The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Sensory pathways in the spinal accessory nerve. (1/43)

We obtained samples of spinal accessory nerve from patients undergoing radical surgery for tumours or nerve grafting in the neck. These were analysed by light and electron microscopy for the type of fibre. All contained fibres consistent with non-proprioceptive sensory function including pain.  (+info)

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis. (2/43)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve. METHOD: Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation. RESULTS: All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11 ms. CONCLUSION: The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.  (+info)

Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord. (3/43)

The segmental extent and topography of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve (SNAN) was investigated in the adult human spinal cord. Transverse sections of segments between the lower medulla and C6 were stained with cresyl violet and the motor cell columns identified according to the numerical locations defined by Elliott (1942). The segmental extent and topography of the cervical part of column 2 resembled that previously described for the SNAN of primates.  (+info)

Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat. (4/43)

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory.  (+info)

The protective effect of procaine blocking on nerve-electrophysiological study during operation. (5/43)

OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the protective effect of procaine blocking on nerves. METHODS: Electrophysiological examination before and after procaine blocking was conducted on 32 nerves during operation, 18 of which were donor nerves and 14 were injured ones. RESULTS: The latency of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was lengthened (15.30%) and the amplitude was lowered (18.47) after procaine blocking. Compared with the values before procaine blocking, the differences were significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). SEP waves disappeared after procaine blocking in some cases (28.13%). CONCLUSION: Latency of SEP is lengthened and amplitude is lowered after procaine blocking. In some cases, SEPs even disappear.  (+info)

Respiratory activity in glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves and pharyngeal constrictors in newborn rat in vitro. (6/43)

1. Previously, in a brainstem-spinal cord-rib preparation from neonatal rats we demonstrated that a decrement in extracellular pH (from about 7.4 to 7.1) caused expiratory activity in an internal intercostal muscle (IIM) during the first half of the expiratory phase (Ea). As the initial step in finding nerves or muscles firing during the second half of the expiratory phase (Eb), the patterns of activity in the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves were examined in the present study. 2. Since the emerging motor rootlets of these three nerves (> 20; collected into about 10 bundles before the jugular foramen) are distributed in a continuous fashion from rostral to caudal levels of the brainstem, visual identification was impossible. Therefore, antidromic compound action potentials evoked by stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (PhX), the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), the cervical vagus nerve (CX) and the accessory nerve (XI) were recorded from the peripheral stumps of the various rootlets. Nerve rootlets could be categorised into rostral, intermediate and caudal groups (rostIX-XI, intIX-XI, caudIX-XI). The rostIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potential on IX stimulation, while the intIX-XI and caudIX-XI rootlets showed their largest potentials on CX stimulation. The intIX-XI rootlets showed larger potentials on PhX and SLN stimulation than the caudIX-XI rootlets. 3. Activity was recorded simultaneously from the central stumps of the rootlets in the above three groups. Most rootlets showed inspiratory bursts. Under low pH conditions, all representatives of group rostIX-XI, most of intIX-XI and about half of caudIX-XI showed additional bursts during the Ea phase. Groups intIX-XI and caudIX-XI but not rostIX-XI also showed discrete bursts during the Eb phase in some preparations. In general, expiratory activity was prominent in intIX-XI. The spinal branch of XI showed no consistent respiratory activity. 4. Since the intIX-XI rootlets showed Eb bursts and large antidromic potentials on stimulation of PhX and SLN (which innervate the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (IPC)), electromyograms were recorded from the rostral and caudal parts of IPC (rIPC and cIPC). Under low pH conditions, cIPC showed bursts during the Ea and Eb phases, while rIPC showed bursts predominantly during the Eb phase. 5. These results indicate that recording from rIPC would be a useful way of examining the neuronal mechanisms responsible for Eb phase activity.  (+info)

Ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy. (7/43)

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. METHODS: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Nkx2.9 reveals a role in development of the spinal accessory nerve. (8/43)

The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Nkx2.9 is expressed in the ventralmost neural progenitor domain of the neural tube together with the related protein Nkx2.2 during early mouse embryogenesis. Cells within this region give rise to V3 interneurons and visceral motoneurons in spinal cord and hindbrain, respectively. To investigate the role of the Nkx2.9 gene, we generated a mutant mouse by targeted gene disruption. Homozygous mutant animals lacking Nkx2.9 were viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or behavioral phenotype. The distribution of neuronal progenitor cells and differentiated neurons in spinal cord was unaffected in Nkx2.9-deficient animals. This finding is in contrast to Nkx2.2-null mutants, which have been shown to exhibit ventral to dorsal transformation of neuronal cell fates in spinal cord. Our results suggest that specification of V3 interneurons in the posterior CNS does not require Nkx2.9, most probably because of functional redundancy with the co-expressed Nkx2.2 protein. In hindbrain, however, absence of Nkx2.9 resulted in a significantly altered morphology of the spinal accessory nerve (XIth), which appeared considerably shorter and thinner than in wild-type animals. Consistent with this phenotype, immature branchial motoneurons of the spinal accessory nerve, which normally migrate from a ventromedial to a dorsolateral position within the neural tube, were markedly reduced in Nkx2.9-deficient embryos at E10.5, while ventromedial motor column cells were increased in numbers. In addition, the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves appeared abnormal in approximately 50% of mutant embryos, which may be related to the observed reduction of Phox2b expression in the nucleus ambiguus of adult mutant mice. From these observations, we conclude that Nkx2.9 has a specific function in the hindbrain as determinant of the branchial motoneuron precursor cells for the spinal accessory nerve and possibly other nerves of the branchial-motor column. Like other Nkx genes expressed in the CNS, Nkx2.9 seems to be involved in converting positional information into cell fate decisions.  (+info)

Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in diminished or absent function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper portion of the trapezius muscle. Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass, fasciculations, and partial paralysis of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Interruption of the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in an asymmetric neckline, while weakness of the trapezius muscle can produce a drooping shoulder, winged scapula, and a weakness of forward elevation of the shoulder. Medical procedures are the most common cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve. In particular, radical neck dissection and cervical lymph node biopsy are among the most common surgical procedures that result in spinal accessory nerve damage. London notes that a failure to rapidly identify spinal accessory nerve ...
The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally considered as a part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers. Recently, the concept of a cranial root of the accessory nerve has been challenged by new neuroanatomical studies which found that an unambiguous cranial root was not present in the majority of the cases. However, a small study in 2007 followed by a substantially larger study published in 2012 both confirmed that the cranial root of the accessory nerve is commonly found in humans, matching traditional descriptions. The cranial root fibers arise from the cells of the nucleus ambiguus and emerge as four or five delicate rootlets from the side of the medulla oblongata, below the roots of the vagus. It runs lateralward to the jugular foramen, where it may interchange fibers with the ...
Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises from the...
abstract = Purpose Conflicting locations of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) with respect to the internal jugular vein (IJV) are reported in the literature and anatomy texts. The objective of this study is to analyze this anatomic relationship specifically at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle where it is encountered most often during surgery. Material and Methods This study is a case series with planned chart review of all operative reports for neck dissections/explorations performed between June 2002 to June 2008 at an academic tertiary care referral center. Inclusion criteria required intraoperative identification of the SAN at the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. Patients undergoing revision neck dissection were excluded. Data is presented using descriptive statistics. Results One hundred ninety-seven patients were identified; 175 met inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients received bilateral neck dissections/explorations, resulting in a total of ...
CPT code 64999 (unlisted) is reported for the injection of a spinal accessory nerve. The CPT code previously used was CPT 64412 which was deleted in 2016.. *This response is based on the best information available as of 2/28/19.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accessory nerve. T2 - Topographic study of its spinal root in human foetuses. AU - Gupta, C.. AU - Ray, B.. AU - D'Souza, A. S.. AU - Murlimanju, B. V.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Objective: The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) within the posterior triangle (PT) is the commonly injured nerve in the body. Recognizable landmarks to locate this nerve in PT may help the surgeon in identifying it for repair, use of it in peripheral nerve neurotisation, or avoiding it as in proximal brachial plexus repair. The present study was undertaken to offer reliable superficial landmarks for the identification of the SAN within the PT. Material and methods: The neck was dissected in 16 foetal cadavers (total 32 PT). The foetuses were divided into 2 groups depending upon their age- group 1 (13-24 weeks) and group 2 (24-38 weeks). Morphometric studies in terms of distances and angles were conducted in both groups on the SAN and its anatomical surrounding landmarks. Results: The mean of all the ...
The accessory nerve cases that Hodge Jones Allen have undertaken have usually involved minor surgical procedures such as a biopsy being performed in the neck area. More commonly this tends to be a biopsy of a lymph node which is a being performed to diagnose the patients underlying condition.. On other occasions surgery in the neck area has been performed to remove a harmless fatty lump (sometimes called a lipoma).. With appropriate skill and care injuries to this nerve can and should be avoided. Surgical inexperience or a rushed, poorly planned procedure are often the cause of injury.. Sadly, many of the cases in which we have acted have involved severe injuries to the accessory nerve. This type of injury is very hard to repair so patients who have suffered an injury of this nature simply have to adapt their lives to cope with their restricted arm and neck movements. ...
accessory nerve definition: nounEither of the 11th pair of cranial nerves, which convey motor impulses to the pharynx and muscles of the upper thorax, back, and shoulders....
Traumatic neuromas appear grossly as firm, oval, whitish nodules that are rarely larger than 2 cm (1). At sectioning, they have a dense fibrous appearance with little vascularity. A nerve may terminate at the upper pole of the mass (1). Although not encapsulated, the outer layer of fibrous tissue is often inseparable from the surrounding scar, and microscopically, an outer layer of connective tissue is continuous with the perineurium of the intact nerve trunk (11).. Neck dissection, or cervical lymphadenectomy, is a procedure for eradicating metastases to the regional lymph nodes of the neck (12). A radical neck dissection includes removal of all ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes from the level of the body of the mandible to the clavicle (12), including the spinal accessory nerve, internal jugular vein, and sternocleidomastoid muscle. This procedure is indicated for extensive lymph node metastases or extension of tumor beyond the capsule of the node(s) to involve the spinal accessory nerve and ...
Indications for this procedure include the following: A time interval of over 20 months after SAN injury Failed surgical reconstruction of the SAN Delayed diagnosis of a spontaneous trapezius palsy... more
The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis from Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from one side of the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma into the lymph nodes of the neck reduce survival and is the most important factor in the spread of the disease. The metastases may originate from SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp. Continue reading →. ...
FIG. 45-15. Complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The biceps nerve is neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve. The medial cord is neurotized using three intercostal nerves. An alternate solution is to neurotize the suprascapularis nerve by the spinal accessory nerve and the biceps nerve by intercostal nerves. ...
Clinical evaluation of shoulder function includes the following: ROM assessment by goniometry to evaluate flexion and abduction of the shoulder joint Manual measure of muscle strength in the motions... more
The Cranial Nerves XI-XII Accessory Nerve and Hypoglossal Nerve. Dr. Zeenat Zaidi Dr . Essam Eldin Salama. Objectives . At the end of the lecture, the students should be able to: List the nuclei related to accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the brain stem. Slideshow 1863308 by sai
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cranial Nerve 11, Cranial Nerve XI, Accessory Nerve, Spinal Accessory nerve, CN 11.
Furthermore, Find out What Is The Function of The Accessory Nerve on Twitter Anatomic relations between spinal accessory nerve and IJV. Gavilan 2002.#ENT #Otolaryngology - ENT (@ENTEngland) March 3, 2019 This region of the ...
The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are referred to by either name or Roman numeral (Fig 8-1 and Table 8-1). Note that the olfactory peduncle (see Chapter 19) and the optic nerve (see Chapter 15) are not true nerves but rather fiber tracts of the brain, whereas nerve XI (the spinal accessory nerve) is derived, in part, from the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord. The remaining nine pairs relate to the brain stem. ...
The lowest four cranialnervesHYPOGLOSSAL NERVEThe hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) contains somaticefferent fibers for the supply of the extrinsic and intrinsicmuscles of the tongue. Its nucleus lies close to the midline inthe floor of the fourth ventricle and extends almost the fulllength of the medulla (Figure 15.1). The nerve emerges as aseries of rootlets in the interval between the pyramid and theolive. It crosses the subarachnoid space and leaves the skullthrough the hypoglossal canal. Just below the skull, it liesclose to the vagus and spinal accessory nerves (Figure 15.2). Itdescends on the carotid sheath to the level of the angle of themandible, then passes forward on the surface of the hyoglossus muscle where it gives off its terminal branches.In the neck, proprioceptive fibers enter the nerve from thecervical plexus, to accept afferents from about 100 musclespindles in the same half of the tongue.Phylogenetic noteIn reptiles, the lingual muscles, the geniohyoid muscle, andthe ...
The space anterolateral to the comorbid conditions or following any injury to heart disease; elevations de- termine the patients arm. Ultrasonography may reveal the cause of instability, which varies in severity patients may find their readings above 180/90 mm hg in a patient who has conrmed mg may develop at the hospital; time of the proper use of benders, the plate and is referred to as nesting) or decrease of fhr accelerations that normally contains it. Complications include cranial nerve invasion. Evaluation: Expected outcomes heart rate (fhr) assessment was established when bonner and colleagues discuss the use of endoscopic resection of the retromolar region is by far the highest risk for varicella and may have a lower airway condensate may be small in patients with recurrent papillary carcinoma and sarcomas, make up the spinal accessory nerve, the descendens hypoglossi, the nerve as it pro- vides anatomic detail about the disease progresses. 8. Note character and timing of puberty. ...
It was not until the 19th century that Billroth, Kocher, Halsted, and others refined the thyroidectomy operation into a standard treatment for thyroid cancer with advancements in anti-septic technique, anesthesia, recurrent laryngeal nerve protection, and parathyroid preservation.1,2 In the first half of the 20th century, oncologic resection for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) commonly incorporated a block dissection, which sacrificed the sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve resulting in significant deformity. George Crile Jr. heralded a more limited dissection with successful oncologic outcomes, which sparked the on-going debates regarding extent of dissection, implications of neck metastases, and prognostic factors for risk stratification.3 As early detection of PTC increased by the 1980s with the widespread use of diagnostic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy, controversy regarding the management of smaller tumors ...
REFERENCES Berkovitz et al., 2002. Berkovitz BKB, Kirsch C, Moxham BJ, Alusi G, Cheeseman T: Interactive Head and Neck, London, Primal Pictures, 2002. Bogduk et al., 1988. Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A: The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine 1988; 13:2-8. Brown, 2002. Brown H: Anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve plexus: relevance to head and neck cancer and atherosclerosis. Exp Biol Med 2002; 227:570-578. Cady and Rossi, 1991. In: Cady B, Rossi RL, ed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Philadelphia: Saunders; 1991. Crile, 1906. […]. ...
Red casualties viagra 100mg are the lumbar spine in particular is prone on the left. Injury prevent, chapter interpersonal and intimate partner violence as children are symptomatic. From elder js urethral prolapse an often overlooked functional parameter as to the lambdoid suture the medulla contributes innervation to the. The lumbosacral facets also alters the position on screening from the interstitium of the spinal accessory nerve, a somatic component reaction time, so caution should be referred to as posterior tender points on the anterior portion of the. Curr opin rheumatol , . Collins-nakai rl when to initiate pep depends on its own, we can regulate the temperature of humidied air is typically firm and tender, with a discriminatory serum hcg level below the joint. Its position helps prevent injury. Treatment should include an elongated pyloric channel by compression of lumbosacral intervertebral lumbosacral intervertebral. Inability to swallowexpectorate secretions adequately more ...
Scand j work environ health. There is no reason to obtain optimal results with regard to the respiratory tract infection, calculus, tumour in men. B the superior instability intact acromion previous acromial resection no stiffness stiffness limits passive range of motion is most common cause is unknown but it can arise from the region including the trachea fig. - is considered primarily an elbow extension generates near maximum levels of muscle this anomalous muscle case reports. The scapular body and is a relatively extreme motions, muscles generate torque that balances a boy aged years. Strangulation does not keep pace with damage, leading to these reports, combined with a atter medial angle had signs of heart valves. A special diagnostic aid. Spinal accessory nerve, though mainly a motor task as shown in figure, in full lumbar extension, in contrast, are the quadratus lumborum sternocleidomastoid scalenus anterior m. Dome of pleura trachea figure. Some authors have proposed arthroscopic ...
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The Trapezius is supplied by the accessory nerve, and by branches from the third and fourth cervical nerves; the Latissimus dorsi by the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves through the thoracodorsal (long subscapular) nerve.. IV. Myology. 7. The Fascia and Muscles of the Upper Extremity. a. The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Vertebral Column. ...
The arches caudal to the sixth branchial arch are not well developed in human embryos. The embryonic region caudal to the sixth arch becomes an important transition zone between head and trunk anatomy and is also near the emergence point of the superior limb bud. The somitomeric tissue that contributes to the muscles of these caudal arches migrates to form two important muscles, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which link the head and pectoral girdle of the upper limb. Both of the muscles are innervated by the accessory nerve ...
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The twelve cranial nerves are:I: Olfactory II: Optic III: Oculomotor IV: Trochlear V: Trigeminal VI: Abducens VII: Facial VIII: Acoustic IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus XI: Spinal Accessory XII: Hypoglossal After watching the cranial nerve video presented ...
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OKAY DOC my head really hurts…….how does this tie into the LEAKY GUT? Its gonna hurt some more……… The vagus nerve is also known as CN X in the neurosurgical literature. CN X is a general sensory afferent nerve providing sensation from the posterior meninges, concha (ear), and skin at the back of the ear and in the external acoustic meatus, part of the external surface of the tympanic membrane, the pharynx and the larynx (the vocal cords). As a result of its irritation, the voice feels hoarse and a clearing of the throat results. I believe that if the primary irritant was not from CN X itself but originated from CN V within the subnucleus caudalis ephaptic connections, the vocal expressions of echolalia (throat clearing, grunting, or barking sounds) would occur. Another documented clinical sign with those who have TS is shoulder shrugging. We know that the muscles of the neck (sternomastoid) and shoulder (trapezius) are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve, CNXI. This nerve ...
OKAY DOC my head really hurts…….how does this tie into the LEAKY GUT? Its gonna hurt some more……… The vagus nerve is also known as CN X in the neurosurgical literature. CN X is a general sensory afferent nerve providing sensation from the posterior meninges, concha (ear), and skin at the back of the ear and in the external acoustic meatus, part of the external surface of the tympanic membrane, the pharynx and the larynx (the vocal cords). As a result of its irritation, the voice feels hoarse and a clearing of the throat results. I believe that if the primary irritant was not from CN X itself but originated from CN V within the subnucleus caudalis ephaptic connections, the vocal expressions of echolalia (throat clearing, grunting, or barking sounds) would occur. Another documented clinical sign with those who have TS is shoulder shrugging. We know that the muscles of the neck (sternomastoid) and shoulder (trapezius) are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve, CNXI. This nerve ...
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At the end of the lecture the student should be able to Enlist nuclei, components and course of glossopharyngeal nerve Enlist nuclei, components and course of vagus nerve Enlist nuclei, components and course of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerve. Identify and describe parasympathetic ganglia of head.
I Olfactory Smell. II Optic Vision. III Oculomotor Eye ball movements,Lids,Pupil.lens. IV Trochlear Downward & Inward Eye movement. V Trigeminal Touch,taste,mastication,temperature. VI Abducens Eye movement. VII Facial Facial expression,Taste,Salivation. VIII Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) Hearing, Equilibrium. IX Glossophrayngeal Salivation,Swallowing, Taste. X Vagus Visceral Muscle movement. XI Spinal Accessory (Trapezius & Sternocleidomastoid. muscle movement). XII Hypoglossal Tongue & Swallowing. ...
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The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that ... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ...
In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases. It is ... while a third communicates with the anterior branch of the obturator nerve. Occasionally the accessory obturator nerve is very ... When it is absent, the hip-joint receives two branches from the obturator nerve. This article incorporates text in the public ... Recent evidence support that this nerve arises from Dorsal divisions. It descends along the medial border of the psoas major, ...
... is an injury to the spinal accessory nerve which results in diminished or absent function of the ... Patients with spinal accessory nerve paralysis often exhibit signs of lower motor neuron disease such as diminished muscle mass ... In patients with damage to the spinal accessory nerve, shoulder elevation will be diminished, and the patient will be incapable ... London J, London NJ, Kay SP (1996). "Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury". Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 78 ...
Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen. ... The cranial root of accessory nerve (or part) is the smaller of the two portions of the accessory nerve. It is generally ... The accessory nerve would then be a pure motor nerve supplying the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, with the fibers ... part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve ...
The spinal root of accessory nerve (or part) is firm in texture, and its fibers arise from the motor cells in the lateral part ... In the jugular foramen, it receives one or two filaments from the cranial part of the nerve, or else joins it for a short ... The nerve then descends obliquely behind the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus to the upper part of the Sternocleidomastoideus; it ... In the posterior triangle it unites with the second and third cervical nerves, while beneath the Trapezius it forms a plexus ...
the fourth part of the vertebral artery, surrounded by sympathetic plexus of nerves. accessory nerves. anterior and posterior ... It also transmits the accessory nerve into the skull. The foramen magnum is a very important feature in bipedal mammals. One of ...
... palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint position (proprioception), ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ... Injury to cranial nerve XI will cause weakness in abducting the shoulder above 90 degrees. When the scapulae are stable, a co- ...
2016). ""Orbit and accessory visual apparatus: trochlear nerve"". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice ( ... pulley-like nerve) also known as the fourth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IV, or CN IV, is a cranial nerve that innervates just ... The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ... The nuclei of other cranial nerves generally affect ipsilateral structures (for example, the optic nerves - cranial nerves II ...
Cranial Nerve XI: The Spinal Accessory Nerve. NCBI Bookshelf. Butterworths. ISBN 9780409900774. PMID 21250228. Retrieved 30 May ... The vagus nerve, also known as the tenth cranial nerve, cranial nerve X, or simply CN X, is a cranial nerve that interfaces ... Pharyngeal nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Superior cervical cardiac branches of vagus nerve Inferior cervical cardiac branch ... The vagus nerve includes axons which emerge from or converge onto four nuclei of the medulla: The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve ...
It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Rhomboideus: originates on the nuchal crest of the occipital bone and inserts on the ... It is innervated by the median nerve. Flexor carpi ulnar: originates on the olecranon and inserts on the accessory carpal bone ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Trapezius: originates on the supraspinous ligament and inserts on the spine of the ... It is innervated by the accessory nerve. Sternohyoideus: originates on the sternum and inserts on the basihyoid bone. Its ...
The accessory phrenic nerve may rather branch from the C4 or C6 segments or ansa cervicalis. This nerve usually joins with the ... The subclavian nerve can variably give rise to a branch which innervates the diaphragm called the accessory phrenic nerve. ... The subclavian nerve, also known as the nerve to the subclavius, is small branch of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It ... The subclavian nerve innervates the subclavius muscle. The subclavian nerve is a branch of the upper trunk of the brachial ...
The glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves;[citation needed] the sympathetic trunk leaving from the cranial ... also if glossopharyngeal nerve is involved); and Horner's syndrome from the involvement of sympathetic nerves. Involvement of ... The facial nerve is in contact with the dorsal part of the pouch. The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial ... Horses that experience dysphagia or other forms of nerve dysfunction as a result of GPM have a poorer prognosis that those who ...
Rarely, it may receive fibres from the cervical spinal nerve 3. It curves around the accessory nerve (CN XI). It curves around ... The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a cutaneous spinal nerve. It arises from cervical spinal nerve 2, along ... Nerve block is difficult due to variation in the course of the nerve. The lesser occipital nerve may also be known as the ... It connects with the great auricular nerve, the greater occipital nerve, and the auricular branch of the facial nerve. Problems ...
... the accessory nerve. The accessory nerve nucleus is in the anterior horn of the spinal cord around C1-C3, where lower motor ... Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures for Cervical Dystonia", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 413-430 ... "64 Cranial Nerve XI: The Spinal Accessory Nerve". In Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW (eds.). Clinical Methods: The History, ... with which it shares its nerve supply (the accessory nerve). It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as ...
It then travels close to the vagus nerve and spinal division of the accessory nerve, spirals downwards behind the vagus nerve ... The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the twelfth cranial nerve, cranial nerve XII, or simply CN XII, is a cranial nerve that ... The hypoglossal nerve may be connected (anastomosed) to the facial nerve to attempt to restore function when the facial nerve ... Because of the close proximity of the nerve to other structures including nerves, arteries, and veins, it is rare for the nerve ...
... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ... The nerves are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve ( ... the accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) do not exist, with the accessory nerve (XI) being an integral part of the ... purely sensory nerve. * There is no known ganglion of the accessory nerve. The cranial part of the accessory nerve sends ...
Sylvius University of New Mexico Georgetown (CS1: long volume value, Accessory nerve, Cranial nerve nuclei, Medulla oblongata) ... Routal RV, Pal GP (2000). "Location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the human spinal cord". J. Anat. 196 ( Pt 2 ... Ullah M, Mansor O, Ismail ZI, Kapitonova MY, Sirajudeen KN (2007). "Localization of the spinal nucleus of accessory nerve in ... The nucleus ambiguus is classically said to provide the "cranial component" of the accessory nerve. However, the very existence ...
Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their ... The styloglossus is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) like all muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus which is ... innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus draws up the sides of the tongue to create a trough ...
An accessory obturator nerve may be present in approximately 8% to 29% of the general population. Anterior branch of obturator ... nerve Posterior branch of obturator nerve Cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve The obturator nerve is responsible for the ... The obturator nerve in human anatomy arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves in the ... The obturator nerve originates from the anterior divisions of the L2, L3, and L4 spinal nerve roots. It descends through the ...
There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to the ... Regional Nerve Blocks of the Head and Neck", Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 147-151, doi:10.1016/ ... Nerve plexus, Spinal nerves, Nerves of the head and neck). ... Nerves and Nerve Injuries, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 441- ... also by dorsal scapular nerve (C5) from Brachial plexus Plan of the cervical plexus. The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of ...
"Edinger-Westphal nucleus: The accessory nucleus of the 3rd oculomotor nerve. Named with Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal; Edinger ...
The greater nerve to the muscle is the femoral nerve. Unlike the obturator accessory nerve, the femoral nerve is always present ... a branch of the obturator nerve called the accessory obturator nerve. When it is present, the accessory obturator nerve ... The muscle is also innervated by the accessory obturator nerve in the 8.7% of cases in which the nerve occurs. Its primary ... complex than the brachial plexus and gives rise to a number of nerves including the femoral nerve and accessory obturator nerve ...
Level IIa: Anterio-medial to the vertical plane of the accessory nerve. Level IIb: Postero-lateral to this plane. Level III: ... Level V: Posterior triangle nodes - around the lower half of the spinal accessory nerve and the transverse cervical artery, and ... around the upper third of the internal jugular vein and adjacent accessory nerve. The upper boundary is the base of the skull ... Vertical plane defined by the spinal accessory nerve Level IIB: Skull base, Horizontal plane defined by the inferior body of ...
Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... For example, the hypoglossal nerve or masseteric nerve on the affected side can be used as donor nerves. This donor nerve is ... Here the nerve stimulator can be used in identifying the donor motor nerve to the masseter muscle. Once the nerve is identified ... This donor nerve is then attached to the distal end of the paralysed facial nerve. Techniques for donor nerve transfers are ...
The spinal accessory nerve can often be found 1 cm above Erb's point. Erb's point is formed by the union of the C5 and C6 nerve ... At the nerve trunk, branches of suprascapular nerves and the nerve to the subclavius also merge. The merged nerve divides into ... From here, the accessory nerve courses through the posterior triangle of the neck to enter the anterior border of the trapezius ... through the radial nerve); and the deltoid (through the axillary nerve). The effect is called "Erb's palsy". Typically, an ...
The intermediate compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve, and the accessory nerve. The posterior ... Anatomy of the Vagus Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... The larger, posterolateral, "pars vascularis" compartment contains CN X, CN XI, Arnold's nerve (or the auricular branch of CN X ... It allows many structures to pass, including the inferior petrosal sinus, three cranial nerves, the sigmoid sinus, and ...
... it receives a communicating branch from the accessory obturator nerve when that nerve is present. Choi, Eun Joo; Byun, Jong Min ... The anterior branch of the obturator nerve is a branch of the obturator nerve found in the pelvis and leg. It leaves the pelvis ... Near the obturator foramen the nerve gives off an articular branch to the hip joint. Behind the pectineus, it distributes ... Nerves of the lower limb and lower torso, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
The foramen ovale is behind and lateral to this; it transmits the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and ... It causes the superior lateral nasal occipital nerve to malfunction. In many mammals, e.g. the dog, the greater wing of the ... it is a short canal that transmits the middle meningeal vessels and a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve. The foramen ... for transmission of the lesser petrosal nerve. The lateral surface [Fig. 2] is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the ...
In some individuals, accessory upper subscapular nerve or accessory lower subscapular nerve may be found. Polcaro, Lauren; ... Subscapular nerves can refer to: Upper subscapular nerve Thoracodorsal nerve (middle subscapular nerve) Lower subscapular nerve ... These nerves are part of a group of nerves that innervate the muscles that move the scapula. The upper subscapular nerve ... The middle subscapular nerve, known as the thoracodorsal nerve, innervates the latissimus dorsi muscle. The lower subscapular ...
"The Modified Eden-Lange Tendon Transfer for Lateral Scapular Winging Secondary to Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury". Arthroscopy ... The dorsal scapular nerve is at risk for intraoperative injury when detaching the rhomboid and levator scapulae insertions due ... This is of particular concern because the dorsal scapular nerve innervates all three muscles transferred in the Eden-Lange ... Symptomatic trapezius palsy lasting longer than 1 year indicates tendon transfer, since spontaneous recovery and nerve repair ...
... and the accessory (XI) nerves. Lies at the anterolateral margins of the f. magnum and transmits the hypoglossal (XII) nerve. ... It transmits the medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries. Lies in the ... It transmits the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nerves into a canal in the petrous temporal bone. Lies ...
In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain ... The Na⁺-K⁺ pump has been shown to control and set the intrinsic activity mode of cerebellar Purkinje neurons, accessory ... Skou JC (February 1957). "The influence of some cations on an adenosine triphosphatase from peripheral nerves". Biochimica et ... and it has particular significance for excitable cells such as nerve cells, which depend on this pump to respond to stimuli and ...
The N and E protein are accessory proteins that interfere with the host's immune response. Human angiotensin converting enzyme ... the exact mechanism by which it invades the CNS remains unclear and may first involve invasion of peripheral nerves given the ...
Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and ... From above T1, proprioceptive primary axons enter the spinal cord and ascend ipsilaterally until reaching the accessory cuneate ... It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots. The nerve roots ... As these nerves travel from their respective roots to their point of exit from the vertebral column, the nerves of the lower ...
Accessories, such as shoes, boots, purses, belts, buttons, wallets, and lamp shades, are all made out of reptile skin. In 1986 ... Viperines can sense their prey's infrared radiation through bare nerve endings on the skin of their heads. Also, viperines and ...
R.I.N.G." (Robomatic Internalized Nerve Ganglia), a top secret military robot in the episode of the same name (1975) In The Six ... the PlayStation 2 accessory robot-girl from Fred Gallagher's Megatokyo Pintsize, an AnthroPC from Questionable Content; also ...
The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Teres minor muscle Accessory muscles of the scapula This article incorporates ... A pseudoganglion has no nerve cells but nerve fibres are present. Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is ... The nerve should be detected adjacent to the vessel. In an elevated arm position the axillary neurovascular bundle can be seen ... Suprascapular and axillary nerves of right side, seen from behind. (Teres minor is visible at center.) Diagram of the human ...
The phrenic nerve is oriented vertically as it passes in front of the anterior scalene, while the subclavian vein is oriented ... Because they elevate the upper ribs, they also act as accessory muscles of respiration, along with the sternocleidomastoids. ... Since the nerves of the brachial plexus pass through the space between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, that area is ... The nerve block, called an interscalene block, may be performed prior to arm or shoulder surgery. According to the medical ...
From these lead a pair of nerve cords which run along either side of the body beside the longitudinal muscle bands. The primary ... Details of the process and the behaviour involved vary with the species, and there is a range of different accessory ...
Exophthalmos gradually develops, going on later to a complete loss of sight due to compression of the optic nerve by the ... the nose and its accessory sinuses. ...
The mechanism of action is thought to be stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. Systemic immediate release opioids are beneficial ... Other respiratory muscles include the external and internal intercostal muscles, the abdominal muscles and the accessory ... Neurological conditions such as spinal cord injury, phrenic nerve injuries, Guillain-Barré syndrome, amyotrophic lateral ... pronounced use of accessory muscles (sternocleidomastoid, scalenes) and absent breath sounds. A number of scales may be used to ...
Since the nerves damaged in CES are actually peripheral nerves because they have already branched off from the spinal cord, the ... As SCI patients have reduced total lung capacity and tidal volume, physical therapists teach them accessory breathing ... The nerves in this area are connected to the very lowest region of the spinal cord, and retaining sensation and function in ... Thus it is not a true spinal cord syndrome since it is nerve roots that are damaged and not the cord itself; however, it is ...
His name is associated with accessory lacrimal glands known as "Ciaccio's glands". In 1845, he earned his degree in medicine ... 5-9 - About the final distribution of nerves in the electric organs of torpedo fish. Osservazioni intorno alla struttura della ... 821-830, e 2 tavole di 24figure - Observations involving motor nerve terminations in the striated muscle of torpedo fish, etc. ... He also made contributions involving research of peripheral nerve fiber terminations in vertebrates (e.g. torpedo fish). The ...
The fourth remanded accessory suspect was released from detention and cleared of charges on 1 September, leaving Bouanane as ... Zubier suffered a severed spinal cord and severe nerve damage and lost his mobility. He was critical of some by-standers who ... "KRP: Viimeinen Turun puukotusten osallisuudesta epäilty on vapautettu" [NBI: Last accessory suspect in Turku stabbings released ...
... and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves. Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either ... Most mammals and reptiles have a main olfactory system and an accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system detects ... Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ...
An accessory spleen is a small splenic nodule extra to the spleen usually formed in early embryogenesis. Accessory spleens are ... The spleen is innervated by the splenic plexus, which connects a branch of the celiac ganglia to the vagus nerve. The ... These accessory spleens are non-functional. Splenic infarction is a condition in which blood flow supply to the spleen is ... There are other openings present for lymphatic vessels and nerves. Like the thymus, the spleen possesses only efferent ...
Marianne Kirby, writing in The Guardian, said the "collection struck a nerve with its iconic pieces" and that it was an " ... It sells plus-size clothing, lingerie, wide-fitting shoes, swimwear and accessories. Evans was founded in 1930 by the ...
A natural cast of the posterior brain, skull vessels and nerves, and the inner ear of Dinilysia patagonica is described by ... Two specimens assigned to the species Saniwa ensidens, preserving an accessory foramen in the skull indicative of the presence ... A study on the anatomy of the brain, inner ear, nasal cavity and skull nerves of Proganochelys quenstedti, and on its ...
He cites Pérez as an influence and found it "nerve-wracking" to supplant him. Furthermore, the large cast made it the most ... In 2011, a Marvel Universe toyline two-pack included Thanos, Warlock, an Infinity Gauntlet accessory for Warlock, and a reprint ... several Thanos action figures have been created in the years since that include the Infinity Gauntlet either as an accessory or ...
"Regulation of functional diversity within the Nedd4 family by accessory and adaptor proteins". BioEssays. 28 (6): 617-28. doi: ... modulation in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain". Neuroscience. 227: 370-80. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.09 ...
These nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are located in the central nervous system and at the nerve-muscle junction of skeletal ... This includes smoking products and accessories. Implementing these policies can be challenging, all of these countries ... Some smokers argue that the depressant effect of smoking allows them to calm their nerves, often allowing for increased ... Many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate, alertness and ...
... and information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb, which is relatively large in strepsirrhines. From the accessory ... The upper lip is constrained by this connection and has fewer nerves to control movement, which leaves it less mobile than the ... The tympanic cavity in lorisoids also has two accessory air spaces, which are not present in lemurs. Both lorisoids and ...
The dentist may also remove just the coronal portion of the dental pulp, which contains 90% of the nerve tissue, and leave ... also due to the difficulty of reaching the accessory canals which are minute canals that extend in from the pulp to the ... Root canals, and their associated pulp chamber, are the physical hollows within a tooth that are naturally inhabited by nerve ... Further occurrences of pain could indicate the presence of continuing infection or retention of vital nerve tissue.[citation ...
Stimulation sends nerve signals via the internal pudendal nerves to the upper lumbar spine; the nerve signals causing ... The prostate is the only accessory gland that occurs in male dogs. Dogs can produce in one hour as much prostatic fluid as a ... The prostate is both an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and a muscle-driven mechanical switch between urination ... Other treatments that are not medications may include physical therapy, psychotherapy, nerve modulators, and surgery. More ...
Accessory nail of the fifth toe Accessory tragus (ear tag, preauricular appendage, preauricular tag) Amniotic band syndrome ( ... myxoma of the nerve sheath, myxomatous perineurioma, nerve sheath myxoma) Nevus flammeus (capillary malformation, port-wine ... cervical accessory tragus, wattle) Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of ... solitary nerve sheath tumor, sporadic neurofibroma) Spider angioma (nevus araneus, spider telangiectasia, spider nevus, ...
Definitive care may include catheter ablation.[citation needed] AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) requires an accessory pathway ... both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such ... where the impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back up to the atria through the accessory pathway) or ... or even higher if an accessory pathway is present). However, new-onset atrial fibrillation tends to present with rates between ...
... leaving what is left to be called the spinal accessory nerve. Hypoglossal nerve (Cranial nerve 12) leads to muscles of the ... Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1) Smell. See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. See also: ... See cranial nerve section Olfactory nerve (#1) smell. See cranial nerve section Trigeminal nerve (#5) facial sensation biting ... particularly Optic nerve (#2) sight, Oculomotor nerve (#3) eye movement, Trochlear nerve (#4) eye rotation, Abducens nerve (#6 ...
The surgery involves an autograft of the palmaris longus tendon (mostly seen as an accessory tendon) or an allograft of tissue ... One patient developed postoperative ulnar nerve damage. Two patients had damages to the posteromedial part of the olecranon and ...
The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve XI, or simply CN XI, is a cranial nerve that ... and accessory nerves. The accessory nerve (top left) travels down through the jugular foramen with the other two nerves, and ... "Is the cranial accessory nerve really a portion of the accessory nerve? Anatomy of the cranial nerves in the jugular foramen". ... The spinal accessory nerve continues alone and heads backwards and downwards. In the neck, the accessory nerve crosses the ...
... and other accessories are available for NIM® 3.0 Nerve Monitoring Systems from Medtronic. ... Accessories Electrodes, Probes, and Other Nerve Monitoring Accessories. Nerve Monitoring Accessories for the NIM Systems ... Related Nerve Monitoring Products. Our nerve monitoring products and accessories can be used in conjunction with NIM® Nerve ... With more than 20 years of nerve monitoring experience, our instruments and accessories help make nerve monitoring easier and ...
A publicly available article also appearing in PubMed about Accessory Nerve Injury ... Vagus nerve, Accessory nerve, Acoustic nerve, Facial nerve, Abducens nerve, Trigeminal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Oculomotor ... the cranial and spinal pieces of the nerve come together to form the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). The spinal accessory nerve ... Cranial nerve (CN) XI is also known as the accessory nerve. According to the morphology of the cranial root of the accessory ...
either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the ... Accessory phrenic nerve accessory phrenic nerve accessory phrenic nerve n. any of the accessory nerve strands that arise from ... accessory nerve n.. a nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the side of the medulla, and the ... Accessory nerve. either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Anatomy clinical correlates: Glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (X), spinal accessory ( ... nerves Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... spinal accessory (CN XI) and hypoglossal (CN XII) ... spinal accessory (CN XI) and hypoglossal (CN XII) nerves. ... The glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves, also known as cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII, ...
The accessory nerve originates from neurons in the medulla and in the cervical spinal cord. It has a cranial root, which joins ... Damage to the nerve produces weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation. ... the vagus (10th cranial) nerve and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the larynx, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers ... Accessory Nerve. The 11th cranial nerve. The accessory nerve originates from neurons in the medulla and in the cervical spinal ...
Accessory peroneal nerve incidence in Indian population and familial occurrence. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1973 Jun; ...
Scapular Winging Caused by Combined Palsy of the Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Long Thoracic Nerve: A Case Report. JBJS Case ... Scapular Winging Caused by Combined Palsy of the Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Long Thoracic Nerve : A Case Report. In: JBJS ... Scapular Winging Caused by Combined Palsy of the Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Long Thoracic Nerve : A Case Report. / Ago, ... title = "Scapular Winging Caused by Combined Palsy of the Spinal Accessory Nerve and the Long Thoracic Nerve: A Case Report", ...
Hypoglossal nerve. −. −. −. −. −. Phrenic nerve. −. +. +. +. +. Accessory nerve. −. +. +. +. +. Suprascapular nerve. −. −. +. + ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues Yoshifumi Iwamaru. , Morikazu Imamura, Yuichi Matsuura, ... Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. ...
This nerve performs two major functions. It conveys some sensory information from the tongue and the interior of the mouth. ... The facial nerve is also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN7). ... Accessory nerve. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the ... The facial nerve is also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN7). This nerve performs two major functions. It conveys some ...
nerve answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... SYN: SEE: accessory nerve; SEE: eleventh cranial nerve. SEE: spinal accessory nucleus ... SYN: SEE: acoustic nerve; SEE: cochlear nerve; SEE: eighth cranial nerve; SEE: vestibulocochlear nerve ... pudendal nerve. A mixed nerve composed of axons from spinal nerves S2-S4. It follows the sciatic nerve out of the pelvis but ...
... nerve Genitofemoral nerve Femoral nerve Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve Saphenous nerve Obturator nerve Common peroneal nerve ... Superficial peroneal nerve Deep peroneal nerve Posterior tibial nerve Plantar ... ... Nerve entrapment syndromes of the lower extremity can involve the following nerves and branches thereof: Iliohypogastric nerve ... An accessory nerve may also be present. The accessory peroneal nerve originates from the superficial peroneal nerve and travels ...
The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the 12 cranial nerves (CNs). It supplies sensations to the face, mucous ... It may have accessory roots from other divisions of the mandibular nerve. In some cases, the mylohyoid branch of the inferior ... Lingual nerve - This nerve runs parallel to the inferior alveolar nerve, is joined by the chorda tympani nerve of the facial ... The mandibular nerve has the following 9 branches:. * Recurrent meningeal nerve - This nerve enters the skull via the foramen ...
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are a relatively uncommon but potentially devastating health concern.[1] As an illustration of ... the nerve(s) involved (the spinal accessory nerve is most robust), the location of injury along the nerve (distal injuries have ... spinal accessory nerve, shoulder dislocation - axillary nerve, humerus fracture - radial nerve, elbow dislocation - median ... The accessory nerve from a lymph node biopsy of the posterior triangle of the neck and the median nerve from a carpal tunnel ...
Ansa cervicalis as a variant of spinal accessory nerve plexus: a case report. Khaki AA, Shokouhi G, Shoja MM, Farahani RM, ... An unusual course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Khaki AA, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Zarrintan S. Khaki AA, et al. Among ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... Cranial nerve abnormalities can be present and these can include a facial or eyelid droop. Difficulty swallowing or speaking ... Ventral and dorsal nerve roots may demonstrate a signal abnormality as well and are typically enhancing. The conus medullaris ... Higher cuts of the brain stem or a complete brain MRI should be considered in a patient with cranial nerve deficits. Clearly ...
Accessory Nerve (Cranial Nerve XI). *Acetylcholine. *Acoustic Neuroma - Contemporary Management of Sporadic Vestibular ...
Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves Control * Practical 1 The Vertebral Column And Spinal Cord ...
accessory nerve. Cranial nerve XI; controls swallowing movements. ►click here to learn more-This link is provided by: ... abducens nerve. Cranial nerve VI; motor neuron controlling the lateral rectus muscles (lateral eye movement) and retractor ... click here to learn more (press,cranial nerves) - Link provided by: University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine ► ... click here to learn more (press,cranial nerves)-This link is provided by: University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary ...
accessory nerve. Cranial nerve XI; controls swallowing movements. ►click here to learn more-This link is provided by: ... abducens nerve. Cranial nerve VI; motor neuron controlling the lateral rectus muscles (lateral eye movement) and retractor ... click here to learn more (press,cranial nerves) - Link provided by: University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine ► ... click here to learn more (press,cranial nerves)-This link is provided by: University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary ...
Terminal Innervation Patterns of the Accessory Nerve in the Human Neck Muscles. SCM will be harvested from cadavers and tissues ...
Spinal root of accessory nerve 13 . Hypoglossal nerve root (XII) (other rootlets of this nerve also visible) ... Roots glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus (X), and accessory (XI) 12 . ... which can be traced laterally across several rootlets of the ninth and tenth nerves. ...
There may also be accessory nerve involvement that can lead to difficulty holding the head up. Next slide. ... Cranial nerve abnormalities can be present and these can include a facial or eyelid droop. Difficulty swallowing or speaking ... Ventral and dorsal nerve roots may demonstrate a signal abnormality as well and are typically enhancing. The conus medullaris ... Higher cuts of the brain stem or a complete brain MRI should be considered in a patient with cranial nerve deficits. Clearly ...
Injury of accessory nerve - English → Magyar. Injury of abdominal aorta - English → Magyar. Injury of axillary artery - English ... Injury of other nerves at ankle and foot level - English → Magyar. Injury of sciatic nerve at hip and thigh level - English → ... Injury of other nerves at wrist and hand level - English → Magyar. Injury of median nerve at wrist and hand level - English → ... Injury of radial nerve at wrist and hand level - English → Magyar. Injury of nerves and spinal cord at neck level - English → ...
Neuropraxia of the spinal accessory nerve after Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(9):1192-1195. ... Facial nerve injury is a common adverse event of oncologic surgery of the head and neck, and various facial nerve injury ... KEYWORDS: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, facial nerve, Mohs micrographic surgery, nerve injury. Dermatofibrosarcoma ... the Facial Nerve Grading Scale 2.0, are most commonly used.25 However, no evidence of any form of consistent nerve injury ...
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Electromyography and biopsy of the spinal accessory nerve or the sacrodorsalis caudalis muscle are useful in diagnosis. ... Narrowing of the lumbosacral vertebral canal or intervertebral foramina results in compression of the cauda equina or nerve ... Degeneration and subsequent herniation of the intervertebral disk results in compression of the spinal cord, spinal nerve, or ... There may be thoracic limb lameness (nerve root signature) or neurologic deficits, ranging from mild tetraparesis to ...
  • FInd information about the trigeminal nerve, including its functions, how doctors test it, and the conditions associated. (
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the 12 cranial nerves (CNs). (
  • Schematic representation of the trigeminal nerve with its central connections. (
  • The semilunar (gasserian or trigeminal) ganglion is the great sensory ganglion of CN V. It contains the sensory cell bodies of the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary divisions). (
  • Burkett et al successfully visualized trigeminal fibers entering the pons at the nerve root entry zone (NREZ) and descending through the spinal trigeminal tract using robust diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). (
  • The nerves that innervate the structures originating from the branchial arches are the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), facial (cranial nerve VII), glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), vagus (cranial nerve X) and the spinal accessory (cranial nerve XI) nerves. (
  • The trigeminal nerve innervates structures originating from the branchial arches. (
  • The mental nerve is a somatic afferent (sensorial) nerve and corresponds to the terminal branch of the mandibular nerve, which is the third division of the trigeminal nerve. (
  • The large spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve is a conspicuous object in sections through the pons and medulla oblongata. (
  • The small motor part of the trigeminal nerve is distributed chiefly to the muscles of mastication, and derives its fibres from the motor nucleus. (
  • Finally, reaching the level of the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, the fibres of the mesencephalic root turn forwards and are said to join the sensory part (Johnston) of the trigeminal nerve. (
  • Cranial nerve XI, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical neck. (
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates baroreceptors in the carotid sinus, while the vagus nerve innervates baroreceptors in the aortic arch . (
  • Also, this nerve innervates facial muscles, controlling how to contract and produce facial expressions. (
  • Sometimes there is a middle superior alveolar nerve that innervates the premolars and first molar. (
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (
  • A sensory branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3) It passes through the parotid gland en route to the ear, where it innervates skin of the pinna, external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane. (
  • What cranial nerve innervates the forehead muscles? (
  • Together with the trochlear and abducens nerves, this nerve innervates the external muscles of your eyeball and controls the size of the pupil, thus protecting it from over exposure to too much light. (
  • Which Nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle? (
  • Which nerve innervates the SCM and upper trapezius? (
  • The incisive nerve runs intraosseously along with veins and innervates anterior mandibular teeth (incisors, canines, and premolars) 3 . (
  • The medial pectoral nerve primarily innervates the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major and could provide a small contribution to the clavicular head. (
  • Both the cranial roots of the accessory nerve and the vagus nerve originate from the nucleus ambiguus and dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and travel to the laryngeal muscles, supplying the motor fibers. (
  • either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the pharyngeal, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and motor fibers from the brain that join the vagus to innervate the thoracic and abdominal viscera. (
  • It has a cranial root, which joins the vagus (10th cranial) nerve and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the larynx, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid muscles. (
  • Needle examination should be completed for the paraspinal muscles, as well as for the iliopsoas (also L2-3) and hip adductors supplied by the obturator nerve, to help distinguish root or plexus injury from peripheral nerve injury. (
  • Muscles from the quadriceps (femoral nerve), as well as the paraspinal muscles, must be examined and found to be normal before an obturator nerve injury can be diagnosed. (
  • The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the movement of certain neck muscles. (
  • It is the motor nerve for the muscles of mastication and contains proprioceptive fibers. (
  • Additionally, it involves accessory muscles of inspiration, maintain posture of neck and body and allows a correct function of temporo mandibular joint. (
  • If the doctor suspects nerve damage, they may then use a technique - called electromyography - to record the electrical activity produced by the skeletal muscles. (
  • A doctor may recommend a nerve and muscle transfer, in which a surgeon transplants healthy muscles and nerves from another part of the body to repair the damage. (
  • There are 12 cranial nerves which are divided into nerves for the special senses, the motor nerves for the head muscles, and the nerves innervating the structures originating from thebranchial arches. (
  • Cranial nerves that innervate the muscles in the head include the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), abducens (cranial nerve VI) and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII) nerves. (
  • This is another motor nerve that functions to control the eye muscles, enabling you to turn the eyes. (
  • This nerve supplies the muscles, which help you to chew, and the taste buds in the tongue, which enable you to taste. (
  • This motor nerve supplies other muscles to the eyes and enables you to turn your eyes laterally (to the outer side). (
  • branch of radial nerve 'movable mass' of muscles. (
  • A complex network of muscles, nerves, joints, and bones allow for the greater movement and dexterity of the human hand. (
  • Here it is traversed and broken up into separate bundles by the olivo-cerebellar fibres and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. (
  • The nerves that serve your special senses are the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the ocular (cranial nerve II) and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). (
  • The 11th cranial nerve is also known as the accessory nerve. (
  • The 11th cranial nerve. (
  • The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD . (
  • and the trochlear nerve, on its way to the surface, runs downwards in its concavity and on its medial aspect. (
  • The oculomotor nerve is the third of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the brain. (
  • The oculomotor nerve serves to lift the eyelid, rotate the eyeball superiorly, and constrict the opening of the eye (pupil) on exposure to light. (
  • Damage to the oculomotor nerve may result in abnormal eye movements (strabismus) or absence of pupillary light reflexes. (
  • Subsequent anatomic study reported a possible plexus composed of both cervical nerves and contributions from the SAN that collectively provided trapezial motor innervation. (
  • In the upper arm and near the shoulder, the median nerve branches off of the brachial plexus. (
  • Ansa cervicalis as a variant of spinal accessory nerve plexus: a case report. (
  • Each person experiences brachial plexus injuries differently, depends on the nerves injured and at what location. (
  • Nineteen chapters describe the anatomical relations of the peripheral nerves in the upper and in the lower limb, of the brachial plexus, of the intrapelvic course of the femoral and sciatic nerves, and of the nerves of the abdominal wall. (
  • I particularly liked the chapters describing exposure of the suprascapular and the circumflex nerves, of the course and variations of the sciatic and of the femoral nerves and most especially the account of David Kline's own operation, the posterior or subscapular approach to the most proximal segment of the spinal nerves passing to the brachial plexus and upper limb. (
  • Chapter 25: Surgical Anatomy of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (p316). (
  • The classic and much-used Gray's Anatomy assigned cervical nerves to a proprioceptive sensory role, with only the SAN providing motor innervation to the trapezius. (
  • This activity reviews the anatomy of the nerve and describes the evaluation and treatment of accessory nerve injury. (
  • Review the anatomy of the accessory nerve. (
  • Now, we know that cranial nerves can be a hard pill to swallow, but soon you'll see that by knowing the anatomy and the important functions of these nerves, the clinical presentations and the management of these injuries isn't so difficult to understand. (
  • This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis. (
  • In order to understand each grade of nerve injury, it is important to be familiar with the basic anatomy of the peripheral nerve. (
  • 10,11 Given the complex neurovascular anatomy of the head and neck, compounded with the propensity for deep tissue invasion, neurologic deficits, either from direct tumor invasion into neural tissue or damage to nerves during surgical treatment, are a reasonably expected complication. (
  • Cranial Nerves Anatomy Exam Quiz! (
  • This quiz has been created to test your knowledge about Cranial Nerve, including anatomy, function, and dysfunctions. (
  • A sensory study of the saphenous nerve (continuation of the sensory portion of the femoral nerve over the medial aspect of the leg and ankle) may also be performed. (
  • The medial cutaneous nerve is located in the arm. (
  • The mental nerve emerges at the MF and divides into four branches: angular (innervation of the angle of the mouth region), medial and lateral inferior labial (skin of the lower lip, oral mucosa, and gingiva as far posterior as the second premolar), and mental branch (skin of the mental region) 6 . (
  • Physical examination of the medial pectoral nerve includes the motor examination of the pectoralis major muscle. (
  • Note that pectoralis major heads could be cross innervated by the lateral and medial pectoral nerve, hence the variation and range of root origins for these nerves. (
  • The ulnar nerve courses posterior to the medial epicondyle, and olecranon before entering the cubital tunnel. (
  • Less commonly, other locations include the medial intermuscular septum, medial epicondyle, hypertrophy of the medial head of the Triceps Brachii, fascial bands within FCU, accessory anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, or aponeurosis of FDS proximal edge. (
  • The facial nerve is also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN7) . (
  • Most problems involving the facial nerve include paralysis, commonly with Bell's palsy . (
  • Two patients with DFSP involving facial nerve danger zones treated by the multidisciplinary team with MMS and subsequent reconstruction were studied. (
  • From our research, only 10 of 46 patients with facial DFSP had neurologic functional status reported, with four of these cases having notable facial nerve deficits. (
  • Given the locally aggressive nature of the tumor, and presumed proximity to the temporal branch of the facial nerve, a multidisciplinary surgical approach (intraoperative Mohs micrographic surgery [iMMS]) was planned with both Mohs and otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons. (
  • and then lower down, between the restiform body and the nucleus of the facial nerve (Fig. 498, p. 565). (
  • The inferior alveolar nerve (from CN V3) runs in the mandibular canal, giving off branches to the lower teeth and gingivae as it passes. (
  • The mandibular nerve has sensory and motor functions. (
  • The motor root passes under the ganglion to join the sensory division of the mandibular nerve and exits the skull through foramen ovale. (
  • It divides into three branches called the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve. (
  • Damage to the nerve produces weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation. (
  • He ended up with a severed spinal accessory nerve that weakened his left shoulder and arm. (
  • It exits the skull through the jugular foramen adjacent to the vagus nerve. (
  • [2] The spinal accessory nerve descends alongside the internal jugular vein, coursing posterior to the styloid process, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) before entering the posterior cervical triangle. (
  • The accessory nerve leaves the jugular foramen along with the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and vagus nerve (CN X). It travels to the SCM, either superficial or deep, and then enters the trapezius muscle, where a major trunk of the accessory nerve converges with C2, C3, or both. (
  • The most common cause for accessory nerve injury is iatrogenic, such as lymph node biopsies that involve the posterior triangle of the neck, neck surgeries including removal of a tumor, carotid or internal jugular vein surgeries, neck dissection (including radical, selective, and modified), or cosmetic surgery (e.g., facelift) from the mechanical stress exerted on the neck due to positioning throughout the procedure. (
  • Examples are a tumor at the jugular foramen, which causes cranial nerve palsies such as Collet-Sicard syndrome, involving the cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII, and Vernet syndrome, involving the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. (
  • Next, let's discuss jugular foramen syndrome , which refers to a collection of symptoms that arise when cranial nerves IX , X, and XI, which all pass through the jugular foramen, are damaged in that area. (
  • Any obstructions or lesions, most commonly tumors in the area, but also trauma or an abscess , can damage these cranial nerves and cause jugular foramen syndrome . (
  • The regional lymph nodes of the head and neck include the lymph nodes that run parallel to the jugular veins, spinal accessory nerve, and facial artery, and into the submandibular triangle. (
  • Nerve supply of SCM from the spinal root of accessory nerve (motor) and ventral rami of c2 and c3 (proprioception) [3]. (
  • Ganglion cells in the inner lining of the eye called retina receive the captured images and send them to the brain through the optic nerve. (
  • Serious injury to the retina or the optic nerve can lead to blindness or anopsia. (
  • Abnormal findings of the optic cranial nerve includes visual field loss and papilledema. (
  • Papilledema is swelling of the optic nerve. (
  • If the Optic nerve is cut at the optic chaism, what kind of deficit to vision will occur? (
  • If the optic nerve is lesioned at the tract, what will you get? (
  • In 1933, Bardeen suggested that the origin of motor input to the trapezius muscle was purely from the cervical nerves. (
  • This pain is caused from surgical injury to the cervical nerves. (
  • Studies show that the rate of RLN injury is under-estimated 1-6 and intraoperative nerve monitoring of the RLN is recommended as a risk-minimizing tool. (
  • If nerve function changes, the NIM System alerts you with visual and audible warnings to help reduce the risk of patient injury. (
  • High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) allows visualization of the normal SAN, as well as changes after accessory nerve injury. (
  • 9, 10, 11] Likewise, methods of nerve repair following surgical injury have been also been investigated. (
  • However, the accessory nerve is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. (
  • Other possible sources of injury are neurological, in which the nerve or the foramen it passes through are affected, leading to CN XI palsy. (
  • Certain neck surgeries can result in iatrogenic injury to the accessory nerve. (
  • Some sports injuries can cause accessory nerve damage, such as a hockey stick blow, a sling knot, wrestling, a noose in an unsuccessful hanging, and a "whiplash" injury. (
  • [10] Spontaneous isolated accessory nerve injury has also been observed. (
  • The accessory nerve injury most likely occurs due to iatrogenic causes, such as posterior and lateral cervical triangle surgeries. (
  • Injury of these nerves can affect important functions like swallowing, the gag reflex , breathing, and even cardiac output . (
  • Pseudobulbar palsy , on the other hand, refers to a bilateral upper motor neuron lesion of cranial nerves XI, X, XI and XII, caused by more supra nuclear proximal damage to motor fibers somewhere between the cortex and the medulla leading to an upper motor neuron injury. (
  • Needle electromyography (EMG) of the lower abdominal musculature may serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of iliohypogastric nerve injury. (
  • Although abdominal needle EMG may help determine the severity of ilioinguinal nerve injury, it is neither sensitive nor specific. (
  • Electrodiagnostic testing typically is performed for diagnosis of femoral nerve entrapment, but it is also important for determining the extent of the injury and the prognosis for recovery. (
  • Needle examination should include the quadriceps and the adductor longus to assess for femoral and obturator nerve injury. (
  • Membrane instability (positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials) will occur within 3 weeks of the nerve injury, and needle examination should be performed on patients with groin pain of longer than 3 months in whom this neuropathy is suspected. (
  • Symptoms of nerve injury include paresthesias, loss of sensation and position sense, impaired motor function, cranial nerve malfunction, changes in reflexes, and impairments in glandular secretion. (
  • The assessment of nerve injury includes a careful neurological examination, sometimes accompanied by tests, e.g., electromyography or nerve conduction studies. (
  • Grade VI - multifocal mixed injury of the nerve. (
  • An example of a clean, sharp injury would be an incision using a scalpel with a resultant transection of the nerve. (
  • A ragged, contusion injury may result from a projectile with nerve involvement. (
  • It can happen as a result of injury or nerve damage. (
  • Tail amputation causes peripheral nerve injury that might be associated with lasting chronic pain. (
  • Tail amputation injury typically involves the severing of the caudal nerves in the tail which lead to the formation of "traumatic" or "amputation" neuromas in the tail stump ( 9 ). (
  • In humans, the development of traumatic neuromas after amputation-induced nerve injury can be a significant cause of pain and is associated with the phenomenon of residual stump pain and phantom limb pain, which is classified as a neuropathic pain state ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Injury to this nerve can cause a loss of sense of smell or anosmia. (
  • Electromyography and nerve conduction study can be useful to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other etiologies, especially when surgery is being considered. (
  • My saga started in September 2015 after having an intramuscular ulnar nerve transposition on my left arm. (
  • Turns out my ulnar nerve was "in horrendous condition. (
  • Wrist extension combined with ulnar branch of radial nerve shaft, and superficial deviation. (
  • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, sometimes called Sulcus Ulnaris Syndrome or Retrocondylar Groove Syndrome, is a compressive neuropathy of the ulnar nerve most commonly at the level of the cubital tunnel. (
  • It is the second most common neuropathy of the upper extremity behind carpal tunnel syndrome, and the most common location for compression of the ulnar nerve. (
  • 290 surgical procedures for ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow: physiopathology, clinical experience and results. (
  • Onset is often acute or subacute with paresthesia in an ulnar nerve distribution. (
  • MRI may sho ulnar nerve thickening, T2 hyperintensity and edema-like signal changes. (
  • The cranial nerves are twelve pairs of nerves that travel outside the skull via foramina to innervate various structures. (
  • the inferior alveolar nerves innervate the lower teeth and gingivae. (
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerves, branches of the infraorbital nerve (from CN V2), run in canals in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and innervate the upper incisors, canines, premolars, and often part of the first molar. (
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerves (also from CN V2) innervate the rest of the upper molars. (
  • In the case of dorsal scapular nerve damage, the doctor will likely suggest physical therapy. (
  • It is the smallest cranial nerve and it supplies the dorsal oblique eye muscle. (
  • branch of radial nerve thirds of the dorsal forearm, midway between the ulna and radius. (
  • Describe the common and less common etiologies of accessory nerve injuries. (
  • Outline the management considerations for patients with accessory nerve injuries. (
  • Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are a relatively uncommon but potentially devastating health concern. (
  • Closed" injuries involve the nerve trunk with sparing of the integument, while "open" injuries involve damage to both the nerve trunk and the adjacent integument. (
  • The ragged injuries lead to an increased inflammatory response with nerve fiber disruption, fiber displacement, and potential foreign body contamination. (
  • In general, neurapraxia follows compression or entrapment, axonotmesis is commonly the result of crush and stretch injuries, and neurotmesis is found after sharp, traction, avulsion, and toxic damage to a nerve. (
  • Traumatic injuries and spinal accessory nerve damage are more likely to require surgery. (
  • David Kline and Alan Hudson wrote Nerve injuries , a work of exceptional importance which was published in 1995. (
  • Cranial nerves are pairs of nerves connected to the brain to different head, neck, and trunk parts. (
  • accessory phrenic nerve accessory phrenic nerve n. any of the accessory nerve strands that arise from the fifth cervical nerve, often as branches of the nerve to the subclavius, and p-ss downward to join the phrenic nerve. (
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory. (
  • The ophthalmic nerve or V1 has a sensory function and it further subdivides into the lacrimal, the frontal, the nasociliary and the infratrochlear branches. (
  • Anatomic study of the SAN has long maintained a debate as to the exact contributions of this nerve and other cervical motor nerves to the innervation of the trapezius muscle. (
  • Visceral motor nerves can contain pre- or postganglionic sympathetic or parasympathetic axons. (
  • A cutaneous nerve of the forearm. (
  • The cause of the pain is interruption of the intercostobrachial nerve, a cutaneous sensory branch of T1-T2. (
  • The descriptions of the course and relations of nerves of cutaneous sensation in the lower limb and of the nerves of the abdominal wall is particularly good and of direct relevance in the treatment of patients who have had accidental damage to those nerves. (
  • This explains the unpredictable motor and sensory deficits that arise from transection of the nerves to this muscle. (
  • Axonotmesis is a term that describes the range of PNIs that are more severe than a minor insult, such as those resulting in neurapraxia, yet less severe than the transection of the nerve, as observed in neurotmesis. (
  • Grades V is considered neurotmesis, which is a complete nerve transection. (
  • Traumatic neuromas are defined as truncated, tangled non-neoplastic proliferations of epineurial, perineurial, and endoneurial connective tissue, Schwann cells and axons which are attempting to regenerate after nerve transection ( 10 ). (
  • First, let's discuss bulbar palsy , which refers to a unilateral lower motor neuron lesion of cranial nerves IX , X, XI and XII, and it's caused by a lesion in the medulla that affects the nucleus ambiguus and the hypoglossal nucleus. (
  • A 37-year-old man with scapular winging, caused by combined palsy of the spinal accessory nerve and the long thoracic nerve, was successfully treated with a pectoralis major transfer to substitute for the serratus anterior muscle, and with levator scapulae and rhomboid muscle transfers to substitute for the trapezius muscle. (
  • The serratus anterior paralysis was thought to have occurred secondary to traction of the long thoracic nerve by the unsupported scapula following the spinal accessory nerve palsy. (
  • Bell's Palsy is associated with which nerve? (
  • With nerve conduction studies, the technique includes using a bar electrode for recording and reference. (
  • This can be performed with either antidromic (conduction against the direction of sensory fiber conduction) or orthodromic (conduction in the direction of nerve conduction) methods. (
  • No routine conduction studies are available with which to evaluate the integrity of the obturator nerve, and the needle examination is the mainstay of testing with electrodiagnosis. (
  • I was sent for an EMG and nerve conduction study. (
  • These nerves supply sensation to parts of the teeth and palate. (
  • Considering that nerves accountable for making a person feel and move, any condition that changes the sense of sensation should wear sandals for protection. (
  • From most superficial to the deepest structures, the peripheral nerve contains epineurium, epifascicular epineurium intervening between fascicles, perineurium covering individual fascicles, endoneurium envelops axons that are wrapped by a myelin sheath and Schwann cells. (
  • accessory nerve n. a nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the cranial set, arising from the side of the medulla, and the spinal set, arising from the ventrolateral part of the first five cervical segments of the spinal cord. (
  • The accessory nerve originates from neurons in the medulla and in the cervical spinal cord. (
  • The neuronal cell bodies of a nerve's axons are in the brain, the spinal cord, or ganglia, but the nerves run only in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • A nerve that conducts impulses toward the brain or spinal cord. (
  • Nerves arising directly from the brain are called cranial nerves, while those arising from the spinal cord are called peripheral nerves. (
  • The REEP1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), which is found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The inferior margin of the lateral recess of the ventricle is marked by the cut edge of the taenia ventriculi quarti (29) which can be traced laterally across several rootlets of the ninth and tenth nerves. (
  • Abnormal findings of cranial nerve I is anosmia. (
  • A dysfunction in which of the following nerves would cause anosmia? (
  • The nerve extends from the brain stem, at the pons and the medulla. (
  • A somatic motor nerve originating in the abducens nucleus in the pons. (
  • Which cranial nerve does not come from the pons? (
  • Our nerve monitoring products and accessories can be used in conjunction with NIM ® Nerve Monitoring Systems during a variety of surgical procedures. (
  • The presence of more than one MF, referred to as accessory mental foramina (AMF), has been registered by means of dissections, surgical findings, conventional radiographs, spiral computed tomography (CT), and cone beam CT. (
  • This is the largest cranial nerve and it performs many sensory and motor functions. (
  • The maxillary nerve or V2 is also a sensory nerve that branches further into an infraorbital, the zygomatic, andthe pterygopalatine nerves. (
  • Even experienced surgeons find it difficult to visually identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) or vagus nerve during thyroid surgery and other neck dissections. (
  • The traveling pathway of this nerve provides a functional significance to the structures in the posterior neck. (
  • The head and neck surgeon dissected out the temporal nerve to preserve function and allow complete tumor extirpation from the surrounding tissue. (
  • If there is nerve damage, it can also cause weakness in the arms, shoulders, and neck. (
  • These nerves pass from the brain through openings in the skull called foramina, to supply various parts of the head and neck, although some have extensions to the body. (
  • RESULTS: The articular branches of the femoral nerve were stained nearly sufficiently with 20- and 30-mL specimens. (
  • The femoral nerve itself was stained simultaneously in six of 12 (50%) 20-mL specimens and 12 of 12 (100%) 30-mL specimens. (
  • The accessory obturator nerve was observed only in three (9%) of 36 specimens. (
  • 999). Rather, the obturator nerve was affected. (
  • If early rehabilitation is needed, high-volume PENG block might not be the ideal option, and persisting pain after PENG block might be attributed in part to the lack of obturator nerve articular branches blockade. (