart rate and blood vessel diameter to maintain homeostasis.

Dysfunction of the carotid body can lead to various disorders, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, and chronic lung disease. In some cases, overactivity of the carotid body may result in conditions like primary breathing pattern disorders or pseudohypoxia, where the body responds as if it is experiencing hypoxia despite normal oxygen levels.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

Cyprinidae is a family of fish that includes carps, minnows, and barbs. It is the largest family of freshwater fish, with over 2,400 species found worldwide, particularly in Asia and Europe. These fish are characterized by their lack of teeth on the roof of their mouths and have a single dorsal fin. Some members of this family are economically important as food fish or for aquarium trade.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Hypocapnia is a medical term that refers to a condition where there is an abnormally low level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is produced by the body's cells as they carry out their normal metabolic processes, and it is transported in the bloodstream to the lungs, where it is exhaled out of the body during breathing.

Hypocapnia can occur when a person breathes too quickly or too deeply, which can cause too much CO2 to be exhaled from the body. This condition can also result from certain medical conditions that affect breathing, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sleep apnea.

Mild hypocapnia may not cause any noticeable symptoms, but more severe cases can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, confusion, and rapid breathing. In extreme cases, it can lead to life-threatening conditions such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest.

Hypocapnia is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the level of CO2 in the blood. Treatment for hypocapnia may involve addressing any underlying medical conditions that are causing it, as well as providing supportive care to help the person breathe more effectively.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Hearing aids are electronic devices designed to improve hearing and speech comprehension for individuals with hearing loss. They consist of a microphone, an amplifier, a speaker, and a battery. The microphone picks up sounds from the environment, the amplifier increases the volume of these sounds, and the speaker sends the amplified sound into the ear. Modern hearing aids often include additional features such as noise reduction, directional microphones, and wireless connectivity to smartphones or other devices. They are programmed to meet the specific needs of the user's hearing loss and can be adjusted for comfort and effectiveness. Hearing aids are available in various styles, including behind-the-ear (BTE), receiver-in-canal (RIC), in-the-ear (ITE), and completely-in-canal (CIC).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Climate change, as defined medically, refers to the long-term alterations in the statistical distribution of weather patterns caused by changes in the Earth's climate system. These changes can have significant impacts on human health and wellbeing.

Medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing climate change as a public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified climate change as one of the greatest threats to global health in the 21st century, with potential impacts including increased heat-related mortality, more frequent and severe natural disasters, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases, and decreased food security.

Climate change can also exacerbate existing health disparities, as vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, low-income communities, and those with chronic medical conditions are often disproportionately affected by its impacts. As a result, addressing climate change is an important public health priority, and medical professionals have a critical role to play in advocating for policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote adaptation to the changing climate.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Physiological stress is a response of the body to a demand or threat that disrupts homeostasis and activates the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This results in the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and noradrenaline, which prepare the body for a "fight or flight" response. Increased heart rate, rapid breathing, heightened sensory perception, and increased alertness are some of the physiological changes that occur during this response. Chronic stress can have negative effects on various bodily functions, including the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, into choline and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber.

Acetylcholinesterase is located in the synaptic cleft, the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. When ACh is released from the presynaptic membrane and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, it triggers a response in the target cell. Acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh, terminating its action and allowing for rapid cycling of neurotransmission.

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads to an accumulation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, prolonging its effects on the postsynaptic membrane. This can result in excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and overactivation of the cholinergic system, which may cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. However, they can also be used as chemical weapons, such as nerve agents, due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system and cause severe toxicity.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Photoperiod is a term used in chronobiology, which is the study of biological rhythms and their synchronization with environmental cycles. In medicine, photoperiod specifically refers to the duration of light and darkness in a 24-hour period, which can significantly impact various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans.

In human medicine, photoperiod is often considered in relation to circadian rhythms, which are internal biological clocks that regulate several functions such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, and metabolism. The length of the photoperiod can influence these rhythms and contribute to the development or management of certain medical conditions, like mood disorders, sleep disturbances, and metabolic disorders.

For instance, exposure to natural daylight or artificial light sources with specific intensities and wavelengths during particular times of the day can help regulate circadian rhythms and improve overall health. Conversely, disruptions in the photoperiod due to factors like shift work, jet lag, or artificial lighting can lead to desynchronization of circadian rhythms and related health issues.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

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Like other acclimatisation societies, the American Acclimatization Society's efforts impacted the natural history of North ... The American Acclimatization Society was a group founded in New York City in 1871 dedicated to introducing European flora and ... The American Acclimatization Society added another 100 starlings to the total in 1890 and 1891. By the early 21st century, more ... "Society for Acclimatization Part 1 - History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in the United States 1766-1900". ...
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A synapse that has undergone acclimatisation is said to be fatigued. Acclimatisation is said to be responsible for 'getting ... Acclimatisation is the process by which the nervous system fails to respond to a stimulus, as a result of the repeated ... Acclimatisation is believed to occur when the synaptic knob of the presynaptic neuron runs out of vesicles containing ...
The Queensland Acclimatisation Society (QAS) was an acclimatisation society based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia which ... However, the pecan nut trees at Lawnton are the only pre-World War II Acclimatisation Society plantings, known to be extant, ... It is difficult to establish a direct link between the Acclimatisation society's work on pecan nuts and the present commercial ... From its inception in 1862 at the instigation of the Governor of Queensland, Sir George Bowen, the Queensland Acclimatisation ...
Acclimatisation societies were established in all of the Australian colonies in the mid to late 19th century. These societies ... Acclimatisation Society gardens is a heritage-listed botanic garden at Bray Road, Lawnton, City of Moreton Bay, Queensland, ... Remnants of former acclimatisation society gardens at Lawnton were listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 8 May 2009 ... Acclimatisation in the nineteenth century was scientifically understood to mean the process by which animals and plants ...
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However, above 8,000 metres (26,000 ft), (in the "death zone"), altitude acclimatization becomes impossible. There is a ... "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". U.S. Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division ... Athletes also can take advantage of altitude acclimatization to increase their performance. The same changes that help the body ...
... acclimatization and physical conditioning of each individual. At this altitude, few people feel comfortable and many start to ... "Altitude Acclimatization Guide.". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division ...
Altitude sickness will affect most climbers to some extent, depending on the degree of acclimatization. Although the normal ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ...
Any positive acclimatization effects may be negated by a de-training effect as the athletes are usually not able to exercise ... The human body can adapt to high altitude through both immediate and long-term acclimatization. At high altitude, in the short ... Athletes can also take advantage of altitude acclimatization to increase their performance. The same changes that help the body ... Levine, BD; Stray-Gundersen, J (July 1997). ""Living high-training low": effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low- ...
Muza SR, Fulco CS, Cymerman A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ... part of the acclimatization process which in turn helps to relieve symptoms. Acetazolamide is still effective if started early ...
"Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division ...
Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide.". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine ...
This technique is also helpful for acclimatization. While it is the original style in which high mountains were climbed, ... because of the speed of the ascent relative to an expedition-style climb there is less time for acclimatization. For the ... "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division ... almost always with a carefully planned program of acclimatisation. Exposure to hot environments or activities involving ...
Reproduction unit - acclimatization. Genetic Resources Conservation Unit. Classification unit An exchange unit with ...
Levine, BD; Stray-Gunderson, J (2001). The effects of altitude training are mediated primarily by acclimatization rather than ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ...
"American Acclimatization Society". The New York Times. November 15, 1877. p. 2. Rosenzweig, Roy & Blackmar, Elizabeth (1992). ... In 1877, he became chairman of the American Acclimatization Society and joined their efforts to introduce non-native species to ... Schieffelin belonged to the American Acclimatization Society, a group that aimed to help exchange plants and animals from one ... In the 19th century, such acclimatization societies were fashionable and supported by the scientific knowledge and beliefs of ...
Parties will typically spend two nights in Dingboche for acclimatization purposes. The village relies heavily on tourists with ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide.". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine ...
For high-altitude climbers, a typical acclimatization regimen might be to stay a few days at a base camp, climb up to a higher ... Pre-acclimatization is when the body develops tolerance to low oxygen concentrations before ascending to an altitude. It ... Altitude acclimatization is the process of adjusting to decreasing oxygen levels at higher elevations, in order to avoid ... Altitude acclimatization is necessary for some people who move rapidly from lower altitudes to higher altitudes. The drug ...
From Lukla, travellers need two days to reach the village of Namche Bazaar, an altitude-acclimatization stop for those ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ...
Acclimatization is required, and even experienced and physically fit trekkers may suffer some degree of altitude sickness. A ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ...
Climbers then hike to Base Camp, which usually takes six to eight days, allowing for proper altitude acclimatisation in order ... A sea-level dweller exposed to the atmospheric conditions at the altitude above 8,500 m (27,900 ft) without acclimatisation ... Achieving even this level of performance requires prolonged altitude acclimatisation, which takes 40-60 days for a typical ... Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine ...
Physiologically, acclimatization to heat will allow a worker's body to more efficiently cool itself when exposed to high ... Acclimatization can occur over different time periods for different people, but NIOSH recommends allowing workers to be exposed ... "Heat Stress Acclimatization , NIOSH , CDC". 2020-02-20. Retrieved 2020-11-03. "Criteria for a recommended standard ... On the first day of an acclimatization process, workers without previous heat exposure should be asked to complete, at most, 20 ...
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization; Zootechnics; Land development; Animal physiology and Nutrition Sciences; Potato research; ... Seat of the Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization, (Polish: Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin, IHAR), at 10 ... Bydgoszcz branch of the Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization (Polish: Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin (IHAR ...
"An experiment in acclimatization". New Scientist. 29 November 1962. "Edholm Point". Geographic Names Information System. United ...
Acclimatization walk from hotel. Ascend cable car system to Garabashi Huts or Leaprus hut . Possible acclimatisation walk to ... Acclimatisation walk to Pastukhova Rocks. Possible attempt on summit if very well acclimatised on arrival. Attempt on Elbrus. ...
Week-long acclimatization starts. 17 April 2007. The advanced base camp( ABC) at 21,000 feet, established. Next stage of ... acclimatization starts . Preparation start for setting up camp 1. 21-28 April 2007. Establish Camp 1, 23,000 feet. 28 April ...
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism ... Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (hours to weeks), and within the organisms lifetime (compared to adaptation, ... Acclimatization to high altitude continues for months or even years after initial ascent, and ultimately enables humans to ... "Heat acclimatization guide" (PDF). US Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2009. "Heat ...
Adaptation and Acclimatization. Some residents of newly settled high-altitude communities in the United States may be at ... This is the most important form of early acclimatization to high altitude. The hypoxia-induced increase in minute ventilation ... An increased hypoxic ventilatory response is an important means of acclimatization for a sea-level resident who aspires to ...
Acclimatization. Acclimatization is the result of beneficial physiological adaptations (e.g., increased sweating efficiency, ... Institute a heat acclimatization plan and encourage increased physical fitness.. Training. Train workers before hot outdoor ... The importance of acclimatization.. *The importance of immediately reporting any symptoms or signs of heat-related illness in ... Implementing appropriate acclimatization.. *What procedures to follow when a worker has symptoms of heat-related illness, ...
Everest Expedition by numbers 77 days in the Himalayas Climbing Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen, 3x 7100 m More than a year after my first Himalayan mountain climbing, I look …. ...
... and plan an extra day for acclimatization every 3,300 ft (≈1,000 m).. ☐ Consider using acetazolamide to speed acclimatization ... Acclimatization. The human body can adjust to moderate hypoxia at elevations ≤17,000 ft (≈5,200 m) but requires time to do so. ... Box 4-08 Acclimatization tips: a checklist for travelers. ☐ Ascend gradually.. ☐ Avoid going directly from low elevation to , ... Some acclimatization to high elevation continues for weeks to months, but the acute process, which occurs over the first 3-5 ...
The 9 stages of expat acclimatization Nearly a year into this expat lifestyle of ours, and with the inevitable peaks and ... The 9 stages of expat acclimatization. 10months of bad coffee and paperwork, to being able to kvetch freely and have half ... I can report back that I have reached the peak of expat acclimatisation - a friend who I can kvetch around without worrying ... troughs of adjustment later - I thought Id write a post about the 9 stages of expat acclimatization. ...
Fountain and Palms, Acclimatisation Gardens, 1886, GBR/0115/RCS/Y3085E/39. Photographic views: Queensland, GBR/0115/RCS/Y3085E ... Fountain and Palms, Acclimatisation Gardens, 1886, GBR/0115/RCS/Y3085E/39. Photographic views: Queensland, GBR/0115/RCS/Y3085E ...
A trade publication article discussing a NIOSH study that aimed to find what individual miners have learned about their exposure based on CPDM use, the corrective actions identified, and their responsive, behavioral changes to reduce dust exposure ...
The mechanisms causing acclimatization, extent of protection and optimal procedure for acclimatization has been insufficiently ... Four studies observed acclimatization while no statistically significant acclimatization was reported in the remaining eight ... Acclimatization to diving: a systematic review. Risberg, Jan. Afiliação *Risberg J; Office of Submarine and Diving Medicine, ... Acclimatization to DCS has been observed in six animal species. Multiday diving had less consistent effect on VGE after ...
Adaptation and Acclimatization. Some residents of newly settled high-altitude communities in the United States may be at ... This is the most important form of early acclimatization to high altitude. The hypoxia-induced increase in minute ventilation ... An increased hypoxic ventilatory response is an important means of acclimatization for a sea-level resident who aspires to ...
Acclimatisation of Scottish Blackface sheep to cold. 1. Rectal temperature responses, August 1967 Item ... Acclimatisation of Scottish Blackface sheep to cold. 1. Rectal temperature responses, August 1967, Coll-1362/1/252. Roslin ... Acclimatisation of Scottish Blackface sheep to cold. 1. Rectal temperature responses, August 1967, Coll-1362/1/252. Roslin ... Acclimatisation of Scottish Blackface sheep to cold. 1. Rectal temperature responses, August 1967 ...
Attempted acclimatization by vigorous exercise during periodic exposures to simulated altitude. (Wright-Patterson Air Force ...
Acclimatization; Worker-health; Heat-acclimatization; Medical-monitoring; Hypertension; Hyperthermia; Environmental-exposure; ... 3. Employers should provide an appropriate acclimatization program for new workers to a hot environment, workers who have been ...
Heat acclimatization. *Environmental monitoring. *Physiological monitoring. *Body cooling. *Textiles and PPE. *Emergency action ...
novel methods of rapid acclimatization,. *developing a scoring system for individual risk, ...
Acclimatisation day. An out and back hike to the splendid viewpoint of Ice Lake (4630m). Show Details ... The circuit is a tough walk but plenty of acclimatisation made the going easier. The trek leader and crew were brilliant. It ... The circuit is a tough walk but plenty of acclimatisation made the going easier. The trek leader and crew were brilliant. It ... Then, from Manang, we include two sensational acclimatisation walks, firstly to Ice Lake and then to Tilicho Lake, two of the ...
Then optimize race travel plans and the necessary acclimatization. There are many components to getting faster. A number of ... an athlete should set themselves up for their best race by optimizing their travel schedule and acclimatization if possible. ...
Acclimatization. The key to this is to try to be well hydrated, and well fed before your trip begins. Another helpful tactic is ...
9 Heat acclimatization is the best protection against heat-related illness. This involves a gradual progression of duration and ...
Identification: After an acclimatisation period of at least five days the animals were selected at random and given a number ... Acclimatization: At least 5 days under laboratory conditions, after health examination. Only animals without any visible signs ...
After 1 week of acclimatization, animals were divided into six groups, 20 mice each. ...
Acclimatization The body eventually adjusts (acclimatizes) to higher altitudes by increasing respiration, by producing more red ... Acclimatization reverses quickly. If acclimatized people have descended to low levels for more than a few days, they must once ...
And plenty of acclimatisation time. Nonetheless, I was glad of my summit oxygen. ...
... acclimatization); modify work schedules as necessary; plan for emergencies and train workers about the symptoms of heat-related ...
Acclimatization is the key to happy camping In high altitudes, one must acclimatize well before undertaking any type of ... One of the best ways of acclimatization is staying warm and well hydrated. ...
Started by Member Fish Restocking / Acclimatisation and Environment 3 Replies 8934 Views May 04, 2016, 08:06:37 PM. by Member ...
With care and acclimatisation they will bounce back. expand_more Choose:$89.00;4L. Grafted * Price. $89.00. $99.00. $99.00. ...
Acclimatization (a physiological adjustment of the individual to environmental changes) may also occur in up to 80% of exposed ...
  • Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain fitness across a range of environmental conditions. (
  • Altitude illness can develop before the acute acclimatization process is complete, but not afterwards. (
  • The nouns acclimatization and acclimation (and the corresponding verbs acclimatize and acclimate) are widely regarded as synonymous, both in general vocabulary and in medical vocabulary. (
  • Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (hours to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compared to adaptation, which is evolution, taking place over many generations). (
  • I can report back that I have reached the peak of expat acclimatisation - a friend who I can kvetch around without worrying that she'll decide I'm a total downer. (
  • Implementing appropriate acclimatization. (
  • 3. Employers should provide an appropriate acclimatization program for new workers to a hot environment, workers who have been on the job a week or less, and experienced workers during a rapid change in excessively hot weather. (
  • Travelers can optimize acclimatization by adjusting their itineraries to avoid going "too high too fast" (see Box 4-08 ). (
  • Then optimize race travel plans and the necessary acclimatization. (
  • Acclimatization is the result of beneficial physiological adaptations (e.g., increased sweating efficiency, etc.) that occur after gradual increased exposure to a hot environment. (
  • Acclimatization can be maintained for a few days of non-heat exposure. (
  • Three epidemiological studies reported statistically significant acclimatization to DCS in compressed- air workers after multiday hyperbaric exposure. (
  • it highly recommended to combine this climb with Izta first for acclimatization and some tourism (see my comment on Izta). (
  • Institute a heat acclimatization plan and encourage increased physical fitness. (
  • A handout on this topic is available at . (
  • Then, from Manang, we include two sensational acclimatisation walks, firstly to Ice Lake and then to Tilicho Lake, two of the most spectacular location in the Nepal Himalaya. (
  • Once above 9,000 ft (≈2,750 m), move sleeping elevation by no more than 1,600 ft (≈500 m) per day, and plan an extra day for acclimatization every 3,300 ft (≈1,000 m). (
  • Some acclimatization to high elevation continues for weeks to months, but the acute process, which occurs over the first 3-5 days following ascent, is crucial for travelers. (
  • Increased red cell production does not play a role in acute acclimatization, although a decrease in plasma volume over the first few days does increase hemoglobin concentration. (
  • Traits of individual strains may also vary depending on the acclimatization state and external forces, such as abiotic stress. (
  • Some acclimatization to high elevation continues for weeks to months, but the acute process, which occurs over the first 3-5 days following ascent, is crucial for travelers. (
  • Consider using acetazolamide to speed acclimatization if abrupt ascent is unavoidable. (
  • In addition, the level of acclimatization each worker reaches is relative to the initial level of physical fitness and the total heat stress experienced by the individual. (
  • For workers who have had previous experience with the job, the acclimatization regimen should be no more than a 50% exposure on day 1, 60% on day 2, 80% on day 3, and 100% on day 4. (
  • Workers can maintain their acclimatization even if they are away from the job for a few days, such as when they go home for the weekend. (
  • 3. Employers should provide an appropriate acclimatization program for new workers to a hot environment, workers who have been on the job a week or less, and experienced workers during a rapid change in excessively hot weather. (
  • This study aims to identify whether, an inhalation sedation acclimatization visit is effective in reducing the stress level in anxious children as measured by salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol levels. (
  • Additionally, proper acclimatization is crucial for your safety and enjoyment. (
  • Alcohol or other substances have interfered with acclimatization. (
  • Travelers can optimize acclimatization by adjusting their itineraries to avoid going "too high too fast" (see Box 4-08 ). (
  • Barbarito said the painting would undergo a delicate 72-hour 'acclimatization process' and be back on display at the museum in around two weeks. (
  • Self-conscious efforts at acclimatization also embodied assumptions and aspirations that were much more grandiose and self-confident: the notion that nature was vulnerable to human control and the desire to exercise that control by improving extant biota. (
  • After just a few pages of acclimatization to his style, we're immersed in deWitt's world. (
  • In many ways acclimatization efforts seemed more like a continuation of a rather different activity, which also had ancient roots, although not quite as ancient: the keeping of exotic animals in game parks and private menageries (for the rich), and in public menageries and sideshows (for the poor). (
  • A study protocol of a single-center investigator-blinded randomized parallel group study to investigate the effect of an acclimatization visit on children's behavior during inhalational sedation in a United Arab Emirates pediatric dentistry postgraduate setting as measured by the levels of salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol. (
  • The group had completed acclimatization rotations and established three camps, the highest at 7,200m. (
  • This may increase acceptance to the treatment based on desensitization and acclimatization principles underpinning many behavior management techniques . (
  • Increased red cell production does not play a role in acute acclimatization, although a decrease in plasma volume over the first few days does increase hemoglobin concentration. (