Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.

Physical therapy for spinal accessory nerve injury complicated by adhesive capsulitis. (1/18)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The authors found no literature describing adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury and no exercise program or protocol for patients with spinal accessory nerve injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a patient with adhesive capsulitis and spinal accessory nerve injury following a carotid endarterectomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 67-year-old woman referred for physical therapy following manipulation of the left shoulder and a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis by her orthopedist. Spinal accessory nerve injury was identified during the initial physical therapy examination, and a program of neuromuscular electrical stimulation was initiated. OUTCOMES: The patient had almost full restoration of the involved muscle function after 5 months of physical therapy. DISCUSSION: This case report illustrates the importance of accurate diagnosis and suggests physical therapy intervention to manage adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury.  (+info)

Levator scapulae and rhomboid transfer for paralysis of trapezius. The Eden-Lange procedure. (2/18)

Spinal accessory nerve palsy leads to painful disability of the shoulder, carrying an uncertain prognosis. We reviewed the long-term outcome in 16 patients who were treated for pain, weakness of active elevation and asymmetry of the shoulder and the neck due to chronic paralysis of the trapezius muscle, as a result of nerve palsy. Of four patients who were treated conservatively, none regained satisfactory function, although two became pain-free. The other 12 patients were treated operatively with transfer of the levator scapulae to the acromion and the rhomboid muscles to the infraspinatus fossa (the Eden-Lange procedure). At a mean follow-up of 32 years, the clinical outcome of the operatively treated patients was excellent in nine, fair in two, and poor in one patient, as determined by the Constant score. Pain was adequately relieved in 11 and overhead function was restored in nine patients. Pre-operative electromyography had been carried out in four patients. In two, who eventually had a poor outcome, a concomitant long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerve lesion had been present. The Eden-Lange procedure gives very satisfactory long-term results for the treatment of isolated paralysis of trapezius. In the presence of an additional serratus anterior palsy or weak rhomboid muscles, the procedure is less successful in restoring shoulder function.  (+info)

Accessory nerve injury. (3/18)

This article discusses a Supreme Court judgment involving an injury to the spinal accessory nerve which occurred during the excision of a lymph node mass in the posterior triangle of the neck.1 In this case, the medical practitioner was found to have been negligent for failing to diagnose the nerve injury in the postoperative period, and not for the actual injury to the nerve during the procedure.  (+info)

An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury. (4/18)

Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Although isolated injuries of both nerves following a whiplash injury have been reported, combined injury of the two nerves following a whiplash injury is very uncommon and is being reported for the first time.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of winged scapula. (5/18)

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Spinal accessory nerve palsy following gunshot injury: a case report. (6/18)

Injuries to the spinal accessory nerve are rare and mostly iatrogenic. Pain, impaired ability to raise the ipsilateral shoulder, and scapular winging on abduction of the arm are the most frequently noted clinical manifestations. As a seldom case, a 20 year-old male with spinal accessory nerve palsy after penetrating trauma by gunshot was reported. Three months after the injury, he was complaining about left arm pain in abduction to shoulder level and a decreased range of movement. On physical examination, wasting of the left trapezium with loss of nuchal ridge and drooping of the shoulder were found. On neurological examination of the left trapezius and sternomastoid muscles, motor function were 3/5 and wide dysesthesia on the neck, shoulder and arm was present. The bullet entered just above the clavicle and exited from trapezium. Radiological studies were normal, where electromyography (EMG) showed neuropathic changes. Surgical exploration showed the intact nerve lying on its natural course and we performed external neurolysis for decompression. The postoperative period was uneventful. Dysesthesia has diminished slowly. He was transferred to physical rehabilitation unit. In his clinical control after 3 months he had no dysesthesia and neurological examination of the left trapezius and sternomastoid muscles motor function were 4/5. EMG showed recovery in the left spinal accessory nerve.  (+info)

Vernet's syndrome caused by large mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery after acute otitis media--case report. (7/18)

An 85-year-old man presented with a rare large aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) due to acute otitis media manifesting as Vernet's syndrome 2 weeks after the diagnosis of right acute otitis media. Angiography of the right extracranial ICA demonstrated an irregularly shaped large aneurysm with partial thrombosis. The aneurysm was treated by proximal ICA occlusion using endovascular coils. The ICA mycotic aneurysm was triggered by acute otitis media, and induced Vernet's syndrome as a result of direct compression to the jugular foramen. Extracranial ICA aneurysms due to focal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower cranial nerve palsy, although the incidence is thought to be very low.  (+info)

Accessory nerve palsy. (8/18)

After apparently uncomplicated excision of benign lesions in the posterior cervical triangle, two patients had shoulder pain. In one, neck pain and trapezius weakness were not prominent until one month after surgery. Inability to elevate the arm above the horizontal without externally rotating it, and prominent scapular displacement on arm abduction, but not on forward pushing movements, highlighted the trapezius dysfunction and differentiated it from serratus anterior weakness. Spinal accessory nerve lesions should be considered when minor surgical procedures, lymphadenitis, minor trauma, or tumours involved the posterior triangle of the neck.  (+info)

Accessory nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the eleventh cranial nerve, also known as the accessory nerve. This nerve has both a cranial and spinal root, and it primarily controls the movement of some muscles in the neck and shoulder.

Injuries to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, leading to difficulty turning the head or lifting the arm. The severity of the symptoms depends on the extent and location of the injury. Accessory nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during surgery (particularly neck or shoulder surgeries), penetrating injuries, tumors, or neurological disorders.

Treatment for accessory nerve injuries typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management, and, in some cases, surgical intervention to repair the damaged nerve. The prognosis for recovery varies depending on the severity and cause of the injury.

The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve (XI), has both a cranial and spinal component. It primarily controls the function of certain muscles in the back of the neck and shoulder.

The cranial part arises from nuclei in the brainstem and innervates some of the muscles that help with head rotation, including the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The spinal root originates from nerve roots in the upper spinal cord (C1-C5), exits the spine, and joins the cranial part to form a single trunk. This trunk then innervates the trapezius muscle, which helps with shoulder movement and stability.

Damage to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, causing symptoms such as difficulty turning the head, weak shoulder shrugging, or winged scapula (a condition where the shoulder blade protrudes from the back).

The accessory nerve, also known as the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI), has both a cranial and spinal root and innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscle. Accessory nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Some examples of accessory nerve diseases include:

1. Traumatic injury: Direct trauma to the neck or posterior scalene region can damage the spinal root of the accessory nerve. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the trapezius muscle, leading to difficulty with shoulder movement and pain.
2. Neuralgia: Accessory nerve neuralgia is a condition characterized by painful spasms or shooting pains along the course of the accessory nerve. It can be caused by nerve compression, inflammation, or injury.
3. Tumors: Tumors in the neck region, such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, can compress or invade the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
4. Infections: Viral infections, such as poliovirus or West Nile virus, can cause inflammation and damage to the accessory nerve, resulting in weakness or paralysis.
5. Neuropathy: Accessory nerve neuropathy is a condition characterized by degeneration of the accessory nerve fibers due to various causes such as diabetes, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
6. Congenital defects: Some individuals may be born with congenital defects that affect the development and function of the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Treatment for accessory nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

A nerve transfer is a surgical procedure where a functioning nerve is connected to an injured nerve to restore movement, sensation or function. The functioning nerve, called the donor nerve, usually comes from another less critical location in the body and has spare nerve fibers that can be used to reinnervate the injured nerve, called the recipient nerve.

During the procedure, a small section of the donor nerve is carefully dissected and prepared for transfer. The recipient nerve is also prepared by removing any damaged or non-functioning portions. The two ends are then connected using microsurgical techniques under a microscope. Over time, the nerve fibers from the donor nerve grow along the recipient nerve and reinnervate the muscles or sensory structures that were previously innervated by the injured nerve.

Nerve transfers can be used to treat various types of nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, facial nerve palsy, and peripheral nerve injuries. The goal of the procedure is to restore function as quickly and efficiently as possible, allowing for a faster recovery and improved quality of life for the patient.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

Neck dissection is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of lymph nodes and other tissues from the neck. It is typically performed as part of cancer treatment, particularly in cases of head and neck cancer, to help determine the stage of the cancer, prevent the spread of cancer, or treat existing metastases. There are several types of neck dissections, including radical, modified radical, and selective neck dissection, which vary based on the extent of tissue removal. The specific type of neck dissection performed depends on the location and extent of the cancer.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

Cranial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma to one or more of the twelve cranial nerves (CN I through CN XII). These nerves originate from the brainstem and are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and balance) and controlling various motor functions (like eye movement, facial expressions, swallowing, and speaking).

Cranial nerve injuries can result from various causes, including head trauma, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions. The severity of the injury may range from mild dysfunction to complete loss of function, depending on the extent of damage to the nerve. Treatment options vary based on the type and location of the injury but often involve a combination of medical management, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or rehabilitation.

The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located in the upper back region of the human body. It serves as the site of attachment for various muscles that are involved in movements of the shoulder joint and arm. The scapula has several important features:

1. Three borders (anterior, lateral, and medial)
2. Three angles (superior, inferior, and lateral)
3. Spine of the scapula - a long, horizontal ridge that divides the scapula into two parts: supraspinous fossa (above the spine) and infraspinous fossa (below the spine)
4. Glenoid cavity - a shallow, concave surface on the lateral border that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
5. Acromion process - a bony projection at the top of the scapula that forms part of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
6. Coracoid process - a hook-like bony projection extending from the anterior border, which provides attachment for muscles and ligaments

Understanding the anatomy and function of the scapula is essential in diagnosing and treating various shoulder and upper back conditions.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

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... is an injury to the spinal accessory nerve which results in diminished or absent function of the ... London J, London NJ, Kay SP (1996). "Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 78 ... Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. In particular, radical neck dissection ... For example, during a functional neck dissection that injures the spinal accessory nerve, injury prompts the surgeon to ...
Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ... Injury to cranial nerve XI will cause weakness in abducting the shoulder above 90 degrees. When the scapulae are stable, a co- ... Trapezius palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ...
The injury he was found to have suffered was damage to his spinal accessory nerve. He was batting .244 with four home runs and ... Davis suffered a nerve injury in his neck during his first spring training with the Orioles on a swing that he felt two pops in ... He hit three home runs in a loss to the San Francisco Giants on June 1, however, a rib injury caused Davis to miss the entire ... He tried to play through the injury, which resulted in neck spasms on his right side. ...
"The Modified Eden-Lange Tendon Transfer for Lateral Scapular Winging Secondary to Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury". Arthroscopy ... The dorsal scapular nerve is at risk for intraoperative injury when detaching the rhomboid and levator scapulae insertions due ... This is of particular concern because the dorsal scapular nerve innervates all three muscles transferred in the Eden-Lange ... Symptomatic trapezius palsy lasting longer than 1 year indicates tendon transfer, since spontaneous recovery and nerve repair ...
This variant may predispose the phrenic nerve to injury during subclavian vascular cannulation. In addition, an accessory ... The phrenic nerve is a mixed motor/sensory nerve that originates from the C3-C5 spinal nerves in the neck. The nerve is ... Brachial plexus injuries can cause paralysis in various regions in the arm, forearm, and hand depending on the severed nerves. ... as well as some sympathetic nerve fibers. Although the nerve receives contributions from nerve roots of the cervical plexus and ...
The spinal accessory nerve can often be found 1 cm above Erb's point. Erb's point is formed by the union of the C5 and C6 nerve ... Injury to Erb's point is commonly sustained at birth or from a fall onto the shoulder. The nerve roots normally involved are C5 ... At the nerve trunk, branches of suprascapular nerves and the nerve to the subclavius also merge. The merged nerve divides into ... From here, the accessory nerve courses through the posterior triangle of the neck to enter the anterior border of the trapezius ...
The second category is the lateral winging which is caused by injury of the spinal accessory nerve. Severe atrophy of the ... and intercostal nerve transfer if a nerve lesion is the cause of winging. For scapular winging not amenable to nerve repair, ... There are numerous ways in which the long thoracic nerve can sustain trauma-induced injury. These include, but are not limited ... Nath RK, Lyons AB, Bietz G (March 2007). "Microneurolysis and decompression of long thoracic nerve injury are effective in ...
Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures for Cervical Dystonia", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 413-430 ... the accessory nerve. The accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor ... "64 Cranial Nerve XI: The Spinal Accessory Nerve". In Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW (eds.). Clinical Methods: The History, ... with which it shares its nerve supply (the accessory nerve). It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as ...
Spinal accessory nerve (Cranial Nerve XI) Branches of cervical plexus Roots and trunks of brachial plexus Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5 ... The external jugular vein's superficial location within the posterior triangle also makes it vulnerable to injury. Anterior ... belly of omohyoid muscle Anterior Scalene Middle Scalene Posterior Scalene Levator Scapulae Muscle Splenius The accessory nerve ...
The intermediate compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve, and the accessory nerve. The posterior ... Anatomy of the Vagus Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... The larger, posterolateral, "pars vascularis" compartment contains CN X, CN XI, Arnold's nerve (or the auricular branch of CN X ... It allows many structures to pass, including the inferior petrosal sinus, three cranial nerves, the sigmoid sinus, and ...
... nerve glossopharyngeal neuralgia glomus jugulare tumor vagus nerve injury spinal accessory nerve palsy hypoglossal nerve injury ... neuropathy posterior femoral cutaneous neuropathy obturator neuropathy neuropathy of gluteal nerves trigeminal nerve trigeminal ... spastic paraplegia Spinocerebellar ataxia Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy A neuronopathy affects the cell body of a nerve ... distress type 1 Atypical motor neuron diseases Dorsal root ganglion disorders A neuropathy affects the peripheral nerves. ...
It may also contain an accessory right hepatic artery or an anomalous sectoral bile ducts. As a result, dissection in the ... The anatomy and variant anatomy of this region is important during gallbladder removal to prevent iatrogenic injury to the ... The triangle contains: adipose and connective tissue, lymphatic vessels and the cystic lymph node, autonomic nerves, (usually) ... dissection in the triangle of Calot is the most common cause of common bile duct injuries. Another name used to refer to the ...
... opening as an accessory mental foramen. A trifid mandibular canal variation has also been described. Mandibular nerve and bone ... and care must be taken during removal or root canal treatment in such cases to prevent nerve injury or extrusion of root canal ... into which the mandibular nerve enters to become the inferior alveolar nerve. The mandibular canal often runs close to the ... It carries branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and artery. The mandibular canal is continuous with tow foramina: the mental ...
The anterior interosseous nerve (a branch of the median nerve) and the anterior interosseous artery and vein pass downward on ... An occasionally present accessory long head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is called 'Gantzer's muscle'. It may cause ... Injuries to tendons are particularly difficult to recover from due to the limited blood supply they receive. The flexor ... Nerves of the left upper extremity. Flexor pollicis longus muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle Flexor pollicis longus muscle ...
The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Teres minor muscle Accessory muscles of the scapula This article incorporates ... There are two types of rotator cuff injuries: acute tears and chronic tears. Acute tears occur as a result of a sudden movement ... A pseudoganglion has no nerve cells but nerve fibres are present. Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is ... The nerve should be detected adjacent to the vessel. In an elevated arm position the axillary neurovascular bundle can be seen ...
The lesser occipital nerve is one of the four cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus. It curves around the accessory nerve ( ... Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. Academic Press. pp. 441-449. doi: ... The lesser occipital nerve (or small occipital nerve) is a cutaneous spinal nerve of the cervical plexus. It arises from second ... Nerve block is difficult due to variation in the course of the nerve. Dermatome distribution of the trigeminal nerve Yu, Megan ...
It then travels close to the vagus nerve and spinal division of the accessory nerve, spirals downwards behind the vagus nerve ... "A case with unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury in branchial cyst surgery". Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve ... The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the twelfth cranial nerve, cranial nerve XII, or simply CN XII, is a cranial nerve that ... The hypoglossal nerve may be connected (anastomosed) to the facial nerve to attempt to restore function when the facial nerve ...
Facial nerve (VII) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A., & Arampatzi, M. (2011). Facial ... Recovery rate also depends on the cause of the facial nerve palsy (e.g. infections, perinatal injury, congenital dysplastic). ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ...
... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone, such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during surgery are other causes of nerve ... The nerves are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve ( ... the accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) do not exist, with the accessory nerve (XI) being an integral part of the ...
Tethering may also develop after spinal cord injury and scar tissue can block the flow of fluids around the spinal cord. Fluid ... Each hemicord contains a central canal, one dorsal horn (giving rise to a dorsal nerve root), and one ventral horn (giving rise ... Diastematomyelia is a "dysraphic state" of unknown embryonic origin, but is probably initiated by an accessory neurenteric ... is a true duplication of spinal cord in which these are two dural sacs with two pairs of anterior and posterior nerve roots. ...
Isolated injury to the fourth nerve can be caused by any process that stretches or compresses the nerve. A generalized increase ... 2016). ""Orbit and accessory visual apparatus: trochlear nerve"". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice ( ... pulley-like nerve) also known as the fourth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IV, or CN IV, is a cranial nerve that innervates a ... somatic efferent nerve). The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve ...
In addition to nerves coming from and within the human spine, the accessory nerve and vagus nerve travel down the neck. ... and knee injury: a 25 year follow up study". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (2): 107-113. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.017350 ... The eleventh cranial nerve or spinal accessory nerve corresponds to a line drawn from a point midway between the angle of the ... Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of the spinal nerves C2-C4, and at the back of the neck from the ...
A facial nerve block may occasionally be performed to reduce lid squeezing. General anesthesia is recommended for children, ... Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome has an incidence of around 0.5% to 2.0%. Iris or ciliary body injury has an incidence of ... Sleeves for the phaco tip are standard accessories to insulate the wound surface from heat generated by the ultrasonic energy, ... Porter D (1 August 2022). "When to Resume Exercise After an Eye Surgery or Injury". www.aao.org. American Academy of ...
Injuries associated with malpositioning commonly affect the brachial plexus nerves, rather than other peripheral nerve groups. ... supplied by the spinal accessory nerve) and an area of skin near the axilla (supplied by the intercostobrachial nerve). The ... the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the median nerve, and the ulnar nerve. Due to both emerging from the lateral cord the ... Plexus Nerve plexus Cranial nerve Spinal nerve List of anatomy mnemonics The brachial plexus surrounds the brachial artery. ...
Walker HK (1990). "Cranial Nerve XI: The Spinal Accessory Nerve". Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory ... Research has shown that women having had complete spinal cord injury can experience orgasms through the vagus nerve, which can ... The vagus nerve, also known as the tenth cranial nerve, cranial nerve X, or simply CN X, is a cranial nerve that carries ... Pharyngeal nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Aortic nerve Superior cervical cardiac branches of vagus nerve Inferior cervical ...
Regional Nerve Blocks of the Head and Neck", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 147-151, doi:10.1016/ ... There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to the ... Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 441-449, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-410390-0.00032-9, ISBN 978-0-12-410390 ... Nerve plexus, Spinal nerves, Nerves of the head and neck). ... The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. The right ...
VGSCs have been shown to increase in density after nerve injury. Therefore, VGSCs can be modulated by many different ... causes the upregulation of Nav1.8 in sensory neurons via the accessory protein p11 (annexin II light chain). It has been shown ... "Na+ Channel lmmunolocalization in Peripheral Mammalian Axons and Changes following Nerve Injury and Neuroma Formation". The ... Nerve growth factor levels in inflamed or injured tissues are increased creating an increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia ...
... is present at the endings of pain-sensing nerves, the nociceptors, close to the region where the impulse is initiated. ... Heteromultimeric ion channels such as Nav1.7 comprise multiple subunits including a pore forming subunits and accessory ... Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain have painless injuries beginning in infancy but otherwise normal sensory ... Stimulation of the nociceptor nerve endings produces "generator potentials", which are small changes in the voltage across the ...
... or any injury that damages the radial nerve. Harm inflicted upon the radial nerve through these mechanisms can paralyze the ... will affect this particular accessory muscle. Heterotopic ossification can result from certain trauma as it is an abnormal ... from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus called the nerve to the anconeus. The somatomotor portion of radial nerve ... Trauma to the nerve supply of the anconeus muscle can usually result from a shoulder dislocation or fractures of the upper part ...
... the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical ... encoded search term (Accessory Nerve Injury) and Accessory Nerve Injury What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cranial nerve XI, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve is most commonly caused by medical procedures that involve the head and neck. Injury can ... The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that ... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ...
... a spinal accessory nerve injury. By the time the referral had occurred, it was too late to try to do any kind of nerve repair ... Guen J. did not see the nerve, did not look for the nerve, did not visualize the nerve and did not avoid the nerve. ... During the surgery the doctor severed a spinal accessory nerve. Despite the womans complaints of left arm weakness the doctor ... Second, Plaintiff contends that the doctor is required to identify the spinal accessory nerve, visualize it, and avoid hitting ...
Radial Nerve Injury (Humerus Fracture). *Sciatic Nerve Injury (Total Hip Arthroplasty). *Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury (Neck ... Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program. Stanford Health Cares Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program offers comprehensive diagnostic ... for patients with spinal cord injuries using nerve transfers and improving diagnosis and management of patient with nerve ... His research interests include peripheral nerve outcomes research, advancing options for patients with peripheral nerve ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... And the pain in the affected limb can be severe and even lead to an initial diagnosis of an injury in that extremity. Cranial ... Synovitis neuritis and injury are often considered when just one limb is involved. GBS and transverse myelitis typically have ... Acute cord injury may be associated with spinal shock and a flaccid paralysis temporarily but then those patients typically ...
... during intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) to assess a nerves functional integrity. ES, however, is subject to off-target ... Without loss in performance, INS is readily compatible with existing clinical nerve monitoring systems. These findings ... In surgical procedures where the risk of accidental nerve damage is prevalent, surgeons commonly use electrical stimulation (ES ... Morris, L. G. T., Ziff, D. J. S. & DeLacure, M. D. Malpractice litigation after surgical injury of the spinal accessory nerve. ...
Josey in which he opined that Leftwich "sustained an injury to the accessory nerve most likely related to the neck surgery." ... See Flowers v. Walker, 63 Ohio St.3d at 550, 589 N.E.2d at 1288-1289 (a patient can have an injury without having reason to ... Josey indicated that Leftwichs pain may have been related to an injury from October 1993. In her affidavit, Leftwich stated ... Martelinos surgery caused her injury.. Similar factual situations appear in medical malpractice cases in which doctors did not ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... And the pain in the affected limb can be severe and even lead to an initial diagnosis of an injury in that extremity. Cranial ... Synovitis neuritis and injury are often considered when just one limb is involved. GBS and transverse myelitis typically have ... Acute cord injury may be associated with spinal shock and a flaccid paralysis temporarily but then those patients typically ...
Mechanism of Right Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury. View Details. *. Surgical Removal of Stage IV Left Oral Tongue Squamous Cell ...
Home > 2010 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Injury And Poisoning 800-999 > Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to ... accessory 951.6. *. acoustic 951.5. *. ankle and foot 956.9. *. anterior crural, femoral 956.1. ... Injury to acoustic nerve. *ICD-9-CM 951.5 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S04.60XA Injury of acoustic nerve, unspecified side, initial encounter ...
Nerve monitors and nerve monitoring accessories to help reduce the risk of patient injury and nerve damage during a variety of ... Monopolar and bipolar probes, electrodes, stimulus-dissection instruments, and other accessories for use with NIM nerve ... otologic procedures to alert surgeons of the burs proximity to the facial nerve and help reduce the risk of patient injury ... Intraoperative NIM nerve monitors enable surgeons to identify, confirm, and monitor motor nerve function during a variety of ...
... and accessory nerves.[. 1 -. 8 ] Injury to the long thoracic nerve (LTN), which arises from the roots of the fifth, sixth, and ... 2. Camp SJ, Birch R. Injuries to the spinal accessory nerve: A lesson to surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011. 93: 62-7 ... 3. Göransson H, Leppänen OV, Vastamäki M. Patient outcome after surgical management of the spinal accessory nerve injury: A ... and accessory nerves. These injuries can have significant social and financial impacts on patients. ...
The median nerve crosses in front of the brachial artery at the middle of the arm from lateral to medial side, and passes along ... Compression neuropathy of median nerve, vascular compression and injury to the median nerve during brachial catheterization can ... The nerve was lateral to the artery. Both the structures passed deep to an accessory slip of brachialis muscle in the lower arm ... The median nerve crosses in front of the brachial artery at the middle of the arm from lateral to medial side, and passes along ...
Accessory nerve injury during amateur wrestling: silent but not overlooked. L Özçakar et al., British Journal of Sports ... Nerve transfers and neurotization in peripheral nerve injury, from surgery to rehabilitation. Lisa Korus et al., Journal of ... Dual spinal accessory nerve: an anatomical anomaly during neck dissection. Faizan Shah et al., BMJ Case Reports, 2023 ... Dual spinal accessory nerve: caution during neck dissection. Muhammad Hassan Danish et al., BMJ Case Reports, 2020 ...
Ascending tenosynovitis from distal hand injury. Athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy. Bifid median nerve with accessory canal ... Unusually susceptible nerve. A more subtle possibility is that the median nerve itself may become more susceptible to damage, ... Bifid median nerve with one branch penetrating FDS tendon. Bifid reversed palmaris longus. Bilateral palmaris profundus tendons ... If we accept the theory that the nerve damage is related to pressure within the carpal tunnel then three broad categories of ...
... and the adductor longus muscle with the arterial source from the thoraco-acromial artery with the phrenic and accessory nerves ... Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are an infrequent injury, approximately between 0.4-2.7% of all epiphyseal injury. Even ... DOUBLE FREE FUNCTIONING MUSCLE TRANSFERS FOR BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURIES: A CASE REPORT Heri Suroto. ; Teddy Heri Wardhana. ; ... A 36 years old man with a complete left brachial plexus injury from C5-T1 due to motorcycle accident. A double free functional ...
It implies an injury to spinal part of accessory nerve. Middle meningeal artery is […] Continue reading → ... Skin overlying the region where a venous cutdown is made to access the great saphenous vein is supplied by femoral nerve. […] ... Anatomy Integrity of long thoracic nerve after damage due to surgery can be tested bedside by asking patient to raise the arm ... Anatomy Carpal tunnel syndrome contains median nerve, flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum superficialis. Femoral ring ...
It implies an injury to spinal part of accessory nerve. Middle meningeal artery is […] Continue reading → ... Motor supply of diaphragm is phrenic nerve. Pudendal nerve is sensory and motor, is derived from S2,3,4 […] Continue reading → ... Skin overlying the region where a venous cutdown is made to access the great saphenous vein is supplied by femoral nerve. […] ... Anatomy Integrity of long thoracic nerve after damage due to surgery can be tested bedside by asking patient to raise the arm ...
Learn why bariatric surgical table accessories are important for providing the highest level of patient safety & comfort to ... Additionally, armboards can help to prevent nerve damage, muscle strains, and other injuries that can result from unintended ... By selecting the right accessories, you can improve patient safety and reduce the risk of injury during the surgical procedure. ... What Are The Benefits Of Bariatric Surgical Table Accessories? The benefits of bariatric surgical table accessories are ...
... accessory nerve)-innervation to sternocleidomastoid (scm) and trapezius. -steroid-induced myopathy a possible aortic injury. ... Thrombosis of a meniscal injury is necrosis of lesions varies, but red, white, and blue toe syndrome, which is deprived of iron ... Surg gynecol obstet 1969; 38:412-7. Facial nerve palsy and left ventricular failure and acute respiratory or hemodynamic ... Presenile dementiaalzheimers type the physician to assess for signs of vascular injury usually requires prosthetic replacement ...
... facial nerve injury, spinal accessory nerve injury, ENT complications, nasal injury, hoarseness, voice, loss of smell, deafness ... Otolaryngology - Allergy, ear disorders, hearing loss, tinnitus, ear infections, facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid leak ...
Research areas covered by this journal include rehabilitation of brain disorders, rehabilitation of spinal cord injury, ... Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury Induced by Manipulation Therapy: A Case Report Jung Ro Yoon, Yong Ki Kim, Yun Dam Ko, Soo In Yun ...
Background: Neck dissection is an operation that can result in accessory nerve injury. Accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction ( ... Physiotherapy for accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction following neck dissection surgery: a literature review. Creator McGarvey ... Physiotherapy for accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction following neck dissection surgery: a literature review. ... accessory nerve; physiotherapy; neck dissection; shoulder pain/dysfunction. Identifier http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1035973. ...
Surgical outcomes of 156 spinal accessory nerve injuries caused by lymph node biopsy procedures. J Neurosurg Spine 2015; 23(4): ... Studies have shown that damage to the accessory nerve occurs in 3% to 10% of node excisions in the posterior triangle of the ... which was considered to have occurred due to damage to the accessory nerve during the node biopsy. ... The nerve was found to be intact but was found in dense scar tissue and was released satisfactorily. He also underwent ...
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can occur with trapezius trauma or shoulder dislocation. Conquering the cold shudder: The ... The main concern with poles is a very valid concern when it comes to injury, for a plus sized woman to be sure that the pole ... due to injury or approved conservation programmes. Noahs great-grandfather, Enoch, got a heavenly tour of space. Their ...
Inadvertent injury to the spinal accessory nerve can occur in several situations. The spinal accessory nerve can sometimes lie ... mandibular branch of the facial nerve, spinal accessory nerve, phrenic nerve). If a tracheostomy is planned, perform this ... Use of a nerve stimulator may be helpful. Any tissue overlying the spinal accessory nerve should be divided so that it may ... later be passed under the spinal accessory nerve. Dissect the spinal accessory nerve away from the underlying neck contents to ...
BACKGROUND: Shoulder syndrome can be reduced by preserving the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). However, it is unclear whether ... The patient was admitted to the hospital because of shoulder pain after activity in the year following the injury. During the ... The suprascapular nerve is commonly entrapped at the following two sites: the suprascapular and spinoglenoid notches. Nerve ... We performed ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block with an anterior approach, combined with an axillary nerve block, and ...
Surgery to generate a long-gap sciatic nerve injury was performed in athymic nude mice, after which the mice were divided into ... BACKGROUND: Shoulder syndrome can be reduced by preserving the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). However, it is unclear whether ... Severe peripheral nerve injury, which does not promise natural healing, inevitably requires clinical treatment. Here, we ... The therapeutic effects of voluntary exercise on the recovery of long-gap nerve injury following the bridging of an acellular ...
If you have suffered a spinal injury, one of the more common injuries is a spinal accessory nerve injury…. ... What is Phrenic Nerve?. The term "phrenia" refers to a group of approximately thirty different species of sensory nerves or ... What is Spinal Accessory Nerve / The Radical Neck Dissection. ... Read More What is Spinal Accessory Nerve / The Radical Neck ... Nerve endings of all bone structures in the human body, including the spine, contain Schmorls nodes. Schmorls nodes are named ...
  • Leaving the skull, the nerve travels through the jugular foramen with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this the nerve routes through jugular foramen with vagus nerves and glossopharyngeal . (knowyourbody.net)
  • From the skull, it goes through the jugular foramen with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Cranial nerve XI, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical neck. (medscape.com)
  • The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is classified as the eleventh of twelve pairs of cranial nerves because part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional descriptions of the accessory nerve divide it into a spinal part and a cranial part. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve, and there is ongoing debate about whether the cranial part should be considered part of the accessory nerve proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve is notable for being the only cranial nerve to both enter and exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to it being unique among the cranial nerves in having neurons in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral horn of high cervical segments appears to be continuous with the nucleus ambiguus of the medulla oblongata, from which the cranial component of the accessory nerve is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the accessory nerve is described as having a small cranial component that descends from the medulla and briefly connects with the spinal accessory component before branching off of the nerve to join the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst the twelve pairs of the cranial nerve in the brain, the eleventh pair of cranial nerve (CN11) is called the Accessory Nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • It is a cranial nerve that serves the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. (knowyourbody.net)
  • It is deemed as the 11th muscle of twelve pairs of the cranial nerves, or just cranial nerve XI. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The end part of high cervical segments seems to be regular with nucleus ambiguous from medulla oblongata, which is the area dividing the cranial part of the accessory nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Conventionally, it was considered that accessory nerve has a small cranial aspect that diminishes from the medulla and then connects with spinal accessory aspect before separating off to the nerve to link the vagus nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The Spinal Accessory Nerve is a unique one that is it is known to be the only cranial nerve that enters and exits the skull. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The cranial portion or the cranial Accessory Nerve is smaller than the Spinal Accessory Nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Once it leaves the skull, the cranial portion combines with CN X or the vagus nerve at the inferior ganglion. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The vagus nerve is the longest of the 12 cranial nerves. (healthline.com)
  • The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the movement of certain neck muscles. (healthline.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve is the third of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the brain. (healthline.com)
  • [ 9 , 4 ] In addition to perioperative stroke, serious complications that may develop after CEA include myocardial ischemia and infarction , hemodynamic instability, cranial nerve (CN) injuries, and bleeding resulting in neck hematomas and airway compromise. (medscape.com)
  • Anatomic study of the SAN has long maintained a debate as to the exact contributions of this nerve and other cervical motor nerves to the innervation of the trapezius muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Neurotization of the donor muscle was performed using the musculocutaneous nerve (one case), spinal accessory nerve (12 cases), or multiple intercostal motor nerves (16 cases). (medscape.com)
  • Both single and double free muscle transfer procedure were performed using extraplexal donor motor nerves. (medscape.com)
  • After lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone due to painful avulsion, double fascicles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris) of the median and ulnar nerve) were transferred to the biceps brachii and brachialis branches of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion. (thenerve.net)
  • Motor root avulsion of the C5 and C6 roots results in Erb palsy, with loss of supply to muscles innervated by the suprascapular nerve, axillary nerve, and musculocutaneous nerve 3 ). (thenerve.net)
  • 8 ) reported the technique of nerve transfer from a redundant fascicle of the ulnar nerve to the biceps brachii branch of the musculocutaneous nerve for restoration of elbow function due to upper brachial plexus avulsion. (thenerve.net)
  • The so-called 'double fascicular nerve transfer' entails a surgical transfer of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and flexor carpi ulnar (FCU) branches of the median and ulnar nerves to the biceps brachii and brachialis branches of the musculocutaneous nerve for functional restoration of elbow flexion 2 - 4 , 6 , 7 , 12 - 15 ). (thenerve.net)
  • Clinico-embryological perspective of a rare accessory brachial muscle with possible musculocutaneous nerve compression. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent anatomic study reported a possible plexus composed of both cervical nerves and contributions from the SAN that collectively provided trapezial motor innervation. (medscape.com)
  • The classic and much-used Gray's Anatomy assigned cervical nerves to a proprioceptive sensory role, with only the SAN providing motor innervation to the trapezius. (medscape.com)
  • As it courses downwards, the nerve pierces through the sternocleidomastoid muscle while sending it motor branches, then continues down until it reaches the trapezius muscle to provide motor innervation to its upper part. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innervation of serratus anterior is from cervical nerves five through seven in the form of the long thoracic nerve. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • What is Phrenic Nerve? (mindmyfeed.com)
  • The hiccup reflex is composed of the afferent pathway (through the vagal and phrenic nerves and the sympathetic chain), the central hiccup center (in the hypothalamus), and the efferent pathway (through the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and the accessory nerves to the intercostal muscles). (lww.com)
  • More invasive procedures include phrenic nerve block and vagal/phrenic nerve stimulation. (lww.com)
  • The efferent pathway comprises of the phrenic nerve (diaphragm), the vagus nerve (larynx) and spinal nerves (accessory muscles of inspiration) [ 4 ]. (jmrionline.com)
  • Injury to the SAN results in varying degrees of shoulder dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] SAN damage that results from radical neck dissection was first described by Ewing and Martin (1952), although Nahum (1961) coined the term "shoulder syndrome," describing the clinical syndrome of pain and shoulder dysfunction that is associated with SAN injury. (medscape.com)
  • Accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction (ANSD) describes the pain and impaired range of motion that may occur following neck dissection. (edu.au)
  • Studies have shown that any type of neck dissection can result in shoulder dysfunction, regardless of whether the spinal accessory nerve is preserved. (medscape.com)
  • Shoulder dysfunction is also more likely be temporary in those who have less extensive spinal accessory nerve dissection. (medscape.com)
  • During fine needle biopsy of the posterior triangle, the use of local anesthesia may eliminate spinal accessory nerve function so that the trapezius muscle does not contract upon penetration, and shoulder dysfunction can go unrecognized for hours until the anesthesia wears off. (medscape.com)
  • Our literature review found that little evidence exists pertaining to the effectiveness of physiotherapy on accessory nerve shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection surgery exists, with only one previous randomised controlled study published. (edu.au)
  • An additional nerve transfer (triceps branch of the radial nerve to the axillary nerve) was planned for shoulder function. (thenerve.net)
  • Nerve transfer was first described in 1948 by Alexander Lurje using the triceps fascicles of the radial nerve transfer to the axillary nerve in one patient with Erb's palsy. (childrenshospital.org)
  • One of the most popular methods is the transfer of radial nerve fascicles to the axillary nerve. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Targeting the anterior branch of the axillary nerve maximizes restoration of shoulder abduction. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The Anterior Approach for Transfer of Radial Nerve Triceps Fascicles to the Axillary Nerve. (childrenshospital.org)
  • In 1933, Bardeen suggested that the origin of motor input to the trapezius muscle was purely from the cervical nerves. (medscape.com)
  • 1 - 8 ] Injury to the long thoracic nerve (LTN), which arises from the roots of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves (C5-C7), is the most common cause of scapular winging. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Consequently, the term "accessory nerve" usually refers only to nerve supplying the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, also called the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one is called the Spinal Accessory Nerve that originates in the neurons located in the upper spinal cord (medulla oblongata). (knowyourbody.net)
  • The median nerve crosses in front of the brachial artery at the middle of the arm from lateral to medial side, and passes along its medial side. (pulsus.com)
  • In cubital fossa, structures lying from lateral to medial are tendon of biceps brachii, brachial artery and median nerve (TAN). (pulsus.com)
  • No literature is available stating median nerve to be lateral to the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. (pulsus.com)
  • In the present case, we found bilateral variations in the course of median nerve and brachial artery in the cubital fossa. (pulsus.com)
  • Compression neuropathy of median nerve, vascular compression and injury to the median nerve during brachial catheterization can occur in such a case. (pulsus.com)
  • A more subtle possibility is that the median nerve itself may become more susceptible to damage, and less able to cope with the 'normal' stresses of life in the carpal tunnel as a result of more widespread nerve disease. (carpal-tunnel.net)
  • Another example of this might be the slightly contentious entity of 'double crush' syndrome in which it is suggested that a lesion in the neck predisposes the median nerve to carpal tunnel syndrome. (carpal-tunnel.net)
  • Anatomy Carpal tunnel syndrome contains median nerve, flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum superficialis. (medicosplexus.com)
  • In the upper arm and near the shoulder, the median nerve branches off of the brachial plexus. (healthline.com)
  • The nerve travels along the inner wall of the skull towards the jugular foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve moves near the inner wall of the skull near the jugular foramen. (knowyourbody.net)
  • From the jugular foramen, it then leaves the cranium and connects to the spinal portion of the main Accessory Nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • During the surgery the doctor severed a spinal accessory nerve. (aitkenlaw.com)
  • Defendant Guen J., M.D. performed the surgery to remove the bracheocleft cyst and during the surgery severed Amelia R's spinal accessory nerve. (aitkenlaw.com)
  • By the time the referral had occurred, it was too late to try to do any kind of nerve repair surgery. (aitkenlaw.com)
  • Plaintiffs contend that Dr. Guen J. did not provide Amelia R. with informed consent of the potential danger of hitting the nerve at the time of the surgery and the risk that this entails including the major injury that it involves if indeed the nerve is hit. (aitkenlaw.com)
  • At the Stanford Center for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, our goal is to capitalize on the expertise of specialists from multiple fields of medicine to develop a customized treatment plan to address the needs of each individual patient. (stanford.edu)
  • The Center for Peripheral Nerve Surgery utilizes a multi-faceted research approach ranging from basic/translational research to clinical trials to clinical outcomes research. (stanford.edu)
  • Stanford Health Care's Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program offers comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and testing, as well as leading-edge surgical techniques, provided by a highly specialized and experienced nationally-recognized team. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, INIs are also a common source of medicolegal litigation with 60% of INI complications during thyroid surgery leading to malpractice lawsuits and 82% of cases of spinal accessory nerve injury resulting in patient compensation 17 , 18 . (nature.com)
  • IONM seeks to preserve peripheral nerve function through electrical stimulation (ES) of at risk nerves throughout surgery and examining any changes in the amplitude and latency of the evoked signals that are indicative of damage. (nature.com)
  • On February 22, 1995, Dr. Love wrote a letter to Dr. Josey in which he opined that Leftwich "sustained an injury to the accessory nerve most likely related to the neck surgery. (findlaw.com)
  • The mean time interval between the onset of injury and surgery was 2.3 years. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Anatomy Integrity of long thoracic nerve after damage due to surgery can be tested bedside by asking patient to raise the arm above the head on the affected side. (medicosplexus.com)
  • There are several types of bariatric surgical table accessories that are designed to provide support and safety for patients during surgery. (alimed.com)
  • Additionally, armboards can help to prevent nerve damage, muscle strains, and other injuries that can result from unintended movement during surgery. (alimed.com)
  • Continuous intraoperative nerve monitoring is useful for safe surgery in patients with possible inferior laryngeal nerve abnormalities. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peripheral Nerve Surgery in India is a technique that involves nerves outside of the central nervous system. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • What Is Peripheral Nerve Surgery? (medsurgeindia.com)
  • People with peripheral nerve problems, such as acute nerve injuries, entrapment neuropathies, and nerve sheath tumors, undergo peripheral nerve surgery in India to restore function and reduce pain and impairment. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • More than 100 different injuries, diseases, and disorders can be treated using peripheral nerve surgery in India. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • Who Is a Good Candidate for Nerve Surgery? (medsurgeindia.com)
  • The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate accessory nerve injury related to neck dissection surgery, and the effectiveness of a biomechanically specific physiotherapy intervention compared to a control group. (edu.au)
  • We then undertook a case control electromyography study, to investigate any scapular muscle activity differences following neck dissection surgery in patients with clinical signs of accessory nerve injury. (edu.au)
  • The RCT provided evidence that a progressive scapular strengthening program is more effective than usual care, for patients with accessory nerve injury after neck dissection surgery, that need to rapidly improve their active shoulder abduction. (edu.au)
  • Therefore, nerve transfer surgery to restore elbow and shoulder function is rarely reported. (thenerve.net)
  • Two weeks after the first transfer surgery, the distal accessory nerve was transferred to the suprascapular nerve to ensure shoulder function. (thenerve.net)
  • For shoulder function, it is recommended to perform radial nerve transfer at the time of the first surgery. (thenerve.net)
  • Despite pain surgery for neuropathic pain in brachial plexus avulsion 5 , 9 , 10 ), no surgical restoration of the function of the elbow and shoulder was possible because it was referred to the authors one year after a shoulder injury. (thenerve.net)
  • In addition, I believe that for thyroid and parathyroid surgery, nerve monitoring, intraoperative pathology and intraoperative PTH measurement are essential. (endocrinesurgeon.co.uk)
  • During these surgical procedures, the long thoracic nerve is protected by your surgeon and proper surgical technique, but occasionally difficulties arise during surgery and the nerve may become injured. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • This nerve may suffer injury during TMJ surgery, which may cause parasthesia of the auricle and the ear region. (healthline.com)
  • This explains the unpredictable motor and sensory deficits that arise from transection of the nerves to this muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Nerve conduction velocity and electromyography examination reports were obtained for the patients to assess the regional sensory or motor loss of the nerve injury. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The term "phrenia" refers to a group of approximately thirty different species of sensory nerves or afferents. (mindmyfeed.com)
  • [ 12 ] have described a method involving two FFMTs combined with additional motor and sensory neurotization in patients with four or five nerve root avulsions. (medscape.com)
  • Our current research focuses on advanced imaging techniques such as Stimulated Raman Histology to develop improved intraoperative decision-making, attempting to understand the growth pattern of nerve sheath tumors (schwannomas and neurofibromas), and the evaluation of an approved device (Neurocap) for the treatment of nerve pain secondary to neuromas through a post-approval clinical trial. (stanford.edu)
  • In surgical procedures where the risk of accidental nerve damage is prevalent, surgeons commonly use electrical stimulation (ES) during intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) to assess a nerve's functional integrity. (nature.com)
  • It wasn't until recently that the method for surgical treatment of nerve injuries became more widely accepted for brachial plexus injuries. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Traumatic brachial plexopathies are a diverse and complex group of injuries that result in functional upper-extremity deficits ranging from weakness to complete paralysis. (medscape.com)
  • Tendon reflexes for predicting movement recovery after acute spinal cord injury in humans. (nih.gov)
  • The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-T1. (proprofs.com)
  • The auriculotemporal nerve originates from the back part of the mandibular nerve, which travels alongside the superficial temporal vein and artery. (healthline.com)
  • Patients underwent unilateral decompression, neurolysis of the upper brachial plexus/long thoracic nerve (LTN), and partial resection of the scalene muscle. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The long thoracic nerve terminates at the lower portion of the serratus anterior muscle, sending small nerve tendrils to each of that muscle's projections where it attaches to the ribs. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • In addition, electrical evidence of long thoracic nerve injury usually is required to confirm the etiology of scapular winging as being caused by serratus anterior dysfunction. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • The long thoracic nerve supplies motor function to the serratus anterior muscle. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • The long thoracic nerve supplies the serratus anterior muscle. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • The long thoracic nerve supplies the serratus anterior muscle via three spinal nerve roots, which cut through the clavicle area to the right of the brachial plexus. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • The approach to management of SAN injury and trapezius muscle dysfunction is a multidisciplinary one that involves conservative management, physical therapy, and surgical repair. (medscape.com)
  • Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve results in denervation of the trapezius muscle (and sternocleidomastoid) as well as destabilization of the scapula. (medscape.com)
  • Dissection immediately along the anterior border of the trapezius muscle can injure branches of the spinal accessory nerve as they dive toward the deep surface of the muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Intra-operatively, the accessory nerve can become injured, even when it remains macroscopically intact, causing reduced trapezius muscle activity and weakness. (edu.au)
  • Strength testing of these muscles can be measured during a neurological examination to assess function of the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury can cause wasting of the shoulder muscles, winging of the scapula, and weakness of shoulder abduction and external rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal component of the accessory nerve provides motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shoulder disability in adults: improvements after decompression and neurolysis of the upper brachial plexus and long thoracic nerves with partial resection of the scalene muscles. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The accessory nerve offers motion functions to the sternocleidomastoid muscles that extend from the neck and move to trapezius and then extends to the upper back and shoulder. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The Accessory Nerve helps with motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (knowyourbody.net)
  • However, dysfunction is more frequent and severe for patients in whom the spinal accessory nerve is either resected or extensively dissected along its length from the skull base to the trapezius muscles. (medscape.com)
  • The brain's ability to interact with muscles and organs can be harmed by a nerve injury. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • However, the importance of the brachial muscle in elbow flexion was subsequently confirmed and the technique for the transfer of double fascicular nerves to both the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles was introduced 7 ). (thenerve.net)
  • Injuries to the omoclavicular triangle can potentially damage the ansa cervicalis, leading to weakness or paralysis of these muscles. (proprofs.com)
  • Accessory muscles: anatomy, symptoms, and radiologic evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • This article reviews the important surgical landmarks and anatomic variations of the SAN, etiologies of SAN injury, and outcomes of surgical repair. (medscape.com)
  • We utilize the latest diagnostic techniques and surgical strategies to restore function and minimize pain for patients with peripheral nerve disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • By assessing nerve functionality throughout a surgical procedure, the risk of INI is greatly reduced and timely interventions can be made if damage occurs. (nature.com)
  • Bariatric Surgical Table Accessories are designed to help ensure the safety of these patients as well as the success of the procedure. (alimed.com)
  • In this blog, we will discuss everything you need to know about bariatric surgical table accessories, including features, benefits, and examples. (alimed.com)
  • What Are Bariatric Surgical Table Accessories? (alimed.com)
  • Bariatric surgical table accessories are designed to provide better positioning options, increased weight capacity, and more substantial support for larger patients. (alimed.com)
  • All of these accessories are designed to work with different tables to meet the needs of both the patient and medical professional, with higher weight capacities and larger sizes than standard surgical table accessories. (alimed.com)
  • The benefits of bariatric surgical table accessories are numerous, but most importantly, they improve patient safety and comfort. (alimed.com)
  • These accessories are designed to securely hold the patient in the necessary position while in the operating room, which is especially important during lengthy surgical procedures. (alimed.com)
  • The increased weight capacity of bariatric surgical table accessories ensures that larger patients are stable during the procedure, reducing the risk of injury. (alimed.com)
  • While the accessories you choose will depend on the surgical procedure and the needs of your patient, below are some of the most common types to consider. (alimed.com)
  • Surgical Table Straps are used to secure the patient in specific positions, allowing the surgical team to work more efficiently and effectively while minimizing the risk of injury to the patient. (alimed.com)
  • How To Choose The Right Bariatric Surgical Table Accessories? (alimed.com)
  • A team of people may be involved in the surgical treatment and rehabilitation of peripheral nerve damage. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • A jury in New Haven Connecticut recently awarded a 58-year-old man $4.2 million for an injury incurred during a surgical procedure that was the result of a doctor's misdiagnosis. (syracusemedicalmalpracticelawyerblog.com)
  • Patients with aortic arch malformations may present with recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve abnormalities that require special attention. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a retrospective cohort study in which the oncological outcome (contralateral and regional recurrence) and the reoperation complications (recurrent nerve paralysis/paresis and hypoparathyroidism) were evaluated. (scielo.org)
  • Course of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) in the posterior cervical triangle. (medscape.com)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle, in front of the vein in about 80% of people, and behind it in about 20%, and in one reported case, piercing the vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The necessary nerve intersects the interior jugular vein across the level of posterior belly of the digastric muscle. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The spinal accessory nerve can sometimes lie superficial enough in the posterior triangle to be at risk during elevation of skin flaps. (medscape.com)
  • Also, during excisional biopsies of the posterior triangle, the spinal accessory nerve can be found to run directly over the enlarged lymph node. (medscape.com)
  • The most common approach for this transfer is the posterior approach, which gives excellent access to both nerves but is not easy to combine with other nerve transfers. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The fibres that form the spinal accessory nerve are formed by lower motor neurons located in the upper segments of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve is formed by fibers of lower motor neurons situated in the upper areas of the spinal cord. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Structural changes in the bony walls of the carpal tunnel resulting from injury or arthritis clearly have the capacity to physically narrow the tunnel. (carpal-tunnel.net)
  • The nerve was lateral to the artery. (pulsus.com)
  • The left inferior laryngeal nerve was presumed to be the right inferior laryngeal nerve by confirming the location of the aortic arch and subclavian artery, and the presence of the ductus arteriosus on preoperative computed tomography. (bvsalud.org)
  • The two roots of this nerve surround the medial meningeal artery , and finally combine into a single nerve. (healthline.com)
  • The anatomy of the accessory nerve can be studied by detailing its parts. (knowyourbody.net)
  • An oral nerve block is a simple and effective way to manage orofacial pain without distorting the anatomy of a wound and without the use of narcotics. (medscape.com)
  • Although hiccups are caused by a myriad of causes which are related to the injury and/or irritation to the neural pathways, they most frequently occur because of irritation to the stomach wall or diaphragm. (jmrionline.com)
  • The afferent pathways include phrenic and vagus nerve and T6-T12 sympathetic fibers. (jmrionline.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy and left ventricular failure and acute respiratory or hemodynamic compromise. (surgicalimpex.com)
  • Scapular winging, muscle weakness, chronic discomfort, and overall impairment of shoulder function are commonly caused by injuries to and/or compression of the upper brachial plexus, long thoracic, and accessory nerves. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • In order to avoid a chyle leak, it is important to avoid injury to the thoracic duct when dissecting inferomedially in the left neck. (medscape.com)
  • This is my story of the injury i got on my Thoracic nerve which cause my serratus anterior to stop working. (cers-deutschland.org)
  • Concern was voiced about employees suffering possible nerve and tendon deterioration of the hand, wrist and elbow and low back sprains/strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The nerve fibres supplying sternocleidomastoid, however, are thought to change sides (Latin: decussate) twice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve fiber sternocleidomastoid controls the action of turning the head. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The spinal accessory nerve's fibers originate from the neurons located in the upper spinal cord. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The fibers link to create roots, rootlets, and the spinal accessory nerve. (knowyourbody.net)
  • The fibers of the Spinal Accessory Nerve join together to form rootlets, roots, and the spinal Accessory Nerve itself. (knowyourbody.net)
  • Axons, the fibers that make up peripheral nerves, are insulated by surrounding tissues. (medsurgeindia.com)
  • Biceps and shoulder musculature reinnervation involving both nerve grafting and transfer techniques has resulted in reliable restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder abduction when the procedure is undertaken within 6 to 9 months of injury. (medscape.com)
  • Skin overlying the region where a venous cutdown is made to access the great saphenous vein is supplied by femoral nerve. (medicosplexus.com)
  • Hormonal imbalance with excessive estrogen stimulation is associated with the etiology of MBC, which occurs in men with undescended testes, congenital inguinal hernia, orchiectomy, orchitis, testicular injury, infertility and Klinefelter's syndrome. (gotoper.com)
  • The fibres of the spinal accessory nerve originate solely in neurons situated in the upper spinal cord, from where the spinal cord begins at the junction with the medulla oblongata, to the level of about C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) is a weakening or paralysis of the upper arm caused by brachial plexus injury followed by a muscle paralysis with severe repercussions on the movement of the shoulder joint following a progressive glenohumeral joint deformity. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present our initial experience of double fascicular nerve transfer for upper brachial plexus avulsion. (thenerve.net)
  • This nerve runs on the inside of the upper part of the mandible, or lower jawbone, and turns over the jawbone's uppermost tip after giving off parotid branches. (healthline.com)
  • The authors report the functional outcomes after functioning free muscle transfer (FFMT) for restoration of the upper-extremity movement after brachial plexus injury (BPI). (medscape.com)
  • Six months after the nerve transfers, elbow flexion recovered to Medical Research Council grade 3, but shoulder function did not show any improvement. (thenerve.net)
  • Today, nerve transfers are an increasingly popular treatment for nerve injuries. (childrenshospital.org)
  • This new technique offers safe access to both radial and axillary nerves and has the added advantage of compatibility with approaches for other common nerve transfers, such as the Oberlin transfer. (childrenshospital.org)
  • We successfully performed this technique, combined with two other nerve transfers, on a five-month-old girl with bilateral brachial plexus birth injury. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The most common presenting symptom of SAN injury is shoulder pain, while the most common sign is limited or loss of sustained abduction of the shoulder. (medscape.com)
  • Injury to the LTN can cause weakness or paralysis of the SA muscle, which stabilizes the scapula and supports the shoulder abduction. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • In the case of root avulsion, the absence of proximal nerve stump prevents nerve graft reconstruction and no spontaneous recovery of the shoulder and elbow function is anticipated 13 ). (thenerve.net)
  • Twenty-one adults who sustained shoulder injuries (a bilateral injury in two patients and a total of 23 shoulder surgeries) presented with winged scapulas, limited shoulder range of motion, and severe shoulder pain. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Twenty-one patients (a bilateral injury in two patients and 23 shoulder surgeries) underwent surgeries and postoperative evaluations. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • In addition to partial radial nerve to axillary transfer and an Oberlin transfer, the patient also received partial spinal accessory nerve transfer. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Movement of the neck and back becomes difficult due to nerve compression. (mindmyfeed.com)