Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Extra impulse-conducting tissue in the heart that creates abnormal impulse-conducting connections between HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A protein that takes part in the formation of active interleukin-1 receptor complex. It binds specifically to INTERLEUKIN-1 and the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I at the cell surface to form a heterotrimeric complex that brings its cytoplasmic domain into contact with the cytoplasm domain of the TYPE-I INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR. Activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways from the receptor is believed to be driven by this form of cytoplasmic interaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Diseases of the eleventh cranial (spinal accessory) nerve. This nerve originates from motor neurons in the lower medulla (accessory portion of nerve) and upper spinal cord (spinal portion of nerve). The two components of the nerve join and exit the skull via the jugular foramen, innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which become weak or paralyzed if the nerve is injured. The nerve is commonly involved in MOTOR NEURON DISEASE, and may be injured by trauma to the posterior triangle of the neck.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Tissue distribution has been examined in humans and monkeys. Lacritin is most highly expressed in the lacrimal gland, including ... Cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 is partly responsible. Biotinylated cell surface proteins from a lacritin-responsive cell ... Most lacritin is produced by the lacrimal gland, including the accessory lacrimal gland of Wolfring. Some lacritin is produced ... Lacritin cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1). Binding utilizes an ...
... but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is ... Chloride channel accessory 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 2002). "pCLCA1 becomes a cAMP-dependent chloride conductance mediator in Caco-2 cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 298 (4 ... 2003). "A calcium-activated chloride channel blocker inhibits goblet cell metaplasia and mucus overproduction". Novartis Found ...
Coffey, DS (1988) "Androgen action and the sex accessory tissues". In E Knobil, J Neill (eds), The Physiology of Reproduction. ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle ... Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets. ...
Coffey, DS (1988) "Androgen action and the sex accessory tissues". In E Knobil, J Neill (eds), The Physiology of Reproduction. ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] ... 17β-diol in human mammary cancer cells". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 46 (5): 597-603. doi: ...
Melanocortin 2 Receptor accessory protein (MRAP) traps MC5R protein inside cells. Melanocortin receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Fathi Z, Iben LG, Parker EM (January 1995). "Cloning, expression, and tissue distribution of a fifth melanocortin receptor ... Chhajlani V (February 1996). "Distribution of cDNA for melanocortin receptor subtypes in human tissues". Biochemistry and ... Sebag JA, Hinkle PM (August 2009). "Opposite effects of the melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptor accessory protein MRAP on MC2 and MC5 ...
Cell Tissue Res. 323 (1): 177-82. doi:10.1007/s00441-005-0059-2. PMID 16158324. S2CID 20539445. Elble RC, Walia V, Cheng HC, et ... but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. Since this protein is expressed predominantly in trachea and lung, it ... Chloride channel accessory 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs ... It may also serve as adhesion molecule for lung metastatic cancer cells, mediating vascular arrest and colonization, and ...
January 2016). "Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells". Cell. 164 (3): 365 ... Bando JK, Liang HE, Locksley RM (February 2015). "Identification and distribution of developing innate lymphoid cells in the ... Löser S, Smith KA, Maizels RM (2019). "Innate Lymphoid Cells in Helminth Infections-Obligatory or Accessory?". Frontiers in ... Retinoic acid, produced by many cell types, such as nerve cells, dendritic cells, and stromal cells, favours the ...
... but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. This gene contains several nonsense codons compared to other family ... Chloride channel accessory 3, also known as CLCA3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CLCA3P pseudogene. The ... However, some conflicting reports state that human cells produce and glycosylate this protein. This gene is a transcribed ...
Conditioning plant tissues associated with oviposition. Distribution and habitat[edit]. Habitats range from caves to rainforest ... Accessory glands or modified structures are present in some taxa: the Dytiscidae and Hygrobiidae also possess paired ... The glands consist of complex invaginations of the cuticle lined with epidermal cells contiguous with the integument. The ... Secretions pass from the secretory lobes, which are aggregations of secretory cells, through a tube to a reservoir lined with ...
Because dendritic cells were discovered among "adherent" accessory cells (i.e. those that attach to tissue culture surfaces), ... "Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution". J ... "accessory cells" together create immune responses. Accessory cells contain a new cell type with probing cell process or " ... DCs can mobilize innate lymphocytes such as natural killer cells (which in turn produce cytokines or kill target cells upon ...
... they have developed accessory tissues and organs to support gas exchange in these habitats. Several genera of teleosts have ... In the roach, river pollution has caused the intersex condition, in which an individual's gonads contain both cells that can ... Berra, Tim M. (2008). Freshwater Fish Distribution. University of Chicago Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-226-04443-9. Lackmann, Alec ... More harmful are the catfish that enter the gill chambers of fish and feed on their blood and tissues. The snubnosed eel, ...
... in Drosophila cells and is present in native Drosophila tissue culture cells, unlike clk, per, or tim. Regulation thus occurs ... For a more complete list of ARNTL homologs visit the ARNTL species distribution article. The cyc gene found in the moth Sesamia ... adult male accessory gland, and adult carcass. Recent research on cycle has largely focused on the role of circadian ... Cycle gene expression has been discovered in a variety of cell types and tissues including the adult head, adult eye, larval/ ...
Melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRAP2 gene. MRAP2 is a transmembrane ... The distribution of MRAP2 in the brain within the appetite control and weight control regions revealed its involvement in those ... MRAP2 is located both on the cell membrane and also sub-cellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum. The MRAP2 shares a unique ... However, the Human protein Atlas/ RNA-seq analysis data of human genome detected MRAP2 in other tissues such as ovary, ...
... to increase cell membrane absorption or increase cell adhesion in order to form cell tissue. Other enzymes or organelles such ... it is possible to use variations in the pattern of its distribution in tissue as a marker of invasion in neoplasia, vasculitis ... They possess a number of accessory proteins including ADF/cofilin, which has a molecular weight of 16kDa and is coded for by a ... Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells through ...
... like most citrus fruit Some or all of the edible part of accessory fruit is not generated by the ovary. Accessory fruit can be ... and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization ... a nutritive tissue used by the embryo. As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the ... they are indehiscent and they aiso may rely on frugivores for distribution of their seeds. Typically, the entire outer layer of ...
They also participate in some cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions. Nuclear lamina exist in all animals and all tissues. Some ... Accessory proteins including motor proteins regulate and link the filaments to other cell compounds and each other and are ... by the polymerization of a distinct type of protein subunit and has its own characteristic shape and intracellular distribution ... thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. Moreover, it is involved in many cell ...
Saydan N, Salicio V, Cappelli-Gotzos B, Gotzos V (2001). "Expression of calretinin in human mesothelioma cell lines and cell ... Rougemont AL, Sartelet H, Oligny LL, Bensoussan A, Yazbeck S, Fournet JC (2007). "Accessory liver lobe with mesothelial ... Clements RJ, McDonough J, Freeman EJ (May 2008). "Distribution of parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactive interneurons in ... motor cortex from multiple sclerosis post-mortem tissue". Experimental Brain Research. 187 (3): 459-65. doi:10.1007/s00221-008- ...
Lane, N. J.; Harrison, J. B. (1986). "Junctions and the cytoskeleton in insect tissues". Journal of Cell Biology. 103 (5): A69 ... Munns, S. L.; Owerkowicz, T.; Andrewartha, S. J.; Frappell, P. B. (2012). "The accessory role of the diaphragmaticus muscle in ... Raymond H & Swenson E (2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas exchange ... Newstead James D (1967). "Fine structure of the respiratory lamellae of teleostean gills". Cell and Tissue Research. 79 (3): ...
De Felici, M. (2010). "Germ stem cells in the mammalian adult ovary: Considerations by a fan of the primordial germ cells". ... The most potent is dihydrotestosterone (DHT), generated from testosterone in skin and genital tissue by the action of 5α- ... Testosterone, which is secreted and converts the mesonephric ducts into male accessory structures, such as epididymis, vas ... and statistical distribution of traits in populations (e.g., rates of homosexuality in twins). Many of these cases suggest some ...
Baughman G, Wiederrecht GJ, Chang F, Martin MM, Bourgeois S (1997). "Tissue distribution and abundance of human FKBP51, and ... Cell. Biol. 17 (2): 594-603. doi:10.1128/MCB.17.2.594. PMC 231784. PMID 9001212. Schiene-Fischer C, Yu C (2001). "Receptor ... accessory folding helper enzymes: the functional role of peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases". FEBS Lett. 495 (1-2): 1-6. doi: ... Cell. Biol. 15 (8): 4395-402. doi:10.1128/mcb.15.8.4395. PMC 230679. PMID 7542743. Smith DF, Baggenstoss BA, Marion TN, ...
Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... Based on distribution of major groupings in the human population it is possible to assert that more than a dozen major variants ... Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): 296-307. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00103.x. PMID 12974796. Marsh, S. G.; Albert, E. D.; Bodmer, W. ... Antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells) are the cells in which DR are typically found. Increased ...
... stinging cells) of the siphonophores, from which the barreleye is believed to steal food. It may also serve as an accessory ... The distribution of some species coincides with the isohaline and isotherm layers of the ocean; for example, in Opisthoproctus ... but are enclosed within a large transparent dome of soft tissue. These eyes generally gaze upwards, but can also be directed ... The opisthoproctid eye has a large lens and a retina with an exceptionally high complement of rod cells and a high density of ...
One powerful accessory used with optical microscopes is a pair of crossed polarizing filters. Light from the source is ... Cotton fibre is birefringent because of high levels of cellulosic material in the fibre's secondary cell wall. Polarized light ... The experimental method called photoelasticity used for analyzing stress distribution in solids is based on the same principle ... microscopy is commonly used in biological tissue, as many biological materials are birefringent. Collagen, found in cartilage, ...
... brain cell) and nervous tissue Classifying brain cells/neurons by type: place cell, grid cells, border cells, head direction ... is largely informed by different types of receptor cells, their physical distribution throughout the body, and how they ... Modern descriptions often consider the cranial component part of the traditional accessory nerve to be more properly classified ... cells, spatial view cells, pyramidal cells, granule cells also barrier cells, conjunctive cells Synapse, chemical synapse, ...
Hair WM, Gubbay O, Jabbour HN, Lincoln GA (July 2002). "Prolactin receptor expression in human testis and accessory tissues: ... These cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for the formation of myelin coatings on axons in the ... Ben-Jonathan N, Mershon JL, Allen DL, Steinmetz RW (December 1996). "Extrapituitary prolactin: distribution, regulation, ... It has important cell cycle-related functions as a growth-, differentiating- and anti-apoptotic factor. As a growth factor, ...
van Hille B, Vanek M, Richener H, Green JR, Bilbe G (Jan 1994). "Cloning and tissue distribution of subunits C, D, and E of the ... Cell. 95 (7): 453-7. doi:10.1016/S0248-4900(03)00075-3. PMID 14597263. S2CID 17519696. Wang SY, Moriyama Y, Mandel M, et al. ( ... An accessory polypeptide of the H+-ATPase from chromaffin granules". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (33): 17638-42. PMID 2903164. Bonaldo ... Cell Dev. Biol. 13 (1): 779-808. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.13.1.779. PMID 9442887. Nelson N, Harvey WR (1999). "Vacuolar and ...
... and distribution. Tissue banks Conserve and guarantee the quality of tissues after they are obtained and until they are used as ... organ transplants and other tissue and cell transplants. Emergency medicine is health care provided in cases where emergency ... and articles and accessories advertised to the general public and where the purchaser pays the full price (that is, no money ... The distribution of the cost is as follows: Medications dispensed as part of hospitalization are free to the patient. Other ...
As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ... The von Willebrand factor (VWF) serves as an essential accessory molecule. In general terms, platelet activation initiated by ... Sprague, RS; Ellsworth, ML (July 2012). "Erythrocyte-derived ATP and perfusion distribution: role of intracellular and ... maintaining the reservoir of stem cells in the tissue and production of specialized cells of the same. Stem cells show an ...
... initiates the pupation sequence as well as a change in tissue commitment away from synthesis of larval tissues to pupal tissues ... Hormonal control of insect epidermal cell commitment in vitro. Nature 259, 115-117. Sanburg, L.L., Kramer, K.J., Kezdy, F.J., ... Growth of the male accessory gland in adult locusts: Roles of juvenile hormone, JH esterase, and JH binding proteins. Arch. ... Influence of Hemolymph-Binding Protein on Juvenile-Hormone Stability and Distribution in Manduca-Sexta Fat-Body and Imaginal ...
All cells of one region of the body aggregate and puff up together. However, there is no synchrony between regions of the body ... The triangular accessory plate lies just outside of the forceps with the posterior and anterior claspers near the median of the ... This is because their larvae are facultative parasites, as they feed on organic tissue and use the hosts' oxygen reserve. Such ... Their main limitation, however, is due to lack of information surrounding their geographic distribution and taxonomic features ...
The epidermis tissue includes several differentiated cell types; epidermal cells, epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in ... In cold autumns, they sometimes change color, and turn yellow, bright-orange, or red, as various accessory pigments ( ... Of these, angiosperms have the greatest diversity.[25] Within these the major veins function as the support and distribution ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ...
Global reptile distribution (excluding birds) Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other ... Turtles have two or more accessory urinary bladders, located lateral to the neck of the urinary bladder and dorsal to the pubis ... Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with implications for tissue ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ...
Cell Biology and Mineral Deposition. by Kenneth Simkiss; Karl M. Wilbur On Biomineralization. by Heinz A. Lowenstam; Stephen ... The other minerals in the rock are termed accessory minerals, and do not greatly affect the bulk composition of the rock. Rocks ... oxalate crystals in plant tissues, shells of marine molluscs, etc.) and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological ... the latter with regards to distribution of chemical bonds.[45] ... the unit cell volume of dolomite is 88% that of calcite), which ...
... or adipose tissue deposition in the breasts without true glandular tissue, a trait that is not indicative of pubertal ... Cell. Endocrinol. 370 (1-2): 138-48. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2013.02.016. PMC 3767392. PMID 23499866.. ... Body weight and fat distribution appear to be normal.[14]. *Increased anxiety-like behavior is seen.[15] In addition, the ... The male accessory glands, including the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, coagulating gland, and seminal vesicles, all ...
"Cell. 136 (3): 402-10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.029. PMC 2971533. PMID 19203576.. ... The difference between the influenza mortality age distributions of the 1918 epidemic and normal epidemics. Deaths per 100,000 ... accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are then released into the cytoplasm (Stage 2).[75] The M2 ion channel is ... influenza does cause tissue damage, so symptoms are not entirely due to the inflammatory response.[98] This massive immune ...
The red blood cell count per unit volume in the ostrich is about 40% of that of a human; however, the red blood cells of the ... Distribution and habitat. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ... 2,3- DPG constitutes approximately 42-47%, of the cells phosphate of the embryonic ostrich.[73] However, the adult ostrich have ...
Iodine and T4 (over stimulate the spectacular apoptosis [programmed cell death] of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins ... Adipose tissue is another important means of storing energy and this occurs in the abdomen (in internal structures called fat ... The lungs develop early and are used as accessory breathing organs, the tadpoles rising to the water surface to gulp air. Some ... Caecilians have a mostly Gondwanan distribution, being found in tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Central and South America. ...
Often the daughter cell will begin to bud before it becomes separated from the parent, so that whole colonies of adhering cells ... Since buds are formed in the axils of leaves, their distribution on the stem is the same as that of leaves. There are alternate ... accessory, for secondary buds formed besides a principal bud (axillary or terminal); ... Eventually cross walls cut off the bud from the original cell. References[edit]. *^ Walters, Dirk R., and David J. Keil. 1996. ...
Cell-derived mediators. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. preformed:. *Lysosome granules ...
... which penetrate tissues and even indent individual cells.[25] Gas may be conducted through the respiratory system by means of ... and tracheoles to transport metabolic gases to and from tissues.[24] The distribution of spiracles can vary greatly among the ... brachiocephalic vein, azygos vein accessory hemiazygos vein. Identifiers. Latin. Trachea. MeSH. D014132. ... It is epithelium lined with column-shaped cells that have hair-like extensions called cilia, with scattered goblet cells that ...
The cells in the interior tissues of a leaf, called the mesophyll, can contain between 450,000 and 800,000 chloroplasts for ... Karpilov YS (1960). "The distribution of radioactvity in carbon-14 among the products of photosynthesis in maize". Proc. Kazan ... The photosynthetic action spectrum depends on the type of accessory pigments present. For example, in green plants, the action ... 3 ions are made from CO2 outside the cell by another carbonic anhydrase and are actively pumped into the cell by a membrane ...
At least a few insects have nociceptors, cells that detect and transmit signals responsible for the sensation of pain.[49][not ... Accessory glands or glandular parts of the oviducts produce a variety of substances for sperm maintenance, transport and ... This is because inside the chorion two additional membranes develop from embryonic tissue, the amnion and the serosa. This ... As well as pollination ants help with seed distribution of plants. This helps to spread the plants, which increases plant ...
Live tissue Various Research ~1 Real tissue is variable[51]. Very complex, requires ethical review for approval ... The second part of "Casualty Reduction" strategy is a study of velocity distributions of fragments from munitions.[41] Warhead ... The panels are then slipped inside the shells and the accessories-such as the straps-are sewn on. The finished bulletproof vest ... "Spider Silk Fibers Spun from Soluble Recombinant Silk Produced in Mammalian Cells". Science. 295 (5554): 472-476. Bibcode: ...
Distribution[edit]. The receptor has a broad tissue distribution but is especially abundant in the cerebellum. Most of the ... and is necessary for the control of cellular and physiological processes including cell division, cell proliferation, apoptosis ... InsP3R-1 is the most widely expressed of these three and is found in all tissue types and all developmental stages of life. It ... Cell. 17 (2): 193-203. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.047. PMID 15664189.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw ...
"KSHV Entry and Trafficking in Target Cells-Hijacking of Cell Signal Pathways, Actin and Membrane Dynamics". Viruses. 8 (11): ... to find KSHV by comparing KS tumor tissue from an AIDS patient to his own unaffected tissue. The idea behind this experiment ... ORF59 - PF-8 - polymerase processivity factor, accessory subunit of viral DNA polymerase ... the global distribution of different genotypes of KSHV and the potential transmission path need further studies. ...
... and to spread from cell to cell, causing cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated giant cells. It possesses a uniquely ... "The core and accessory genomes of Burkholderia pseudomallei: implications for human melioidosis". PLoS Pathog. 4 (10): e1000178 ... "Predicted global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and burden of melioidosis". Nature Microbiology. 1 (1): 15008. doi: ... from culture and paraffin-embedded tissue samples". Int J Med Microbiol. 301 (7): 585-90. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2011.04.017. PMID ...
The myelinating glial cells; oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ... This highly asymmetric distribution of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels is in striking contrast to their diffuse ... A sodium channel consists of a pore-forming α subunit and two accessory β subunits, which anchor the channel to extra-cellular ... Tissue Types. *Grey matter. *White matter *Projection fibers. *Association fiber. *Commissural fiber ...
... is a metabolically active tissue composed of several types of cells. These cells include osteoblasts, which are involved ... The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur ... Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of dense connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, ... These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.[13] ...
While there are ten different AC gene products in mammals, each with subtle differences in tissue distribution or function, all ... "Cell. 172 (1-2): 41-54.e19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.033. PMC 5766829. PMID 29249361.. ... "accessory" proteins such as GEFs, guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) and protein phosphatases. There may even be ... "Cell. 166 (4): 907-19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004. PMC 5418658. PMID 27499021.. ...
... these nuclei are segregated into separate cells by cytokinesis to producing 3 antipodal cells, 2 synergid cells and an egg cell ... In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the ... Closed carpel enclosing the ovules (carpel or carpels and accessory parts may become the fruit). The closed carpel of ... Animals are also involved in the distribution of seeds. Fruit, which is formed by the enlargement of flower parts, is ...
... with examination of multiple levels through the tissue may allow the pathologist to reliably distinguish between goblet cells ... The difference in distribution of fat among men (more central) and women (more peripheral) may explain the increased risk in ... This frequently occurs in the presence of other metaplastic columnar cells, but only the presence of goblet cells is diagnostic ... "pseudogoblet cells" in which abundant foveolar [gastric] type mucin simulates the acid mucin true goblet cells). Assessment of ...
Newstead James D (1967). "Fine structure of the respiratory lamellae of teleostean gills". Cell and Tissue Research. 79: 396- ... 8). These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull to the ... Henry RP, Swenson ER (June 2000). "The distribution and physiological significance of carbonic anhydrase in vertebrate gas ... 10). It consisting of the alveolar epithelial cells, their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the alveolar ...
Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... Wasting of muscle tissue of the lower parts of the legs may give rise to a "stork leg" or "inverted champagne bottle" ... Normally, type I and type II muscle fibers show a checkerboard-like random distribution. However, when reinnervation occurs, ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
... is typically considerable desmoplasia or formation of a dense fibrous stroma or structural tissue consisting of a range of cell ... Distribution[edit]. Deaths from pancreatic cancer per million persons in 2012 .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin- ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. ...
Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that ... These remaining DNA damages accumulate with age in mammalian postmitotic tissues. This accumulation appears to be an important ... DNA polymerases function in a large complex called the replisome that contains multiple accessory subunits, such as the DNA ... "Ueber die Verbreitung des Hypoxanthins im Thier- und Pflanzenreich" [On the distribution of hypoxanthins in the animal and ...
Biosphere , Ecosystem , Community (Biocoenosis) , Population , Organism , Organ system , Organ , Tissue , Cell , Organelle , ... Gene structure and function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g. ... All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ... To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ...
Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right upper extremity. The right sympathetic chain and its ... "The risk can be reduced by thorough release of the tissues from the inferior surface of the clavicle before mobilization of the ... Cell Biology. 47 (1): 77-80. doi:10.5115/acb.2014.47.1.77. PMC 3968270 . PMID 24693486. Moore, K.L.; Agur, A.M. (2007). ... the trapezius muscle innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and an area of skin near the axilla innervated by the ...
Tissue distribution[edit]. The CD8 co-receptor is predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, but can also be ... and dendritic cells. The CD8 molecule is a marker for cytotoxic T cell population. It is expressed in T cell lymphoblastic ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Cytotoxic T cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells. The main recognition site is a flexible loop at the α3 ...
The tissue-homing of all lymphocytes involves their interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) and with various tissue accessory ... Endothelial interactions of hairy cells: the importance of alpha 4 beta 1 in the unusual tissue distribution of the disorder.. ... importance for alpha 4 beta 1/VCAM-1 was established for the interaction between HCs and relevant tissue accessory cells. The ... These results indicate that alpha 4 beta 1/VCAM-1 is central to the interaction between HCs and endothelium/accessory cells. ...
Tissue distribution has been examined in humans and monkeys. Lacritin is most highly expressed in the lacrimal gland, including ... Cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 is partly responsible. Biotinylated cell surface proteins from a lacritin-responsive cell ... Most lacritin is produced by the lacrimal gland, including the accessory lacrimal gland of Wolfring. Some lacritin is produced ... Lacritin cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1). Binding utilizes an ...
Steroid-Cell Interactions.. [R J B King; W I P Mainwaring] -- Steroid-Cell Interactions describes the processes involved in the ... intracellular binding of steroids (and related compounds) in mammalian cells. Serum binding proteins and steroid-immunoglobulin ... DISTRIBUTION OF NADPH-DEPENDENT 5a-REDUCTASE AND RECEPTORS FOR 5a-DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE IN ANDROGEN-SENSITIVE TISSUES AND CELLS; ... AFFINITY BINDING OF 5a-DIHYDR0-TESTOSTERONE IN THE RAT VENTRAL PROSTATE GLANDBINDING OF 5a-DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE IN ACCESSORY ...
Tissue distribution of Sox10 mRNA. Total cellular RNA from the indicated rat tissues (A) or regions of adult rat brain (B) was ... To identify cell type-specific accessory proteins for Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP, we decided to look at Sox proteins in Schwann cells. ... 1980) Preparation of separate astroglial and oligodendroglial cell cultures from rat cerebral tissue. J Cell Biol 85:890-902. ... Expression of Sox10 in cultured cells.A, Total cellular RNA from Schwann cells (SC) and several cell lines was analyzed for the ...
Arrows indicate representative cell bodies showing intense apoE mRNA signal. Signal location and tissue integrity were ... and accessory olfactory bulb. The majority of this signal resembled the distribution of astrocytes in the olfactory bulb, as ... These astrocytic cells are in intimate contact with Purkinje cells, the major GABAergic inhibitory neuron in the cerebellum ( ... These properties suggest that reelin interacts with Purkinje cells to promote assembly of the Purkinje cell layer (DArcangelo ...
... but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is ... Chloride channel accessory 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 2002). "pCLCA1 becomes a cAMP-dependent chloride conductance mediator in Caco-2 cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 298 (4 ... 2003). "A calcium-activated chloride channel blocker inhibits goblet cell metaplasia and mucus overproduction". Novartis Found ...
Structure and Tissue DistributionAccessory Proteins • Immunophilin: FKBP12 FKBP12/RyR Mechanism for Ortho-Substituted PCB ... parathyroid cells) and Ca2+-responsive tissues (e.g., kidney, bowel, and bone). The "global" [Ca2+]0 balance in a mammal is ... In most living cells, both extracellular and intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]0 and [Ca2+]i, respectively) are highly ... The extremely stable [Ca2+]0 level is attributed to homeostatic mechanisms that consist of Ca2+-sensory cells (e.g., ...
Live Cell Accessories for Raman and FTIR Imaging; Lay P, Hawkins C, Grau G, Witting P, Chan H; DVC Research/Equipment Grant. ... Profiling tissue protein, elemental ions and nanoparticle distributions; Witting P, King N; Australian Research Council (ARC)/ ... Witting, P. (2016). Measuring redox-active species in cells and tissues. Focus on "A case of mistaken identity: are reactive ... Witting, P. (2016). Measuring redox-active species in cells and tissues. Focus on "A case of mistaken identity: are reactive ...
Esterase is found in bacteria, fungi and mammalian liver microsome cells that indicates its hydrolysis ability in humans and ... Esterase is found in bacteria, fungi, insect and mammalian liver microsome cells that indicates its hydrolysis ability in ... living cells. Biodegradation pattern and detected metabolites reveal microbial consumption of pyrethroids as carbon and ... Distribution of carboxylesterases in different tissues has been reported and major esterase of intestine is called ...
Connective tissue consists of a ground of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins through which various fibres run. ... Antigen Distribution. Isolated Cells: The antigen is found in the cytoplasm of fibroblast cell lines.. Tissue Sections: The ... Accessory Products. Recommended Secondary Antibodies for Fibroblasts (Pan Reticular) (11 products). Catalog No.. Host. Clone/ ... Fibroblasts are the least specialized cells in the connective-tissue family. They are dispersed in connective tissue throughout ...
... is closely related to the Xenopus mitotic phosphoprotein MP90 and has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. It is concentrated ... During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to ... From these results, we propose that part of hHR23 proteins are involved in the proteolytic pathway in cells. ... Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing UIM domain.. This tree includes only several representative species. The complete ...
Cell Rep. 2012 Mar 29;1(3):277-89. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U. ... Cell Rep. 2012 Mar 29;1(3):277-89.. Global patterns of tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation in Drosophila.. Smibert P1, ... Acc, male accessory gland; prefix "L", larval tissue; SG, salivary gland; Spt-M, mated spermatheca; Spt-V, virgin spermatheca; ... B) Distribution of 3′ UTR isoforms per gene. A cluster of two or more poly(A)-spanning reads downstream of a stop codon is ...
Tissue Distribution Brain: medial habenula, mitral cell layer and the accessory olfactory bulb, interpeduncular nucleus, ... Tissue Distribution Comments. Deletion of β4 subunit in knockout mice has little effect on total [3H]- or [125I]-epibatidine ... Expression of α3 subunit mRNA is greatly reduced in the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb, and the inferior and the ... Knockout mice display reduced acetylcholine-activated whole-cell currents in superior cervical ganglion neurons; autonomic ...
foam pad to hold small biopsies in place during processing and for storage when using tissue cassettes. Medium blue color ... Specialty Pharmaceutical Distribution for Acute Care. * Cell and gene therapies * Channel Management & Logistics Services ... Staining Accessories * Tissue Baths * Deluxe Lighted Tissue Flotation Bath * Lighted Tissue Flotation Bath ... foam pad to hold small biopsies in place during processing and for storage when using tissue cassettes. Medium blue color ...
They include scintigraphy with radiolabelled colloids or heat damaged red blood cells, which are trapped in the splenic tissue ... Modern techniques, including hybrid imaging, enable simultaneous structure and tracer distribution evaluations. Additionally, ... accessory spleen. SPECT/CT. radiolabelled colloid. radiolabelled red blood cells. splenosis. radiation guided surgery. ... They include scintigraphy with radiolabelled colloids or heat damaged red blood cells, which are trapped in the splenic tissue ...
... is closely related to the Xenopus mitotic phosphoprotein MP90 and has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. It is concentrated ... During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to ... we propose that EH domains are involved in processes connected with the transport and sorting of molecules within the cell. ... Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing EH domain.. This tree includes only several representative species. The complete ...
There are no accessory pigments in Chl α. soaked beads. The present study used spinach leaves that contain cells and ... Y. Guoet al., "Noninvasive Two-photon-excitation imaging of tryptophan distribution in highly scattering biological tissues," ... in tissue and their inverses lead to the penetration lengths in tissue, where l. s. (. =. 1. /. μ. s. ). is the mean free ... through fresh rat brain tissue layers with 2P S. 2. excitation where both the emission and excitation were in the "tissue ...
In this study, cell kinetics and apoptotic cell counts revealed that the acinar cells of the mild change cases had a higher ... except for excessive fibrosis with patchy distribution. Such different fibrosis distribution can be clearly explained as ... Tissue specimens were obtained during surgical resection. Each of the 20 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis had ... which drains from the minor papilla via the accessory pancreatic duct. Hence, these changes resulted from a disturbance in the ...
Male Accessory Glands and Ejaculatory Duct Proteome. Male Tissue Data Set. From the nine samples where 20 reproductive tissues ... 1993) Probing the function of Drosophila melanogaster accessory glands by directed cell ablation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... This background proteome was used to median center the distribution of each sample. For the female reproductive tract data set ... Male Accessory Glands and Ejaculatory Duct Proteome. Male Tissue Data Set. Upon eclosion, males were aged in single sex groups ...
... thus implying that tissue microenvironment can influence both PECAM1 distribution and function. Nevertheless, the finding that ... DC with an abundance of adhesion and accessory molecules, able to stimulate quiescent T cells in MLR and to home to the T cell ... Migrated CD14+CD34+ cells and cells cultured in GM-CSF do not express Ig. A, Adherent cells from peripheral blood stained with ... Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressed by bone marrow stromal cells mediates the binding of hemopoietic progenitor cells. ...
Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, ... Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, ... Because of the constitutive IFN activity, bat-borne viruses may be shed at low levels from bat cells. With large naïve antibody ... Because of the constitutive IFN activity, bat-borne viruses may be shed at low levels from bat cells. With large naïve antibody ...
Profiling of relaxin and its receptor proteins in boar reproductive tissues and spermatozoa. Download Prime PubMed App to ... The testicular immunofluorescence intensity of relaxin was greater than that of other tissues. Epithelial basal cells exhibited ... Relaxin family peptide receptors Rxfp1 and Rxfp2: mapping of the mRNA and protein distribution in the reproductive tract of the ... Spermatozoa were harvested from three fertile boars and reproductive tract (testes and epididymis) and sex accessory gland ( ...
It is also ubiquitously expressed in tissues and in ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells as a smaller ... directs the polarized distribution and unequal segregation of the cell fate determinant Numb during asymmetric cell divisions. ... Accessory protein recruitment motifs in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.. Brett TJ, Traub LM and Fremont DH ... These results suggest a model in which phosphorylation of Numb by aPKC regulates its polarized distribution in epithelial cells ...
Of these accessory molecules, B7-2 was a major species that increased in culture, implying a key role for B7-2 in the ... The tissue distribution of the B7-2 costimulator in mice: abundant expression on dendritic cells in situ and during maturation ... Splenic B7-2+ cells were accessible to labeling with GL-1 mAb given intravenously. Dendritic cell stimulation of T cells (DNA ... The tissue distribution of the B7-2 costimulator in mice: abundant expression on dendritic cells in situ and during maturation ...
It may also be used to assess for accessory splenic tissue, although a heat-damaged red blood cell scan may be superior for ... Physiologic distribution of activity in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Discussion:. Note the different intensities allow for ...
... stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types ... Tissue expression (IHC). Tissue category (RNA). Cell category (RNA). Cancer category (RNA). Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... Tissue. Cell. Pathology. - Annotation -. Antibodyi. Antibodies used for immunohistochemistry (results presented in Tissue and ...
Accessory proteins like crosslinkers and motors organize these filaments into functional structures. However, physical effects ... Cells use actin filaments to define and maintain their shape and to exert forces on the surrounding tissue. ... Cells use actin filaments to define and maintain their shape and to exert forces on the surrounding tissue. Accessory proteins ... We propose that bundling is a result of the polydisperse length distribution of the filaments: filaments shorter than the ...
analysis of cell and tissue cultures, microplates for high-throughput. screening related to drug screening, products for blood ... this holder a safe and easy-to-use accessory for transfer of blood to an. evacuated tube. ... reach, Greiner Bio-One provides the manufacturing, distribution. logistics and product application support to the worlds ...
Chloride Channel Accessory 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in small intestine and colon namely in intestinal basal crypt epithelia and goblet cells, ... but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is proc ... CLCA1 (Chloride Channel Accessory 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CLCA1 include Cystic Fibrosis and ...
Coffey, DS (1988) "Androgen action and the sex accessory tissues". In E Knobil, J Neill (eds), The Physiology of Reproduction. ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ... Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] ... 17β-diol in human mammary cancer cells". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 46 (5): 597-603. doi: ...
  • Biotinylated cell surface proteins from a lacritin-responsive cell were incubated with lacritin under conditions of physiological salt. (
  • To identify cell type-specific accessory proteins for Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP, we decided to look at Sox proteins in Schwann cells. (
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing UIM domain. (
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing EH domain. (
  • Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) 1 are typically produced in specialized secretory glands in males (such as the accessory glands in insects, and the prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands and ampullary glands in mammals), and are transferred to females during copulation. (
  • In contrast to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, HM1.24 was internalized from lipid rafts on the cell surface by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Accessory proteins like crosslinkers and motors organize these filaments into functional structures. (
  • To examine the presence of membrane receptors to GAB A, we injected membrane vesicles containing neurotransmitter receptors and accessory proteins from squid's stellate ganglia into Xenopus oocytes. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, Cu transport toward the cytoplasm is mediated by the conserved CTR/COPT family of high-affinity Cu transport proteins. (
  • Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins. (
  • The gene products, designated gpUS9 and gpUS8, were glycosylated proteins of comparable molecular masses but differed considerably in intracellular distribution and solubility. (
  • In polarized epithelial cells, gpUS9 also accumulated along lateral membranes, colocalizing with cadherin and actin, and was insoluble in Triton X-100, a property shared with proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton. (
  • Using deletion mutagenesis, it was demonstrated that the US component of the CMV genome contains genes encoding proteins that play an accessory role in infection by increasing pathogenesis in vivo ( 30-32 ). (
  • The present study details a strategy to rapidly identify tissue-specific proteins using bioinformatics. (
  • We developed a strategy that mines six publicly available gene and protein databases for tissue-specific proteins, selects proteins likely to enter the circulation, and integrates proteomic datasets enriched for the cancer secretome to prioritize candidates for further verification and validation studies. (
  • We present a novel strategy using bioinformatics to identify tissue-specific proteins that are potential cancer serum biomarkers. (
  • Recent advances in high-throughput technologies (for example, high-content microarray chips, serial analysis of gene expression, expressed sequence tags) have enabled the creation of publicly available gene and protein databases that describe the expression of thousands of genes and proteins in multiple tissues. (
  • Our laboratory has previously characterized the proteomes of conditioned media (CM) from 44 cancer cell lines, three near normal cell lines and 11 relevant biological fluids (for example, pancreatic juice and ascites) using multidimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, identifying between 1,000 and 4,000 proteins per cancer site [ 22 - 33 ] (unpublished work). (
  • It potently inhibits the expression of lung cellular anti-viral proteins at baseline and in response to IFNγ in lung epithelial cells, which may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 escape from the host antiviral innate immune response during early viral infection. (
  • We show here that most tissues express all three paralogs, and immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that the SNX9-family proteins act as individual entities in cells. (
  • Such differences might be mediated by specific accessory proteins and membrane-modulating proteins. (
  • Further, to narrow down on proteins involved in immediate cellular response to drug treatment, we have analyzed cell subcellular relocation of protein post drug treatment using SubCellBarcode based proteome wide location analysis. (
  • Lacritin also promotes tear secretion, the proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and corneal wound healing Lacritin is thus a multifunctional prosecretory mitogen with cell survival activity. (
  • Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea. (
  • Lacritin targets a restricted group of epithelial cells (including human corneal epithelia), and not fibroblastic, glioma, or lymphoblastic cells. (
  • Processes by which human herpesviruses penetrate and are released from polarized epithelial cells, which have distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains differing in protein and lipid content, are poorly understood. (
  • We recently reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) mutants with deletions of the gene US9 formed wild-type plaques in cultures of human fibroblasts but were impaired in the capacity for cell-to-cell spread in polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells. (
  • Unlike the glycoproteins that are required for infection, the protein encoded by CMV US9 plays an accessory role by promoting dissemination of virus across cell-cell junctions of polarized epithelial cells. (
  • To identify the product and investigate its specialized functions, we selected Madine-Darby canine kidney II (MDCK) epithelial cells that constitutively express CMV US9 or, as a control, US8. (
  • CMV has been detected in secretions (saliva, urine, semen, and breast milk) from organs composed of epithelial cells (reviewed in reference 7 ). (
  • Proliferative epithelial cells have formed a thickened lining of the affected acini, and there is evidence of associated apoptosis (arrows) in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (
  • Proliferative epithelial cells fill an acinus with multilocular areas of secretion in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (
  • Subcutaneous administration of the α-androgenic agonist phenylephrine in rats induces prostatic hyperplasia characterized by piling up of epithelial cells, with papillary and cribriform patterns and budding out. (
  • Non-hematopoietic cells, including lung epithelial cells, influence host immune responses. (
  • Using live imaging and immunofluorescent staining analyses, we found that ectopically expressed ORF8SARS-CoV-2 forms aggregates in the cytosol and nuclear compartments of lung epithelial cells. (
  • Interestingly, ectopic expression of ORF8SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelial cells suppressed basal expression of several antiviral molecules, including DHX58, ZBP1, MX1, and MX2. (
  • In addition, expression of ORF8SARS-CoV-2 attenuated the induction of antiviral molecules by IFNγ but not by IFNß in lung epithelial cells. (
  • Taken together, ORF8SARS-CoV-2 is a unique viral accessory protein that forms aggregates when expressing in lung epithelial cells. (
  • Although it is well documented that 16 subunits are encoded by the human genome, their presence in airway epithelial cells (AECs) remains poorly understood, and contribution to pathology is mainly discussed in the context of cancer. (
  • They are closely surrounded by epithelial cells called follicular cells. (
  • Autoimmunity is largely prevented by medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs) through their expression and presentation of tissue-specific Ags to developing thymocytes, resulting in deletion of self-reactive T cells and supporting regulatory T cell development. (
  • Thymocytes expressing a functional TCR are positively selected by interacting with cortical thymic epithelial cells (TECs) (cTECs), after which they migrate and interact with tissue-specific Ags (TSAs) presented on medullary TECs (mTECs) and dendritic cells. (
  • Connective tissue consists of a ground of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins through which various fibres run. (
  • Fibroblasts are the least specialized cells in the connective-tissue family. (
  • They are dispersed in connective tissue throughout the body, where they secrete a nonrigid extracellular matrix (ECM) that is rich in type I and/or type III collagen. (
  • Parallel axons running together inside a thick connective tissue sheath (an epineurium). (
  • Morphology and classification of epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues and general functions. (
  • Each corpuscle is comprised of three primary components: elongated Schwann cells, a connective tissue capsule, and a central axon [2] [3] . (
  • The capsule of Meissner corpuscles is derived from the endoneurial-perineural fibroblastic connective tissue. (
  • 2) Tunica albuginea: this type is composed of connective tissue deep to germinal epithelium. (
  • 3) Ovarian cortex: this is a dense connective tissue and is composed of ovarian follicle and stromal cell. (
  • 4) Ovarian medulla: this is composed of a loose connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. (
  • This process repeatedly damages the connective tissue, such as collagen and elastin, and eventually leads to scarring and an uneven distribution damaged tissue and fat cells. (
  • With low or medium power, scan the "core" of the lip containing the orbicularis oris skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue. (
  • The connective tissue papillae in the red area are tall and highly vascularized, but this is not readily apparent in a single section. (
  • A somewhat compact zone of fine fibrous connective tissue, the lamina propria, lies beneath the mucosal epithelium. (
  • Note blood vessels of various sizes and small nerves throughout the muscle and connective tissues. (
  • Infection of regulatory tissues and organs such as the ganglia of the central nervous system, neurosecretory cells, and the corpora allata may also have detrimental effects on the overall functioning of a mosquito, even in the absence of widespread infection. (
  • Describe and interpret the structure, location and relationships of cells, tissues and organs of the human body through the application of accurate anatomical terminology. (
  • Cells, tissues or organs are harvested in order to proliferate in an artificial environment. (
  • the female reproductive system consist of those organs that maintain the female sex cells (oocytes), transport the cell to the site of fertilization, provide a favorable environment for a developing offspring (fetus), move the fetus to the outside and provide a female sex hormones. (
  • The female's primary sex organs includes two ovaries and the accessory organs, which are the external accessory organs and the internal accessory organs. (
  • 1) The female internal accessory organs are made up of three parts, which includes two uterine tubes, a uterus, and vagina. (
  • This protein also plays a role in the distribution of cells in developing tissues and organs, including the brain. (
  • To prepare and study the distribution of magnetic nanoliposomes of Sesquiterpene-Rich Fraction from Cichorium glandulosum (SRF-MLN) (under magnetic field) in the main organs of mice. (
  • The drug concentration and distribution of lactucin in different tissues and organs including whole blood, liver, heart, spleen, lung, and kidney were evaluated with Sesquiterpene-Rich Fraction from Cichorium glandulosum (SRF-LP) as a control. (
  • The prepared SRF-MLN can change the distribution of drugs in different tissues and organs, prolonging the action time of the drugs in the body, and it has certain specificity under the action of applied magnetic field. (
  • However, paxilline is a lipophilic small molecule that blocks all KCa1.1 channels found in major organs, regardless of channel subunit composition [ 13 - 15 ], and can cross cell membranes as well as the blood-brain barrier. (
  • 4-1BB functions as a survival factor in dendritic cells. (
  • B-cell follicle development remodels the conduit system and allows soluble antigen delivery to follicular dendritic cells. (
  • These dendritic cells were immunostimulatory, in that they induced proliferation of allogenic and tetanus toxoid-specific T lymphocytes. (
  • Once differentiated, dendritic cells derived from CD14 + CD34 + precursors retained their transendothelial migratory capability, using both PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 for transmigration. (
  • We suggest that a subset of CD14 + CD34 + circulating leukocytes can localize to peripheral tissues and differentiate into functional dendritic cells, thus representing a functional reservoir of potential APC. (
  • Monocytes (Mo) 3 derived from bone marrow precursors circulate in the blood and eventually traverse vascular endothelial lining to enter tissues, where they differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells (DC) after inflammatory or immunologic stimuli ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The tissue distribution of the B7-2 costimulator in mice: abundant expression on dendritic cells in situ and during maturation in vitro. (
  • Using the GL-1 rat monoclonal antibody (mAb), we monitored expression of B7-2 on mouse leukocytes with an emphasis on dendritic cells. (
  • In the case of epidermal and spleen dendritic cells, which become highly immunostimulatory for T cells during a short period of culture, the upregulation of B7-2 was dramatic and did not require added stimuli. (
  • Lipopolysaccharide did not upregulate B7-2 levels on dendritic cells, in contrast to macrophages and B cells. (
  • Of these accessory molecules, B7-2 was a major species that increased in culture, implying a key role for B7-2 in the functional maturation of dendritic cells. (
  • The H5N1 infection also resulted in prolonged margination of circulating T lymphocytes and notable apoptosis of activated dendritic cells in the lungs and draining lymph nodes early during infection. (
  • The transcription factor Prdm1 has been implicated in autoimmune diseases in humans through genome-wide association studies and in mice using cell type-specific deletion of Prdm1 in T and dendritic cells. (
  • In the absence of PINK1/Parkin, stress conditions such as inflammation induced by LPS treatment activate MitAP in antigen presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) in vivo, a process leading to the establishment of autoreactive CD8+ T cells. (
  • Here, we report on Sox10, a novel protein with predominant expression in glial cells of the nervous system. (
  • Instead, Sox10 functioned synergistically with the POU domain protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP with which it is coexpressed during certain stages of Schwann cell development. (
  • Chloride channel accessory 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA1 gene. (
  • The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although the site at which the precursor is cleaved has not been precisely determined. (
  • During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to generate an invaginated bud at the cell membrane. (
  • this protein, epsin, is closely related to the Xenopus mitotic phosphoprotein MP90 and has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. (
  • The most commonly cited theory for the cause of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis suggests the deposition of protein plugs that later calcify, leading to duct obstruction with subsequent fibrotic replacement of the acinar tissue upstream from the occlusion. (
  • HM1.24/Bst2/CD317 is a protein highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and has unique topology with two membrane anchor domains, an NH2-terminal transmembrane domain and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attached to the COOH terminus. (
  • A critical function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein is the downregulation of CD4 from the surfaces of infected cells. (
  • CLCA1 (Chloride Channel Accessory 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Full-length protein expressed in 293T cell transfected with human PDE10A expression vector. (
  • The open reading frame 8 (ORF8) protein of SARS-CoV-2 (ORF8SARS-CoV-2) is a unique accessory protein, yet little is known about its cellular function. (
  • The P gene of Newcastle disease virus does not encode an accessory X protein. (
  • Especially for therapeutic applications, the ideal cell culture medium forgoes any animal derived components, provides equal or increased performance (e.g. cell proliferation, protein production, etc.) over serum, and is comparable in price. (
  • We recently reported a novel neurological syndrome characterized by a unique NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep apnea and stridor, accompanied by bulbar dysfunction and specific association with antibodies against the neuronal cell-adhesion protein IgLON5. (
  • Clathrin acts as a vesicular stabilizing protein at several locations in the cell, and clathrin-dependent carrier formation requires membrane-specific APs for localization, coat assembly, accessory protein recruitment and cargo selection. (
  • For advanced force measurement experiments from single protein unfolding, DNA stretching to probing of cells and tissue. (
  • Fluorescence microscopy of maize protoplasts and tobacco leaf cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged Os1BGlu4 confirmed the cytoplasmic localization. (
  • The protocol is based on labeling of cells with [2- 3 H] mannose, denaturing lysis and enzymatic release of the oligosaccharides from either a specifically immunoprecipitated protein of interest or from the general glycoprotein pool by sequential treatments with endo H and N-glycosidase F, followed by molecular filtration (Amicon). (
  • The tissue-homing of all lymphocytes involves their interactions with endothelial cells (ECs) and with various tissue accessory cells. (
  • The interaction between the CD34 molecule itself and ligands of the selectin family is thought to be important for the initial binding of hemopoietic progenitors to endothelial cells ( 13 ). (
  • Indeed, the adhesion molecules expressed on those progenitor cells that are committed to leave the bone marrow, should acquire a higher affinity for counterreceptors expressed by endothelial cells than by stromal cells and extracellular matrix ( 20 , 21 , 22 ). (
  • We show that a subset of CD14 + PBMC, coexpressing the CD34 precursor marker, is able to migrate across endothelial cells and differentiate into immunostimulatory DC. (
  • In some cases, endothelial cells of the retinal vasculature are infected, supporting the idea that retinal infection may result from CMV reactivation in macrophages. (
  • SynVivo can support the growth of endothelial cells, cancer cells and many other cell types for mimicking healthy and disease conditions. (
  • Likewise, members of the integrin family, such as the α 4 β 1 and the α L β 2 integrins, proved to be important for progenitor cell trafficking both in vitro and in vivo ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Especially difficult to cultivate cells need appropriate growth medium and incubator that maintains correct pH and osmolality for the in vitro cultivation. (
  • Cell viability, migration and invasion were assessed in vitro by MTS, colony formation and transwell assay, respectively. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of BTX-A on rat pyloric muscle contractile response to SP in vitro and the distributions of SP and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactive (IR) cells and fibers within pylorus. (
  • The results demonstrate the in vitro utility of PrP Sc -permissive sheep microglial cells in investigating the biology of natural prion diseases and show that small-ruminant lentiviruses enhance prion conversion in cultured sheep microglia. (
  • There are at least 21 cell lines that have been used to study prion diseases in vitro ( 59 ). (
  • The specific aims of the project will be 1) Provide current protocols and training for in vitro maturation and cryopreservation of rhesus monkey oocytes;2) Develop a bank of oocytes and somatic accessory cells (cumulus and granulosa) for distribution as cryopreserved material, fixed material, and lysates for molecular analyses. (
  • Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are suitable for proliferation, or to AKT and FOXO3 under conditions of stress. (
  • These enzymes are involved in many sigl transduction pathways and their functions include vascular smooth muscle proliferation and contraction, cardiac contractility,platelet aggregation, hormone secretion, immune cell activation, and they are involved in learning and memory. (
  • Microscopy revealed a well-circumscribed but unencapsulated mesenchymal proliferation composed of haphazardly arranged fascicles of spindle to oval cells set in a collagenous stroma [Figure 2] . (
  • The angiogenic growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels coordinates several biological processes such as cell proliferation, guided migration, differentiation and cell-cell communication. (
  • We examined the cellular distribution of ORF8SARS-CoV-2 and its role in the regulation of human lung epithelial cell proliferation and antiviral immunity. (
  • Cell culture did not reveal any effects of ORF8SARS-CoV-2 expression on lung epithelial cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, suggesting that ORF8SARS-CoV-2 aggregates do not affect these cellular processes. (
  • hPL enables higher proliferation rates in various cell lines, cutting the population doubling time in half (Fig.1). (
  • Figure 1 shows a comparison of bone marrow-derived MSC cell cultures and their respective proliferation rates. (
  • Overexpression of CLCA2 significantly decreased proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells. (
  • 13. Cell proliferation in the olfactory bulb of adult freshwater teleosts. (
  • In differentiating plasma cells, Prdm1 represses genes involved in B cell maturation and proliferation ( 15 , 16 ), mediating terminal differentiation ( 15 , 17 , 18 ). (
  • Pre-coated with Collagen I for improved cell attachment and an increased proliferation rate of transfected mammalian cells, primary cells and stem cells. (
  • The neuronal cell bodies of a nerve's axons are in the brain, the spinal cord, or ganglia, but the nerves run only in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • All patients had serum and CSF antibodies, mainly of the IgG4 subclass, against IgLON5, a neuronal cell-adhesion molecule with unknown function. (
  • The products of each neuropeptide precursor seem to be co-expressed, and each precursor displays a unique neuronal distribution pattern. (
  • Here, we assessed the longitudinal distribution of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in the reproductive tract, sex accessory glands, and spermatozoa of adult boars. (
  • The most common sequence of tissue/organ infection following escape of virus from the midgut epithelium appears to be as follows: intussuscepted foregut, fat body, salivary glands and thoracic ganglia, epidermis, and ommatidia of the compound eyes. (
  • We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. (
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. (
  • Male accessory sex glands, penis, and scrotum. (
  • 1992. Lesions in the male accessory glands and penis. (
  • Spontaneous nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions and experimentally induced neoplasms of the testes and accessory sex glands. (
  • Macrophages are found throughout the male reproductive tract and its accessory glands. (
  • During mating the spermatozoa are transferred together with the secretion of the male accessory glands to the spermatheca ( Chapman, 2013 ). (
  • Shortly thereafter, this latter group ceases to proliferate and differentiates into myelinating Schwann cells, characterized by the expression of myelin genes and the elaboration of a multilayered myelin sheath ( Lemke, 1988 ). (
  • The numbers after the tissue indicate the number of genes in each category. (
  • HCF-1 helps regulate genes that are important in other cellular processes, such as progression of cells through the step-by-step process it takes to replicate themselves (called the cell cycle). (
  • 3D culturing has become popular in the field of drug-screening and toxicity, as the cells respond to chemicals in a more ' in vivo way' than 2D cultures. (
  • Balls of interacting cells form 'organoids' or 'organ spheroids' that replicate tissues in vivo . (
  • Scientists have to mimic the in vivo conditions like controlled temperature or a substrate for cell attachment. (
  • Paper title: "In vivo engineering of bone tissues with hematopoietic functions and mixed chimerism" by Yu-Ru (Vernon) Shih), Heemin Kang, Vikram Rao, Yu-Jui Chiu, Seung Keun Kwon and Shyni Varghese of UC San Diego. (
  • 3D tissue models from SynVivo enable real-time study of cell and drug interactions and accelerate discovery by providing a biologically realistic platform that more accurately depicts in vivo reality. (
  • Corning™ BioCoat™ Collagen I Rectangular Canted Neck Cell Culture Flask with Vented Cap provides highly consistent and biologically functional precoated surfaces to more closely mimic in vivo environments for cell culture applications. (
  • By E15-E16 most of these cells have progressed to the embryonic Schwann cell stage and have started to segregate and subdivide axon bundles. (
  • Lack of laminin gamma1 in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes causes inhomogeneous electrical spreading despite intact differentiation and function. (
  • This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines. (
  • Furthermore, the lack of a reliable, adequate supply of non-human primate oocytes is a major problem impeding progress in non- human primate models of early embryo development, fertilization, transgenics, embryonic stem cell lines, and production of genetically identical offspring. (
  • Prdm1 (Blimp1) is a transcription factor that controls gene expression and chromatin structure in several embryonic and adult tissues. (
  • We propose a role for Sox10 in conferring cell specificity to the function of other transcription factors in developing and mature glia. (
  • Our studies indicate that the different tissue specificity, Cu-regulated expression, and subcellular localization dictate COPT-specialized contribution to plant Cu transport and distribution. (
  • Current biomarkers suffer from a lack of tissue specificity, rendering them vulnerable to non-disease-specific increases. (
  • During development Sox10 first appeared in the forming neural crest and continued to be expressed as these cells contributed to the forming PNS and finally differentiated into Schwann cells. (
  • In the PNS, migrating neural crest cells join axons that grow out from the ventral part of the neural tube early during development and proliferate along these tracts ( LeDouarin, 1982 ). (
  • In brain research, optical imaging technique is still the only way to study neural tissues with micrometer or submicrometer spatial resolution. (
  • Data Structures in Java for the Principled Programmer( 2007) - Duane A. Introduction to Programming meaning Java - David J. Java, Java, Java Object-Oriented Problem Solving - R. Neural Network Development with Java - Alan M. Object educational download statistical distributions, fourth edition voting Java - Simon Kendal( PDF), Bookboon. (
  • Embryologically, the adrenal medullary cells derive from neural crest cells. (
  • May be involved in the regulation of mucus production and/or secretion by goblet cells. (
  • Secretion occurs after the release of acetylcholine from the preganglionic neurons that innervate the medullary cells. (
  • Among specimens with disseminated infections (infections beyond the midgut epithelium), antigen was detected in most tissues, including those of the nervous and endocrine systems. (
  • However, no antigen was found in the ovarian follicular epithelia, oocytes/nurse cells, or female accessory gland. (
  • Two culture systems, a primary cell culture and a cell line transformed with the large T antigen of simian virus 40, were developed, and both were identified as microglial in origin as indicated by expression of several microglial phenotype markers. (
  • Since then, major improvements have been made in tissue fixation and sectioning methods, antigen/epitope retrieval, antibody conjugation, immunostaining methods and reagents, as well as microscopy itself. (
  • However, in hairy cell leukemia (HCL), these processes are particularly prominent and result in diagnostic appearances in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. (
  • Accessory spleen mimicking pancreatic tumour: evaluation by 99mTc-labelled colloid SPECT/CT study. (
  • The accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly, typically asymptomatic and harmless to the patient. (
  • There are nuclear medicine modalities which can be applied in the identification and localisation of an accessory spleen. (
  • Additionally, radiation-guided surgery can be used in cases where the accessory spleen, which is usually small (not exceeding 1 cm) and difficult to find among other tissues, has to be removed. (
  • We would also like to briefly analyse the clinical applications of nuclear medicine in case of an accessory spleen. (
  • Physiologic distribution of activity in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (
  • Most lacritin is produced by the lacrimal gland, including the accessory lacrimal gland of Wolfring. (
  • Spermatozoa were harvested from three fertile boars and reproductive tract (testes and epididymis) and sex accessory gland (prostate and seminal vesicles) tissues were collected post-mortem from each boar. (
  • Females have a pair of elongated spermathecal reservoirs without associated accessory gland. (
  • Medullary cells are innervated by cholinergic preganglionic nerve fibers that reach the gland via the splanchnic nerves. (
  • CLCA2 inhibited tumor metastasis through suppressing epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in-activating FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in NPC cells. (
  • In addition, inhibition of FAK and ERK1/2 reversed CLCA2 silencing-induced tumor cell migration. (
  • Accompanying the phenotypic and morphologic changes of tumor cells, the expression of mesenchymal markers, e.g., fibronectin, vimentin and N-cadherin will usually increase, while expression of epithelial markers, e.g. (
  • Several studies have shown that inhibiting the EMT process can suppress pulmonary metastasis of tumor cell-bearing nude nice [ 14 ], indicating the potential clinical value of targeting EMT in cancer treatment. (
  • Hyperspectral imaging covers the surface area of target and provides the image that contains information regarding various light wavelength bands in order to help recognize targeted tumor tissue, a blood vessel, lymph nodes, or a nerve bundle. (
  • For example, using specific tumor markers, physicians use IHC to diagnose if a tumor is benign or malignant, to determine its stage and grade, and to identify the cell type and origin of a metastasis in order to find the site of the primary tumor. (
  • For advanced studies, tumor or tissue cells can be co-cultured within and around the microvasculature network. (
  • Introduction to the basic structure of cell membranes, organelles and inclusions. (
  • GHK's main mechanism of action is that it scavenges specific by-products of a process called lipid peroxidation, which damages cell membranes and creates instability. (
  • Their SH3 domains displayed a high selectivity for dynamin 2, and the PX-BAR units had the capacity to tubulate membranes when expressed in HeLa cells. (
  • In addition to the variable availability of Cu in the environment, plant Cu requirements also change daily given its participation in photosynthesis, during the development of green and reproductive tissues, and in response to other environmental cues. (
  • In addition to supplying Ca2+ necessary for intracellular signaling and regulation of several cell functions described herein, [Ca2+]0 also plays a role as a first messenger important to the integrity of several structural (e.g., bone matrix) and functional (e.g., blood clotting) processes. (
  • The extremely stable [Ca2+]0 level is attributed to homeostatic mechanisms that consist of Ca2+-sensory cells (e.g., parathyroid cells) and Ca2+-responsive tissues (e.g., kidney, bowel, and bone). (
  • Transendothelial migration of hemopoietic progenitor cells occurs during mobilization from bone marrow in response to cytokines and during homing of circulating progenitors ( 10 ). (
  • Mobilization of CD34 + cells from bone marrow is a rare event in the adult life, and it is conceivably due to changes in the expression, or affinity to their ligand, of different adhesion molecules during differentiation ( 17 , 18 , 19 ). (
  • Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed biomimetic bone tissues that could one day provide new bone marrow for patients needing transplants. (
  • Before a transplant, a patient is first given doses of radiation, sometimes in combination with drugs, to kill off any existing stem cells in the patient's bone marrow. (
  • To address these issues, a team led by bioengineering professor Shyni Varghese at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering has developed a bone-like implant that gives donor cells their own space to live and grow without competition, eliminating the need to wipe out the host's pre-existing cells. (
  • We've made an accessory bone that can separately accommodate donor cells. (
  • Researchers developed bone tissues with functional bone marrow that can be filled with donor cells and implanted under the skin of mice. (
  • Varghese cautions that these implants would be limited to patients with non-malignant bone marrow diseases, where there aren't any cancerous cells that need to be eliminated. (
  • Examples include aplastic anemia, in which the body can't make enough platelets and blood cells, as well as low blood counts and immune attack of the bone marrow caused by defective or abnormal bone marrow stem cells. (
  • Stem cells grown in this mineralized matrix differentiate into bone-building cells. (
  • When implanted beneath the skin of mice, the structures matured into bone tissues that have a working blood vessel network and a bone marrow inside that supplies new blood cells. (
  • and that host and donor cells can travel between the implanted marrow and the host's circulating blood -- via the blood vessel network formed in the implanted bone tissue. (
  • We did these experiments to show that the bone marrow cells from the engineered bone tissues function similar to native bone," Shih said. (
  • We're working on making this a platform to generate more bone marrow stem cells. (
  • Image soft and hard tissue: microtubules in dentin, osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi in bone, bioscaffolds for tissue engineering, nanoparticle agglomerations in organic materials. (
  • Fibroblastic reticular cells guide T lymphocyte entry into and migration within the splenic T cell zone. (
  • They include scintigraphy with radiolabelled colloids or heat damaged red blood cells, which are trapped in the splenic tissue. (
  • It may also be used to assess for accessory splenic tissue, although a heat-damaged red blood cell scan may be superior for this purpose. (
  • The testicular immunofluorescence intensity of relaxin was greater than that of other tissues. (
  • Epithelial basal cells exhibited the highest relaxin immunofluorescence intensity within the epididymis and the vas deferens. (
  • Immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that, like gpUS8, gpUS9 was present in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments of nonpolarized cells. (
  • IHC detection of cytokeratin 18 in human colon carcinoma tissue by immunofluorescence. (
  • Both receptors were detected in all tissues, with a predominance of mature and immature isoforms of RXFP1 and RXFP2, respectively. (
  • Research on other mammals suggests that oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) as well as the distribution of OT- and VP-receptors may influence social behavior and pair bonding. (
  • The thymus tissue presented several morphological changes, including increased distribution of blood vessels along with the appearance of red blood cells and hemorrhagic reticuloepithelial cells, while the glucocorticoid receptors presented greater immunomarking on the thymic cortex in exposed animals. (
  • All 3 mutations were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and all mutations generated a late phase of inactivation-resistant, mexiletine- and tetrodotoxin-sensitive, whole-cell currents through multiple mechanisms. (
  • Primordial follicles possess primary oocytes that consist of a single, large cells. (
  • When primary oocytes divides, the distribution of the cytoplasm is unequal. (
  • One of the resulting cell called secondary oocytes (egg cell) is large and the other called the polar body is small. (
  • This resource would be a source of oocytes and follicle cells, as well as protocols and training, for investigators that currently utilize or that want to expand their studies into a primate model to facilitate translation to human applications. (
  • Providing access to protocols, training and, ultimately, a """"""""bank"""""""" of nonhuman primate oocytes, follicles cells, tissues and lysates is essential for the translational research bridge between other animal models and humans. (
  • The long-term goal will be to provide a bank of oocytes and accessory cells as well as ovarian tissue and cell lysates that can be accessed by NIH funded investigators. (
  • Fresh oocytes and somatic accessory cells will also be available for shipment;3) Address the urgent need in both human and nonhuman reproductive biology to enhance oocyte cryopreservation and IVM methods. (
  • The development of new transgenic models of disease as well as new techniques for stem cell therapy or genetic programming will require large numbers of rhesus oocytes so that translational research efforts will be successful. (
  • Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, leading to abundant virus replication and pathology. (
  • pipiens are probably explainable on the basis of extensive tissue and organ infection resulting in an overall energy drain. (
  • Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a disease that involves significant lung tissue damage. (
  • If the peritonitis is the basis of cell growth once cell division is complete has been to help you plan a meal should be performed they are on several medications to prevent infection and slows the progression to esrd from a variety of foods. (
  • LPS being the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, we went on to show that gut infection with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) induces MitAP and the elicitation of anti-mirochondrial CD8+ T cells in PINK1 KO mice. (
  • To date, all members of this gene family map to the same region on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share a high degree of homology in size, sequence, and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. (
  • A) Distribution of poly(A) sites, minimum two reads per cluster, with respect to gene annotations. (
  • B) Distribution of 3′ UTR isoforms per gene. (
  • C) Distribution of 3′ UTR median length (using minimum two reads per cluster) with respect to FlyAtlas gene classifications. (
  • The black regions correspond to mapped RNA-seq reads from each tissue, green indicates poly(A)-spanning reads pooled from 29 poly(A)-enriched RNA-seq libraries corresponding to the strand on which the gene of interest is expressed. (
  • Recently, however, strains worldwide and whether any other common genetic cases of MRSA have been documented in healthy commu- traits such as toxin gene and the accessory gene regulator nity-dwelling persons without established risk factors for ( agr ) profiles can be identified. (
  • Because the production of apoE by astrocytes appears to be induced in response to multiple physiological signals, we investigated the regulatory elements that specify its expression in these cells. (
  • While both 1918 reassortant viruses also were highly pathogenic, the H5N1 virus was exceptional for the extent of tissue damage, cytokinemia, and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms, which may help explain the extreme virulence of HPAI viruses in humans. (
  • Researchers establishing stem Cell Therapy treatments need to meet the regulatory guidelines and have a cost-effective system that is compatible with their end use. (
  • Notably, the development of Foxp3 + regulatory T cells occurs normally in the absence of Blimp1. (
  • The thymus is essential for the prevention of autoimmunity through the induction of T cell tolerance and the generation of FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs). (
  • Using a human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) model, various possible receptor-ligand interactions between hairy cells (HCs) and ECs were examined and a central importance for alpha 4 beta 1/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was established. (
  • Novel co-culture protocols have been developed that establish true vascular monolayers in communication with tissue cells. (
  • Note the arrangement of the muscle of the tongue and the distribution of blood vessels and nerves within it. (
  • Recently, PECAM-1/CD31 has been reported to enhance the adhesivity of α 4 β 1 integrin expressed by hemopoietic progenitor cells ( 16 ). (
  • Macroscopic examination showed a firm to elastic, greyish-whitish, well-circumscribed lump measuring 5.5 × 4 × 4 cm, which was covered by the remnants of adipose tissue [ [Figure 1] , left]. (
  • No ectopic breast tissue was discovered within the attached remnants of the surrounding adipose tissue. (
  • u003c\/h1\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCelestial Bodiez Body Shaping Contour-Refining Cream - A Scientific Analysis\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eCellulite is predominantly a condition of poor microcirculation that can cause damage to adipose tissue under the skin. (
  • Cellulite is predominantly a condition of poor microcirculation that can cause damage to adipose tissue under the skin. (
  • Here we investigate the combined effects of packing constraints and spatial confinement by growing dense actin networks in cell-sized microchambers with nonadhesive walls. (
  • Medullary parenchymal cells accumulate and store their hormone products in prominent, dense secretory granules, 150-350 nm in diameter. (
  • Morphologically, two types of medullary cells can be distinguished: epinephrine-secreting cells, which have larger, less dense granules, and norepinephrine-secreting cells, which have smaller, very dense granules. (
  • Any potentially treatment-related increase in hyperplasia should be documented in the pathology narrative and correlated with related changes in other reproductive and endocrine tissues. (
  • Prdm1 is expressed by a subset of mouse TECs, and conditional deletion of Prdm1 in either Keratin 14- or Foxn1- expressing cells in mice resulted in multisymptom autoimmune pathology. (
  • Involved in the regulation of tissue inflammation in the innate immune response. (
  • Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterized by excessive lung inflammation, tissue damage, and failure to control bacterial growth. (
  • 3 Ivy ( Hedera helix ) extract contains chemicals called saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids that all aid in the improvement of circulation, reduce inflammation, and can induce the drainage of liquid and tissue responsible for cellulite. (
  • Mammalian epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15 (EPS15), which is involved in cell growth regulation. (
  • Chloride channels are a family of anion-selective channels involved in a diverse range of biological processes including the regulation of the excitability of neurons, skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, cell volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport, the acidification of intra- and extracellular compartments. (
  • i) Restricted device means a device for which a requirement restricting sale, distribution, or use has been established by a regulation issued under section 520(e) of the act, by order as a condition of premarket approval under section 515(d)(1)(B)(ii) of the act, or by a performance standard issued in accordance with sections 514(a)(2)(B)(v) and 514(b) of the act. (
  • IHC is also used in drug development to test drug efficacy by detecting either the activity or the up- or down-regulation of disease markers in the target tissues and elsewhere. (
  • Corning™ U-Shaped Cell Culture Flasks have an ergonomic shape that reduces the number of corners, improves cell scraping and allows the use of a larger pipet. (
  • IHC makes it possible to visualize and document the high-resolution distribution and localization of specific cellular components within cells and within their proper histological context. (
  • Expression of α3 subunit mRNA is greatly reduced in the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb, and the inferior and the superior colliculus of β4 knockout mice. (
  • Osteopetrotic (Csfm(op)/Csfm(op)) mice, null mutants for macrophage colony-stimulating factor, possess diminished numbers of circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages. (
  • The primary outcomes observed were a small number of cancers of Schwann cells in the heart and non-cancerous changes (hyperplasia) in the same tissues for male rats, but not female rats, nor in mice overall. (
  • The donor cells survived for at least six months and supplied the mice with new blood cells. (
  • In another set of experiments, researchers took stem cells from the implanted marrow and transplanted them into a second group of mice that had their marrow stem cells destroyed by radiation and drugs. (
  • They found that the transplanted cells had diffused into the bloodstream of these mice. (
  • Dr Witting's research interest is in exploring the relationship between oxidative stress and the evolution of tissue damage in the acute setting of stroke and myocardial infarct. (
  • Consequently, Cu is essential for fundamental biological processes in plants including photosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress protection, cell wall metabolism, ethylene perception, response to pathogens, and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Hence, it is assumed that in the absence of PINK1 or Parkin, failure to eliminate non-functional mitochondria in DNs results in the accumulation of toxic organelles, excessive oxidative stress and cell death. (
  • Steroid-Cell Interactions describes the processes involved in the intracellular binding of steroids (and related compounds) in mammalian cells. (
  • Esterase is found in bacteria, fungi, insect and mammalian liver microsome cells that indicates its hydrolysis ability in living cells. (
  • 9) corpus albican: this are masses of fibrous tissues formed at the end of corpus luteum. (
  • Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. (
  • Both are circumscribed spindle cell neoplasms exhibiting myofibroblastic differentiation and a hyalinized stroma, usually with a fatty component and prominent mast cells. (
  • It was located in the subcutaneous tissue and had grown to a size of 6 cm over a period of 12 months. (
  • Finally, there are the skeletal dyspla edema of the facial subcutaneous tissue, regardless of sias, in which micrognathia represents the expression the degree of micrognathia, the risk of chromosomal and of a skeletal developmental derangement. (
  • It is the result of cellular impairment to the framework by which the body stores subcutaneous fat cells and can affect up to 98% of women after puberty. (
  • Adequate Cu levels in vegetative tissues are around 6 μ g/g dry weight, with levels below 5 μ g/g leading to deficiency symptoms [ 4 ]. (
  • antibodies-online offers Human Platelet Lysates cell culture supplement that is a first-rate alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in human cell culture medium. (
  • In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. (
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) combines anatomical, immunological and biochemical techniques to image discrete components in tissues by using appropriately-labeled antibodies to bind specifically to their target antigens in situ. (
  • 1942) used FITC-labeled antibodies to identify Pneumococcal antigens in infected tissue. (
  • We describe a subset of peripheral CD14 + cells, coexpressing the CD34 progenitor marker and able to migrate across endothelial cell monolayers. (
  • Likewise, the ability to localize to peripheral tissues depends, in mature leukocytes, on a sequence of molecular events that are tightly connected to each other ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Endothelial interactions of hairy cells: the importance of alpha 4 beta 1 in the unusual tissue distribution of the disorder. (
  • Such interactions, together with the intrinsic cell activation characteristic of HCL and the HC's consequent ability to interact with matrix, are responsible for many of the characteristic features of the disease. (
  • Steroid-Cell Interactions. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Steroid-Cell Interactions. (
  • However, physical effects also influence filament organization: steric interactions impose packing constraints at high filament density and spatially confine the filaments within the cell boundaries. (
  • S. aureus produces a plethora of virulence factors that facilitate attachment, colonization, cell-cell interactions, immune evasion, and tissue damage. (
  • they tend to spread themselves as flat as possible, have minimal cell-cell interactions and display different expression and morphogenesis. (
  • 6) Ovarian follicle: These are tiny masses of cell surrounding the ovary. (
  • May play critical roles in goblet cell metaplasia, mucus hypersecretion, cystic fibrosis and AHR. (
  • The neoplastic spindle cells demonstrated strong expression of desmin along with CD34 [Figure 4] and estrogen positivity. (
  • We analysed nAChR subunit expression in the human lungs of smokers and non-smokers using transcriptomic data for whole-lung tissues, isolated large AECs, and isolated small AECs. (
  • CLCA2 expression in human NPC cell lines and tissues was examined via real-time PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot and IHC. (
  • The ~0.6 micro molar level of tissue transglutaminase estimated in human tears is sufficient to promote crosslinking. (
  • 1 µg/ml (1/400) freshly prepared for Mouse tissue and 4 µg/ml (1/100) on Human/Porcine tissue. (
  • We show here that human HM1.24 is localized not only on the cell surface but also in the trans-Golgi network and/or recycling endosomes, where it resides in detergent-resistant microdomains, lipid rafts. (
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of human HM1.24 from the cell surface lipid rafts is mediated by direct interaction with alpha-adaptin. (
  • Overview of different cell types in the human body. (
  • its interaction with HCoV-229E strain leads to viral inhibition in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells. (
  • One pool of cultures used human Platelet Lysate (ABIN6720614) as cell culture media (orange), the teal data set used FBS. (
  • For the highest safety level for expansion of different human cell types, thorough testing and intensive controls are carried out. (
  • Cell culture solutions based on human Platelet Lysate are suited for basic research, cellular therapeutics and clinical applications. (
  • The two-phase system consists of a human Platelet Lysate gel, which supplies your cells with nutrients and a cell culture scaffold at once. (
  • Human cells grown in SynVivo chips retain biological phenotypes that are similar to cells found in the tissues. (
  • Within this morphologically realistic network, animal or human cells are cultured and studied under physiologically realistic flow and shear conditions. (
  • A proteogenomics analysis of histologically human tissues using the IPAW pipeline reveals novel coding regions. (
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanism of interlobular fibrosis of the pancreas, which is categorized as chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, based on histologic changes in the pancreatic tissue in patients with ampullary carcinomas with various degrees of stricture of the main pancreatic duct. (
  • For each patient with ampullary carcinoma, 2 to 7 blocks were taken from the pancreatic tissues, fixed in a formaldehyde solution, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin. (
  • Histologic findings were evaluated in a pancreatic polypeptide-rich area, named the ventral pancreas, because ampullary carcinomas are anatomically involved in the outflow of the pancreatic juice from Wirsung's duct or the main pancreatic duct but not from Santorini's duct or the accessory pancreatic duct. (
  • Using colon, lung, pancreatic and prostate cancer as case examples, we identified 48 candidate tissue-specific biomarkers, of which 14 have been previously studied as biomarkers of cancer or benign disease. (
  • Cell Biology Unit, MRC-Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. (
  • For the last forty years, biologists have used traditional 2D cell culture to forge breakthroughs in cell biology. (
  • We discuss how further advancements in the field, through the incorporation of interstitial cells and ECM, have the potential to provide an effective tool for interrogating lung biology and disease, especially the mechanisms that involve the interstitial elements. (
  • In both varieties of barley, it was only possible to record successfully from root cortical cells because the epidermal cells appeared to be damaged. (
  • Pubmed ID: 12554708 Triple-barrelled microelectrodes measuring K(+) activity (a(K)), pH and membrane potential were used to make quantitative measurements of vacuolar and cytosolic a(K) in epidermal and mesophyll cells of barley plants grown in nutrient solution with 0 or 200 mM added NaCl. (
  • Histologically, these cells and granules have a high affinity for chromium salts ( chromaffin reaction ) and thus are called chromaffin cells and contain chromaffin granules . (
  • The adrenal medulla can be regarded as a specialized sympathetic ganglion, in which preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers (using acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter) directly make contact with postganglionic cells, which secrete catecholamines (mainly epinephrine) directly into the circulation. (
  • Altogether, we reveal broad tissue-specific patterns of APA in Drosophila and transcripts with unprecedented 3' UTR length in the nervous system. (
  • Distribution of Oxytocin- and Vasopressin-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the Eusocial Mole Rat (Fukomys anselli). (
  • DISTRIBUTION OF IMMUNOREACTIVE NEURONS INTRODUCTION Fukomys anselli are subterranean rodents (family Bathyergidae) that are native to Zambia. (
  • In most living cells, both extracellular and intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]0 and [Ca2+]i, respectively) are highly regulated, often with the expense of energy. (
  • The composition and structure of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a major role in the function of the lung tissue and cells. (
  • Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (
  • Brain: medial habenula, mitral cell layer and the accessory olfactory bulb, interpeduncular nucleus, inferior colliculus and the medial vestibular nucleus (mRNA restricted to relatively few nuclei). (
  • Two-photon (2P) excitation of the second singlet ( S 2 ) state was studied to achieve deep optical microscopic imaging in brain tissue when both the excitation (800 nm) and emission (685 nm) wavelengths lie in the "tissue optical window" (650 to 950 nm). (
  • S 2 state technique was used to investigate chlorophyll α (Chl α ) fluorescence inside a spinach leaf under a thick layer of freshly sliced rat brain tissue in combination with 2P microscopic imaging. (
  • Strong emission at the peak wavelength of 685 nm under the 2P S 2 state of Chl α enabled the imaging depth up to 450 μ m through rat brain tissue. (
  • New methods have been applied to image the brain with submicrometer spatial resolution, among them two-photon (2P) microscopy offers the advantages of deeper tissue penetration 3 and less photodamage, such as phototoxicity and photobleaching, in comparison with conventional confocal microscopy. (
  • The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. (
  • We describe the distribution of neuropeptides in brain interneurons of a few well-studied insect species. (
  • Emphasis has been placed upon interneurons innervating specific brain areas, such as the optic lobes, accessory medulla, antennal lobes, central body, and mushroom bodies. (
  • Sheep microglial cell cultures, derived from a prnp 136VV/171QQ near-term fetal brain, were developed to study sheep scrapie in the natural host and to investigate potential cofactors in the prion conversion process. (
  • 17. Immunocytochemical study of angiotensin-II fibres and cell bodies in the brain stem respiratory areas of the cat. (
  • 19. Immunocytochemical study of substance P-like cell bodies and fibres in the brain of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri . (
  • Corning™ Cell Culture Treated Flasks are available in a variety of sizes, designs and cap styles to meet laboratory diagnostic needs. (
  • Corning™ Falcon™ Cell Culture Mini Flasks provide even distribution of media across all layers for homogeneous cell growth. (
  • Corning™ Falcon™ Tissue Culture Treated Flasks features vacuum-gas plasma tissue culture treatment to ensure consistent growth surface. (
  • Ensure a sterile gas exchange for shaker and suspension cell culture by using Thermo Scientific™ Nalgene™ Vented HDPE Closures for Sterile Single Use Erlenmeyer Flasks. (
  • Perform general cell culture procedures more economically with Thermo Scientific™ BioLite Cell Culture Treated Flasks, guaranteed to be sterile, non-pyrogenic and non-cytotoxic. (
  • Interestingly, Sox10 also modulated the function of Pax3 and Krox-20, two other transcription factors involved in Schwann cell development. (
  • A fraction of Schwann cells remains in contact with multiple axons and gives rise to nonmyelinating Schwann cells, which in the adult surround several slow conducting small-caliber axons with simple extensions of their plasma membrane. (
  • The flattened Schwann cells are organized in a stacked conformation in a background of an interlamellar matrix composed largely of collagen and microfilaments [4] . (
  • The conversion occurs posttranslationally and involves a conformational change resulting in the generation of a detergent-insoluble, partially protease-resistant molecule that aggregates in affected tissues and serves as the marker for prion diseases. (
  • In biological and biomedical studies, most of the events or functions occur in a complex tissue environment and ultimately need to be studied in preparations as intact as possible. (
  • Optimize your imaging with absorption and phase contrast for a diverse range of materials such as polymers, oxides, composites, fuel cells, geological samples and biological materials. (
  • The biological roles of CLCA2 in proliferative, migration and invasion of NPC cell lines was evaluated in 5-8F, S18, S26 and SUNE-1 cells. (
  • During maturation the primary oocyte enlarges and the surrounding follicular cells proliferates by mitosis, which is a cell division in which the daughter cells has chromosomes, which are identical in number and genetic content to those of the mother cells. (
  • These follicular cells organize into layers and soon a cavity appears in the cellular masses. (
  • The secondary oocyte is surrounded by a layer of glycoprotein known as the zona pellucida and attached to a mantle of follicular cells (corona radiata). (
  • Processes from the follicular cells extends through zona pellucida and supply the secondary oocyte with nutrients. (
  • A Primary developed oocyte enlarges and becomes surrounded by follicular cells and fluid as the follicle matures. (