Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
(1/43) Sensory pathways in the spinal accessory nerve.

We obtained samples of spinal accessory nerve from patients undergoing radical surgery for tumours or nerve grafting in the neck. These were analysed by light and electron microscopy for the type of fibre. All contained fibres consistent with non-proprioceptive sensory function including pain.  (+info)

(2/43) Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve. METHOD: Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation. RESULTS: All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11 ms. CONCLUSION: The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.  (+info)

(3/43) Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord.

The segmental extent and topography of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNAN) was investigated in the adult human spinal cord. Transverse sections of segments between the lower medulla and C6 were stained with cresyl violet and the motor cell columns identified according to the numerical locations defined by Elliott (1942). The segmental extent and topography of the cervical part of column 2 resembled that previously described for the SNAN of primates.  (+info)

(4/43) Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat.

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory.  (+info)

(5/43) The protective effect of procaine blocking on nerve-electrophysiological study during operation.

OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the protective effect of procaine blocking on nerves. METHODS: Electrophysiological examination before and after procaine blocking was conducted on 32 nerves during operation, 18 of which were donor nerves and 14 were injured ones. RESULTS: The latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was lengthened (15.30%) and the amplitude was lowered (18.47) after procaine blocking. Compared with the values before procaine blocking, the differences were significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). SEP waves disappeared after procaine blocking in some cases (28.13%). CONCLUSION: Latency of SEP is lengthened and amplitude is lowered after procaine blocking. In some cases, SEPs even disappear.  (+info)

(6/43) Respiratory activity in glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves and pharyngeal constrictors in newborn rat in vitro.

1. Previously, in a brainstem-spinal cord-rib preparation from neonatal rats we demonstrated that a decrement in extracellular pH (from about 7.4 to 7.1) caused expiratory activity in an internal intercostal muscle (IIM) during the first half of the expiratory phase (Ea). As the initial step in finding nerves or muscles firing during the second half of the expiratory phase (Eb), the patterns of activity in the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves were examined in the present study. 2. Since the emerging motor rootlets of these three nerves (> 20; collected into about 10 bundles before the jugular foramen) are distributed in a continuous fashion from rostral to caudal levels of the brainstem, visual identification was impossible. Therefore, antidromic compound action potentials evoked by stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (PhX), the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), the cervical vagus nerve (CX) and the accessory nerve (XI) were recorded from the peripheral stumps of the various rootlets. Nerve rootlets could be categorised into rostral, intermediate and caudal groups (rostIX-XI, intIX-XI, caudIX-XI). The rostIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potential on IX stimulation, while the intIX-XI and caudIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potentials on CX stimulation. The intIX-XI rootlets showed larger potentials on PhX and SLN stimulation than the caudIX-XI rootlets. 3. Activity was recorded simultaneously from the central stumps of the rootlets in the above three groups. Most rootlets showed inspiratory bursts. Under low pH conditions, all representatives of group rostIX-XI, most of intIX-XI and about half of caudIX-XI showed additional bursts during the Ea phase. Groups intIX-XI and caudIX-XI but not rostIX-XI also showed discrete bursts during the Eb phase in some preparations. In general, expiratory activity was prominent in intIX-XI. The spinal branch of XI showed no consistent respiratory activity. 4. Since the intIX-XI rootlets showed Eb bursts and large antidromic potentials on stimulation of PhX and SLN (which innervate the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPC)), electromyograms were recorded from the rostral and caudal parts of IPC (rIPC and cIPC). Under low pH conditions, cIPC showed bursts during the Ea and Eb phases, while rIPC showed bursts predominantly during the Eb phase. 5. These results indicate that recording from rIPC would be a useful way of examining the neuronal mechanisms responsible for Eb phase activity.  (+info)

(7/43) Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy.

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. METHODS: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.  (+info)

(8/43) Targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Nkx2.9 reveals a role in development of the spinal accessory nerve.

The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Nkx2.9 is expressed in the ventralmost neural progenitor domain of the neural tube together with the related protein Nkx2.2 during early mouse embryogenesis. Cells within this region give rise to V3 interneurons and visceral motoneurons in spinal cord and hindbrain, respectively. To investigate the role of the Nkx2.9 gene, we generated a mutant mouse by targeted gene disruption. Homozygous mutant animals lacking Nkx2.9 were viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or behavioral phenotype. The distribution of neuronal progenitor cells and differentiated neurons in spinal cord was unaffected in Nkx2.9-deficient animals. This finding is in contrast to Nkx2.2-null mutants, which have been shown to exhibit ventral to dorsal transformation of neuronal cell fates in spinal cord. Our results suggest that specification of V3 interneurons in the posterior CNS does not require Nkx2.9, most probably because of functional redundancy with the co-expressed Nkx2.2 protein. In hindbrain, however, absence of Nkx2.9 resulted in a significantly altered morphology of the spinal accessory nerve (XIth), which appeared considerably shorter and thinner than in wild-type animals. Consistent with this phenotype, immature branchial motoneurons of the spinal accessory nerve, which normally migrate from a ventromedial to a dorsolateral position within the neural tube, were markedly reduced in Nkx2.9-deficient embryos at E10.5, while ventromedial motor column cells were increased in numbers. In addition, the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves appeared abnormal in approximately 50% of mutant embryos, which may be related to the observed reduction of Phox2b expression in the nucleus ambiguus of adult mutant mice. From these observations, we conclude that Nkx2.9 has a specific function in the hindbrain as determinant of the branchial motoneuron precursor cells for the spinal accessory nerve and possibly other nerves of the branchial-motor column. Like other Nkx genes expressed in the CNS, Nkx2.9 seems to be involved in converting positional information into cell fate decisions.  (+info)

*  Nucleus ambiguus
The muscles supplied by the vagus (included with this is the cranial part of the accessory nerve), such as levator veli ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... The nucleus ambiguus contains the cell bodies of nerves that innervate the muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ...
*  Cranial root of accessory nerves
Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers ... part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve ...
*  Brachial plexus
... the trapezius muscle innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and an area of skin near the axilla innervated by the ... the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the median nerve, and the ulnar nerve. Due to both emerging from the lateral cord the ... median nerve, medial cord, and ulnar nerve. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves, after they have ... The musculocutaneous nerve has even been shown to send a branch to the median nerve further connecting them. There have been ...
*  Posterior triangle of the neck
Spinal accessory nerve (Cranial Nerve XI) Branches of cervical plexus Roots and trunks of brachial plexus Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5 ... belly of omohyoid muscle Anterior Scalene Middle Scalene Posterior Scalene Levator Scapulae Muscle Splenius The accessory nerve ...
*  Accessory nerve disorder
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in ... Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, ... A winged scapula may also be suggestive of abnormal spinal accessory nerve function, as described above. In assessing range of ... A winged scapula due to spinal accessory nerve damage will often be exaggerated on arm abduction. Strength testing is similar ...
*  Accessory nerve
... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ... "spinal nerve accessory to the vagus", recognizing that while a minor component of the nerve joins with the larger vagus nerve, ...
*  Spinal root of accessory nerve
The spinal root of accessory nerve (or part) is firm in texture, and its fibers arise from the motor cells in the lateral part ... In the jugular foramen, it receives one or two filaments from the cranial part of the nerve, or else joins it for a short ... The nerve then descends obliquely behind the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus to the upper part of the Sternocleidomastoideus; it ... In the posterior triangle it unites with the second and third cervical nerves, while beneath the Trapezius it forms a plexus ...
*  Accessory obturator nerve
In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. It is ... while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very ... When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. This article incorporates text in the public ... Recent evidence support that this nerve arises from Dorsal divisions. It descends along the medial border of the psoas major, ...
*  Dog anatomy
It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Rhomboideus: originates on the nuchal crest of the occipital bone and inserts on the ... It is innervated by the median nerve. Flexor carpi ulnar: originates on the olecranon and inserts on the accessory carpal bone ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Trapezius: originates on the supraspinous ligament and inserts on the spine of the ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Sternohyoideus: originates on the sternum and inserts on the basihyoid bone. Its ...
*  Trapezius muscle
Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ... travel via the ventral rami of the third (C3) and fourth (C4) cervical nerves. Since it is a muscle of the upper limb, the ...
*  Sternocleidomastoid muscle
... the accessory nerve. The accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor ... with which it shares its nerve supply (the accessory nerve). It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as ... After a signal reaches the accessory nerve nucleus in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the signal is conveyed to motor ... The fibers from the accessory nerve nucleus travel upward to enter the cranium via the foramen magnum. The internal carotid ...
*  Cervical plexus
There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to ... Postauricular nerve (from the posterior roots of C3-C4) Plan of the cervical plexus. The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of ... The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 ... The branches of the cervical plexus emerge from the posterior triangle at the nerve point, a point which lies midway on the ...
*  Styloglossus
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their ... The styloglossus is innervated by the Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) like all muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus which is ... innervated by the Pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus draws up the sides of the tongue to create a trough ...
*  Smile surgery
Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ... This donor nerve is then attached to the distal end of the paralysed facial nerve. Techniques for donor nerve transfers are ...
*  Foramen magnum
It also transmits the spinal component of the accessory nerve into the skull. The opisthion is the midpoint on the posterior ... with meninges Fourth part of vertebral artery surrounded by sympathetic plexus of nerves Spinal roots of accessory nerves ...
*  Spinal accessory nucleus
Routal RV, Pal GP (2000). "Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord". J. Anat. 196 ( Pt 2 ... Ullah M, Mansor O, Ismail ZI, Kapitonova MY, Sirajudeen KN (2007). "Localization of the spinal nucleus of accessory nerve in ... The nucleus ambiguus is classically said to provide the "cranial component" of the accessory nerve. However, the very existence ... The spinal accessory nucleus lies within the cervical spinal cord (C1-C5) in the posterolateral aspect of the anterior horn. ...
*  Neck dissection
IIa contains nodes in the region anterior to the spinal accessory nerve and IIb postero-superior to the nerve. Region III: ... Region V: posterior triangle group of lymph nodes located along the lower half of the spinal accessory nerve and the transverse ... 6. Anderson, Peter E., The Role of Comprehensive Neck Dissection With Preservation of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in the ... These include the carotid and in some instances the three structures - IJV, SCM and Accessory Nerve. 1888 - Jawdynski described ...
*  Posterior cranial fossa
... and the accessory (XI) nerves. Lies at the anterolateral margins of the f. magnum and transmits the hypoglossal (XII) nerve. ... It transmits the medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries. Lies in the ... It transmits the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nerves into a canal in the petrous temporal bone. Lies ...
*  Tuberculum cinereum
The tuberculum cinereum is a raised area between the rootlets of the accessory nerve and posterolateral sulcus. It overlies the ... produced by a mass of grey matter called the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve.. ... spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. It is an elevation in the lower part of medulla, lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus, ...
*  Fazio-Londe disease
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducent, occulomotor and glossopharyngeal in ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Post mortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic ... It causes progressive bulbar paralysis due to involvement of motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei. The most frequent ...
*  Nerve point of neck
The spinal accessory nerve can often be found 1 cm above Erb's point. Erb's point is formed by the union of the C5 and C6 nerve ... At the nerve trunk, branches of suprascapular nerves and the nerve to the subclavius also merge. The merged nerve divides into ... From here, the accessory nerve courses through the posterior triangle of the neck to enter the anterior border of the trapezius ... through the radial nerve); and the deltoid (through the axillary nerve). The effect is called "Erb's palsy". Typically, an ...
*  Occipital artery
The upper branch accompanies the accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid, and the lower branch arises near the origin of the ... The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Posterior primary divisions of the upper three cervical nerves. Side of neck, ... and the vagus and accessory nerves. It next ascends to the interval between the transverse process of the atlas and the mastoid ... At its origin, it is covered by the posterior belly of the digastricus and the stylohyoideus, and the hypoglossal nerve winds ...
*  Carotid triangle
On the lateral side of the vessels, the accessory nerve runs for a short distance before it pierces the Sternocleidomastoideus ... The hypoglossal nerve crosses both the internal and external carotids, curving around the origin of the occipital artery. ... Within the sheath, between the artery and vein, and behind both, is the vagus nerve; behind the sheath, the sympathetic trunk. ... the external branch of the same nerve. The upper portion of the larynx and lower portion of the pharynx are also found in the ...
*  Cranial nerves
... accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve (XII). (There may be a thirteenth cranial nerve, the terminal nerve (nerve O or N ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... the accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) do not exist, with the accessory nerve (XI) being an integral part of the ... vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII). The fibers of these cranial nerves exit the brainstem from ...
*  Superior deep cervical lymph nodes
The superior deep cervical lymph nodes lie under the Sternocleidomastoideus in close relation with the accessory nerve and the ...
*  Spinal cord
Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and ... From above T1, proprioceptive primary axons enter the spinal cord and ascend ipsilaterally until reaching the accessory cuneate ... It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots. The nerve roots ... As these nerves travel from their respective roots to their point of exit from the vertebral column, the nerves of the lower ...
*  Occipital triangle
The accessory nerve is directed obliquely across the space from the Sternocleidomastoideus, which it pierces, to the under ... The roof of this triangle is formed by the cutaneous nerves of cervical plexus and the external jugular vein and platysma ... surface of the Trapezius; below, the supraclavicular nerves and the transverse cervical vessels and the upper part of the ...
Accessory nerve disorder - Wikipedia  Accessory nerve disorder - Wikipedia
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in ... Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, ... A winged scapula may also be suggestive of abnormal spinal accessory nerve function, as described above. In assessing range of ... A winged scapula due to spinal accessory nerve damage will often be exaggerated on arm abduction. Strength testing is similar ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessory_nerve_disorder
Accessory nerve dictionary definition | accessory nerve defined  Accessory nerve dictionary definition | accessory nerve defined
... nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back ... accessory-nerve. Noun (plural accessory nerves). *(medicine, physiology) The 11th cranial nerves of higher vertebrates, ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. Either of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx ... How would you define accessory nerve? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by ...
more infohttp://www.yourdictionary.com/accessory-nerve
Levator Scapulae Muscle  Levator Scapulae Muscle
In the middle of the levator scapulae, the spinal accessory nerve flows laterally and the dorsal scapular nerve may rest much ... The levator scapulae are served by two or three branches of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves and often by a dorsal scapular ...
more infohttp://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/muscular/levator-scapulae-muscle
Evaluation and Management of Scapular Winging due to long thoracic nerve palsy - The Clinical Advisor  Evaluation and Management of Scapular Winging due to long thoracic nerve palsy - The Clinical Advisor
Evaluation and Management of Scapular Winging due to spinal accessory nerve palsy ... The most common type of scapular winging is medial winging due to a long thoracic nerve (LTN) palsy leading to a dysfunctional ... Patients may have a recent or remote history of blunt trauma, or previous viral illness that can be responsible for a nerve ... Evaluation and Management of Scapular Winging due to long thoracic nerve palsy. *By ...
more infohttp://www.clinicaladvisor.com/shoulder-and-elbow/evaluation-and-management-of-scapular-winging-due-to-long-thoracic-nerve-palsy/article/627281/
Accessory nerve | Define Accessory nerve at Dictionary.com  Accessory nerve | Define Accessory nerve at Dictionary.com
... either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the ... accessory nerve. in Medicine. accessory nerve. n.. *A nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. *either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, which supply the muscles of the ... These two roots form the accessory nerve trunk, which divides into two branches: the internal, which unites with the vagus ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/accessory-nerve
Accessory Nerve (XI) | SpringerLink  Accessory Nerve (XI) | SpringerLink
Vertebral Artery Vagus Nerve Medulla Oblongata Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Accessory Nerve These keywords were added ... Leblanc A. (2004) Accessory Nerve (XI). In: Encephalo-Peripheral Nervous System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https:// ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-56435-2_11
Category:Accessory nerve root  Category:Accessory nerve root
Accessory nerve + Label Accessory nerve root + Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 1 February ...
more infohttp://neurolex.org/wiki/Special:Browse/Category:Accessory_nerve_root
Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve.  Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve.
Accessory Nerve: injuries, Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology, Suture Techniques, Electromyography, Humans, Iatrogenic ... Accessory Nerve: injuries,Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology,Suture Techniques,Electromyography,Humans,Iatrogenic Disease, ... Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve.. Bostrom, Daniella and Dahlin, Lars LU (2007) In Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and ... The incidence of such nerve injuries during lymph node biopsies is 3%-10%, but the diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms are ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/541098
Arachnoid Cyst with Accessory Nerve Palsy | American Journal of Neuroradiology  Arachnoid Cyst with Accessory Nerve Palsy | American Journal of Neuroradiology
Arachnoid Cyst with Accessory Nerve Palsy. *Background:*Injuries to the accessory nerve are rare and may cause unpredictable ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/ajnr-case-collections-diagnosis/arachnoid-cyst-accessory-nerve-palsy
Accessory Nerve View Showing Neck Metal Print by Stocktrek Images  Accessory Nerve View Showing Neck Metal Print by Stocktrek Images
... All metal prints are professionally printed, packaged, and ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... Accessory Nerve View Showing Neck metal print by Stocktrek Images. Bring your artwork to life with the stylish lines and added ...
more infohttps://fineartamerica.com/featured/accessory-nerve-view-showing-neck-stocktrek-images.html?product=metal-print
Same modality nerve reconstruction for accessory nerve injuries  Same modality nerve reconstruction for accessory nerve injuries
In this article, two clinical cases are presented where accessory nerve injuries are repaired with either a motor nerve ... These cases provide a stimulus to consider the use of motor nerve grafts or transfers in the repair of motor nerve deficits. ... such as the medial antebrachial cutaneous or the sural nerve. The practice of using sensory grafts to repair motor nerve ... The standard repair of a nerve gap under tension is to use a sensory autograft, ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/othns/200812000/00006372-200812000-00020
Cranial root of accessory nerves : Wikis (The Full Wiki)  Cranial root of accessory nerves : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... the medullary root of the accessory nerve).. References. *^ "Spinal Accessory Nerve". Structure of the Human body, Loyola ... The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Cranial_root_of_accessory_nerves
spinal accessory nerve  spinal accessory nerve
... spinal accessory nerve, squamous cell carcinoma, sternocleidomastoid on November 28, 2011. by chzechze. ...
more infohttp://www.intelligentdental.com/tag/spinal-accessory-nerve/
Accessory nerve - Wikipedia  Accessory nerve - Wikipedia
... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ... "spinal nerve accessory to the vagus", recognizing that while a minor component of the nerve joins with the larger vagus nerve, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessory_nerve
Accessory nerves | definition of Accessory nerves by Medical dictionary  Accessory nerves | definition of Accessory nerves by Medical dictionary
Accessory nerves explanation free. What is Accessory nerves? Meaning of Accessory nerves medical term. What does Accessory ... Looking for online definition of Accessory nerves in the Medical Dictionary? ... Acoustic nerve.. eleventh cranial nerve. Abbreviation: CN XI. Spinal accessory nerve.. ethmoidal nerve. Either of two nerves, ... accessory nerve. Spinal accessory nerve. See: cranial nerve for illus.. ACOUSTIC NERVE (8th CRANIAL) ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Accessory+nerves
great auricular nerve; spinal accessory nerve; phrenic  | Open-i  great auricular nerve; spinal accessory nerve; phrenic | Open-i
... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... Illustration of dissection of the neck, right lateral view, showing the cervical nerve roots and some of the cranial nerves ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=USC8842_1&req=4
What are the indications for an Eden-Lange procedure to treat a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?  What are the indications for an Eden-Lange procedure to treat a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?
Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ... Spinal Accessory Nerve Monitoring and Clinical Outcome Results of Nerve-Sparing Neck Dissections. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1298684-124499/what-are-the-indications-for-an-eden-lange-procedure-to-treat-a-spinal-accessory-nerve-san-injury
What is the role of electrodiagnostic test in the management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?  What is the role of electrodiagnostic test in the management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?
Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ... Spinal Accessory Nerve Monitoring and Clinical Outcome Results of Nerve-Sparing Neck Dissections. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1298684-124479/what-is-the-role-of-electrodiagnostic-test-in-the-management-of-a-spinal-accessory-nerve-san-injury
Cranial root of accessory nerve | definition of cranial root of accessory nerve by Medical dictionary  Cranial root of accessory nerve | definition of cranial root of accessory nerve by Medical dictionary
... cranial root of accessory nerve explanation free. What is cranial root of accessory nerve? Meaning of cranial root of accessory ... nerve medical term. What does cranial root of accessory nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of cranial root of accessory nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... cranial root of accessory nerve. cra·ni·al root of ac·ces·so·ry nerve. [TA] the roots of the accessory nerve that arise from ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cranial+root+of+accessory+nerve
PPT - The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory  Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1863308  PPT - The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1863308
List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/sai/the-cranial-nerves-xi-xii-accessory-nerve-and-hypoglossal-nerve
  • In patients with damage to the spinal accessory nerve, shoulder elevation will be diminished, and the patient will be incapable of raising the shoulders against the examiner's resistance. (wikipedia.org)
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