Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Accessory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Gene Ontology: Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Current Procedural Terminology: Descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures performed by PHYSICIANS. It is produced by the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and used in insurance claim reporting for MEDICARE; MEDICAID; and private health insurance programs (From CPT 2002).American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Famous PersonsExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)

Sensory pathways in the spinal accessory nerve. (1/43)

We obtained samples of spinal accessory nerve from patients undergoing radical surgery for tumours or nerve grafting in the neck. These were analysed by light and electron microscopy for the type of fibre. All contained fibres consistent with non-proprioceptive sensory function including pain.  (+info)

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis. (2/43)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve. METHOD: Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation. RESULTS: All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11 ms. CONCLUSION: The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.  (+info)

Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord. (3/43)

The segmental extent and topography of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNAN) was investigated in the adult human spinal cord. Transverse sections of segments between the lower medulla and C6 were stained with cresyl violet and the motor cell columns identified according to the numerical locations defined by Elliott (1942). The segmental extent and topography of the cervical part of column 2 resembled that previously described for the SNAN of primates.  (+info)

Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat. (4/43)

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory.  (+info)

The protective effect of procaine blocking on nerve-electrophysiological study during operation. (5/43)

OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the protective effect of procaine blocking on nerves. METHODS: Electrophysiological examination before and after procaine blocking was conducted on 32 nerves during operation, 18 of which were donor nerves and 14 were injured ones. RESULTS: The latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was lengthened (15.30%) and the amplitude was lowered (18.47) after procaine blocking. Compared with the values before procaine blocking, the differences were significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). SEP waves disappeared after procaine blocking in some cases (28.13%). CONCLUSION: Latency of SEP is lengthened and amplitude is lowered after procaine blocking. In some cases, SEPs even disappear.  (+info)

Respiratory activity in glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves and pharyngeal constrictors in newborn rat in vitro. (6/43)

1. Previously, in a brainstem-spinal cord-rib preparation from neonatal rats we demonstrated that a decrement in extracellular pH (from about 7.4 to 7.1) caused expiratory activity in an internal intercostal muscle (IIM) during the first half of the expiratory phase (Ea). As the initial step in finding nerves or muscles firing during the second half of the expiratory phase (Eb), the patterns of activity in the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves were examined in the present study. 2. Since the emerging motor rootlets of these three nerves (> 20; collected into about 10 bundles before the jugular foramen) are distributed in a continuous fashion from rostral to caudal levels of the brainstem, visual identification was impossible. Therefore, antidromic compound action potentials evoked by stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (PhX), the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), the cervical vagus nerve (CX) and the accessory nerve (XI) were recorded from the peripheral stumps of the various rootlets. Nerve rootlets could be categorised into rostral, intermediate and caudal groups (rostIX-XI, intIX-XI, caudIX-XI). The rostIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potential on IX stimulation, while the intIX-XI and caudIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potentials on CX stimulation. The intIX-XI rootlets showed larger potentials on PhX and SLN stimulation than the caudIX-XI rootlets. 3. Activity was recorded simultaneously from the central stumps of the rootlets in the above three groups. Most rootlets showed inspiratory bursts. Under low pH conditions, all representatives of group rostIX-XI, most of intIX-XI and about half of caudIX-XI showed additional bursts during the Ea phase. Groups intIX-XI and caudIX-XI but not rostIX-XI also showed discrete bursts during the Eb phase in some preparations. In general, expiratory activity was prominent in intIX-XI. The spinal branch of XI showed no consistent respiratory activity. 4. Since the intIX-XI rootlets showed Eb bursts and large antidromic potentials on stimulation of PhX and SLN (which innervate the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPC)), electromyograms were recorded from the rostral and caudal parts of IPC (rIPC and cIPC). Under low pH conditions, cIPC showed bursts during the Ea and Eb phases, while rIPC showed bursts predominantly during the Eb phase. 5. These results indicate that recording from rIPC would be a useful way of examining the neuronal mechanisms responsible for Eb phase activity.  (+info)

Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy. (7/43)

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. METHODS: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Nkx2.9 reveals a role in development of the spinal accessory nerve. (8/43)

The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Nkx2.9 is expressed in the ventralmost neural progenitor domain of the neural tube together with the related protein Nkx2.2 during early mouse embryogenesis. Cells within this region give rise to V3 interneurons and visceral motoneurons in spinal cord and hindbrain, respectively. To investigate the role of the Nkx2.9 gene, we generated a mutant mouse by targeted gene disruption. Homozygous mutant animals lacking Nkx2.9 were viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or behavioral phenotype. The distribution of neuronal progenitor cells and differentiated neurons in spinal cord was unaffected in Nkx2.9-deficient animals. This finding is in contrast to Nkx2.2-null mutants, which have been shown to exhibit ventral to dorsal transformation of neuronal cell fates in spinal cord. Our results suggest that specification of V3 interneurons in the posterior CNS does not require Nkx2.9, most probably because of functional redundancy with the co-expressed Nkx2.2 protein. In hindbrain, however, absence of Nkx2.9 resulted in a significantly altered morphology of the spinal accessory nerve (XIth), which appeared considerably shorter and thinner than in wild-type animals. Consistent with this phenotype, immature branchial motoneurons of the spinal accessory nerve, which normally migrate from a ventromedial to a dorsolateral position within the neural tube, were markedly reduced in Nkx2.9-deficient embryos at E10.5, while ventromedial motor column cells were increased in numbers. In addition, the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves appeared abnormal in approximately 50% of mutant embryos, which may be related to the observed reduction of Phox2b expression in the nucleus ambiguus of adult mutant mice. From these observations, we conclude that Nkx2.9 has a specific function in the hindbrain as determinant of the branchial motoneuron precursor cells for the spinal accessory nerve and possibly other nerves of the branchial-motor column. Like other Nkx genes expressed in the CNS, Nkx2.9 seems to be involved in converting positional information into cell fate decisions.  (+info)

Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in diminished or absent function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper portion of the trapezius muscle. Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, fasciculations, and partial paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Interruption of the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in an asymmetric neckline, while weakness of the trapezius muscle can produce a drooping shoulder, winged scapula, and a weakness of forward elevation of the shoulder. Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. In particular, radical neck dissection and cervical lymph node biopsy are among the most common surgical procedures that result in spinal accessory nerve damage. London notes that a failure to rapidly identify spinal accessory nerve ...
The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally considered as a part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers. Recently, the concept of a cranial root of the accessory nerve has been challenged by new neuroanatomical studies which found that an unambiguous cranial root was not present in the majority of the cases. However, a small study in 2007 followed by a substantially larger study published in 2012 both confirmed that the cranial root of the accessory nerve is commonly found in humans, matching traditional descriptions. The cranial root fibers arise from the cells of the nucleus ambiguus and emerge as four or five delicate rootlets from the side of the medulla oblongata, below the roots of the vagus. It runs lateralward to the jugular foramen, where it may interchange fibers with the ...
Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises from the...
abstract = "Purpose Conflicting locations of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) with respect to the internal jugular vein (IJV) are reported in the literature and anatomy texts. The objective of this study is to analyze this anatomic relationship specifically at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle where it is encountered most often during surgery. Material and Methods This study is a case series with planned chart review of all operative reports for neck dissections/explorations performed between June 2002 to June 2008 at an academic tertiary care referral center. Inclusion criteria required intraoperative identification of the SAN at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. Patients undergoing revision neck dissection were excluded. Data is presented using descriptive statistics. Results One hundred ninety-seven patients were identified; 175 met inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients received bilateral neck dissections/explorations, resulting in a total of ...
CPT code 64999 (unlisted) is reported for the injection of a spinal accessory nerve. The CPT code previously used was CPT 64412 which was deleted in 2016.. *This response is based on the best information available as of 2/28/19.. ...
The accessory nerve cases that Hodge Jones Allen have undertaken have usually involved minor surgical procedures such as a biopsy being performed in the neck area. More commonly this tends to be a biopsy of a lymph node which is a being performed to diagnose the patients underlying condition.. On other occasions surgery in the neck area has been performed to remove a harmless fatty lump (sometimes called a lipoma).. With appropriate skill and care injuries to this nerve can and should be avoided. Surgical inexperience or a rushed, poorly planned procedure are often the cause of injury.. Sadly, many of the cases in which we have acted have involved severe injuries to the accessory nerve. This type of injury is very hard to repair so patients who have suffered an injury of this nature simply have to adapt their lives to cope with their restricted arm and neck movements. ...
accessory nerve definition: nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back, and shoulders....
Traumatic neuromas appear grossly as firm, oval, whitish nodules that are rarely larger than 2 cm (1). At sectioning, they have a dense fibrous appearance with little vascularity. A nerve may terminate at the upper pole of the mass (1). Although not encapsulated, the outer layer of fibrous tissue is often inseparable from the surrounding scar, and microscopically, an outer layer of connective tissue is continuous with the perineurium of the intact nerve trunk (11).. Neck dissection, or cervical lymphadenectomy, is a procedure for eradicating metastases to the regional lymph nodes of the neck (12). A radical neck dissection includes removal of all ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes from the level of the body of the mandible to the clavicle (12), including the spinal accessory nerve, internal jugular vein, and sternocleidomastoid muscle. This procedure is indicated for extensive lymph node metastases or extension of tumor beyond the capsule of the node(s) to involve the spinal accessory nerve and ...
Indications for this procedure include the following: A time interval of over 20 months after SAN injury Failed surgical reconstruction of the SAN Delayed diagnosis of a spontaneous trapezius palsy... more
The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis from Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from one side of the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma into the lymph nodes of the neck reduce survival and is the most important factor in the spread of the disease. The metastases may originate from SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp. Continue reading →. ...
FIG. 45-15. Complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The biceps nerve is neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve. The medial cord is neurotized using three intercostal nerves. An alternate solution is to neurotize the suprascapularis nerve by the spinal accessory nerve and the biceps nerve by intercostal nerves. ...
Clinical evaluation of shoulder function includes the following: ROM assessment by goniometry to evaluate flexion and abduction of the shoulder joint Manual measure of muscle strength in the motions... more
The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the end of the lecture, the students should be able to: List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cranial Nerve 11, Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11.
Furthermore, Find out What Is The Function of The Accessory Nerve on Twitter Anatomic relations between spinal accessory nerve and IJV. Gavilan 2002.#ENT #Otolaryngology pic.twitter.com/lVBtVd6EBP - ENT (@ENTEngland) March 3, 2019 This region of the ...
The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are referred to by either name or Roman numeral (Fig 8-1 and Table 8-1). Note that the olfactory peduncle (see Chapter 19) and the optic nerve (see Chapter 15) are not true nerves but rather fiber tracts of the brain, whereas nerve XI (the spinal accessory nerve) is derived, in part, from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord. The remaining nine pairs relate to the brain stem. ...
The lowest four cranialnervesHYPOGLOSSAL NERVEThe hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) contains somaticefferent fibers for the supply of the extrinsic and intrinsicmuscles of the tongue. Its nucleus lies close to the midline inthe floor of the fourth ventricle and extends almost the fulllength of the medulla (Figure 15.1). The nerve emerges as aseries of rootlets in the interval between the pyramid and theolive. It crosses the subarachnoid space and leaves the skullthrough the hypoglossal canal. Just below the skull, it liesclose to the vagus and spinal accessory nerves (Figure 15.2). Itdescends on the carotid sheath to the level of the angle of themandible, then passes forward on the surface of the hyoglossus muscle where it gives off its terminal branches.In the neck, proprioceptive fibers enter the nerve from thecervical plexus, to accept afferents from about 100 musclespindles in the same half of the tongue.Phylogenetic noteIn reptiles, the lingual muscles, the geniohyoid muscle, andthe ...
It was not until the 19th century that Billroth, Kocher, Halsted, and others refined the thyroidectomy operation into a standard treatment for thyroid cancer with advancements in anti-septic technique, anesthesia, recurrent laryngeal nerve protection, and parathyroid preservation.1,2 In the first half of the 20th century, oncologic resection for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly incorporated a "block dissection," which sacrificed the sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve resulting in significant deformity. George Crile Jr. heralded a more limited dissection with successful oncologic outcomes, which sparked the on-going debates regarding extent of dissection, implications of neck metastases, and prognostic factors for risk stratification.3 As early detection of PTC increased by the 1980s with the widespread use of diagnostic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy, controversy regarding the management of smaller tumors ...
REFERENCES Berkovitz et al., 2002. Berkovitz BKB, Kirsch C, Moxham BJ, Alusi G, Cheeseman T: Interactive Head and Neck, London, Primal Pictures, 2002. Bogduk et al., 1988. Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A: The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine 1988; 13:2-8. Brown, 2002. Brown H: Anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve plexus: relevance to head and neck cancer and atherosclerosis. Exp Biol Med 2002; 227:570-578. Cady and Rossi, 1991. In: Cady B, Rossi RL, ed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Philadelphia: Saunders; 1991. Crile, 1906. […]. ...
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The Trapezius is supplied by the accessory nerve, and by branches from the third and fourth cervical nerves; the Latissimus dorsi by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long subscapular) nerve.. IV. Myology. 7. The Fascia and Muscles of the Upper Extremity. a. The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Vertebral Column. ...
The arches caudal to the sixth branchial arch are not well developed in human embryos. The embryonic region caudal to the sixth arch becomes an important transition zone between head and trunk anatomy and is also near the emergence point of the superior limb bud. The somitomeric tissue that contributes to the muscles of these caudal arches migrates to form two important muscles, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which link the head and pectoral girdle of the upper limb. Both of the muscles are innervated by the accessory nerve ...
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The twelve cranial nerves are:I: Olfactory II: Optic III: Oculomotor IV: Trochlear V: Trigeminal VI: Abducens VII: Facial VIII: Acoustic IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus XI: Spinal Accessory XII: Hypoglossal After watching the cranial nerve video presented ...
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It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Rhomboideus: originates on the nuchal crest of the occipital bone and inserts on the ... It is innervated by the median nerve. Flexor carpi ulnar: originates on the olecranon and inserts on the accessory carpal bone ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Trapezius: originates on the supraspinous ligament and inserts on the spine of the ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Sternohyoideus: originates on the sternum and inserts on the basihyoid bone. Its ...
Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ... travel via the ventral rami of the third (C3) and fourth (C4) cervical nerves. Since it is a muscle of the upper limb, the ...
... the accessory nerve. The accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor ... with which it shares its nerve supply (the accessory nerve). It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as ... After a signal reaches the accessory nerve nucleus in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the signal is conveyed to motor ... The fibers from the accessory nerve nucleus travel upward to enter the cranium via the foramen magnum. The internal carotid ...
The glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves; the sympathetic trunk leaving from the cranial cervical ganglion ... also if glossopharyngeal nerve is involved); and Horner's syndrome from the involvement of sympathetic nerves. Involvement of ... The facial nerve is in contact with the dorsal part of the pouch. The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial ... Horses that experience dysphagia or other forms of nerve dysfunction as a result of GPM have a poorer prognosis that those who ...
The greater nerve to the muscle is the femoral nerve. Unlike the obturator accessory nerve, the femoral nerve is always present ... a branch of the obturator nerve called the accessory obturator nerve. When it is present, the accessory obturator nerve ... The muscle is also innervated by the accessory obturator nerve in the 8.7% of cases in which the nerve occurs. It is one of the ... complex than the brachial plexus and gives rise to a number of nerves including the femoral nerve and accessory obturator nerve ...
There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to ... Postauricular nerve (from the posterior roots of C3-C4) Plan of the cervical plexus. The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of ... The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 ... The branches of the cervical plexus emerge from the posterior triangle at the nerve point, a point which lies midway on the ...
"Edinger-Westphal nucleus: The accessory nucleus of the 3rd oculomotor nerve. Named with Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal; Edinger ...
Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ... This donor nerve is then attached to the distal end of the paralysed facial nerve. Techniques for donor nerve transfers are ...
It also transmits the spinal component of the accessory nerve into the skull. The opisthion is the midpoint on the posterior ... with meninges Fourth part of vertebral artery surrounded by sympathetic plexus of nerves Spinal roots of accessory nerves ...
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their ... The styloglossus is innervated by the Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) like all muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus which is ... innervated by the Pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus draws up the sides of the tongue to create a trough ...
The foramen ovale is behind and lateral to this; it transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and ... it is a short canal that transmits the middle meningeal vessels and a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve. The foramen ... for transmission of the lesser petrosal nerve. The lateral surface [Fig. 2] is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the ... which is frequently grooved on its medial surface for the chorda tympani nerve. To the sphenoidal spine are attached the ...
IIa contains nodes in the region anterior to the spinal accessory nerve and IIb postero-superior to the nerve. Region III: ... Region V: posterior triangle group of lymph nodes located along the lower half of the spinal accessory nerve and the transverse ... 6. Anderson, Peter E., The Role of Comprehensive Neck Dissection With Preservation of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in the ... These include the carotid and in some instances the three structures - IJV, SCM and Accessory Nerve. 1888 - Jawdynski described ...
... and the accessory (XI) nerves. Lies at the anterolateral margins of the f. magnum and transmits the hypoglossal (XII) nerve. ... It transmits the medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries. Lies in the ... It transmits the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nerves into a canal in the petrous temporal bone. Lies ...
The tuberculum cinereum is a raised area between the rootlets of the accessory nerve and posterolateral sulcus. It overlies the ... produced by a mass of grey matter called the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve.. ... spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. It is an elevation in the lower part of medulla, lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus, ...
Other cranial nerves involved were vagus, trigeminal, spinal accessory nerve, abducent, occulomotor and glossopharyngeal in ... In the Gomez review facial nerve was affected in all cases while hypoglossal nerve was involved in all except one case. ... Post mortem examination of cases have found depletion of nerve cells in the nuclei of cranial nerves. The histologic ... It causes progressive bulbar paralysis due to involvement of motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei. The most frequent ...
Parasympathetic inflow within the myocardium is probably best described by influence of the vagus nerve and spinal accessory ... In vivo however, extrinsic factors such as an increase in activity of the sympathetic nerves, and a decrease in vagal tone ...
On the lateral side of the vessels, the accessory nerve runs for a short distance before it pierces the Sternocleidomastoideus ... The hypoglossal nerve crosses both the internal and external carotids, curving around the origin of the occipital artery. ... Within the sheath, between the artery and vein, and behind both, is the vagus nerve; behind the sheath, the sympathetic trunk. ... the external branch of the same nerve. The upper portion of the larynx and lower portion of the pharynx are also found in the ...
The upper branch accompanies the accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid, and the lower branch arises near the origin of the ... The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Posterior primary divisions of the upper three cervical nerves. Side of neck, ... and the vagus and accessory nerves. It next ascends to the interval between the transverse process of the atlas and the mastoid ... At its origin, it is covered by the posterior belly of the digastricus and the stylohyoideus, and the hypoglossal nerve winds ...
Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.. Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial ... STANLEY MONKHOUSE MA, MB, BChir, PhD (2006). Cranial Nerve Functional Anatomy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13 978-0-511- ...
The superior deep cervical lymph nodes lie under the Sternocleidomastoideus in close relation with the accessory nerve and the ...
The accessory nerve is directed obliquely across the space from the Sternocleidomastoideus, which it pierces, to the under ... The roof of this triangle is formed by the cutaneous nerves of cervical plexus and the external jugular vein and platysma ... surface of the Trapezius; below, the supraclavicular nerves and the transverse cervical vessels and the upper part of the ...
He is credited as being the first physician to perform a facial nerve to spinal accessory nerve anastomosis for treatment of ... Ballance is also remembered for successfully sectioning the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) as a remedy for ... The lecture was titled 'On Nerve Surgery'. It was published in 1933, dedicated "To the Memory of A.C.B.", his son Alaric ... He was a colleague of famed surgeon Victor Horsley (1857-1916). Ballance is remembered for his pioneer work involving nerve ...
In addition to nerves coming from and within the human spine, the accessory nerve and vagus nerve both cranial nerves, travel ... The eleventh or spinal accessory nerve corresponds to a line drawn from a point midway between the angle of the jaw and the ... Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of nerves C2-4, and at the back of the neck from the roots of C4- ... The spinal column carries nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body. From top ...
... the accessory nerve) but the second, third and fourth cervical nerves are also involved. Pathologies in these blood and nerve ... When the trochlear nerve is damaged, the eye is extorted because the superior oblique is not functioning. The affected person ... "Trochlear Nerve Palsy: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem". 2016-08-12. Kwon, D.R. (2014). "Efficacy of micro ... Tumors of the skull base (posterior fossa tumors) can compress the nerve supply to the neck and cause torticollis, and these ...
At the base of the skull the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves lie between the artery and the internal ... and the superior laryngeal nerve; laterally, with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve, the nerve lying on a plane ... the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. It is in relation, behind, with the longus capitis, ... The sympathetic trunk forms a plexus of nerves around the artery known as the carotid plexus. The internal carotid nerve arises ...
2 major basal nerves besides the midrib. Diagrams of venation patternsEdit. ... In cold autumns, they sometimes change color, and turn yellow, bright-orange, or red, as various accessory pigments ( ... More than one main vein (nerve) at the base. Lateral secondary veins branching from a point above the base of the leaf. Usually ... Veins (sometimes referred to as nerves) constitute one of the more visible leaf traits or characteristics. The veins in a leaf ...
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in ... Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, ... A winged scapula may also be suggestive of abnormal spinal accessory nerve function, as described above. In assessing range of ... A winged scapula due to spinal accessory nerve damage will often be exaggerated on arm abduction. Strength testing is similar ...
... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ... "spinal nerve accessory to the vagus", recognizing that while a minor component of the nerve joins with the larger vagus nerve, ...
In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. It is ... while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very ... When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. This article incorporates text in the public ... Recent evidence support that this nerve arises from Dorsal divisions. It descends along the medial border of the psoas major, ...
... we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises ... the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, ... Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we ... The spinal accessory nerve arises from the upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C5), ascends between the dentate ligament and the ... Cervical Spinal Cord Anterior Border Trapezius Muscle Posterior Border Accessory Nerve These keywords were added by machine and ...
... either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the ... accessory nerve. in Medicine. accessory nerve. n.. *A nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. *either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, which supply the muscles of the ... These two roots form the accessory nerve trunk, which divides into two branches: the internal, which unites with the vagus ...
Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ... Spinal Accessory Nerve Monitoring and Clinical Outcome Results of Nerve-Sparing Neck Dissections. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. ...
... nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back ... accessory-nerve. Noun (plural accessory nerves). *(medicine, physiology) The 11th cranial nerves of higher vertebrates, ... accessory nerve. accessory nerve. noun. Either of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx ... How would you define accessory nerve? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by ...
The decision to undergo surgical intervention in the absence of an obvious nerve injury or resection should be made only after ... Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve ... Lateral pectoral nerve transfer for spinal accessory nerve injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Jan. 26 (1):112-5. [Medline]. ... Reconstruction of accessory nerve defects with sternocleidomastoid muscle-great auricular nerve flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar ...
Vertebral Artery Vagus Nerve Medulla Oblongata Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Accessory Nerve These keywords were added ... Leblanc A. (2004) Accessory Nerve (XI). In: Encephalo-Peripheral Nervous System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https:// ...
NIM Nerve Monitoring Systems. Intraoperative NIM nerve monitors enable surgeons to identify, confirm, and monitor motor nerve ... NIM EMG Nerve Monitoring Accessories Monopolar and bipolar probes, electrodes, stimulus-dissection instruments, and other ... Provides both an open airway for patient ventilation and intraoperative nerve monitoring capability for the recurrent laryngeal ... function during a variety of surgical procedures to help reduce the potential risk of nerve damage ...
Arachnoid Cyst with Accessory Nerve Palsy. *Background:*Injuries to the accessory nerve are rare and may cause unpredictable ...
What is accessory phrenic nerve? Meaning of accessory phrenic nerve medical term. What does accessory phrenic nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of accessory phrenic nerve in the Medical Dictionary? accessory phrenic nerve explanation free. ... accessory phrenic nerve. accessory phrenic nerve. the nerve that joins the phrenic nerve at the root of the neck or in the ... Accessory phrenic nerve , definition of accessory phrenic nerve by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Accessory Nerve: injuries, Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology, Suture Techniques, Electromyography, Humans, Iatrogenic ... Accessory Nerve: injuries,Accessory Nerve: anatomy & histology,Suture Techniques,Electromyography,Humans,Iatrogenic Disease, ... Iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve.. Bostrom, Daniella and Dahlin, Lars LU (2007) In Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and ... The incidence of such nerve injuries during lymph node biopsies is 3%-10%, but the diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms are ...
Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... the medullary root of the accessory nerve).. References. *^ "Spinal Accessory Nerve". Structure of the Human body, Loyola ... The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers ...
Accessory nerve + Label Accessory nerve root + Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 1 February ...
... All metal prints are professionally printed, packaged, and ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... accessory nerve neck human neck side view nerve facial nerves cutaway view face ... Accessory Nerve View Showing Neck metal print by Stocktrek Images. Bring your artwork to life with the stylish lines and added ...
In this article, two clinical cases are presented where accessory nerve injuries are repaired with either a motor nerve ... These cases provide a stimulus to consider the use of motor nerve grafts or transfers in the repair of motor nerve deficits. ... such as the medial antebrachial cutaneous or the sural nerve. The practice of using sensory grafts to repair motor nerve ... The standard repair of a nerve gap under tension is to use a sensory autograft, ...
Accessory nerves explanation free. What is Accessory nerves? Meaning of Accessory nerves medical term. What does Accessory ... Looking for online definition of Accessory nerves in the Medical Dictionary? ... Acoustic nerve.. eleventh cranial nerve. Abbreviation: CN XI. Spinal accessory nerve.. ethmoidal nerve. Either of two nerves, ... accessory nerve. Spinal accessory nerve. See: cranial nerve for illus.. ACOUSTIC NERVE (8th CRANIAL) ...
spinal accessory nerve answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... spinal accessory nerve is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or ... "Spinal Accessory Nerve." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/ ... tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729228/all/spinal_accessory_nerve. Spinal accessory nerve. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical ...
The debate as to whether the sternomastoids receive ipsilateral, contralateral, or bilateral cortical innervation is based largely on the observation of stroke patients and, to a lesser extent, on animal experimentation. The variability of vascular lesions, the lack of pathology correlation in the e …
Transitional Nerve: A New and Original Classification of a Peripheral Nerve Supported by the Nature of the Accessory Nerve (CN ... A. A. Pearson, R. W. Sauter, and G. R. Herrin, "The accessory nerve and its relation to the upper spinal nerves," The American ... K. Corbin and F. Harrison, "Proprioceptive components of cranial nerves. The spinal accessory nerve," The Journal of ... H. Gloobe, G. Ouaknine, J. Klausner, and H. Nathan, "Variations of the first cervical nerve (C) and the spinal accessory nerve ...
The accessory soleus muscle should be considered as a cause of compression neuropathy of the tibial nerve, especially in the ... proximity of the accessory soleus to the tibial nerve or a claudication of the muscle due to a tenuous and insufficient blood ... The accessory soleus muscle is an uncommon anatomical variant with a reported incidence of between 0.7-5.5% ... Findings confirmed the diagnosis of an accessory soleus muscle, and the patients symptoms were attributed to being caused by a ...
... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... spinal accessory nerve; phrenic nerve; scalene fat pad; brachial plexus; facial nerve; hypoglossal nerve; vagus nerve; ... Illustration of dissection of the neck, right lateral view, showing the cervical nerve roots and some of the cranial nerves ...
List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. ... The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the ...
... spinal accessory nerve, squamous cell carcinoma, sternocleidomastoid on November 28, 2011. by chzechze. ...
  • In particular, radical neck dissection and cervical lymph node biopsy are among the most common surgical procedures that result in spinal accessory nerve damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, during a functional neck dissection that injures the spinal accessory nerve, injury prompts the surgeon to cautiously preserve branches of C2, C3, and C4 spinal nerves that provide supplemental innervation to the trapezius muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • London notes that a failure to rapidly identify spinal accessory nerve damage may exacerbate the problem, as early intervention leads to improved outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with damage to the spinal accessory nerve, shoulder elevation will be diminished, and the patient will be incapable of raising the shoulders against the examiner's resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, or in addition to intraoperative procedures, postoperative procedures can also help in recovering the function of a damaged spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
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