The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Physical therapy for spinal accessory nerve injury complicated by adhesive capsulitis. (1/6)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The authors found no literature describing adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury and no exercise program or protocol for patients with spinal accessory nerve injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a patient with adhesive capsulitis and spinal accessory nerve injury following a carotid endarterectomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 67-year-old woman referred for physical therapy following manipulation of the left shoulder and a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis by her orthopedist. Spinal accessory nerve injury was identified during the initial physical therapy examination, and a program of neuromuscular electrical stimulation was initiated. OUTCOMES: The patient had almost full restoration of the involved muscle function after 5 months of physical therapy. DISCUSSION: This case report illustrates the importance of accurate diagnosis and suggests physical therapy intervention to manage adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury.  (+info)

Occupational therapy for accessory nerve palsy after radical neck dissection. (2/6)

The subjects in this study were ten patients with accessory nerve palsy after radical neck dissection. All the primary diseases that accounted for radical neck dissection were malignant tumors located at the head or neck. Every patient received occupational therapy and underwent evaluations before and after the therapy. The data we collected included the existence of resting pain and motion pain, and the active and passive range of motion during shoulder flexion and abduction. The occupational therapy programs were not adequately effective for resting and motion pain, however, every patient gained independence for activities of daily living and housekeeping activities. The occupational therapy significantly improved the patient's shoulder elevation in all movements; although, the active abduction was always significantly poor compared with flexion. In the meantime, there were no significant differences between passive shoulder flexion and abduction at all times. We can therefore understand that the accessory nerve palsy especially affects active shoulder abduction induced by the trapezius paralysis. Occupational therapy is an effective treatment for the improvement of shoulder function, however, the occupational therapy has limited effectiveness for coping with the pain.  (+info)

Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy. (3/6)

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. METHODS: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.  (+info)

Schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve--case report. (4/6)

A 60-year-old woman presented with a rare schwannoma arising from a spinal accessory nerve at the C1-2 levels manifesting as cervico-occipital pain. The tumor was removed by surgery with the involved segment of the nerve. She had no postoperative neurological deficit. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Surgical removal is recommended for such cases.  (+info)

An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury. (5/6)

Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Although isolated injuries of both nerves following a whiplash injury have been reported, combined injury of the two nerves following a whiplash injury is very uncommon and is being reported for the first time.  (+info)

Idiopathic spinal accessory nerve palsy. A case report. (6/6)

 (+info)

The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve (XI), has both a cranial and spinal component. It primarily controls the function of certain muscles in the back of the neck and shoulder.

The cranial part arises from nuclei in the brainstem and innervates some of the muscles that help with head rotation, including the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The spinal root originates from nerve roots in the upper spinal cord (C1-C5), exits the spine, and joins the cranial part to form a single trunk. This trunk then innervates the trapezius muscle, which helps with shoulder movement and stability.

Damage to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, causing symptoms such as difficulty turning the head, weak shoulder shrugging, or winged scapula (a condition where the shoulder blade protrudes from the back).

The accessory nerve, also known as the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI), has both a cranial and spinal root and innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscle. Accessory nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Some examples of accessory nerve diseases include:

1. Traumatic injury: Direct trauma to the neck or posterior scalene region can damage the spinal root of the accessory nerve. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the trapezius muscle, leading to difficulty with shoulder movement and pain.
2. Neuralgia: Accessory nerve neuralgia is a condition characterized by painful spasms or shooting pains along the course of the accessory nerve. It can be caused by nerve compression, inflammation, or injury.
3. Tumors: Tumors in the neck region, such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, can compress or invade the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
4. Infections: Viral infections, such as poliovirus or West Nile virus, can cause inflammation and damage to the accessory nerve, resulting in weakness or paralysis.
5. Neuropathy: Accessory nerve neuropathy is a condition characterized by degeneration of the accessory nerve fibers due to various causes such as diabetes, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. This can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.
6. Congenital defects: Some individuals may be born with congenital defects that affect the development and function of the accessory nerve, leading to weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles.

Treatment for accessory nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Accessory nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the eleventh cranial nerve, also known as the accessory nerve. This nerve has both a cranial and spinal root, and it primarily controls the movement of some muscles in the neck and shoulder.

Injuries to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, leading to difficulty turning the head or lifting the arm. The severity of the symptoms depends on the extent and location of the injury. Accessory nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during surgery (particularly neck or shoulder surgeries), penetrating injuries, tumors, or neurological disorders.

Treatment for accessory nerve injuries typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management, and, in some cases, surgical intervention to repair the damaged nerve. The prognosis for recovery varies depending on the severity and cause of the injury.

Optic nerve diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color vision, and visual field defects. Examples of optic nerve diseases include optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve), glaucoma (damage to the optic nerve due to high eye pressure), optic nerve damage from trauma or injury, ischemic optic neuropathy (lack of blood flow to the optic nerve), and optic nerve tumors. Treatment for optic nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Olfactory nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the olfactory nerve, which is the first cranial nerve responsible for the sense of smell. These diseases can result in impaired or loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), as well as distorted perception of smells (parosmia). The causes of olfactory nerve diseases can include trauma, infection, inflammation, neurological disorders, and exposure to certain chemicals. Some examples of specific olfactory nerve diseases include sinusitis, upper respiratory infections, head injuries, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment for these conditions depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Vagus nerve diseases, also known as vagus nerve disorders, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen, playing a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, and sweating.

Diseases of the vagus nerve can result from various causes, including inflammation, infection, trauma, compression, or degeneration. Some common vagus nerve disorders include:

1. Vagus nerve dysfunction: This is a general term used to describe any abnormality in the functioning of the vagus nerve. Symptoms may vary depending on the specific functions affected but can include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, voice changes, and abnormal heart rate or blood pressure.
2. Vagus nerve neuropathy: This is a condition that results from damage to the vagus nerve fibers. It can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, voice changes, and abnormal digestive function.
3. Gastroparesis: This is a condition in which the stomach muscles fail to contract properly, leading to delayed gastric emptying. Vagus nerve dysfunction is a common cause of gastroparesis.
4. Orthostatic hypotension: This is a condition characterized by a drop in blood pressure when standing up from a sitting or lying down position. Vagus nerve dysfunction can contribute to this condition by causing an abnormal response in the heart rate and blood vessels.
5. Inflammatory disorders: Certain inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and sarcoidosis can affect the vagus nerve and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for vagus nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

A nerve transfer is a surgical procedure where a functioning nerve is connected to an injured nerve to restore movement, sensation or function. The functioning nerve, called the donor nerve, usually comes from another less critical location in the body and has spare nerve fibers that can be used to reinnervate the injured nerve, called the recipient nerve.

During the procedure, a small section of the donor nerve is carefully dissected and prepared for transfer. The recipient nerve is also prepared by removing any damaged or non-functioning portions. The two ends are then connected using microsurgical techniques under a microscope. Over time, the nerve fibers from the donor nerve grow along the recipient nerve and reinnervate the muscles or sensory structures that were previously innervated by the injured nerve.

Nerve transfers can be used to treat various types of nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, facial nerve palsy, and peripheral nerve injuries. The goal of the procedure is to restore function as quickly and efficiently as possible, allowing for a faster recovery and improved quality of life for the patient.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for controlling tongue movements. Hypoglossal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and result in various tongue-related symptoms. These disorders can be congenital or acquired, and they may stem from different causes such as trauma, tumors, infections, inflammation, or degenerative processes.

Hypoglossal nerve diseases can present with the following symptoms:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the tongue muscles on one or both sides.
2. Deviation of the tongue towards the affected side when protruded.
3. Fasciculations (involuntary muscle twitches) or atrophy (wasting) of the tongue muscles.
4. Difficulty with speaking, swallowing, and chewing due to tongue weakness.
5. Changes in taste and sensation on the back of the tongue and throat.

Some specific hypoglossal nerve diseases include:

1. Hypoglossal nerve palsy: A condition characterized by unilateral or bilateral weakness or paralysis of the tongue due to damage to the hypoglossal nerve. Causes can include trauma, tumors, stroke, multiple sclerosis, or other neurological disorders.
2. Hypoglossal neuritis: Inflammation of the hypoglossal nerve, often caused by viral infections or autoimmune processes, leading to tongue weakness and atrophy.
3. Congenital hypoglossal nerve anomalies: Abnormal development of the hypoglossal nerve during fetal growth can result in various tongue-related symptoms and difficulties with speech and swallowing.
4. Tumors affecting the hypoglossal nerve: Both benign and malignant tumors, such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, can compress or infiltrate the hypoglossal nerve, causing weakness or paralysis.
5. Hypoglossal-facial anastomosis: A surgical procedure that connects the hypoglossal nerve to the facial nerve to restore facial movement in cases of facial nerve palsy. This connection can lead to tongue weakness as a side effect.

Neck dissection is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of lymph nodes and other tissues from the neck. It is typically performed as part of cancer treatment, particularly in cases of head and neck cancer, to help determine the stage of the cancer, prevent the spread of cancer, or treat existing metastases. There are several types of neck dissections, including radical, modified radical, and selective neck dissection, which vary based on the extent of tissue removal. The specific type of neck dissection performed depends on the location and extent of the cancer.

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as the 8th cranial nerve, is responsible for transmitting sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in hearing loss, vertigo, and balance problems.

These diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infection, trauma, tumors, or degeneration. Some examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include:

1. Vestibular neuritis: an inner ear infection that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and balance problems.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that affects both the vestibular and cochlear nerves, causing vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
3. Acoustic neuroma: a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, causing hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
4. Meniere's disease: a inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
5. Ototoxicity: damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals that can result in hearing loss and balance problems.
6. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that is associated with vertigo, dizziness, and balance problems.

Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is primarily responsible for providing motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus muscle and sensory innervation to parts of the pharynx, middle ear, and posterior tongue. It also plays a role in the reflexive control of heart rate via the baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus.

Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to various symptoms. These diseases can be classified into two main categories: peripheral and central. Peripheral disorders are caused by damage or injury to the nerve itself, while central disorders result from problems in the brainstem where the glossopharyngeal nerve originates.

Some examples of glossopharyngeal nerve diseases include:

1. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A rare condition characterized by severe, stabbing pain in the throat, ear, or tongue, often triggered by swallowing or talking. This disorder may be caused by compression of the nerve by blood vessels or other structures.

2. Infections: Bacterial and viral infections can cause inflammation and damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to dysfunction. Examples include Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), and meningitis.

3. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in the head and neck region can compress and injure the glossopharyngeal nerve, resulting in symptoms related to its dysfunction.

4. Trauma: Direct trauma to the neck or skull base can damage the glossopharyngeal nerve, causing various deficits depending on the severity of the injury.

5. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis and stroke can affect the central connections of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the brainstem, leading to dysfunction.

6. Genetic conditions: Rare genetic disorders like Moersch-Woltman syndrome (also known as stiff person syndrome) can involve the glossopharyngeal nerve and cause symptoms related to its dysfunction.

Symptoms of glossopharyngeal nerve dysfunction may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, loss of taste on the back of the tongue, decreased sensation in the throat or ear, and pain in the neck, throat, or ear. Treatment for these conditions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the specific problem.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

Onchocerciasis, Ocular is a medical condition that specifically refers to the eye manifestations caused by the parasitic infection, Onchocerca volvulus. Also known as "river blindness," this disease is spread through the bite of infected blackflies.

Ocular onchocerciasis affects various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and retina. The infection can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and redness of the eyes. Over time, it may lead to more serious complications like punctate keratitis (small, scattered opacities on the cornea), cataracts, glaucoma, and ultimately, blindness.

The infection is diagnosed through a skin snip or blood test, which can detect the presence of microfilariae (the larval stage of the parasite) or antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves administering oral medications such as ivermectin, which kills the microfilariae and reduces the risk of eye damage. However, it does not kill the adult worms, so multiple doses are often required to control the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove advanced ocular lesions.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located in the upper back region of the human body. It serves as the site of attachment for various muscles that are involved in movements of the shoulder joint and arm. The scapula has several important features:

1. Three borders (anterior, lateral, and medial)
2. Three angles (superior, inferior, and lateral)
3. Spine of the scapula - a long, horizontal ridge that divides the scapula into two parts: supraspinous fossa (above the spine) and infraspinous fossa (below the spine)
4. Glenoid cavity - a shallow, concave surface on the lateral border that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
5. Acromion process - a bony projection at the top of the scapula that forms part of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
6. Coracoid process - a hook-like bony projection extending from the anterior border, which provides attachment for muscles and ligaments

Understanding the anatomy and function of the scapula is essential in diagnosing and treating various shoulder and upper back conditions.

Thoracic nerves are the 12 paired nerves that originate from the thoracic segment (T1-T12) of the spinal cord. These nerves provide motor and sensory innervation to the trunk and abdomen, specifically to the muscles of the chest wall, the skin over the back and chest, and some parts of the abdomen. They also contribute to the formation of the sympathetic trunk, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates unconscious bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. Each thoracic nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramen, a small opening between each vertebra, and splits into anterior and posterior branches to innervate the corresponding dermatomes and myotomes.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The trochlear nerve, also known as the fourth cranial nerve (CN IV), is responsible for controlling the movement of the eye. It innervates the superior oblique muscle, which helps in depressing and rotating the eye downwards and outwards. Trochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and impair its function, leading to symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), vertical misalignment of the eyes, and difficulty with depth perception.

Trochlear nerve diseases can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, inflammation, infection, or tumors. Some common conditions that affect the trochlear nerve include:

1. Trochlear nerve palsy: This is a weakness or paralysis of the trochlear nerve, which can cause vertical and torsional diplopia, especially when looking downwards or to the side. It can be congenital or acquired due to trauma, compression, or other causes.
2. Aneurysm: Aneurysms in the vicinity of the trochlear nerve can compress or damage it, leading to palsy and diplopia.
3. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) due to infection or other causes can affect the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the cranial nerves. MS can cause demyelination of the trochlear nerve, leading to palsy and diplopia.
5. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic neuropathy, which can affect any peripheral nerve, including the trochlear nerve.
6. Tumors: Space-occupying lesions in the brain or skull base, such as meningiomas, schwannomas, or pituitary adenomas, can compress the trochlear nerve and cause palsy.

The diagnosis of trochlear nerve diseases involves a thorough neurological examination, including assessment of eye movements and alignment. Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans may be ordered to identify any structural lesions causing compression or damage to the nerve. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve surgical intervention, medication, or observation.

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Brachial plexus neuropathies refer to a group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and travels down the arm. These nerves are responsible for providing motor and sensory function to the shoulder, arm, and hand.

Brachial plexus neuropathies can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors. The condition can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis in the affected arm and hand.

The specific medical definition of brachial plexus neuropathies is:

"A group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, characterized by damage to the nerves that results in motor and/or sensory impairment of the upper limb. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with causes including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors."

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Optic neuritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. This condition can result in various symptoms such as vision loss, pain with eye movement, color vision disturbances, and pupillary abnormalities. Optic neuritis may occur in isolation or be associated with other underlying medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, dilated funduscopic examination, and possibly imaging studies like MRI to evaluate the optic nerve and brain. Treatment options may include corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory therapies to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

The nodose ganglion is a part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is a collection of nerve cell bodies that are located in the upper neck, near the junction of the skull and the first vertebra (C1). The nodose ganglion is a component of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers.

The sensory fibers in the vagus nerve provide information about the state of the internal organs to the brain, including information about the heart, lungs, and digestive system. The cell bodies of these sensory fibers are located in the nodose ganglion.

The nodose ganglion contains neurons that have cell bodies with long processes called dendrites that extend into the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts. These dendrites detect various stimuli, such as mechanical deformation (e.g., stretch), chemical changes (e.g., pH, osmolarity), and temperature changes in the internal environment. The information detected by these dendrites is then transmitted to the brain via the sensory fibers of the vagus nerve.

In summary, the nodose ganglion is a collection of nerve cell bodies that are part of the vagus nerve and provide sensory innervation to the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen.

Muscular atrophy is a condition characterized by a decrease in the size and mass of muscles due to lack of use, disease, or injury. This occurs when there is a disruption in the balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation, leading to a net loss of muscle proteins. There are two main types of muscular atrophy:

1. Disuse atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when muscles are not used or are immobilized for an extended period, such as after an injury, surgery, or prolonged bed rest. In this case, the nerves that control the muscles may still be functioning properly, but the muscles themselves waste away due to lack of use.
2. Neurogenic atrophy: This type of atrophy is caused by damage to the nerves that supply the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. Conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal cord injuries, and peripheral neuropathies can cause neurogenic atrophy.

In both cases, the affected muscles may become weak, shrink in size, and lose their tone and mass. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, exercise, and medication to manage symptoms and improve muscle strength and function.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Weakness in both muscles may point to a more general disease process such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barré ... The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that ... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ...
Patients with spinal accessory nerve paralysis often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass ... Accessory nerve disorder is an injury to the spinal accessory nerve which results in diminished or absent function of the ... In patients with damage to the spinal accessory nerve, shoulder elevation will be diminished, and the patient will be incapable ... London J, London NJ, Kay SP (1996). "Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 78 ...
Acanthocytosis chorea Acanthosis nigricans Acatalasemia Accessory deep peroneal nerve Accessory navicular bone Accessory ... This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "A". Diseases Alphabetical list 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T ... extrinsic allergic Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease, early-onset Alzheimer's disease ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Lists of diseases). ...
Facial nerve (VII) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A., & Arampatzi, M. (2011). Facial ... Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves. Although it could theoretically be ...
The technique is contraindicated by bone disease, malignancy, pregnancy, vertebral artery insufficiency, active ankylosing ... spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal instability, acute irritation or compression of the nerve root, and recent whiplash. ... Passive accessory intervertebral movements (PAIVM) refers to a spinal physical therapy assessment and treatment technique ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducens, oculomotor and glossopharyngeal in this ... Fazio-Londe disease (FLD), also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood, is a very rare inherited motor neuron disease of ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Postmortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic alterations ...
... from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus called the nerve to the anconeus. The somatomotor portion of radial nerve ... There are no specific acquired injuries that exclusively affect the anconeus muscle; however, any disease that compromises ... muscular functions, particularly arm extension (i.e. muscular dystrophy) will affect this particular accessory muscle. ... or any injury that damages the radial nerve. Harm inflicted upon the radial nerve through these mechanisms can paralyze the ...
It is not a disease in itself, but a symptom of other diseases, including Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, ... Exophthalmos gradually develops, going on later to a complete loss of sight due to compression of the optic nerve by the ... the nose and its accessory sinuses. ... In the somewhat less common form of this rare disease the ... Lee VS, Webb MS Jr, Martinez S, McKay CP, Leight GS Jr (April 1996). "Uremic leontiasis ossea: "bighead" disease in humans? ...
... which is an accessory nucleus of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve number III; CN III). He was the first physician to provide ... A large portion of his written work dealt with diseases of the spinal cord and neuropathological issues. He trained a number of ... He also demonstrated a relationship between tabes dorsalis (nerve degeneration in the spinal cord) and paralysis in the ... He is credited with providing an early diagnosis of "pseudosclerosis", a disease known today as hepatolenticular degeneration. ...
... palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... and the upper fibers are commonly spared until late in the disease. Although rare, underdevelopment or absence of the trapezius ... Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ...
... and 9th to the 12th cranial nerves (in order: glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, spinal accessory nerve). ... Madras motor neuron disease is a rare motor neuron disease originating in South India. Two other forms of the disease have been ... Madras motor neuron disease (MMND) is a motor neuron disease affecting primarily lower motor neurons. It is similar to ... Navaneetham, Duraiswamy (February 2010). "Madras Motor Neuron Disease". Foundation for Research on Rare Diseases and Disorders ...
After the lacrimal nerve branches from the ophthalmic nerve it receives a communicating branch from the zygomatic nerve. This ... Many medications or diseases that cause dry eye syndrome can also cause hyposalivation with xerostomia. Treatment varies ... Lacrimal apparatus Preorbital gland Accessory lacrimal glands List of distinct cell types in the adult human body Schwab, Ivan ... This nerve exits the facial canal through the hiatus for the greater petrosal nerve in the petrous part of the temporal bone. ...
Nerve Stretching for the Relief or Cure of Pain 1882 Sir James Paget - Some New and Rare Diseases (Inaugural lecture) ... Heath, C. (1892). "The Surgery of the Nose and Accessory Cavities: An Abstract of the Bradshaw Lecture delivered at the Royal ... Some Diseases of the Thyroid Gland 1892 Samuel Gee, On the Signs of Acute Peritoneal Diseases 1891 William Henry Allchin, The ... Operative Treatment of Malignant Disease 1920 Berkeley Moynihan, The Spleen and some of its Diseases 1919 Sir Charles Alfred ...
Glossopharyngeal nerve, Vagus nerve, Accessory nerve). ... Obstruction of the jugular foramen due to bone diseases ... Jugular foramen syndrome, or Vernet's syndrome, is characterized by paresis of the glossopharyngeal, vagal, and accessory (with ... cranial nerves Gadolinium enhanced mri for vestibular schwannoma mri and biopsy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on nerve ... or without the hypoglossal) nerves. Symptoms of this syndrome are consequences of this paresis. As such, an affected patient ...
... and The accessory nerve test in which damage to a nerve along the trapezius is revealed by examining whether the patient's ... These included such signs as: A way to diagnose neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, by observing how a ... He also sat of the editorial boards of Confina Neurologica and The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. The Journal of ... Wartenberg's syndrome: Radial nerve entrapment at the forearm. Wartenberg wheel: A medical device for neurological use. ...
The nuclei of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) are located in ... Diseases of the brainstem can result in abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves that may lead to visual disturbances, ... Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ... The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) are located ...
... and includes removal of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), internal jugular vein (IJV) and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). ... cell carcinoma into the lymph nodes of the neck reduce survival and is the most important factor in the spread of the disease. ...
However, most times it is a nail stylist who will note a subtle change in nail disease. Inherited accessory nail of the fifth ... Nerves and blood vessels found here supply nourishment to the entire nail unit. Like all skin, it is made of two types of ... Nail disease can be very subtle and should be evaluated by a dermatologist with a focus in this particular area of medicine. ... It is the part of the nail bed that is beneath the nail and contains nerves, lymph and blood vessels. The matrix produces cells ...
This carcinoma tends to invade nerves and can re-occur post-treatment. A developmental polycystic disease of the salivary gland ... Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found close to the main parotid glands. The word parotid literally means "beside the ear ... The facial nerve passes through the parotid so may be affected if there is a change in the parotid gland. Facial nerve ... The facial nerve (CN VII) splits into its branches within the parotid gland, thus forming its parotid plexus. Nerves of this ...
... nerve 352.4 Disorders of accessory [11th] nerve 352.5 Disorders of hypoglossal [12th] nerve 352.6 Multiple cranial nerve ... 354.0 Carpal tunnel syndrome 354.1 Other lesion of median nerve 354.2 Lesion of ulnar nerve 354.3 Lesion of radial nerve 354.4 ... of lateral popliteal nerve 355.4 Lesion of medial popliteal nerve 355.5 Tarsal tunnel syndrome 355.6 Lesion of plantar nerve ... 335 Anterior horn cell disease 335.0 Werdnig-Hoffmann disease 335.1 Spinal muscular atrophy 335.2 Motor neurone disease 335.8 ...
3. Cranial nerve palsy - swelling increases the risk of compression of cranial nerves VII, IX and XII. Other diagnostic factors ... Dry eyes and dry mouth are commonly present and may be indicative of concomitant connective tissue disease (e.g. SLE, RA, or ... 2. Respiratory distress - this could present in the form of stridor, use or reliance on accessory muscles of respiratory, nasal ... There may also be a history of decrease in salivary volume secondary to a systemic disease. A unilateral or bilateral painful ...
... the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X), accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), and a portion of ... A rare brain disease of the cerebellum is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by an absent or partially formed vermis. ... the trigeminal nerve (CN V), abducens nerve (CN VI), facial nerve (CN VII), and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN ... in terms of the genes that it expresses and its position in between the brain and the nerve cord. It has been suggested that ...
... the voltage of nerves Pressure-sensitive paint Progressive supranuclear palsy of the brain, a degenerative disease Pseudoprime ... Sony handheld game accessory PaintShop Pro, a graphics editor Parallel slave port on some PIC microcontrollers Personal ...
In general, these diseases affect other cranial nerves as well. Isolated damage to the fourth nerve is uncommon in these ... 2016). ""Orbit and accessory visual apparatus: trochlear nerve"". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice ( ... pulley-like nerve) also known as the fourth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IV, or CN IV, is a cranial nerve that innervates a ... somatic efferent nerve). The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve ...
... nerve glossopharyngeal neuralgia glomus jugulare tumor vagus nerve injury spinal accessory nerve palsy hypoglossal nerve injury ... GSD type II (Pompe disease) GSD type V (McArdle disease) GSD type VII (Tarui disease) GSD type XI (Lactate dehydrogenase ... mtDNA deletion Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are a group of diseases caused by mutations related to glycogen metabolism. ... Mitochondrial myopathies are diseases caused by mutations related to mitochondria, and thus are generally inherited from the ...
This accessory pathway is known as the bundle of Kent. This accessory pathway does not share the rate-slowing properties of the ... Annie D. (November 21, 2014). "Jessie J Shares Battle With Heart Disease". International Business Times. Archived from the ... with reference to nomotropic tachycardia and the role of the extrinsic cardiac nerves". Archives of Internal Medicine. 27 (5): ... If a tachycardia involving the accessory pathway can be triggered, the cardiologist can then assess how rapidly the accessory ...
Blindness is the single most serious complication of FESS, and results from damage to the optic nerve during surgery. Serious ... The debridement procedure after FESS may make little or no difference to health‐related quality of life or disease severity. ... In October 1903, Hirschmann published "Endoscopy of the nose and its accessory sinuses." In 1910, M. Reichart performed the ... Many patients, primary care providers, and even specialists confuse any frontal migraine for sinus disease. Multiple attempts ...
... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ... Trauma to the skull, disease of bone, such as Paget's disease, and injury to nerves during surgery are other causes of nerve ... The nerves are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve ( ... the accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) do not exist, with the accessory nerve (XI) being an integral part of the ...
Pudendal nerve Superficial external pudendal artery Deep external pudendal artery Keegan, Kirk A.; Penson, David F. (2013-01-01 ... Around 70% of men have an accessory internal pudendal artery. This usually does not originate from the internal iliac artery, ... A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease (Second Edition), Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, pp. 341-348, ISBN 978-1-4377-2930-6, ... It travels through the pudendal canal with the internal pudendal veins and the pudendal nerve. The internal pudendal artery ...
It is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder which damages muscle and nerve cells throughout the body. It is caused by an ... Cardiopulmonary involvement is manifested by increased respiratory rate, use of accessory muscles for respiration, recurrent ... GSD-II and Danon disease are the only glycogen storage diseases with a defect in lysosomal metabolism, and Pompe disease was ... GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Pompe Disease) Understanding Pompe Disease - US National Institute ...
Accessory Nerve Disease. *Accessory Nerve Injury. *Acoustic Neurofibromatosis. *Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating ...
... the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical ... Drugs & Diseases , Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Accessory Nerve Injury. Updated: Jan 24, 2022 ... Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... encoded search term (Accessory Nerve Injury) and Accessory Nerve Injury What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Weakness in both muscles may point to a more general disease process such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barré ... The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that ... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ...
ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
ACCESSORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ACCESORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO ACESSÓRIO ACUPUNCTURE, EAR ACUPUNTURA EN EL OIDO ... TRIGEMINAL NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO TRIGEMINO DOENÇAS DO NERVO TRIGÊMEO TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL ... ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO ABDUCENTE DOENÇAS DO NERVO ABDUCENTE ABDUCENS NERVE INJURY TRAUMATISMO DEL ... OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES ENFERMEDADES DEL NERVIO OLFATORIO DOENÇAS DO NERVO OLFATÓRIO OMEGA-AGATOXIN IVA OMEGA-AGATOXINA IVA ...
Accessory deep peroneal nerve From NCATS Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Selected Rare Diseases. Browse full list of rare diseases A-Z *Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency ... Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it ...
One patient (4%) developed a permanent spinal accessory nerve deficit. Another patient (4%) required further re-intervention ... Crohns disease, inflammatory bowel disease, antimicrobial therapy, or foodborne botulism. Intestinal colonization botulism is ... Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia. The hippocampus, which is one of the ... Age-dependent metabolic dysregulation in cancer and Alzheimers disease. Harris, Richard A; Tindale, Lauren; Cumming, Robert C ...
... accessory nerve; 15, suprascapular nerve; 16, brachial nerve plexus; 17, median nerve; 18, radial nerve; 19, sciatic nerve; 20 ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... vagus nerve (cervical part); 8, stellate ganglia; 9, adrenal gland; 10, phrenic nerve; 11, vagus nerve (pectoral part); 12, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... Lyme Disease Updates and New Educational Tools for Clinicians. *What Clinicians Need to Know About Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 ... Cranial nerve abnormalities can be present and these can include a facial or eyelid droop. Difficulty swallowing or speaking ... Ventral and dorsal nerve roots may demonstrate a signal abnormality as well and are typically enhancing. The conus medullaris ...
... the fifth cranial nerve, is located in only a few millimeters from the cores of so-called accessory nerve, the eleventh cranial ... disease refers to disorders in cervical circulation and 2-3 are the stages. This disease, apart from symptoms that usually ... Nerve roots from spinal column go to all the muscles, bones, vessels and inner organs. Nerve roots end with tiny nerves that ... And trigeminal nerve relates to cranial nerves, starts from the brain stem. It consist of hundreds nerve clusters called " ...
All section Un U illnesses and diseases are defined and explained for easy understanding. ... Olfactory Bulbs, Accessory ‐ Ovoid body resting on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone… ... Susceptibility, Disease ‐ A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues… ... Visual Transduction ‐ The transducing of light energy to afferent nerve impulses, such… ...
... certain diseases such as Type 2 diabetes can cause vision loss by damaging the optic nerve. One way to ensure youre not ... Wear sunglasses: Sunglasses are more than fashionable accessories. They are designed to protect your eyes from the harmful rays ... Stop smoking: Smoking can cause nerve damage, and excessive smoking has been linked with poor eye health as it can damage the ... Exercise regularly: Your eye health is not just impacted by diseases strictly related to the eyes - ...
Disorder - see also Disease*. nerve 349.9. *. abducens NEC 378.54. *. accessory 352.4. *. acoustic 388.5. ... nerve NEC - see also Disorder, nerve*. arm NEC 354.9. *. autonomic nervous system (see also Neuropathy, peripheral, autonomic) ... Neuropathy, neuropathic (see also Disorder, nerve) 355.9. *. entrapment 355.9. *. iliohypogastric nerve 355.79. ... Examination may reveal tinels sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... We know this is a serious disease and we very much appreciate your working with these patients and these families to help us ... Cranial nerve abnormalities can be present and these can include a facial or eyelid droop. Difficulty swallowing or speaking ... Ventral and dorsal nerve roots may demonstrate a signal abnormality as well and are typically enhancing. The conus medullaris ...
Keyword(s): ABD, abscess, ABSITE, ABX, accessory spleen, anal disease, anal sphincter, anastomotic leak, appendicitis, APR, ... lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, LC, Mallory-Weiss tear, malrotation, McVay repair, MSI, Nardi test, Nissen fundoplication, ... CR & anal disease by Dr. Alan Harzman-1:00:43. Small intestine, biliary disease & flex endo by Dr. William Hawkins-1:31:31 ... Crohns disease, CUC, CVS, diuresis, diverticulitis, dumping syndrome, dysphagia, ectasia, ERCP, esophagram, esophagus, femoral ...
After the discovery of the animal electricity by Galvani in 1787, Ure in 1818 applied electricity to the phrenic nerve of a ... Diaphragmatic dysfunction is the result of a variety of disease processes and is degenerative. Though the intervention with ... Some patients with intrinsic paralysis of the accessory respiratory muscles (high cervical spine injuries) and those with ... Although the standard way has been the using of phrenic nerve pacing, there are some clinical evidence that the direct pacing ...
Background Interscalene nerve block refers to the technique of anesthetizing the roots or trunks of the brachial plexus in the ... Cervical spine disease is a risk factor for persistent phrenic nerve paresis following interscalene nerve block. Reg Anesth ... If the needle is placed lateral and posterior to the middle scalene, it is possible to stimulate the accessory, dorsal scapular ... The phrenic nerves were dissected free of entrapment and compression. Sural nerve grafts were used to bypass areas of atrophy. ...
The dividing line between the 2 sublevels of level II is the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI). Anything posterior to CN XI is ... Disease in level VB with aerodigestive tract malignant features is a poor prognostic sign, and disease from the abdomen should ... Any deficits should be noted and can be used to determine the extent of the neck disease and, possibly, the site of an occult ... Disease from the thyroid gland, glottic and subglottic larynx, apex of the pyriform sinus, and the cervical esophagus drains ...
Absorption occurs most important not treated by facilitating their shin and morbidity and avoidance of an accessory nerve, ansa ... These vary on as well dermatology cancer but is said for arterial disease. To the patients wishes changed? Non-invasive ... Transcutaneous nerve bundles and abdominal contents. However, instead of the superficial and action: like a diabetes mellitus, ... Neglecting the cranial nerves, spinal injuries above example of puberty. After injury, muscle inflammation. Dialysis may be ...
Protect Muscles and Nerves with Ergonomic Accessories. Poor posture typing posture strains the muscles around the hands, wrists ... Sitting for hours can increase your risk of heart disease and lead to high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. ... "recommends using ergonomic accessories. A great investment is a laptop stand or monitor arms found in the Ergify accessories ... To prevent RSI, support your body with ergonomic accessories. Discourage hunching and neck strain by using a laptop stand to ...
NIOSH means the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. ... Malignant neoplasms of the peripheral nerves and autonomic nervous system; and other connective and soft tissue. ... Malignant neoplasms of the nose; nasal cavity; middle ear; and accessory sinuses. ... Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health ...
Unmanaged diabetes can escalate to severe health issues such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve damage. ... Our cutting-edge accessory blends style with science to naturally regulate your blood sugar, boost metabolism, and ease ... Fashionably Designed: Combines health benefits with a stylish accessory.. * Fast-Acting & Medication-Free: Provides immediate ... Its therapeutic properties combined with a stylish design make it a practical and fashionable daily wear accessory. ...
... which is the physiological basis of multiple neuroimmune-related diseases. Neuroimmune-related diseases often have complex ... And the dense nerve innervation and abundant immune cell population in barrier organs facilitate the neuroimmune interaction, ... which is the physiological basis of multiple neuroimmune-related diseases. Neuroimmune-related diseases often have complex ... And the dense nerve innervation and abundant immune cell population in barrier organs facilitate the neuroimmune interaction, ...
Anorexia, disease and stress may all contribute to nitrogen imbalance. Starvation and disease may result in a hypermetabolic ... Accessory ovarian arteries also may arise from adjacent arteries. The ovarian artery further divides into many branches, with ... The hemostat or clip must be applied parallel to the spine to avoid entrapping the aorta and peripheral nerves. If possible, a ... This may result in life threatening respiratory disease [9,24].. The patient is placed in dorsal recumbency with the head and ...
Glaucoma is an eye disease that involves damage to the optic nerve as a result of increased pressure buildup in the eye. The ... The new microscope and accessories also promote enhanced learning. "I am able to teach residents, medical students and nurses ... nerve sends visual signals to the brain, where they are processed into what you "see". The cause of glaucoma is not known. ...
The reason many conditions in the macula cause this loss is the nerves in your eyes are linked to it. These nerves are in ... Using projection technology, these assistive accessories make up for that lost area and allow the user to see with an expanded ... central vision loss is also often a symptom of other eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy, macular edemas, holes, and puckers ...
Many diseases can make it more difficult to have an erection because of their impact on blood flow to your penis and other ... It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate ... The internal organs of the male reproductive system, also called accessory organs, include the following:. *Vas deferens. The ... Peyronies disease. This causes your penis to curve or bend, usually when you have an erection. Symptoms include: ...
  • It is classified as the eleventh of twelve pairs of cranial nerves because part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to it being unique among the cranial nerves in having neurons in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • And trigeminal nerve relates to cranial nerves, starts from the brain stem. (nevrologica.ru)
  • It consist of hundreds nerve clusters called "cranial nerves cores" and from them 11 pairs of cranial nerve start. (nevrologica.ru)
  • The server of this network is located in the brainstem and tightly enlace not only the brainstem, but also all 12 pairs of cranial nerves and trigeminal nerve is not an exception. (nevrologica.ru)
  • Iodinated contrast medium has been successfully with symptoms including cranial, nerves. (vowsbridalandformals.com)
  • Twelve pairs of nerves-the cranial nerves-lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some of the cranial nerves are involved in the special senses (such as seeing, hearing, and taste), and others control muscles in the face or regulate glands. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, pass through openings in the skull, and lead to parts of the head, neck, and trunk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • After the discovery of the animal electricity by Galvani in 1787, Ure in 1818 applied electricity to the phrenic nerve of a recently hanged criminal and reported the resulting contractions. (supreme-essay.com)
  • Although the standard way has been the using of phrenic nerve pacing, there are some clinical evidence that the direct pacing of the diaphragm muscle can be beneficial for some people. (supreme-essay.com)
  • Phrenic nerve involvement has also been reported. (boneandspine.com)
  • If the phrenic nerve is involved, it leads to shortness of breath as the diaphragm cannot fully function. (boneandspine.com)
  • The upper trunk of the brachial plexus, the suprascapular nerve, the long thoracic nerve, and the axillary nerves are the most commonly involved. (boneandspine.com)
  • Cranial nerve XI, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical neck. (medscape.com)
  • Course of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) in the posterior cervical triangle. (medscape.com)
  • Consequently, the term "accessory nerve" usually refers only to nerve supplying the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, also called the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strength testing of these muscles can be measured during a neurological examination to assess function of the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the spinal accessory nerve is most commonly caused by medical procedures that involve the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibres of the spinal accessory nerve originate solely in neurons situated in the upper spinal cord, from where the spinal cord begins at the junction with the medulla oblongata, to the level of about C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fibres join together to form rootlets, roots, and finally the spinal accessory nerve itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve is notable for being the only cranial nerve to both enter and exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fibres that form the spinal accessory nerve are formed by lower motor neurons located in the upper segments of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomic study of the SAN has long maintained a debate as to the exact contributions of this nerve and other cervical motor nerves to the innervation of the trapezius muscle. (medscape.com)
  • In 1933, Bardeen suggested that the origin of motor input to the trapezius muscle was purely from the cervical nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent anatomic study reported a possible plexus composed of both cervical nerves and contributions from the SAN that collectively provided trapezial motor innervation. (medscape.com)
  • The classic and much-used Gray's Anatomy assigned cervical nerves to a proprioceptive sensory role, with only the SAN providing motor innervation to the trapezius. (medscape.com)
  • The lateral horn of high cervical segments appears to be continuous with the nucleus ambiguus of the medulla oblongata, from which the cranial component of the accessory nerve is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of diaphragmatic pacing, some patients with intact phrenic nerves and injury at the proper cervical level have a chance to become independent of mechanical ventilation. (supreme-essay.com)
  • Acute poliomyelitis, adhesive capsulitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cervical radiculopathy, HIV Infection, mononeuritis Multiplex, neoplasm, polymyalgia rheumatic, rotator cuff disease and thoracic outlet syndrome need to be considered as differentials when examining a patient with the presentation as above. (boneandspine.com)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle, in front of the vein in about 80% of people, and behind it in about 20%, and in one reported case, piercing the vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior tibial nerve (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. (icd9data.com)
  • Sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joint arises predominantly from the auriculotemporal (AT) nerve with some accessory innervations from the masseteric and deep posterior temporal nerves. (bvsalud.org)
  • Parsonage Turner syndrome or brachial neuritis is a rare disorder which affects lower motor neurons of brachial plexus and/or nerves and their branches and is manifested by acute shoulder pain followed by weakness of the muscles of the shoulder. (boneandspine.com)
  • Exercise regularly: Your eye health is not just impacted by diseases strictly related to the eyes - certain diseases such as Type 2 diabetes can cause vision loss by damaging the optic nerve. (centreforsight.net)
  • Stop smoking: Smoking can cause nerve damage, and excessive smoking has been linked with poor eye health as it can damage the optic nerve. (centreforsight.net)
  • Glaucoma is an eye disease that involves damage to the optic nerve as a result of increased pressure buildup in the eye. (kghfoundation.com)
  • The Vista Clear unique formula enhances the functions of the optic nerve, retina, lens, and cornea to work in an optimal state. (ipsnews.net)
  • Areas because of its effects on sebaceous glands for it directly rather than train for some other cause carpal tunnel syndrome, where the median nerve traveling through the wrist becomes compressed. (htdig.org)
  • A syndrome resulting from the entrapment and compression of the tibial nerve. (icd9data.com)
  • Examination may reveal tinel's sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (icd9data.com)
  • As it courses downwards, the nerve pierces through the sternocleidomastoid muscle while sending it motor branches, then continues down until it reaches the trapezius muscle to provide motor innervation to its upper part. (wikipedia.org)
  • And the dense nerve innervation and abundant immune cell population in barrier organs facilitate the neuroimmune interaction, which is the physiological basis of multiple neuroimmune-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • What's more, there are dense nerve innervation and resident immune cell groups on the barrier, and the neuro-immune interaction occupies a more significant position in the pathogenesis of diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Trigeminal nerve. (nevrologica.ru)
  • If you are reading this page, you or your relatives suffer pain caused by an inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. (nevrologica.ru)
  • On the Internet, as it is the most convenient source of information, you can find many facts about the causes of trigeminal neuralgia and treatments based on incomplete information of true factors that leads to this disease. (nevrologica.ru)
  • One of these is in-depth description of trigeminal nerve anatomy, undoubtedly, trigeminal nerve is complex, and suggestions about treatments not taking into consideration the main principle of brain work. (nevrologica.ru)
  • It does not matter which way we will choose to find a solution to a problem of recovery of any nerve(including trigeminal) all the attempts will be a failure if we think about a nerve as a separate thing, not connected with others. (nevrologica.ru)
  • The AT nerve arises from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and provides most of the sensory input of the TMJ, being an important structure at many painful temporomandibular joint conditions 4,5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve, and there is ongoing debate about whether the cranial part should be considered part of the accessory nerve proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaving the skull, the nerve travels through the jugular foramen with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the accessory nerve is described as having a small cranial component that descends from the medulla and briefly connects with the spinal accessory component before branching off of the nerve to join the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rheumatic disease, connective tissue disorders (i.e. (boneandspine.com)
  • PURPOSE: the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of anesthetic blockage of the auriculotemporal nerve as a treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term that encompasses masticatory muscle pain, as well as disorders of the tempormandibular joint, including capsulitis, degenerative joint disease, and internal derangement 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Some cranial nerve disorders interfere with eye movement. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This explains the unpredictable motor and sensory deficits that arise from transection of the nerves to this muscle. (medscape.com)
  • For example, neuropeptides secreted by sensory nerves trigger neurogenic inflammation and lead to allergic diseases ( Sousa-Valente and Brain, 2018 ), while sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves produce neurotransmitters binding to different receptors on immune cells for immune regulation ( Kenney and Ganta, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory loss is not prominent but may be present depending on the nerve involved. (boneandspine.com)
  • Interscalene nerve block refers to the placement of local anesthetic around the roots or trunks of the brachial plexus at the level of the C6 vertebral body between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. (medscape.com)
  • The five roots (anterior rami) of the brachial plexus originate from the spinal nerves of C5-T1. (medscape.com)
  • In the idiopathic version, the pathophysiology is unknown, but the condition is generally thought to be an immune-mediated inflammatory reaction against nerve fibers of the brachial plexus. (boneandspine.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm Commander Ibad Khan and I'm representing the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity, COCA, with the Emergency Risk Communication Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Janell Routh is a medical officer on the acute flaccid myelitis team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Adriana Lopez is an epidemiologist on the acute flaccid myelitis team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, Dr. Manisha Patel is the acute flaccid myelitis team lead at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is impairment of horizontal eye movements caused by damage to certain connections between nerve centers in the brain stem (the lower part of the brain). (msdmanuals.com)
  • This is OLD serious global steroid use exhibited steroids for sale in ireland a higher incidence of wave organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. (htdig.org)
  • Nerve endings can also regulate immune cells by releasing SP, CGRP, VIP and other neuropeptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) allows visualization of the normal SAN, as well as changes after accessory nerve injury. (medscape.com)
  • A more recent meta-analysis was done to compare HPV in biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma with all head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, underscoring the relevance of viral oncogenes in the pathogenesis of this disease. (medscape.com)
  • Nerve roots from spinal column go to all the muscles, bones, vessels and inner organs. (nevrologica.ru)
  • However, oversensitive neural response and uncontrolled immune attack are major causes of various diseases, especially in barrier organs, while neural-immune interaction makes it worse. (frontiersin.org)
  • The blockage of the auriculotemporal nerve was performed with 1 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% without vasoconstrictor for 8 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: anesthetic blockage of the auriculotemporal nerve may be used in acute cases of pain in the temporomandibular joint. (bvsalud.org)
  • And there are also cytokine receptors on nerve endings, which are the essential pathway for immunomodulation of the nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokine receptors on nerve endings collect information of immune status and transmit feedback signs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The glans of the penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. (webmd.com)
  • These roots will join and divide several times to form trunks, divisions, cords, and then finally emerge as terminal nerve branches. (medscape.com)
  • Duchenne disease is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. (mo-vis.com)
  • Although Sarnoff's early work remains critical to the understanding of diaphragmatic pacing, Farmer and colleagues are credited for developing the modern systems and employing chronic diaphragmatic stimulation using radiofrequency signals to stimulate phrenic nerves through intact skin (Farmer et al. (supreme-essay.com)
  • Nerve roots end with tiny nerves that penetrate every millimeter of the body with its dense network. (nevrologica.ru)
  • Each of your teeth has anywhere from one to four roots in separate canals, and each of those canals may have accessory canals, some of which branch off horizontally. (greensmoothiegirl.com)
  • Interscalene nerve block is typically performed to provide anesthesia or analgesia for surgery of the shoulder and upper arm. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord. (mymsaa.org)
  • This damage causes reduced communication between the brain and nerve pathways. (mymsaa.org)
  • The conditions in this group feature a range of similar signs and symptoms involving muscle-, nerve-, and brain-related functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The nerves are named and numbered (according to their location, from the front of the brain to the back). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm is painless involuntary twitching of one side of the face due to malfunction of the 7th cranial (facial) nerve and/or the area of the brain that controls it (called a center. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If one of these nerves or the area in the brain that controls these muscles is damaged, the muscles may become paralyzed to varying degrees (called a palsy), and people may not be able to move their eyes normally. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During an interscalene block, the nerves are anesthetized at the root or trunk level. (medscape.com)
  • Antinuclear antibody is done as a marker for the connective-tissue disease. (boneandspine.com)
  • A decreased total protein, which may delay healing as well as indicate underlying metabolic disease. (ivis.org)
  • Unmanaged diabetes can escalate to severe health issues such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve damage. (pureplantvibes.co)
  • Zinc improves vision by preventing blue light damage, and the Vitamin B complex supports optic nerves. (ipsnews.net)
  • Torsten uses an electric wheelchair and special control because of congenital multiple joint stiffness and nerve damage. (mo-vis.com)
  • These indicated only if the systemic disease is suspected on clinical grounds. (boneandspine.com)
  • Most have problems with coordination and balance (ataxia) and disturbances in nerve function (neuropathy). (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are most commonly found 1 cm above the intersection of the inferior thyroid artery and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • As the first line of defense, the gut-skin-lung barrier plays an important role in clearing harmful substances, resisting pathogen invasion, and maintaining homeostasis, and its dysfunction leads to the occurrence and progression of diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Though more often seen in older individuals with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) that gradually worsens over time, central vision loss is also often a symptom of other eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy, macular edemas, holes, and puckers. (windycitizen.com)
  • This cluster of neurons, called the spinal accessory nucleus, is located in the lateral aspect of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and stretches from where the spinal cord begins (at the junction with the medulla) through to the level of about C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of the cancer sites available in the CI5plus database and their corresponding International Classification of Disease (ICD, 10th revision) codes. (who.int)
  • Using projection technology, these assistive accessories make up for that lost area and allow the user to see with an expanded field of view. (windycitizen.com)
  • The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal component of the accessory nerve provides motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcutaneous nerve bundles and abdominal contents. (recipiy.com)
  • MS damages or destroys the protective covering (known as myelin) surrounding the nerves of the CNS, and can potentially injure the nerves as well. (mymsaa.org)

No images available that match "accessory nerve diseases"