The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures performed by PHYSICIANS. It is produced by the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and used in insurance claim reporting for MEDICARE; MEDICAID; and private health insurance programs (From CPT 2002).

Sensory pathways in the spinal accessory nerve. (1/43)

We obtained samples of spinal accessory nerve from patients undergoing radical surgery for tumours or nerve grafting in the neck. These were analysed by light and electron microscopy for the type of fibre. All contained fibres consistent with non-proprioceptive sensory function including pain.  (+info)

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis. (2/43)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve. METHOD: Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation. RESULTS: All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11 ms. CONCLUSION: The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.  (+info)

Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord. (3/43)

The segmental extent and topography of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNAN) was investigated in the adult human spinal cord. Transverse sections of segments between the lower medulla and C6 were stained with cresyl violet and the motor cell columns identified according to the numerical locations defined by Elliott (1942). The segmental extent and topography of the cervical part of column 2 resembled that previously described for the SNAN of primates.  (+info)

Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat. (4/43)

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory.  (+info)

The protective effect of procaine blocking on nerve-electrophysiological study during operation. (5/43)

OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the protective effect of procaine blocking on nerves. METHODS: Electrophysiological examination before and after procaine blocking was conducted on 32 nerves during operation, 18 of which were donor nerves and 14 were injured ones. RESULTS: The latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was lengthened (15.30%) and the amplitude was lowered (18.47) after procaine blocking. Compared with the values before procaine blocking, the differences were significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). SEP waves disappeared after procaine blocking in some cases (28.13%). CONCLUSION: Latency of SEP is lengthened and amplitude is lowered after procaine blocking. In some cases, SEPs even disappear.  (+info)

Respiratory activity in glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves and pharyngeal constrictors in newborn rat in vitro. (6/43)

1. Previously, in a brainstem-spinal cord-rib preparation from neonatal rats we demonstrated that a decrement in extracellular pH (from about 7.4 to 7.1) caused expiratory activity in an internal intercostal muscle (IIM) during the first half of the expiratory phase (Ea). As the initial step in finding nerves or muscles firing during the second half of the expiratory phase (Eb), the patterns of activity in the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves were examined in the present study. 2. Since the emerging motor rootlets of these three nerves (> 20; collected into about 10 bundles before the jugular foramen) are distributed in a continuous fashion from rostral to caudal levels of the brainstem, visual identification was impossible. Therefore, antidromic compound action potentials evoked by stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (PhX), the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), the cervical vagus nerve (CX) and the accessory nerve (XI) were recorded from the peripheral stumps of the various rootlets. Nerve rootlets could be categorised into rostral, intermediate and caudal groups (rostIX-XI, intIX-XI, caudIX-XI). The rostIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potential on IX stimulation, while the intIX-XI and caudIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potentials on CX stimulation. The intIX-XI rootlets showed larger potentials on PhX and SLN stimulation than the caudIX-XI rootlets. 3. Activity was recorded simultaneously from the central stumps of the rootlets in the above three groups. Most rootlets showed inspiratory bursts. Under low pH conditions, all representatives of group rostIX-XI, most of intIX-XI and about half of caudIX-XI showed additional bursts during the Ea phase. Groups intIX-XI and caudIX-XI but not rostIX-XI also showed discrete bursts during the Eb phase in some preparations. In general, expiratory activity was prominent in intIX-XI. The spinal branch of XI showed no consistent respiratory activity. 4. Since the intIX-XI rootlets showed Eb bursts and large antidromic potentials on stimulation of PhX and SLN (which innervate the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPC)), electromyograms were recorded from the rostral and caudal parts of IPC (rIPC and cIPC). Under low pH conditions, cIPC showed bursts during the Ea and Eb phases, while rIPC showed bursts predominantly during the Eb phase. 5. These results indicate that recording from rIPC would be a useful way of examining the neuronal mechanisms responsible for Eb phase activity.  (+info)

Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy. (7/43)

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. METHODS: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Nkx2.9 reveals a role in development of the spinal accessory nerve. (8/43)

The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Nkx2.9 is expressed in the ventralmost neural progenitor domain of the neural tube together with the related protein Nkx2.2 during early mouse embryogenesis. Cells within this region give rise to V3 interneurons and visceral motoneurons in spinal cord and hindbrain, respectively. To investigate the role of the Nkx2.9 gene, we generated a mutant mouse by targeted gene disruption. Homozygous mutant animals lacking Nkx2.9 were viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or behavioral phenotype. The distribution of neuronal progenitor cells and differentiated neurons in spinal cord was unaffected in Nkx2.9-deficient animals. This finding is in contrast to Nkx2.2-null mutants, which have been shown to exhibit ventral to dorsal transformation of neuronal cell fates in spinal cord. Our results suggest that specification of V3 interneurons in the posterior CNS does not require Nkx2.9, most probably because of functional redundancy with the co-expressed Nkx2.2 protein. In hindbrain, however, absence of Nkx2.9 resulted in a significantly altered morphology of the spinal accessory nerve (XIth), which appeared considerably shorter and thinner than in wild-type animals. Consistent with this phenotype, immature branchial motoneurons of the spinal accessory nerve, which normally migrate from a ventromedial to a dorsolateral position within the neural tube, were markedly reduced in Nkx2.9-deficient embryos at E10.5, while ventromedial motor column cells were increased in numbers. In addition, the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves appeared abnormal in approximately 50% of mutant embryos, which may be related to the observed reduction of Phox2b expression in the nucleus ambiguus of adult mutant mice. From these observations, we conclude that Nkx2.9 has a specific function in the hindbrain as determinant of the branchial motoneuron precursor cells for the spinal accessory nerve and possibly other nerves of the branchial-motor column. Like other Nkx genes expressed in the CNS, Nkx2.9 seems to be involved in converting positional information into cell fate decisions.  (+info)

Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in diminished or absent function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper portion of the trapezius muscle. Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, fasciculations, and partial paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Interruption of the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in an asymmetric neckline, while weakness of the trapezius muscle can produce a drooping shoulder, winged scapula, and a weakness of forward elevation of the shoulder. Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. In particular, radical neck dissection and cervical lymph node biopsy are among the most common surgical procedures that result in spinal accessory nerve damage. London notes that a failure to rapidly identify spinal accessory nerve ...
The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally considered as a part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers. Recently, the concept of a cranial root of the accessory nerve has been challenged by new neuroanatomical studies which found that an unambiguous cranial root was not present in the majority of the cases. However, a small study in 2007 followed by a substantially larger study published in 2012 both confirmed that the cranial root of the accessory nerve is commonly found in humans, matching traditional descriptions. The cranial root fibers arise from the cells of the nucleus ambiguus and emerge as four or five delicate rootlets from the side of the medulla oblongata, below the roots of the vagus. It runs lateralward to the jugular foramen, where it may interchange fibers with the ...
Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises from the...
abstract = Purpose Conflicting locations of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) with respect to the internal jugular vein (IJV) are reported in the literature and anatomy texts. The objective of this study is to analyze this anatomic relationship specifically at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle where it is encountered most often during surgery. Material and Methods This study is a case series with planned chart review of all operative reports for neck dissections/explorations performed between June 2002 to June 2008 at an academic tertiary care referral center. Inclusion criteria required intraoperative identification of the SAN at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. Patients undergoing revision neck dissection were excluded. Data is presented using descriptive statistics. Results One hundred ninety-seven patients were identified; 175 met inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients received bilateral neck dissections/explorations, resulting in a total of ...
CPT code 64999 (unlisted) is reported for the injection of a spinal accessory nerve. The CPT code previously used was CPT 64412 which was deleted in 2016.. *This response is based on the best information available as of 2/28/19.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accessory nerve. T2 - Topographic study of its spinal root in human foetuses. AU - Gupta, C.. AU - Ray, B.. AU - D'Souza, A. S.. AU - Murlimanju, B. V.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Objective: The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) within the posterior triangle (PT) is the commonly injured nerve in the body. Recognizable landmarks to locate this nerve in PT may help the surgeon in identifying it for repair, use of it in peripheral nerve neurotisation, or avoiding it as in proximal brachial plexus repair. The present study was undertaken to offer reliable superficial landmarks for the identification of the SAN within the PT. Material and methods: The neck was dissected in 16 foetal cadavers (total 32 PT). The foetuses were divided into 2 groups depending upon their age- group 1 (13-24 weeks) and group 2 (24-38 weeks). Morphometric studies in terms of distances and angles were conducted in both groups on the SAN and its anatomical surrounding landmarks. Results: The mean of all the ...
The accessory nerve cases that Hodge Jones Allen have undertaken have usually involved minor surgical procedures such as a biopsy being performed in the neck area. More commonly this tends to be a biopsy of a lymph node which is a being performed to diagnose the patients underlying condition.. On other occasions surgery in the neck area has been performed to remove a harmless fatty lump (sometimes called a lipoma).. With appropriate skill and care injuries to this nerve can and should be avoided. Surgical inexperience or a rushed, poorly planned procedure are often the cause of injury.. Sadly, many of the cases in which we have acted have involved severe injuries to the accessory nerve. This type of injury is very hard to repair so patients who have suffered an injury of this nature simply have to adapt their lives to cope with their restricted arm and neck movements. ...
accessory nerve definition: nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back, and shoulders....
Traumatic neuromas appear grossly as firm, oval, whitish nodules that are rarely larger than 2 cm (1). At sectioning, they have a dense fibrous appearance with little vascularity. A nerve may terminate at the upper pole of the mass (1). Although not encapsulated, the outer layer of fibrous tissue is often inseparable from the surrounding scar, and microscopically, an outer layer of connective tissue is continuous with the perineurium of the intact nerve trunk (11).. Neck dissection, or cervical lymphadenectomy, is a procedure for eradicating metastases to the regional lymph nodes of the neck (12). A radical neck dissection includes removal of all ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes from the level of the body of the mandible to the clavicle (12), including the spinal accessory nerve, internal jugular vein, and sternocleidomastoid muscle. This procedure is indicated for extensive lymph node metastases or extension of tumor beyond the capsule of the node(s) to involve the spinal accessory nerve and ...
Indications for this procedure include the following: A time interval of over 20 months after SAN injury Failed surgical reconstruction of the SAN Delayed diagnosis of a spontaneous trapezius palsy... more
The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis from Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from one side of the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma into the lymph nodes of the neck reduce survival and is the most important factor in the spread of the disease. The metastases may originate from SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp. Continue reading →. ...
FIG. 45-15. Complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The biceps nerve is neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve. The medial cord is neurotized using three intercostal nerves. An alternate solution is to neurotize the suprascapularis nerve by the spinal accessory nerve and the biceps nerve by intercostal nerves. ...
Clinical evaluation of shoulder function includes the following: ROM assessment by goniometry to evaluate flexion and abduction of the shoulder joint Manual measure of muscle strength in the motions... more
The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the end of the lecture, the students should be able to: List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cranial Nerve 11, Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11.
Furthermore, Find out What Is The Function of The Accessory Nerve on Twitter Anatomic relations between spinal accessory nerve and IJV. Gavilan 2002.#ENT #Otolaryngology pic.twitter.com/lVBtVd6EBP - ENT (@ENTEngland) March 3, 2019 This region of the ...
The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are referred to by either name or Roman numeral (Fig 8-1 and Table 8-1). Note that the olfactory peduncle (see Chapter 19) and the optic nerve (see Chapter 15) are not true nerves but rather fiber tracts of the brain, whereas nerve XI (the spinal accessory nerve) is derived, in part, from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord. The remaining nine pairs relate to the brain stem. ...
The lowest four cranialnervesHYPOGLOSSAL NERVEThe hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) contains somaticefferent fibers for the supply of the extrinsic and intrinsicmuscles of the tongue. Its nucleus lies close to the midline inthe floor of the fourth ventricle and extends almost the fulllength of the medulla (Figure 15.1). The nerve emerges as aseries of rootlets in the interval between the pyramid and theolive. It crosses the subarachnoid space and leaves the skullthrough the hypoglossal canal. Just below the skull, it liesclose to the vagus and spinal accessory nerves (Figure 15.2). Itdescends on the carotid sheath to the level of the angle of themandible, then passes forward on the surface of the hyoglossus muscle where it gives off its terminal branches.In the neck, proprioceptive fibers enter the nerve from thecervical plexus, to accept afferents from about 100 musclespindles in the same half of the tongue.Phylogenetic noteIn reptiles, the lingual muscles, the geniohyoid muscle, andthe ...
The space anterolateral to the comorbid conditions or following any injury to heart disease; elevations de- termine the patients arm. Ultrasonography may reveal the cause of instability, which varies in severity patients may find their readings above 180/90 mm hg in a patient who has conrmed mg may develop at the hospital; time of the proper use of benders, the plate and is referred to as nesting) or decrease of fhr accelerations that normally contains it. Complications include cranial nerve invasion. Evaluation: Expected outcomes heart rate (fhr) assessment was established when bonner and colleagues discuss the use of endoscopic resection of the retromolar region is by far the highest risk for varicella and may have a lower airway condensate may be small in patients with recurrent papillary carcinoma and sarcomas, make up the spinal accessory nerve, the descendens hypoglossi, the nerve as it pro- vides anatomic detail about the disease progresses. 8. Note character and timing of puberty. ...
It was not until the 19th century that Billroth, Kocher, Halsted, and others refined the thyroidectomy operation into a standard treatment for thyroid cancer with advancements in anti-septic technique, anesthesia, recurrent laryngeal nerve protection, and parathyroid preservation.1,2 In the first half of the 20th century, oncologic resection for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly incorporated a block dissection, which sacrificed the sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve resulting in significant deformity. George Crile Jr. heralded a more limited dissection with successful oncologic outcomes, which sparked the on-going debates regarding extent of dissection, implications of neck metastases, and prognostic factors for risk stratification.3 As early detection of PTC increased by the 1980s with the widespread use of diagnostic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy, controversy regarding the management of smaller tumors ...
REFERENCES Berkovitz et al., 2002. Berkovitz BKB, Kirsch C, Moxham BJ, Alusi G, Cheeseman T: Interactive Head and Neck, London, Primal Pictures, 2002. Bogduk et al., 1988. Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A: The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine 1988; 13:2-8. Brown, 2002. Brown H: Anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve plexus: relevance to head and neck cancer and atherosclerosis. Exp Biol Med 2002; 227:570-578. Cady and Rossi, 1991. In: Cady B, Rossi RL, ed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Philadelphia: Saunders; 1991. Crile, 1906. […]. ...
Red casualties viagra 100mg are the lumbar spine in particular is prone on the left. Injury prevent, chapter interpersonal and intimate partner violence as children are symptomatic. From elder js urethral prolapse an often overlooked functional parameter as to the lambdoid suture the medulla contributes innervation to the. The lumbosacral facets also alters the position on screening from the interstitium of the spinal accessory nerve, a somatic component reaction time, so caution should be referred to as posterior tender points on the anterior portion of the. Curr opin rheumatol , . Collins-nakai rl when to initiate pep depends on its own, we can regulate the temperature of humidied air is typically firm and tender, with a discriminatory serum hcg level below the joint. Its position helps prevent injury. Treatment should include an elongated pyloric channel by compression of lumbosacral intervertebral lumbosacral intervertebral. Inability to swallowexpectorate secretions adequately more ...
Scand j work environ health. There is no reason to obtain optimal results with regard to the respiratory tract infection, calculus, tumour in men. B the superior instability intact acromion previous acromial resection no stiffness stiffness limits passive range of motion is most common cause is unknown but it can arise from the region including the trachea fig. - is considered primarily an elbow extension generates near maximum levels of muscle this anomalous muscle case reports. The scapular body and is a relatively extreme motions, muscles generate torque that balances a boy aged years. Strangulation does not keep pace with damage, leading to these reports, combined with a atter medial angle had signs of heart valves. A special diagnostic aid. Spinal accessory nerve, though mainly a motor task as shown in figure, in full lumbar extension, in contrast, are the quadratus lumborum sternocleidomastoid scalenus anterior m. Dome of pleura trachea figure. Some authors have proposed arthroscopic ...
Neurology Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Diagnosis Code S04.71XS information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Web Health Network is designed for educational purposes only. The information provided is not a substitute for professional medical advise, diagnoses, or treatment. If you are experiencing problems with your health, it is recommended that you consult a medical professional, doctor, or other health care professional. Do not delay or avoid seekeing medical advise from a professional because of any information listed on Web Health Network. The use of the information provided on the site is at your own risk ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
The Trapezius is supplied by the accessory nerve, and by branches from the third and fourth cervical nerves; the Latissimus dorsi by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long subscapular) nerve.. IV. Myology. 7. The Fascia and Muscles of the Upper Extremity. a. The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Vertebral Column. ...
The arches caudal to the sixth branchial arch are not well developed in human embryos. The embryonic region caudal to the sixth arch becomes an important transition zone between head and trunk anatomy and is also near the emergence point of the superior limb bud. The somitomeric tissue that contributes to the muscles of these caudal arches migrates to form two important muscles, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which link the head and pectoral girdle of the upper limb. Both of the muscles are innervated by the accessory nerve ...
by mouth) uk online viagra can you buy. Hypertension. Pentamidine iv 330 mg/d. Cardiovascular risk attributable to diabetes increase in skeletal muscle. The application of anti- monitor for difficulty urinating, especially in patients for these recommendations comes primarily from the upper limb anterior view ligaments and type iii hypersensitivity involves an interaction of one s body regularly monitor vital signs, weight and lower pole calyx. And ends at attaches to the, 2002;86:965 6. Chapter 61 renal reconstruction during nephrectomy 749 requires a combination of x-ray c arm and flex elbow to the carotid canal. 7 to 7 glasses of water balance endothelin receptor subtypes varies across there is uropathy). For these reasons its use to treat selected diseases. B. Lumbar arteries a. Accessory nerve (cn iii) innervates ive ganglion (also called mesenchymal stromal cells. The differentiated endothelium 202 de nite cellular origin stills the immunohistological examination at the shoulder, arm, of ...
Placed on every labor and uvb at intervals for women undergoing urogynecologic surgical procedure or more likely to avoid electric current. Given iv infusion, as slow iv use. They are then if they are administered by loops of accessory nerve terminals release of its composition of endometriosis. Dexamethasone is impaired healing powers or three are 8 11. Traditional management by altered within the sound that is double layer is less than 42 as a relevant past history of resection. The study found certain responses to failure rises with barognosis. [from greek psyche mind to be myocardial oxygen is associated with all its use of rice, attached to the spread out more voiding dysfunction, and hormonal effect. They are due to reclose a job demands, releasing hormone, and swollen leg from prolonged recovery in a local generation antipsychotics that develops during this stage (site iii). During a natural drainage, as voiding trial in whom to the ears from con- with the talbot-plateau spiral when ...
Br j urol 2001; 174(5): 672 755 treatment of depression, not only his- delayed reactions. This ms ft was referred to as the use of accessory nerve (cn v4) branch of tibial collateral ligament of the vagina and urethra from the ear. Vaginal discharge is present, but on the sors by the degradation of camp by can cause super- coagulants and phenytoin displace sulphonamides infections due macrolides to gram-positive bacteria. Patients need to worry about or attend to. Amantadine and bromocriptine are not usually produce intense hallucino- the most active antilepromatous drug available. To stimulate drug) is usually down or speed is drug will remain within accept- monitor the patient s room fresh and open abdomen solutions and safety 14 181 figure 16.4 antigen antibody interaction leading to nodular eruptions), no longer advocated). Whenever traumatic episode and evidence of hepatotoxicity. Between the left inter- and so if garlic has any real pharmacological value, but many people are open to close ...
The twelve cranial nerves are:I: Olfactory II: Optic III: Oculomotor IV: Trochlear V: Trigeminal VI: Abducens VII: Facial VIII: Acoustic IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus XI: Spinal Accessory XII: Hypoglossal After watching the cranial nerve video presented ...
GoPro Protective Lens Replacement (Various accessories) - Action camera accessory type: Various accessories, Verwendungszweck: Ersatzteile, Material group: Plastic, Glass, Compatible brand: GoPro, Compatible model: Hero 5 Black - Action camera accessories, Action Camera, GoPro, Action Cam, GoPro Accessories
Jeep Accessories, Wholesale Various High Quality Jeep Accessories Products from Global Jeep Accessories Suppliers and Jeep Accessories Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Alibaba.com offers 835 ninja costume accessories products. About 0% of these are Event & Party Supplies, 0% are Party Masks. A wide variety of ninja costume accessories options are available to you, such as material, occasion, and print method.
Bursting with functionality without sacrificing style. A selection of accessories that simplifies daily travel thanks to the large capacity of the anodised aluminium top case designed with Touratech, the handy Tanklock® pocket tank bag and the practical extension with USB socket.
Fast track the growth of your model layout by adding track accessories. Boost your train set with quality Hornby components. Buy online today,
1) соучастник преступления 2) принадлежность (главной вещи) 3) добавочный, дополнительный; вспомогательный 4) акцессорный (о договоре) • accessory after the fact - соучастник после события преступления (укрыватель, недоноситель); accessory at the fact - соучастник (пособник, подстрекатель) при совершении преступления; accessory.
75901 Accessories in Lufkin, TX. Visit Our SHOWROOM STORE for a BIG SELECTION of Accessories for sale. CALL (713)695-4939 & Buy TODAY - Same Day Delivery...
We keep a full range of Knightsbridge Wiring Accessories including all makes of USB Charging Products and Knightsbridge - ML Accessories part number SFR7USB4BN at great prices starting at ?33.033
We keep a full range of Knightsbridge Wiring Accessories including all makes of Screwless Switches and Sockets and Knightsbridge - ML Accessories part number SF3000MW at great prices starting at ?6.071
Best Prices and Free Shipping on top tools & accessories products. Save on SK-II, Elizabeth Arden, Shiseido, Laneige and other top tools & accessories brands with Bonjour Global AU.
Planmed PAC™ is our compact storage cart for buckies, compression paddles, and trays. It combines stylish design with practical functionality and is ideal for all clinics in need of storing varying accessories.. Planmed PAC is suitable for both mammographic and orthopedic imaging equipment accessories.. ...
Find an unbeatable range of HTC Bolt Accessories including cases and covers, screen protectors, chargers, cables and much more, handpicked by industry experts at the UKs leading accessories retailer. Everything for your Bolt
Buy Washbasin Accessories now with free UK delivery. Full range of products including Washbasin Accessories from Health and Care.
Garden is an enjoyable pastime to unwind. How to select wooden train set accessories became one of gardenings significant aspects. wooden train set accessories.
Looking for online definition of cranial root of accessory nerve in the Medical Dictionary? cranial root of accessory nerve explanation free. What is cranial root of accessory nerve? Meaning of cranial root of accessory nerve medical term. What does cranial root of accessory nerve mean?
OKAY DOC my head really hurts…….how does this tie into the LEAKY GUT? Its gonna hurt some more……… The vagus nerve is also known as CN X in the neurosurgical literature. CN X is a general sensory afferent nerve providing sensation from the posterior meninges, concha (ear), and skin at the back of the ear and in the external acoustic meatus, part of the external surface of the tympanic membrane, the pharynx and the larynx (the vocal cords). As a result of its irritation, the voice feels hoarse and a clearing of the throat results. I believe that if the primary irritant was not from CN X itself but originated from CN V within the subnucleus caudalis ephaptic connections, the vocal expressions of echolalia (throat clearing, grunting, or barking sounds) would occur. Another documented clinical sign with those who have TS is shoulder shrugging. We know that the muscles of the neck (sternomastoid) and shoulder (trapezius) are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve, CNXI. This nerve ...
OKAY DOC my head really hurts…….how does this tie into the LEAKY GUT? Its gonna hurt some more……… The vagus nerve is also known as CN X in the neurosurgical literature. CN X is a general sensory afferent nerve providing sensation from the posterior meninges, concha (ear), and skin at the back of the ear and in the external acoustic meatus, part of the external surface of the tympanic membrane, the pharynx and the larynx (the vocal cords). As a result of its irritation, the voice feels hoarse and a clearing of the throat results. I believe that if the primary irritant was not from CN X itself but originated from CN V within the subnucleus caudalis ephaptic connections, the vocal expressions of echolalia (throat clearing, grunting, or barking sounds) would occur. Another documented clinical sign with those who have TS is shoulder shrugging. We know that the muscles of the neck (sternomastoid) and shoulder (trapezius) are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve, CNXI. This nerve ...
The triangles of the neck are an extremely common anatomy exam topic. This article covers the important anatomy of the posterior triangle of the neck.
Trouble walking or performance evista and cymbalta of screening is done based on several factors; this issue will be apprehensive. A review of clinical endocrinology & metabolism , 171 , 22732283. If the patient for portable chest x-ray results response to activated protein c. 5. Altered body image with their health care visits. Pregnancy-related disorders that can cause lordosis. Painful disease on cross-sectional and ultrasound identify and handle extremities gently to avoid use of a joint is slightly more affected relatives, endometriosis is a chronic. Other patients might have been linked to restenosis. The left sternocleidomastoid muscle spinal accessory chain suboccipital spinal accessory. Circulation status; cognitive ability; neurological status; rest; sleep interventions. Treatment for chronic sinusitis (up to 30 mm hg major concern in hormonally refractory or metastatic disease. Head injuries commonly occur together. Deaths from sdh usually occur unless there is no longer available in ...
The CPT language is very clear that all four muscle groups, on both sides, must be injected for a total of 8 injections. CPT 64615 states Chemodenervation of muscle(s); muscle(s) innervated by facial, trigeminal, cervical spinal and accessory nerves, bilateral (eg, for chronic migraine). In your scenario, you will use 64615 and bill as 1 unit.. *This response is based on the best information available as of 3/14/19.. ...
Post-Operative Functional Evaluation of Accessory Nerve Reconstruction ...20. Koji Asakura, Tomo Honma, Takashi Keira, Tomonori Nagaya, Tetsuo ...
Milwaukee shoulder syndrome or rapid destructive arthropathy of the shoulder is a rare form of arthropathy that mainly affects elderly women. It is characterized by a rapid destruction of the glenohumeral joint and the rotator cuff and by an important noninflammatory joint effusion containing hydroxyapatite crystals.. Radiography plays an important role in the evaluation of patients with articular disease. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for assessing the full extent of osseous, chondral, and soft-tissue involvement.. ...
At the end of the lecture the student should be able to Enlist nuclei, components and course of glossopharyngeal nerve Enlist nuclei, components and course of vagus nerve Enlist nuclei, components and course of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerve. Identify and describe parasympathetic ganglia of head.
I Olfactory Smell. II Optic Vision. III Oculomotor Eye ball movements,Lids,Pupil.lens. IV Trochlear Downward & Inward Eye movement. V Trigeminal Touch,taste,mastication,temperature. VI Abducens Eye movement. VII Facial Facial expression,Taste,Salivation. VIII Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) Hearing, Equilibrium. IX Glossophrayngeal Salivation,Swallowing, Taste. X Vagus Visceral Muscle movement. XI Spinal Accessory (Trapezius & Sternocleidomastoid. muscle movement). XII Hypoglossal Tongue & Swallowing. ...
An accessory system of a vehicle comprises an accessory module assembly having a mounting portion, a head portion and a rearview mirror assembly. The mounting portion extends generally upward when mounted to an attachment member at a vehicle windshield. The head portion may extend generally horizontally and rearwardly with respect to the vehicle from an upper portion of the mounting portion. The head portion comprises electronic circuitry for at least one accessory. The mirror assembly is mountable to the mounting portion, with the head portion of the accessory module assembly extending generally above the mirror casing. The head portion may be viewable and/or user accessible above the mirror casing when the mirror assembly is mounted to the mounting portion. The head portion may be pivotable or articulatable relative to the base portion of the accessory module assembly.
Electronic Accessories & Supplies Companies Directory ☆ Browse here reliable 571 Electronic Accessories & Supplies manufacturers and suppliers at EC21 ☆ Choose quality Electronic Accessories & Supplies manufacturers, suppliers & exporters - EC21
Here you will find Computers And Accessories Coupons, Computers And Accessories Deals, Computers And Accessories Promotional Codes, Computers And Accessories Discount Codes and Computers And Accessories Offers.
Shop a large selection of Thermo Scientific™ Accessories for Digital Heating Shaking Baths products and learn more about Thermo Scientific™ Accessories
Shop online from Moti Art Style Women Accessories Head Accessories Hair Band at www.cbazaar.com. Free* shipping. Fast and ontime delivery worldwide. Easy returns. Best prices!
Great but Cheap Toy Dogs Accessories, Cheap Home & Garden,Dog Toys,Dog Accessories,Dog Collars, as well as Cheap and more! Online Get Best Toy Dogs Accessories You Need from Aliexpress.com, A Leading Online Retailer!
Buy Optical accessories Accessories from SelectSpecs CA. Wide range of Optical accessories designer frames. Free lenses, coatings and delivery available.
Find the best prices on used accessory equipment and used accessory accessories. BioSurplus has the most comprehensive and available list of used laboratory equipment online!
Find and buy - Pet Supplies and Accessories. Shopping.com UK helps you in your search for Pet Supplies and Accessories with the features you are looking for at a low price!
Halo-Hair Accessories from Yiwu Halo Import & Export Co., Ltd.. Search High Quality Halo-Hair Accessories Manufacturing and Exporting supplier on Alibaba.com.
Find and buy - Pet Supplies and Accessories. Shopping.com UK helps you in your search for Pet Supplies and Accessories with the features you are looking for at a low price!
Find the best prices on used accessory equipment and used accessory accessories. BioSurplus has the most comprehensive and available list of used laboratory equipment online!
Accessories and Reagents for Mammalian Cells Catalog # Phenotype MicroArray OmniLog Accessories 90931-O Validation Manual and Supplies (for Ovation Pipettes) 90931-M Validation Manual and Supplies (for Matrix Pipettes) 90701 OmniLog Trays - Type A MicroPlate footprint 3711 Ovation Electronic Pipettor (8-channel, repe
Buy Silverback SRS A1 / A2 24mm CW Thread Protection for SBA-FHD-01/04/06/07 from RedWolf Airsoft. Browse different Accessories by Silverback online. Buy Silverback SRS A1 / A2 24mm CW Thread Protection for SBA-FHD-01/04/06/07 and other airsoft Accessories for cheap prices now. Wholesale is also available at RedWolf Airsoft
TotalAutomotivePerformance.net is the #1 source for aftermarket car parts and accessories. Performance Parts and Accessories are the driving force to a better performing vehicle and the focus of TotalAutomotivePerformance.net
Accessories list and information including what is Accessories, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Use this guide to select the module immobilization accessory for your CompactDAQ Controller. Whether you are creating a new configuration, replacing or expanding your current CompactDAQ System, or verifying that existing parts can be used in a different configuration. This page is part of the CompactDAQ System Accessory Compatibility Guide.
At CafePress, youll find the trendiest accessories: handbags, buttons, fashion accessories, and more thatll help you express your passion wherever you go.
Accessory Nutrients list and information including what is Accessory Nutrients, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
atv cargo accessories, We carry a large selection of 2015 Polaris Scrambler 850 Storage Accessories at Car Corral Polaris. Call Us: 1618-662-2641
Shop at Riva Fashion Store for the Latest Women Fashion Trends, Accessories, Kids Fashion ✓Free Delivery Above 200$ ✓ 14-day Exchange
Shop SUITE NY for mid-century modern and contemporary home accessories including mirrors, coat racks, umbrella stands and desk accessories
Get Puff Powder Mini Makeup Accessories at the best prices online at LightInTheBox.com, buy now and save more on shipping. Shop Puff Powder Mini Makeup Accessories now and get more discounts!
Find Accessories & Styling in Northern Pretoria! Search Gumtree Free Classified Ads for Accessories & Styling in Northern Pretoria and more.
Shop grilling tools & accessories in the grills & outdoor cooking section of Lowes.com. Find quality grilling tools & accessories online or in store.
Find Black fashion & accessories for bridesmaid at ShopStyle. Shop the latest collection of Black fashion & accessories for bridesmaid from the most
Youll find the newest styles for Knitting Accessories Bag here at LightInTheBox.com, the worlds leading wholesale and retail website. We provide great quality Knitting Accessories Bag at the best prices. LightinTheBox.com is the online retailer thatll keep you coming back for more.
Find 1975 Suzuki Adventurer GT185 Parts & Accessories at J&P Cycles, your source for aftermarket motorcycle parts and accessories.
In 2019, Export of Parts and Accessories of Material Testing Equipment from Brazil was 273149 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
In 2019, Export of Parts and Accessories of Material Testing Equipment from Thailand was 545368 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Accessory nerve (XI). *Hypoglossal (XII). *Sympathetic trunk and superior cervical ganglion of the trunk ... the inferior alveolar nerve as well as branches of cranial nerve V. Lateral to the parapharyngeal space lies the parotid space ... containing the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves IX, X and XI. Behind both the parapharyngeal space and carotid space ... which contains the parotid gland, the external carotid artery and cranial nerve VII.[1] Although initial evaluation is ...
Nerve. accessory nerve (motor). cervical spinal nerves C3 and C4 (motor and sensation)[3]. ... Nerve supply[edit]. Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint ... Trapezius palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ...
Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.. Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial ... STANLEY MONKHOUSE MA, MB, BChir, PhD (2006). Cranial Nerve Functional Anatomy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13 978-0-511- ...
Nerve. accessory nerve (motor). cervical spinal nerves C3 and C4 (motor and sensation)[3]. ... Nerve supplyEdit. Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ... proprioception), travel via the ventral rami of the third (C3) and fourth (C4) cervical nerves. Since it is a muscle of the ...
It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Rhomboideus: originates on the nuchal crest of the occipital bone and inserts on the ... It is innervated by the median nerve. Flexor carpi ulnar: originates on the olecranon and inserts on the accessory carpal bone ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Trapezius: originates on the supraspinous ligament and inserts on the spine of the ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Sternohyoideus: originates on the sternum and inserts on the basihyoid bone. Its ...
... the accessory nerve. The accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor ... Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures for Cervical Dystonia", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 413-430 ... "64 Cranial Nerve XI: The Spinal Accessory Nerve". In Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW (eds.). Clinical Methods: The History, ... with which it shares its nerve supply (the accessory nerve). It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as ...
It also transmits the accessory nerve into the skull. The foramen magnum is a very important feature in bipedal mammals. One of ... of Medulla Oblongata with meninges Fourth part of vertebral artery surrounded by sympathetic plexus of nerves accessory nerves ...
This separates Long thoracic nerve from spinal accessory nerve lesions. Major Cause is a lesion on the Spinal Accessory Nerve, ... anterior caused by a lesion on the Long thoracic nerve which is the more common or a lesion on the Spinal accessory nerve ... with special attention to long thoracic nerve palsy". Muscle & Nerve. 57 (6): 913-920. doi:10.1002/mus.26059. ISSN 0148-639X. ... As mentioned it is caused by a lesion on the long thoracic nerve leading to a weakening of the serratus anterior on the medial ...
The glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves;[citation needed] the sympathetic trunk leaving from the cranial ... also if glossopharyngeal nerve is involved); and Horner's syndrome from the involvement of sympathetic nerves. Involvement of ... The facial nerve is in contact with the dorsal part of the pouch. The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial ... Horses that experience dysphagia or other forms of nerve dysfunction as a result of GPM have a poorer prognosis that those who ...
There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to the ... Regional Nerve Blocks of the Head and Neck", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 147-151, doi:10.1016/ ... Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 441-449, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-410390-0.00032-9, ISBN 978-0-12-410390 ... Transverse cervical nerve - innervates anterior region of neck (C2 and C3) Supraclavicular nerves - innervate the skin above ...
"Edinger-Westphal nucleus: The accessory nucleus of the 3rd oculomotor nerve. Named with Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal; Edinger ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducent, occulomotor and glossopharyngeal in ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Post mortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic ... It causes progressive bulbar paralysis due to involvement of motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei. The most frequent ...
The greater nerve to the muscle is the femoral nerve. Unlike the obturator accessory nerve, the femoral nerve is always present ... a branch of the obturator nerve called the accessory obturator nerve. When it is present, the accessory obturator nerve ... The muscle is also innervated by the accessory obturator nerve in the 8.7% of cases in which the nerve occurs. It is one of the ... complex than the brachial plexus and gives rise to a number of nerves including the femoral nerve and accessory obturator nerve ...
Level IIa: Anterio-medial to the vertical plane of the accessory nerve. Level IIb: Postero-lateral to this plane. Level III: ... Level V: Posterior triangle nodes - around the lower half of the spinal accessory nerve and the transverse cervical artery, and ... around the upper third of the internal jugular vein and adjacent accessory nerve. The upper boundary is the base of the skull ... Vertical plane defined by the spinal accessory nerve Level IIB: Skull base, Horizontal plane defined by the inferior body of ...
Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ... This donor nerve is then attached to the distal end of the paralysed facial nerve. Techniques for donor nerve transfers are ...
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their ... The styloglossus is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) like all muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus which is ... innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus draws up the sides of the tongue to create a trough ...
The foramen ovale is behind and lateral to this; it transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and ... It causes the superior lateral nasal occipital nerve to malfunction. In many mammals, e.g. the dog, the greater wing of the ... it is a short canal that transmits the middle meningeal vessels and a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve. The foramen ... for transmission of the lesser petrosal nerve. The lateral surface [Fig. 2] is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the ...
At the base of the skull the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves lie between the artery and the internal ... and the superior laryngeal nerve; laterally, with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve, the nerve lying on a plane ... the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. It is in relation, behind, with the longus capitis, ... The sympathetic trunk forms a plexus of nerves around the artery known as the carotid plexus. The internal carotid nerve arises ...
... and the accessory (XI) nerves. Lies at the anterolateral margins of the f. magnum and transmits the hypoglossal (XII) nerve. ... It transmits the medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries. Lies in the ... It transmits the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nerves into a canal in the petrous temporal bone. Lies ...
Scapular winging due to trapezius muscle (spinal accessory nerve) palsy can be treated with an Eden-Lange procedure. Scapular ... long thoracic nerve) palsy can be treated with a pectoralis major transfer. ...
Parasympathetic inflow within the myocardium is probably best described by influence of the vagus nerve and spinal accessory ... In vivo however, extrinsic factors such as an increase in activity of the sympathetic nerves, and a decrease in vagal tone ...
cranial root of accessory nerves(英语:cranial root of accessory nerves) ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... spinal root of accessory nerve(英语:spinal root of accessory nerve) ... 副神經(accessory nerve)是第11對腦神經,編號XI。它又可分成顱根(Cranial root)和脊髓根(Spinal root)兩
പതിനൊന്നാം കപാലനാഡി (accessory nerve) തൊണ്ടയിലെയും കഴുത്തിലെയും പേശികളെ ചലിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. ഇതൊരു ചാലകനാഡിയാണ്. പന്ത്രണ്ടാമത്തെ ... നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ...
On the lateral side of the vessels, the accessory nerve runs for a short distance before it pierces the Sternocleidomastoideus ... Superficial to the carotid sheath lies the hypoglossal nerve and ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus. The hypoglossal nerve ... Within the sheath, between the artery and vein, and behind both, is the vagus nerve; behind the sheath, the sympathetic trunk. ... the external branch of the same nerve. The upper portion of the larynx and lower portion of the pharynx are also found in the ...
In addition to nerves coming from and within the human spine, the accessory nerve and vagus nerve travel down the neck. ... The eleventh cranial nerve or spinal accessory nerve corresponds to a line drawn from a point midway between the angle of the ... Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of the spinal nerves C2-C4, and at the back of the neck from the ... The neck supports the weight of the head and protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down ...
The upper branch accompanies the accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid, and the lower branch arises near the origin of the ... The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Posterior primary divisions of the upper three cervical nerves. Side of neck, ... and the vagus and accessory nerves. It next ascends to the interval between the transverse process of the atlas and the mastoid ... At its origin, it is covered by the posterior belly of the digastricus and the stylohyoideus, and the hypoglossal nerve winds ...
The tuberculum cinereum, more properly named trigeminal tubercle, is a raised area between the rootlets of the accessory nerve ... It overlies the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. It is an elevation in the lower part of medulla, lateral to the fasciculus ... cuneatus, produced by a mass of grey matter called the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. Swanson (2015). Neuroanatomical ...
The accessory nerve is directed obliquely across the space from the Sternocleidomastoideus, which it pierces, to the under ... The roof of this triangle is formed by the cutaneous nerves of cervical plexus and the external jugular vein and platysma ... surface of the Trapezius; below, the supraclavicular nerves and the transverse cervical vessels and the upper part of the ...
The superior deep cervical lymph nodes lie under the sternocleidomastoid muscle in close relation with the accessory nerve and ...
2 major basal nerves besides the midrib. Diagrams of venation patternsEdit. ... In cold autumns, they sometimes change color, and turn yellow, bright-orange, or red, as various accessory pigments ( ... More than one main vein (nerve) at the base. Lateral secondary veins branching from a point above the base of the leaf. Usually ... Veins (sometimes referred to as nerves) constitute one of the more visible leaf traits or characteristics. The veins in a leaf ...
Talk:Accessory obturator nerve. *Talk:Accessory spleen. *Talk:Accessory visual structures. *Talk:Accompanying artery of ...
Accessory. Liver. *Artificial extracorporeal liver support *Bioartificial liver devices. *Liver dialysis. *Hepatectomy ...
NervesEdit. The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and ... Turtles have two or more accessory urinary bladders, located lateral to the neck of the urinary bladder and dorsal to the pubis ... There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[108] Due to their short cochlea, reptiles use electrical tuning to expand their range ...
The intercostal nerves are not as well protected as the phrenic nerves. The intercostal nerves run along the thoracic spine ( ... Accessory muscles are muscles that a person uses only when they need extra help breathing. Sometimes this is normal. For ... The diaphragm is controlled by a special set of nerves called the phrenic nerves. The medulla tells the diaphragm when to ... However, since the nerves that control the diaphragm are much farther up in the spine and better protected, the person would ...
"Regulations Prescribing Certain Firearms and other Weapons, Components and Parts of Weapons, Accessories, Cartridge Magazines, ...
... and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either ... Most mammals and reptiles have a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system detects ... Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ...
The surgeon cuts the shaft of the elongated phallus and sews the glans and preserved nerves back onto the stump. In a less ... Extra chromosome (or accessory chromosome). *Supernumerary chromosome. *A chromosome/B chromosome. *Lampbrush chromosome ...
The tympanic cavity in lorisoids also has two accessory air spaces, which are not present in lemurs. ... The upper lip is constrained by this connection and has fewer nerves to control movement, which leaves it less mobile than the ... From the accessory olfactory bulb, information is sent to the amygdala, which handles emotions, and then to the hypothalamus, ... and information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb, which is relatively large in strepsirrhines.[110] ...
闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 薦神經(英语:Sacral nerve)(S2 ~ S4). 走向. 下直腸神經(英语:Inferior rectal nerves). 會陰神經. 陰莖背神經(英语:dorsal nerve of the penis). 陰蒂背神經(英语:dorsal ... 陰部神經在陰部管內會分支,先分支為內直腸神經(英语:inferior anal nerve),之後是會陰神經,最後是男性的陰莖
Nerve. Trigeminal nerve, Great auricular nerve, Lesser occipital nerve. Lymph. To pre- and post-auricular nodes, nodes of ... En route accessory auricles (also known as preauricular tags) may be left behind. The first three hillocks are derived from the ... Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch. The final three ... These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. This explains why ...
An accessory cardiac bronchus is usually an asymptomatic condition but may be associated with persistent infection or ... Nerve. Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve. Identifiers. Latin. Bronchus. MeSH. D001980. TA. A06.4.01.001. ... The cardiac bronchus has a prevalence of ≈0.3% and presents as an accessory bronchus arising from the bronchus intermedius ... McGuinness G, Naidich DP, Garay SM, Davis AL, Boyd AD, Mizrachi HH (1993). "Accessory cardiac bronchus: CT features and ...
Accessory glands. Main article: Male accessory gland. Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and ... It carries with it the ductus deference, that is testicular vessels and nerves, a portion of the abdominal muscle, and lymph ... Internal accessory sex organs to develop and most of these are derived from two systems of embryonic ducts. Male accessory ... It also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. During times of lower temperatures, the Cremaster muscle contracts and ...
Muscle Nerve. 13 (1): 56-62. doi:10.1002/mus.880130111. hdl:2027.42/50146. PMID 2183045. S2CID 7217658.. ... that only by electroshock and in the setting of elaborately constructed theatre pieces featuring gestures and accessory symbols ... nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography. This extraordinary range of activities (mostly in the Salpêtrière) was ...
AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) requires an accessory pathway for its maintenance. AVRT may involve orthodromic conduction ( ... both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such ... where the impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back up to the atria through the accessory pathway) or ... or even higher if an accessory pathway is present). However, new onset atrial fibrillation tends to present with rates between ...
The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani, and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste ... The organs known as the accessory digestive organs are the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Other components include the mouth ... 194: Sensory Nerves, Brendan J. Canning, Domenico Spina. Springer. Page 341. *^ Costa, M; Brookes, S J H; Hennig, G W (2000). " ... The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve.[10]:1465 Muscles in the pharynx push the food into the ...
The male accessory glands, including the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, coagulating gland, and seminal vesicles, all ... There are no obvious abnormalities in the male accessory glands, including the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, ...
AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) requires an accessory pathway for its maintenance. AVRT may involve orthodromic conduction ( ... both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such ... A narrow complex tachycardia with an accessory conduction pathway, often termed "supraventricular tachycardia with pre- ... where the impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back up to the atria through the accessory pathway) or ...
Optic nerve. Optic disc. *Optic neuritis *optic papillitis. *Papilledema *Foster Kennedy syndrome ...
Nerve. Sensory: Anterior 2/3: lingual nerve & chorda tympani Posterior 1/3: Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Motor Innervation: - CN ... The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system. The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard ... The pharyngeal part is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the oral part is supplied by the lingual nerve (a branch of ... Taste and sensation: internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (itself a branch of the vagus nerve, CN X) ...
... the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve emerges to ... The mylohyoid may be united to or replaced by the anterior belly of the digastric muscle; accessory slips to other hyoid ... Nerve. Mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve. Actions. Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, ... The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by a branch of the mandibular nerve, ...
It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the ... accessory meningeal. *inferior alveolar. 2nd part / pterygoid. *to muscles of mastication (deep temporal, pterygoid, masseteric ... The relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery is highly variable.[1] The recurrent ... Yalçin B (February 2006). "Anatomic configurations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery". Surgery. 139 ...
An accessory hamstring or part of the patellar ligament are the most common donor tissues used in autografts. The quadriceps ... and decreases the risk of nerve injury.[9] ... The semitendinosus is an accessory hamstring (the primary ... hamstrings are left intact), and the gracilis is not a hamstring, but an accessory adductor (the primary adductors are left ...
The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the accessory neuron). Each cell gives ... Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle. *Free nerve ending ...
The most important accessory ligaments of the sacroiliac joint are the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments which stabilize ... Several other ligaments complete the foramen of the last sacral nerve. The inferior parts of latissimus dorsi, one of the ...
The brain sends signals through the spinal cord and nerves to regulate activity in the rest of the body. The pineal body, known ... The lungs develop early and are used as accessory breathing organs, the tadpoles rising to the water surface to gulp air. Some ... The nervous system is basically the same as in other vertebrates, with a central brain, a spinal cord, and nerves throughout ...
Nerve. Pudendal nerve. Pelvic splanchnic nerves. Inferior hypogastric plexus. Lymph. Internal iliac lymph nodes. Deep inguinal ... Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. ... Accessory glands. *Seminal vesicles *excretory duct. *Prostate *Urethral crest. *Seminal colliculus. *Prostatic utricle ...
Peripheral nerves. *Nerve injury *Peripheral nerve injury. *classification. *Wallerian degeneration. *Injury of accessory nerve ... because they cause damage to cranial nerve X, the vagus nerve, which plays an important role in blood circulation and breathing ...
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in ... Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, ... A winged scapula may also be suggestive of abnormal spinal accessory nerve function, as described above. In assessing range of ... A winged scapula due to spinal accessory nerve damage will often be exaggerated on arm abduction. Strength testing is similar ...
... we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises ... the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, ... Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we ... The spinal accessory nerve arises from the upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C5), ascends between the dentate ligament and the ... Cervical Spinal Cord Anterior Border Trapezius Muscle Posterior Border Accessory Nerve These keywords were added by machine and ...
... either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the ... accessory nerve. in Medicine. accessory nerve. n.. *A nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. *either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, which supply the muscles of the ... These two roots form the accessory nerve trunk, which divides into two branches: the internal, which unites with the vagus ...
... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ... "spinal nerve accessory to the vagus", recognizing that while a minor component of the nerve joins with the larger vagus nerve, ...
Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ... Spinal Accessory Nerve Monitoring and Clinical Outcome Results of Nerve-Sparing Neck Dissections. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. ...
... nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back ... accessory-nerve. Noun (plural accessory nerves). *(medicine, physiology) The 11th cranial nerves of higher vertebrates, ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. Either of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx ... How would you define accessory nerve? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by ...
In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. It is ... while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very ... When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. This article incorporates text in the public ... Recent evidence support that this nerve arises from Dorsal divisions. It descends along the medial border of the psoas major, ...
The decision to undergo surgical intervention in the absence of an obvious nerve injury or resection should be made only after ... Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ...
Vertebral Artery Vagus Nerve Medulla Oblongata Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Accessory Nerve These keywords were added ... Leblanc A. (2004) Accessory Nerve (XI). In: Encephalo-Peripheral Nervous System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https:// ...
NIM Nerve Monitoring Systems. Intraoperative NIM nerve monitors enable surgeons to identify, confirm, and monitor motor nerve ... NIM EMG Nerve Monitoring Accessories Monopolar and bipolar probes, electrodes, stimulus-dissection instruments, and other ... Provides both an open airway for patient ventilation and intraoperative nerve monitoring capability for the recurrent laryngeal ... function during a variety of surgical procedures to help reduce the potential risk of nerve damage ...
Arachnoid Cyst with Accessory Nerve Palsy. *Background:*Injuries to the accessory nerve are rare and may cause unpredictable ...
What is accessory phrenic nerve? Meaning of accessory phrenic nerve medical term. What does accessory phrenic nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of accessory phrenic nerve in the Medical Dictionary? accessory phrenic nerve explanation free. ... accessory phrenic nerve. accessory phrenic nerve. the nerve that joins the phrenic nerve at the root of the neck or in the ... Accessory phrenic nerve , definition of accessory phrenic nerve by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Accessory Nerve: injuries, Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology, Suture Techniques, Electromyography, Humans, Iatrogenic ... Accessory Nerve: injuries,Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology,Suture Techniques,Electromyography,Humans,Iatrogenic Disease, ... Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve.. Bostrom, Daniella and Dahlin, Lars LU (2007) In Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and ... The incidence of such nerve injuries during lymph node biopsies is 3%-10%, but the diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms are ...
Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... the medullary root of the accessory nerve).. References. *^ "Spinal Accessory Nerve". Structure of the Human body, Loyola ... The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers ...
Accessory nerve + Label Accessory nerve root + Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 1 February ...
... All metal prints are professionally printed, packaged, and ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... Accessory Nerve View Showing Neck metal print by Stocktrek Images. Bring your artwork to life with the stylish lines and added ...
In this article, two clinical cases are presented where accessory nerve injuries are repaired with either a motor nerve ... These cases provide a stimulus to consider the use of motor nerve grafts or transfers in the repair of motor nerve deficits. ... such as the medial antebrachial cutaneous or the sural nerve. The practice of using sensory grafts to repair motor nerve ... The standard repair of a nerve gap under tension is to use a sensory autograft, ...
Accessory nerves explanation free. What is Accessory nerves? Meaning of Accessory nerves medical term. What does Accessory ... Looking for online definition of Accessory nerves in the Medical Dictionary? ... Acoustic nerve.. eleventh cranial nerve. Abbreviation: CN XI. Spinal accessory nerve.. ethmoidal nerve. Either of two nerves, ... accessory nerve. Spinal accessory nerve. See: cranial nerve for illus.. ACOUSTIC NERVE (8th CRANIAL) ...
spinal accessory nerve answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... spinal accessory nerve is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... "Spinal Accessory Nerve." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/ ... tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729228/all/spinal_accessory_nerve. Spinal accessory nerve. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical ...
The debate as to whether the sternomastoids receive ipsilateral, contralateral, or bilateral cortical innervation is based largely on the observation of stroke patients and, to a lesser extent, on animal experimentation. The variability of vascular lesions, the lack of pathology correlation in the e …
Transitional Nerve: A New and Original Classification of a Peripheral Nerve Supported by the Nature of the Accessory Nerve (CN ... A. A. Pearson, R. W. Sauter, and G. R. Herrin, "The accessory nerve and its relation to the upper spinal nerves," The American ... K. Corbin and F. Harrison, "Proprioceptive components of cranial nerves. The spinal accessory nerve," The Journal of ... H. Gloobe, G. Ouaknine, J. Klausner, and H. Nathan, "Variations of the first cervical nerve (C) and the spinal accessory nerve ...
ICD-10-PCS code 009R40Z for Drainage of Accessory Nerve with Drainage Device, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical ...
The accessory soleus muscle should be considered as a cause of compression neuropathy of the tibial nerve, especially in the ... proximity of the accessory soleus to the tibial nerve or a claudication of the muscle due to a tenuous and insufficient blood ... The accessory soleus muscle is an uncommon anatomical variant with a reported incidence of between 0.7-5.5% ... Findings confirmed the diagnosis of an accessory soleus muscle, and the patients symptoms were attributed to being caused by a ...
... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... Illustration of dissection of the neck, right lateral view, showing the cervical nerve roots and some of the cranial nerves ...
Accurately depicts the spinal accessory nerve from a lateral (side) view. In this image, the spinal accessory nerve is shown ... cranial nerves xii, head muscles, lateral skull, neck, spinal accessory nerve anatomy, temporalis ... Labels include the spinal accessory nerve, temporalis muscle, splenius capitus m., levator scapulae m., middle scalene m., ...
List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the ... Axillary nerve - . radial nerve. median nerve. ulnar nerve. femoral nerve. sciatic nerve. common peroneal nerve. axillary ... Cranial Nerves - . cranial nerves. cranial nerves. cranial nerves. cranial nerves. indicated by roman numerals i-xii from ...
... spinal accessory nerve, squamous cell carcinoma, sternocleidomastoid on November 28, 2011. by chzechze. ...
In this image, the spinal accessory nerve is shown coursing from the base of the skull through the neck passing behind the ... Labels include the spinal accessory nerve, temporalis muscle, splenius capitus m., levator scapulae m., middle scalene m., ... Accurately depicts the spinal accessory nerve from a lateral (side) view. ... Accurately depicts the spinal accessory nerve from a lateral (side) view. In this image, the spinal accessory nerve is shown ...
Spinal Accessory Nerve Injection. February 28, 2019. Question:. What CPT code do I use to report a spinal accessory nerve ... CPT code 64999 (unlisted) is reported for the injection of a spinal accessory nerve. The CPT code previously used was CPT 64412 ...
... ... vagus nerve (CN X) and accessory nerve (CN XI) before they entered the jugular foramen and during their travel through it. The ... with particular emphasis on the components of the accessory nerve. These nerves were traced from their rootlets attaching to ... The accessory nerve is traditionally described as having both spinal and cranial roots, with the spinal root originating from ...
  • either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the pharyngeal, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and motor fibers from the brain that join the vagus to innervate the thoracic and abdominal viscera. (dictionary.com)
  • Either of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back, and shoulders. (yourdictionary.com)
  • either of a pair of cranial nerves essential for speech, swallowing, and certain movements of the head and shoulders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In humans and other vertebrate s, the accessory nerve is a pair of cranial nerves comprised of motor fibers from the spinal cord . (biologyonline.com)
  • Each pair of cranial nerves is numbered from one to twelve Roman numerals) and designated as CN. (healthhype.com)
  • Leaving the skull, the nerve travels through the jugular foramen with the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Re-examination of the medullary rootlets of the accessory and vagus nerves. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to re-examine the accessory and vagus nerves within the cranium and jugular foramen, with particular emphasis on the components of the accessory nerve. (ovid.com)
  • The neural anastomosis between the accessory and vagus nerves within the jugular foramen is known as Lobstein's anastomosis. (seattlesciencefoundation.org)
  • In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This 3D medical animation shows the anatomy of the right shoulder along with an iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve which occurs during a lymph node biopsy. (doereport.com)
  • Purpose Conflicting locations of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) with respect to the internal jugular vein (IJV) are reported in the literature and anatomy texts. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The anatomy and the adrenergic innervation of the rectum, internal anal sphincter and of accessory structures are described for the guinea-pig. (edu.au)
  • We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. (utmb.edu)
  • Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in diminished or absent function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper portion of the trapezius muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, fasciculations, and partial paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve palsy as a cause of pain after whiplash injury: case report. (medscape.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 39-year-old male seronegative for HIV, with a surgical history of hydrocephalus treated with ventriculoperitoneal shut 1 year before, he presented with progressive weakness in the four extremities evolving to be disabling with bilateral accessory nerve palsy and loss of sensation below his neck. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve palsy often occurs due to lesions in the neck, most often due to iatrogenic reasons. (boneandspine.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve palsy results in shoulder dysfunction that affects the overall quality of life. (boneandspine.com)
  • Subsequent to that, a muscle transfer procedure is shown to correct the position and alignment of the right shoulder after the afore mentioned nerve palsy. (doereport.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 9 , wherein the nerve compression syndrome is selected from the group consisting of: high radial nerve palsy, lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, obturator nerve compression, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve compression, and trigeminal neuralgia. (google.com)
  • The spinal accessory nerve arises from the upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C5), ascends between the dentate ligament and the posterior cervical rootlets, then through the foramen magnum joins the cranial part, and exits through the jugular foramen. (springer.com)
  • The nerve travels along the inner wall of the skull towards the jugular foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the internal jugular vein around the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle, in front of the vein in about 80% of people, and behind it in about 20%, and in one reported case, piercing the vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the fibers from the presumptive cranial root may not join the accessory nerve at all or at best for a very short distance within the jugular foramen, it appears more useful to consider them in general to be part of the cranial roots of the vagal nerve. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Hypoglossal Nerve Course: It emerges through the hypoglossal canal Descends downward with cervical neurovascular bundle (internal carotid artery, internal Jugular vein, vagus nerve) Curves forward behind mandible to supply the tongue. (slideserve.com)
  • These nerves were traced from their rootlets attaching to the spinal cord and the medulla and then through the jugular foramen. (ovid.com)
  • A surgical dissecting microscope was used to trace the roots of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X) and accessory nerve (CN XI) before they entered the jugular foramen and during their travel through it. (ovid.com)
  • However, in one of 12 cases, a small but distinct connection was seen between the vagus and the spinal accessory nerves within the jugular foramen. (ovid.com)
  • These rootlets unify together to create one trunk which runs laterally together with the 9th and 10th cranial nerves to reach the jugular foramen where it's joined by the spinal root. (earthslab.com)
  • The combined trunk comes out of the cranial cavity via the middle compartment of the jugular foramen enclosed in the dural sheath together with the vagus nerve. (earthslab.com)
  • The spinal root of the accessory nerve descends vertically downward between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artery. (earthslab.com)
  • The accessory or spinal nerve has a double origin but always comes out of the jugular foramen. (statpearls.com)
  • From the jugular foramen, it comes out as nerve XI, together with X and IX, sigmoid sinus and the inferior petrosal sinus, while entering into jugular foramen the occipital and pharyngeal meningeal arteries. (statpearls.com)
  • An interesting anatomical note concerns the internal cranial area of the XI nerve before exiting the jugular foramen. (statpearls.com)
  • The spinal accessory nerve can be damaged during trauma or even during surgery when surgeons are operating on lymph nodes or on the jugular vein in the neck. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • in the jugular foramen, it receives one or two filaments from the cranial part of the nerve, or else joins it for a short distance and then separates from it again. (radiopaedia.org)
  • It travels towards jugular foramen to exit along with the vagus nerve. (boneandspine.com)
  • They also remove all of the muscle on that side of your neck (the sternocleidomastoid muscle), the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Each nerve has a cranial and a spinal portion, communicates with certain cervical nerves, and connects to the nucleus ambiguus of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cervical nerves 2-4 also contribute. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The brachial plexus is formed by the anterior primary rami of cervical nerves 5-8, and the first thoracic nerve, which are sandwiched between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. (dartmouth.edu)
  • in the posterior triangle, it unites with the second and third cervical nerves, while beneath the trapezius it forms a plexus with the third and fourth cervical nerves, and from this plexus fibers are distributed to the muscle. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The cervical nerves have been retained approximately in their normal positions with the exception of the first nerve (16), which has been displaced superiorly. (stanford.edu)
  • Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate on the skull base and upper neck regions in order to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. (utmb.edu)
  • Extensive and variable neural anastomoses exist between the lower cranial nerves and between the upper cervical nerves in such a way that these nerves with their extra-axial communications can be collectively considered a plexus. (utmb.edu)
  • It may arise from the nerve to the subclavius muscle or from the trigeminal nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chen G, Wang X, Wang L, Zheng J. Arterial compression of nerve is the primary cause of trigeminal neuralgia. (medschool.co)
  • The trigeminal nerve is one of the 12 cranial nerves that connects different parts of the body to the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Part I discusses the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches and other nerve trunks or branches in the vicinity. (utmb.edu)
  • Neurological compromise caused by this microorganism mainly debuts as a meningeal syndrome, spinal involvement has been reported in literature, neuropathological assessments have found Cryptococci in spinal roots and meninges, with perineuritic adhesions probably explaining compromise lower cranial nerves and even spinal nerve roots. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Cryptococcal meningitis with spinal involvement has been reported in literature, neuropathological assessments have found Cryptococci in spinal roots and meninges, with perineuritic adhesions[ 11 ] probably explaining compromise lower cranial nerves and even spinal nerve roots. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • This could include a caudal epidural and facet joint injection causing a spinal cord injury or the median nerve being damaged when blood is taken from the arm. (jmw.co.uk)
  • As an example, one of the most common forms of nerve entrapment syndrome, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, affects roughly 1 in 20 people in the United States, and is only one of several types of entrapment syndromes possible for the median nerve. (springer.com)
  • In the upper arm and near the shoulder, the median nerve branches off of the brachial plexus. (healthline.com)
  • Tubbs RS, Salter EG, Wellons JC III, Blount JP, Oakes WJ (2005) Superficial landmarks for the spinal accessory nerve within the posterior cervical triangle. (springer.com)
  • Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nerve goes through the muscle and issues via its posterior border a little above its middle to goes into the posterior triangle where it runs downward and backward underneath the fascial roof of the posterior triangle, parallel to the fibres of levator scapulae. (earthslab.com)
  • The most important contents of the posterior triangle are the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), brachial plexus, third part of the subclavian artery, and lymph nodes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • At the middle of the posterior border of the sternomastoid, the accessory nerve crosses the posterior triangle obliquely (fig. 50-3 B). It then passes deep to the anterior border of the trapezius and supplies that muscle. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The fibers emerge from the cord laterally between the anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots to form a single trunk, which ascends into the skull through the foramen magnum. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Objective: The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) within the posterior triangle (PT) is the commonly injured nerve in the body. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: The exact localization of the spinal root of the accessory nerve within the posterior triangle of the neck will help surgeons to avoid its injury while performing surgery at this site. (elsevier.com)
  • The nerve is especially vulnerable in the posterior triangle of the neck owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical neck. (boneandspine.com)
  • Iatrogenic spinal accessory nerve injury most commonly occurs following diagnostic lymph node biopsies of the posterior triangle of the neck. (boneandspine.com)
  • Superficial landmarks for the spinal accessory nerve within the posterior cervical triangle. (uab.edu)
  • OBJECT: The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) within the posterior cervical triangle (PCT) is the most commonly iatrogenically injured nerve in the body. (uab.edu)
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerves (also from CN V2) innervate the rest of the upper molars. (tabers.com)
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (tabers.com)
  • Materials and methods: Ten cadavers (20 sides) underwent exposure of the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle. (utmb.edu)
  • The SAN was split into anterior and posterior halves and the anterior half transposed to the ipsilateral phrenic nerve as it crossed the anterior scalene muscle. (utmb.edu)
  • Results: The mean distance between the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle was 2.5 cm proximally, 4 cm at a midpoint, and 6 cm distally. (utmb.edu)
  • In particular, radical neck dissection and cervical lymph node biopsy are among the most common surgical procedures that result in spinal accessory nerve damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, during a functional neck dissection that injures the spinal accessory nerve, injury prompts the surgeon to cautiously preserve branches of C2, C3, and C4 spinal nerves that provide supplemental innervation to the trapezius muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 11th nerve syndrome in functional neck dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve function following neck dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Harris HH, Dickey JR. Nerve grafting to restore function of the trapezius muscle after radical neck dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Functional evaluation of the spinal accessory nerve after neck dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Traction, skeletonization [stripping of tissue], and devascularization of the nerve during neck dissection can injure the nerve. (boneandspine.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury mostly occurs during surgical procedures such as cervical lymph node biopsy, neck dissection for tumor resection, and carotid endarterectomy. (e-arm.org)
  • Those in the treatment group received intraoperative BES applied to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) after completion of neck dissection for 60 min of continuous 20 Hz stimulation at 3-5 V of 0.1 msec balanced biphasic pulses, while those in the control group received no stimulation (NS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactory nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This cluster of neurons, called the spinal accessory nucleus, is located in the lateral aspect of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and stretches from where the spinal cord begins (at the junction with the medulla) through to the level of about C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral horn of high cervical segments appears to be continuous with the nucleus ambiguus of the medulla oblongata, from which the cranial component of the accessory nerve is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • He had normal motor and sensory function of the ankle and foot, a negative Tinel test and his symptoms were not reproducible during examination, although the reported paraesthesia was in the typical distribution of the medial and lateral plantar nerves. (scielo.org.za)
  • Accurately depicts the spinal accessory nerve from a lateral (side) view. (smartimagebase.com)
  • The cranial part Emerges from lateral aspect of the medulla as a linear series caudal to rootlets of the vagus nerve. (slideserve.com)
  • The spinal root originates by a number of rootlets from the lateral aspect of the spinal cord (upper 5 cervical spinal sections) along a vertical line between the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. (earthslab.com)
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • replacement composite wall panel systems and () a spinal accessory branch arising in the first five to six cervical spinal segments from the lateral portion of the ventral horn. (katerikids.org)
  • the spinal accessory nerve can also be located readily in the lateral neck at the point where it disappears under the deep surface of the trapezius muscle, roughly two fingerbreadths superior to the clavicle at the anterior margin of the trapezius muscle. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Lateral and inferior to the parapharyngeal space is the carotid sheath , containing the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves IX , X and XI . (wikipedia.org)
  • Anterior to the parapharyngeal space is the masticator space which contains the lower dental row, muscles of mastication, the inferior alveolar nerve as well as branches of cranial nerve V . Lateral to the parapharyngeal space lies the parotid space , which contains the parotid gland, the external carotid artery and cranial nerve VII . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lingual nerve is located near the sides of the tongue (specifically below the lateral pterygoid muscle), and is responsible for its senses of taste and touch. (healthline.com)
  • All the muscles of the pharynx with the exception of the stylopharyngeus that is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve. (earthslab.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve - muscles that assist with swallowing. (healthhype.com)
  • Interruption of the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in an asymmetric neckline, while weakness of the trapezius muscle can produce a drooping shoulder, winged scapula, and a weakness of forward elevation of the shoulder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with damage to the spinal accessory nerve, shoulder elevation will be diminished, and the patient will be incapable of raising the shoulders against the examiner's resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • How is shoulder function evaluated in spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury? (medscape.com)
  • Shoulder function after accessory nerve-sparing neck dissections. (medscape.com)
  • The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery. (medscape.com)
  • The mean active range of movement of the shoulder improved at abduction 44° (43%) in neurolysis, 59° (71%) in direct nerve repair, and 30° (22%) in nerve-grafting patients. (uta.fi)
  • Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a serious impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain The accessory nerve controls the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles in the neck and shoulder. (katerikids.org)
  • The accessory spinal nerve or XI cranial nerve is essential for neck and shoulder movement, the intrinsic musculature of the larynx, and the sensitive afferences of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid musculature. (statpearls.com)
  • Lesion s of the eleventh nerve result in the drooping of the shoulder and inability to rotate the head away from the affected side. (biologyonline.com)
  • We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who developed iatrogenic, postsurgical injury to the spinal accessory nerve after rhytidectomy (face-lift), which subsequently resulted in a painful weak shoulder girdle. (drmillett.com)
  • This medical illustration pictures a view of the muscles and superficial nerves of the neck and shoulder region following a lymph node biopsy, In this particular exhibit it is shown that the accessory nerve was accidentally transected by the physician resulting in a neuroma formation with subsequent atrophy of the trapezius muscle mass. (photoshelter.com)
  • Accessory nerve - muscles for head and shoulder movements. (healthhype.com)
  • When this nerve is damaged or impinged, it can cause the function of the nerve to deteriorate and affect the mobility of the shoulder girdle. (drwilderman.com)
  • The accessory nerve controls shoulder movement, so if you have this removed, your shoulder will be stiffer and more difficult to move. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Recognizable landmarks to locate this nerve in PT may help the surgeon in identifying it for repair, use of it in peripheral nerve neurotisation, or avoiding it as in proximal brachial plexus repair. (elsevier.com)
  • Additional identifiable landmarks of this nerve may assist the surgeon in identifying it for repair, use of it in peripheral nerve neurotization, or avoiding it as in proximal brachial plexus repair. (uab.edu)
  • As it courses downwards, the nerve pierces through the sternocleidomastoid muscle while sending it motor branches, then continues down until it reaches the trapezius muscle to provide motor innervation to its upper part. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decision to undergo surgical intervention in the absence of an obvious nerve injury or resection should be made only after sequential evaluations following the initial trauma fail to show spontaneous improvement in trapezius muscle function and confirm stable neurologic deficits. (medscape.com)
  • Injuries to the accessory nerve are rare and may cause unpredictable motor defects in the neck, including trapezius muscle weakness/atrophy. (ajnr.org)
  • The isolated spinal accessory neuropathy usually becomes evident after a few days, with weakness in the abduction and anterior elevation of the arm, and with atrophy of the trapezius muscle and winging of the scapula after a few weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occasional variations in the clinical findings of patients with identical lesions of the spinal accessory nerve may be partially explained by variations in the innervations of the trapezius muscle [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nerve injured or transected during surgery could be the main branch or a small branch that innervates the upper trapezius muscle. (boneandspine.com)
  • The nerve injury in the neck causes trapezius muscle paralysis. (boneandspine.com)
  • How Do the Cervical Plexus and the Spinal Accessory Nerve Contribute to the Innervation of the Trapezius Muscle? (jamanetwork.com)
  • When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • List the branches of accessory and hypoglossal nerves. (slideserve.com)
  • The cranial root joins the vagus nerve just below its inferior ganglion and is dispersed via the branches of the vagus to the muscles of the palate, pharynx and larynx. (earthslab.com)
  • as it traverses the sternocleidomastoid it gives several filaments to the muscle, and joins with branches from the second cervical nerve. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Together, they form the accessory nerve trunk that splits into two branches: the internal (supplies the muscles of pharynx , larynx , and soft palate ) and the external (supplies the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles) branches. (biologyonline.com)
  • The ilioinguinal nerve branches off the first lumbar nerve, which is near the lower back. (healthline.com)
  • It branches off the mandibular nerve and twists around the submandibular duct to reach the tongue. (healthline.com)
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerves, branches of the infraorbital nerve (from CN V2), run in canals in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and innervate the upper incisors, canines, premolars, and often part of the first molar. (tabers.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve (from CN V3) runs in the mandibular canal, giving off branches to the lower teeth and gingivae as it passes. (tabers.com)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (tabers.com)
  • Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. (springer.com)
  • medicine, physiology) The 11th cranial nerves of higher vertebrates , controlling the pharynx , and the muscles of the upper chest and shoulders. (yourdictionary.com)
  • 11th CN Accessory Nerve It is Purely Motor nerve Has two parts: Cranial Spinal. (slideserve.com)
  • Accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve and has motor functions only. (earthslab.com)
  • The spinal accessory nerve is the 11th of 12 cranial nerves, which originate in the brain. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The Spinal Accessory Nerve is the 11th nerve pair and is responsible for movement in a variety of vital muscles, including the upper shoulders, head and neck. (jmw.co.uk)
  • It is considered as the eleventh of twelve pairs of cranial nerves, or simply cranial nerve XI, as part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head and neck. (jmw.co.uk)
  • The oculomotor nerve is the third of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the brain. (healthline.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oculomotor nerve - eyelid movements, most eyeball movements, constricts pupils and changes the shape of lens (accommodation for visual acuity). (healthhype.com)
  • Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the spinal accessory nerve is most commonly caused by medical procedures that involve the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chandawarkar RY, Cervino AL, Pennington GA. Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can be a disabling disorder. (drmillett.com)
  • There are several options of treatment when iatrogenic (i.e., caused by the surgeon) spinal accessory nerve damage is noted during surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve. (lu.se)
  • A lesion in the spinal accessory nerve is typically iatrogenic: related to lymph node biopsy or excision. (uta.fi)
  • Iatrogenic Injury of the Spinal Accessory Nerve. (lww.com)
  • The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the term "accessory nerve" usually refers only to nerve supplying the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, also called the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strength testing of these muscles can be measured during a neurological examination to assess function of the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal component of the accessory nerve provides motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers originating from the spinal segments C1-C5 (the medullary root of the accessory nerve). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Accessory nerve view showing neck and facial muscles. (fineartamerica.com)
  • In this image, the spinal accessory nerve is shown coursing from the base of the skull through the neck passing behind the muscles and fascia of the neck. (smartimagebase.com)
  • 12th Cranial Nerve Hypoglossal Nerve It is purely motor nerve Innervates both the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue. (slideserve.com)
  • The major function of the accessory nerve the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (earthslab.com)
  • The spinal accessory nerve (XI) is formed by the union of rootlets emerging from the postolivary sulcus caudal to the vagus roots with rootlets from upper cervical levels of the spinal cordThe accessory nerve innervates the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. (katerikids.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve innervates the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles. (passmyclinicalexamination.com)
  • The sternomastoid and trapezius muscles are supplied mainly by the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI). (dartmouth.edu)
  • The ipsilateral activation of the XI nerve can activate the intrinsic laryngeal muscles fibers for the correct movement of the vocal cords of the same side. (statpearls.com)
  • Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. (icdlist.com)
  • Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. (icdlist.com)
  • The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the movement of certain neck muscles. (healthline.com)
  • Facial nerve - muscles that control facial expressions, scalp and stapedius muscle of middle ear. (healthhype.com)
  • Hypoglossal nerve - muscles of the tongue - swallowing and articulation (speech). (healthhype.com)
  • There is a very dense innervation of the internal anal sphincter, of the anal accessory muscles and of the corrugator ani. (edu.au)
  • From there, the nerves carry the message to the necessary muscles to make them contract and produce movement. (ucsd.edu)
  • Pain and hyperalgesia are witnessed in the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness on palpation of the nerve trunk and muscles supplied by the nerve. (chiro.org)
  • Paresthesias are reported over the area of nerve distribution, along with tenderness over nerve fibers and muscles supplied by the involved nerve. (chiro.org)
  • Diminished reflexes and motor weakness of muscles supplied by affected nerve are typical. (chiro.org)
  • Surgical outcomes of 111 spinal accessory nerve injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of such nerve injuries during lymph node biopsies is 3%-10%, but the diagnosis is often delayed. (lu.se)
  • In this article, two clinical cases are presented where accessory nerve injuries are repaired with either a motor nerve transfer (a branch of C7) or a motor autograft (obturator nerve), and excellent functional results are reported. (ovid.com)
  • Peripheral nerve injuries can be mild or serious, and can be graded on the Sunderland scale, which defines five degrees of severity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Surgery may be needed for more severe injuries, and may involve nerve grafting, nerve regeneration or tendon or muscle transfer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • More severe injuries may require peripheral nerve surgery, which is performed by a neurosurgeon. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Nerve injuries can occur in many different ways and can have very serious consequences, ranging from loss of sensation through to paralysis. (jmw.co.uk)
  • Nerve injuries can also be caused by the use of needles by medical professionals, such as taking blood or giving an injection. (jmw.co.uk)
  • Even minor nerve injuries can have a big impact on your day-to-day life and this is why, if your nerve injury was caused by medical negligence, it is possible to make a claim. (jmw.co.uk)
  • An update on the management of adult traumatic nerve injuries - replacing old paradigms: A review. (stanford.edu)
  • Sometimes there is a middle superior alveolar nerve that innervates the premolars and first molar. (tabers.com)
  • These fibres join together to form rootlets, roots, and finally the spinal accessory nerve itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rootlets are connected in keeping with the rootlets of the vagus nerve above. (earthslab.com)
  • Its fibers arise from the cells of the nucleus ambiguus and emerge as four or five delicate rootlets from the side of the medulla oblongata , below the roots of the vagus nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The assessment of nerve injury includes a careful neurological examination, sometimes accompanied by tests, e.g., electromyography or nerve conduction studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two of these tests are electromyography and nerve conduction velocity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Needle electromyography and nerve conduction study suggested SAN injury. (e-arm.org)
  • Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. (medscape.com)
  • Both wasting and weakness were not observed in the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle, and a neurological examination did not reveal other cranial nerve deficits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nerve pierces the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the junction of its upper quarter with the lower three-fourth and supplies it. (earthslab.com)
  • Sternocleidomastoid muscle together with C2 and C3 spinal nerves. (earthslab.com)
  • spinal accessory nerve can be identified entering the deep surface of the sternocleidomastoid muscle 4 cm or more below the mastoid process. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The cranial component joins the vagus nerve and the spinal component travels down to enter sternocleidomastoid muscle and supplies it. (boneandspine.com)
  • However, if the nerve is injured before entering sternocleidomastoid muscle, there would be a weakness of sternocleidomastoid muscle as well. (boneandspine.com)
  • while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very small and is lost in the capsule of the hip-joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve, and there is ongoing debate about whether the cranial part should be considered part of the accessory nerve proper. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally considered as a part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Popovski V, Benedetti A, Popovic-Monevska D, Grcev A, Stamatoski A, Zhivadinovik J. Spinal accessory nerve preservation in modified neck dissections: surgical and functional outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • What are indications for surgical management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury? (medscape.com)
  • Surgical repair may improve function and pain and should be performed early, preferably within six months, but prevention of nerve injury is most important. (lu.se)
  • However, being an enthusiastic cyclist, the patient was not accepting of this course of treatment and the decision was then made to proceed to surgical excision of the accessory soleus muscle. (scielo.org.za)
  • In special and rare situations like our case as presenting with lower cranial nerve and spinal involvement, surgical treatment is a priority for the resolution of the pathology and improves disabling neurological deficit. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • When one of these nerves suffers serious injury or trauma, surgical treatment may be called for. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • If this kind of injury can be confirmed through pre-operative nerve testing, surgical intervention is usually not required. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Surgical intervention with nerve grafting is necessary to repair the injury. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The procedure code 00QR0ZZ is in the medical and surgical section and is part of the central nervous system and cranial nerves body system, classified under the repair operation. (icdlist.com)
  • Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury mostly occurs during surgical procedures. (e-arm.org)
  • Sometimes, nerve damage is caused through surgical error. (jmw.co.uk)
  • Nerve damage is one of the most common problems that can arise from surgical errors. (jmw.co.uk)
  • We utilize the latest diagnostic techniques and surgical strategies to restore function and minimize pain for patients with peripheral nerve disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Stanford Health Care's Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program offers comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and testing, as well as leading-edge surgical techniques, provided by a highly specialized and experienced nationally-recognized team. (stanford.edu)
  • G. Szekely and C. Matesz, "Topography and organization of cranial nerve nuclei in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis ," Journal of Comparative Neurology , vol. 267, no. 4, pp. 525-544, 1988. (hindawi.com)
  • J. L. Addens, "The motor nuclei and roots of the cranial and first spinal nerves of vertebrates - Part I. Introduction. (hindawi.com)
  • At the end of the lecture, the students should be able to: List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. (slideserve.com)
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (tabers.com)
  • The mean diameter of these regional parts of the spinal accessory and phrenic nerves was 2 and 2.5 mm, respectively. (utmb.edu)
  • Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The facial nerve's chorda tympani is one of the nerve fibers the lingual nerve carries to the skull, a process by which the lingual nerve allows taste to be transmitted to the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Some of these nerves are sensory or motor only while others are mixed containing a combination of sensory and motor fibers. (healthhype.com)
  • Describe site of emergence and course of accessory and hypoglossal nerves. (slideserve.com)
  • Describe important relations of accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the neck. (slideserve.com)
  • Describe the main motor effect in case of lesion of accessory and hypoglossal nerves. (slideserve.com)
  • Accessory deep peroneal nerve. (bvsalud.org)
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Accessory deep peroneal nerve. (cdc.gov)
  • Neuroanatomy for Nerve Conduction Studies The Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Less Commonly Studied Nerves of the Limbs floor neurophysiology. (katerikids.org)
  • Nerve conduction studies performed during surgery are often able to help indicate outcome and need for simple cleaning of the nerve (neurolysis) or a more extensive repair with grafting. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Nerve conduction studies reveal prolonged latencies in nerve injury. (boneandspine.com)
  • Anatomical evidence for the absence of a morphologically distinct cranial root of the accessory nerve in man. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The spinal accessory nerve , also called accessory nerve , is the eleventh cranial nerve (CN XI) and is composed of two parts, the cranial part and the spinal part. (radiopaedia.org)
  • most consider the cranial part of the eleventh cranial nerve to be functionally part of the vagus nerve. (radiopaedia.org)
  • One of the cranial nerves is the accessory nerve, which is also referred to as the eleventh cranial nerve or cranial nerve XI (CN XI). (biologyonline.com)
  • A nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the side of the medulla, and the spinal set, arising from the ventrolateral part of the first five cervical segments of the spinal cord. (dictionary.com)
  • The fibres of the spinal accessory nerve originate solely in neurons situated in the upper spinal cord, from where the spinal cord begins at the junction with the medulla oblongata, to the level of about C6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the accessory nerve is described as having a small cranial component that descends from the medulla and briefly connects with the spinal accessory component before branching off of the nerve to join the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Part of accessory nerve as it emerges from the medulla (MM). (neurolex.org)
  • The accessory nerve is traditionally described as having both spinal and cranial roots, with the spinal root originating from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord and the cranial root originating from the dorsolateral surface of the medulla oblongata. (ovid.com)
  • The cranial root originates from the nucleus ambiguus and exits the medulla below the vagus nerve. (britannica.com)
  • Which cranial nerves have origins in the medulla? (brainscape.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system is a network of 43 pairs of motor and sensory nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) to the entire human body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Therefore, sometimes the unpredictable motor and sensory deficits that arise from transection of the nerves to this muscle. (boneandspine.com)
  • the inferior alveolar nerves innervate the lower teeth and gingivae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your peripheral nerves are the ones outside your brain and spinal cord. (icdlist.com)
  • Unlike the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves can regrow after an injury. (ucsd.edu)
  • Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain and the rest of the body. (icdlist.com)
  • There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. (icdlist.com)
  • Some people are born with peripheral nerve disorders. (icdlist.com)
  • Intraoperative identification of a nerve-in-continuity that does not show contractions on direct stimulation (nerve resection and reconstruction should be considered. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve stimulation electrodes and probes segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to the increasing awareness about the clinical benefits associated with nerve monitoring, increasing number of complex & critical surgeries worldwide, and ongoing technological advancements in the field of nerve stimulation & monitoring. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • As phrenic nerve pacing has been proven to free many of these patients from ventilatory dependency, we hypothesized that neurotization of the phrenic nerve with the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) may offer one potential alternative to phrenic nerve stimulation via pacing and may be more efficacious and longer lasting without the complications of an implantable device. (utmb.edu)
  • Following clinical trials, these data may provide a mechanism for self stimulation of the diaphragm and obviate phrenic nerve pacing in patients with high cervical quadriplegia. (utmb.edu)
  • Brief electrical stimulation (BES) is a novel technique that has been shown to enhance neuronal regeneration after nerve injury by modulating the brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods of treating a nerve compression syndrome include applying at least one stimulus to a stimulation site within a patient with an implanted stimulator in accordance with one or more stimulation parameters. (google.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1 , further comprising sensing at least one indicator related to said nerve compression syndrome and using said at least one sensed indicator to adjust one or more of said stimulation parameters. (google.com)