Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.PolysaccharidesReceptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Glycoside HydrolasesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dolichol Monophosphate Mannose: A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.GlucosamineTunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.HexosephosphatesAcetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Fucose1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Pterocarpus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.IndolizinesElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Sugars: Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Monosaccharides: These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Dolichol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.AmidohydrolasesAlkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Oligosaccharides: These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.HexosesTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases): A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Dolichol: Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Uridine Diphosphate Galactose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GlucuronidaseUridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Mucolipidoses: A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsCongenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Imino Furanoses: Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.XyloseMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose, NAD+, and NADP+, ... Barber GA (1968). "The synthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate D-rhamnose by enzymes of a higher plant". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class ... Other names in common use include GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase, GDP-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase, and guanosine ...
The leaving group is displaced by an alcohol of the acceptor sugar aided by the active site general base amino acid of the ... This process was made available due to the development of high throughput screens for glycosynthase activity. Glycosythase have ... Substrates of glycosynthase include Glucose, Galactose, Mannose, Xylose, and Glucuronic acid. Modern methods to prepare ... β-glucosythase, which forms a β 1-4 glycoside with Glucose as the acceptor, but forms a β 1-3 glycoside with Xylose as the ...
... high-mannose oligosaccharides produced by Dictyostelium discoideum The activity of the intersecting mannose residue as acceptor ... N-acetylglucosamine residue to high mannose oligosaccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 264: 10411-10419. PMID 2525124. High-mannose- ... High-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.197, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine- ... high-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N-acetyl-D- ...
The DNA polymerase of Thermococcus litoralis is stable at high temperatures, with a half-life of 8 hours at 95 °C and 2 hours ... It is made of mannose, sulfites, and phosphorus. T. litoralis can utilize pyruvate, maltose, and amino acids as energy sources ... Unlike many other hyperthermophiles, T. litoralis is only facultatively dependent on sulfur as a final electron acceptor in ... These amino acids may not be vital for T. litoralis because asparagine and glutamine tend to deaminate at high temperatures ...
Each relative was given a similarity score: higher scores equate to a closer phylogenetic similarity. The scores are based on ... Acid is produced from glucose, mannose, fructose, sucrose, ribose and xylose fermentation. This organism has been found to use ... This organism uses oxygen its preferred terminal electron acceptor and uses organic compounds for its carbon and energy source ...
ATP acts as an allosteric inhibitor and when cellular concentrations of ATP are high, and the cell's energy needs are low, the ... This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. The members of the PfkB/RK family are identified by the presence ... with an alcohol group as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:D-fructose-phosphate 6-phosphotransferase. ... When blood sugar is high, however, the secretion of insulin produces the opposite effect by removing the phosphate group from ...
... high mannose, hybrid and complex glycans. High-mannose is, in essence, just two N-acetylglucosamines with many mannose residues ... responsible for the recognition of the consensus sequence and the transfer of the precursor glycan to a polypeptide acceptor ... For example, S.cerevisiae (yeast) often produce high-mannose glycans which are immunogenic. Non-human mammalian expression ... In the cis-Golgi, a series of mannosidases remove some or all of the four mannose residues in α-1,2 linkages. Whereas in the ...
The final acceptor of this allosteric signal is the catalytic Gly56 within the active site. Inorganic pyrophosphate has 95% the ... At higher concentrations, however, phosphate acts as an competitive allosteric inhibitor to turn off enzymatic activity, ... and mannose). This suggests that MGS production of methylglyoxal plays a role in controlling expression of sugar-specific ... CheB methylesterase has the highest structural similarity with MGS. Methylglyoxal synthase is highly specific for DHAP with Km ...
The protocol produced high dr for the corresponding diol, depending on the oxidant chosen. The synthesis of highly substituted ... Syn-selectivity is due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the allylic alcohol and the acceptor ability of the diamine. Since ... Harris, J.M.; Keranen, M.D.; O'Doherty, G.A. (1999). "Syntheses of D- and L-Mannose, Gulose, and Talose via Diastereoselective ... The concentration of the olefin is crucial to the enantiomeric excess of the diol since higher concentrations of the alkene can ...
Azides give high regioselectivity, however stereoselectivity both at C-1 and C-2 is generally poor. Usually anomeric mixtures ... For instance glycal, activated by thianthrene-5-oxide and Tf2O is treated with an amide nucleophile and a glycosyl acceptor to ... 6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose and the corresponding α-glucosyl chloride from d-mannose". Carbohydrate ...
When promoters use the SAGA/TATA box complex to recruit RNA polymerase II, they are more highly regulated and display higher ... PMC 1914533 . Takahashi K, Ezekowitz RA (November 2005). "The role of the mannose-binding lectin in innate immunity". Clinical ... box and an acceptor splice site". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (4): 1154 ... Longer TATA box sequences correlates with higher levels of PG2 serum indicating gastric cancer conditions. Carriers with ...
At high tissue concentrations ascorbic acid is described as acting as a pro-oxidant, generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ... In plants, this is accomplished through the conversion of mannose or galactose to ascorbic acid.[114][115] ... UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase uses the co-factor NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase ... This has led to the suggestion that, in higher primates, uric acid has taken over some of the functions of ascorbate.[147] ...
They differ from fructans and inulin, which have a much higher degree of polymerization than FOS and is therefore a ... In both cases, the acceptor substrate is an asparagine residue. The asparagine residue linked to an N-linked oligosaccharide ...
... including those of higher plants, algae and certain bacteria.[citation needed] ... and fungi have phytoceramide phosphoinositols and mannose-containing headgroups.[42] The glycosphingolipids are a diverse ... Electron acceptors are other than oxygen. Fermentation. *Glycolysis → Substrate-level phosphorylation *ABE ... The complete oxidation of fatty acids provides high caloric content, about 38 kJ/g (9 kcal/g), compared with 17 kJ/g (4 kcal/g ...
... including those of higher plants, algae and certain bacteria.[citation needed] ... and fungi have phytoceramide phosphoinositols and mannose-containing headgroups.[42] The glycosphingolipids are a diverse ... The complete oxidation of fatty acids provides high caloric content, about 38 kJ/g (9 kcal/g), compared with 17 kJ/g (4 kcal/g ... contains relatively high amounts of glycerophospholipids, and alterations in their composition has been implicated in various ...
At high tissue concentrations ascorbic acid is described as acting as a pro-oxidant, generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ... In plants, this is accomplished through the conversion of mannose or galactose to ascorbic acid.[114][115] ... UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase uses the co-factor NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase ... This has led to the suggestion that, in higher primates, uric acid has taken over some of the functions of ascorbate.[147] ...
The synthetic utility of the enzyme was demonstrated by generation of a high-mannose-type undecasaccharide (Glc Man GlcNAc ).. ... We prepared various glycosyl donors and acceptors, and recombinant human Golgi endo-α-mannosidase and its various mutants were ... The assay involved the in vitro folding of both high-mannose type oligosaccharyl crambin, which yielded only the correctly ... In order to examine the importance of high-mannose glycans and polysaccharides in gastrulation, Lytechinus pictus embryos were ...
GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose, NAD+, and NADP+, ... Barber GA (1968). "The synthesis of guanosine 5-diphosphate D-rhamnose by enzymes of a higher plant". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class ... Other names in common use include GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase, GDP-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase, and guanosine ...
N-glycans can be subdivided into three distinct groups called high mannose type, hybrid type, and complex type, with the ... Although rare, the sequence motif Asn-Xaa-Cys can also be an acceptor site. ... More, preferably the asparagine residues are N-glycosylated with high mannose oligosaccharides. ... The assays can be automated for high capacity-high throughput screening (HTS) in which large numbers of compounds can be tested ...
... high-mannose oligosaccharides produced by Dictyostelium discoideum The activity of the intersecting mannose residue as acceptor ... N-acetylglucosamine residue to high mannose oligosaccharides". J. Biol. Chem. 264: 10411-10419. PMID 2525124. High-mannose- ... High-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.197, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine- ... high-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N-acetyl-D- ...
... a membrane bound protein recently identified as the lysosomal mannose-6-phosphate acceptor (Tong et al., Journal ofBiological ... IGF-II is found at highest levels in bone (1,750 ng/g dry wt.),about a ten fold higher concentration than for IGF-I (190 ng/g ... It has a high affinity for the type I IGF receptor, a membrane bound tyrosine kinase with similar organisation to the insulin ... HRP is an enzyme which, when expressed at high levels in E. coli, readily forms inclusion bodies--see Smith et al, Journal of ...
Among the various methods, chemo-enzymatic approach serves as an alternative to chemical synthesis, providing high ... Among the various methods, chemo-enzymatic approach serves as an alternative to chemical synthesis, providing high ... 3-Man-α-fluoride to the acceptor Man8GlcNAc2-BODIPY, resulting in the high-mannose type dodecasaccharide Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 ( ... Golgi endo-α-1,2-mannosidase, which can cleave the glucose-substituted mannose from immature glucosylated high-mannose type N- ...
... lens or any kind of ocular prostheses comprising an organic bulk material having covalently bonded to its surface an acceptor ... Examples of preferred acceptor saccharides are thus mannose, lactose, lactobionic acid, N-acetyl lactosamine, galactose, N- ... For example, they do have a high surface wettability which can be demonstrated by their contact angles, their water retention ... The acceptor saccharides being present on the modified surface of the opthalmic molding or in solution function as acceptor ...
Some other glycoproteins with high-mannose can act as acceptors, but much more slowly than lysosomal enzymes. ... UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + lysosomal-enzyme D-mannose <=> UMP + lysosomal-enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-phospho-D-mannose. ...
This common Lea unit was easily converted to an acceptor and donor in high yields, and the stereoselective assembly of the ... The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against ... The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against ... This common Lea unit was easily converted to an acceptor and donor in high yields, and the stereoselective assembly of the ...
4. Mannose from GDP-mannose was also incorporated into two other acceptors, (2y being insoluble in chloroform-methanol (2:1, v/ ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine did not inhibit mannolipid synthesis except at high concentrations (2 mM), even though in the absence ... 1. The transfer of mannose from GDP-(U-14-C)mannose into endogenous acceptors of bovine adrenal medullla and rat parotid was ... 5. Exogenous mannolipid served as a mannose donor for acceptors (i) and (ii), and it is suggested that transfer of mannose from ...
... the mutant 2019galE LOS was also severely truncated and had none of the higher-molecular-mass glycoforms which are acceptors ... for sialylation (data not shown). This suggested that glucose, galactose, and possibly mannose were not components of the ... There are a limited number of known acceptors for Neu5Ac, and these acceptors are most commonly galactose, N- ... Higher-magnification SEM images are shown in Fig. 2. At the top of the structure, there was a pellicle that was formed by the ...
It showed highest activity at pH 6.2 at 50 °C, and was stable in a pH range of 5.5-8.8 and at below 40 °C. It phosphorolyzed ... small,D,/small,-Mannose, 2-deoxy-,small,D,/small,-glucose, ,small,D,/small,-glucosamine, ,small,D,/small,-xylose, 1,5-anhydro-, ... small,D,/small,-glucitol, and gentiobiose also served as acceptors, although the activities for them were much lower than for , ... RaCBP showed highest activity to ,small,D,/small,-glucose, followed by 6-deoxy-,small,D,/small,-glucose. , ...
Higher Education Diploma*Higher Education Diploma - Construction Management. *Higher Education Diploma - Constructional ... catalyzes the reaction whereby mannose is transferred from GDP-mannose to the dolichol carrier Dol-P, to yield Dol-P-Man. ... and acceptor loop dynamics to control critical events leading to Dol-P-Man synthesis. The structures also rationalize the loss ... these reactions require activated mannose in the form of the lipid conjugate dolichylphosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man). The ...
We demonstrate high optical polarization of 20%, inferring high electron spin polarization up to 60% at room temperature in a ... catalyzes the reaction whereby mannose is transferred from GDP-mannose to the dolichol carrier Dol-P, to yield Dol-P-Man. ... and acceptor loop dynamics to control critical events leading to Dol-P-Man synthesis. The structures also rationalize the loss ... These higher-order propagating spin waves will enable magnonic devices to operate at much higher frequencies and greatly ...
... in vitro transfer of high mannose oligosaccharide from exogenous lipid-linked oligosaccharide to a glycosylation site acceptor ... of a preassembled high mannose oligosaccharide from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor to consensus glycosylation acceptor ...
... highest Aio activity was found at the optimal temperature of 40 oC. Addition of 0.01 % yeast extract enhanced the growth ... highest Aio activity was found at the optimal temperature of 40 oC. Addition of 0.01 % yeast extract enhanced the growth ... as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more ... as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more ...
O-Linked Mannose Glycosylation. The title of a recent review "Protein O-mannosylation: conserved from bacteria to humans" [62] ... The highest number has been found in primitive eukaryotes. For example, L. major expresses four Stt3 paralogs, whilst ... In all three domains, the asparagine acceptor must normally be located in a consensus sequence (Asn-X-Ser/Thr or, rarely, Asn-X ... S. L. Michell, A. O. Whelan, P. R. Wheeler et al., "The MPB83 antigen from Mycobacterium bovis contains O-linked mannose and (1 ...
1991) Importance of the nef gene for maintenance of high virus loads and for the development of AIDS. Cell 65:651-662. ... The larger cells were shown to express the mannose receptor, consistent with a population of macrophages (33, 50). However, ... splicing acceptor site. Numbers in parentheses are nucleotide numbers of SIVmac239 (52). (B) Total cell RNA was prepared from ... High concentrations of an antibody to CD4 delayed but did not block replication of SIVmac239/316E. The results suggest that the ...
The latter observation suggests that Ost3p may enhance oligosaccharide transfer in vivo to a subset of acceptor substrates. ... oligosaccharyltransferase catalyzes the en bloc transfer of a high mannose oligosaccharide moiety from the lipid-linked ... oligosaccharide donor to asparagine acceptor sites in nascent polypeptides. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... en bloc transfer of a high mannose oligosaccharide moiety from the lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor to asparagine acceptor ...
High mannose glycoproteins are phosphorylated at mannose residues - Mannose 6-Phosphate targets vesicles to lysosome ... Transfer sugar form an activated sugar nucleotide to an acceptor substrate 11 ... 3) Modification of universal oligosaccharide in Golgi apparatus to produce high mannose and complex type ... Transfer of phosphate to mannose is impaired - Cannot generate mannose 6-phosphate for lysosomal degaradation. - Proteins ...
Chapter 3 describes how this strategy was utilized towards the synthesis of a particular alkynyl D-mannose analogue that was ... After the success of the developed method with alkene-containing compounds, it was applied to the acceptors containing alkynes ... Addition of carbohydrates like mannose to these adjuvants has proved helpful towards building protective immunity against ... A variety of glycosyl donors containing different protecting groups could be coupled to simple and complex glycosyl acceptors ...
In variant G.K., band 3 has high mannose-type oligosaccharides and polyactosamines are not present in glycolipids either. ... In HEMPAS erythrocytes, band 3 has truncated hybrid-type oligosaccharides and most polylactosamines shift to lipid acceptors. ... High-dose androgen therapy appeared partially to benefit two subjects.72. ENZYME ABNORMALITIES IN CONGENITAL DYSERYTHROPOIETIC ... High-dose androgen therapy appeared partially to benefit two subjects.72 ENZYME ABNORMALITIES IN CONGENITAL DYSERYTHROPOIETIC ...
Microsomes containing heterologously expressed CSLD5 transferred mannose from GDP-mannose onto endogenous acceptors. The same ... Additionally, a high content of mannose was observed, possibly from mannosylated storage proteins. ... microsomal preparations from CSLD5-expressing plants mediated the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose onto mannose. These ... The cell wall is characterised by a high arabinose content and a high resistance to extraction as even a 6M NaOH extraction was ...
The structures of apo MGS and complexes with donor and acceptor molecules, including GDP-mannose, combined with mutagenesis of ... the mechanism by which glycosyltransferases recognize mannose and catalyze its transfer to acceptor molecules is poorly ... Structural dissection and high-throughput screening of mannosylglycerate synthase. Lookup NU author(s): Dr James Flint, Dr ... Here, we report broad high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses of both natural and synthetic substrates of Rhodothermus ...
Consistently, either treatment with tunicamycin or substitution of the THTR-1 consensus N-glycosylation acceptor asparagine 63 ... The initial step in of N-glycosylation is the attachment of glucose-mannose-N-acetylglucosamine oligosaccharide to the acceptor ... presumably forming the high mannose N-glycan that adds ∼2kDa to the protein electrophoretic mobility (24). Table 1 Sequence ... the high mannose oligosaccharide (∼2 kDa) is attached to asparagine 63. This is supported by several lines of evidence: (a) ...
  • In enzymology, a GDP-4-dehydro-D-rhamnose reductase (EC 1.1.1.187) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose, NADH, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter observation suggests that Ost3p may enhance oligosaccharide transfer in vivo to a subset of acceptor substrates. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here, we report broad high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses of both natural and synthetic substrates of Rhodothermus marinus mannosylglycerate synthase (MGS), which catalyzes the formation of the stress protectant 2-O-α-D-mannosyl glycerate. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.197, uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-oligosaccharide acetylglucosaminyltransferase, acetylglucosamine-oligosaccharide acetylglucosaminyltransferase, UDP-GlcNAc:oligosaccharide beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:high-mannose-oligosaccharide beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:high-mannose-oligosaccharide 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incorporation of 6 % w-w glycerol increased transferase activity and enzyme stability at higher incubation temperatures. (duhnnae.com)
  • Requires a divalent cation for activity, with Mg2+ and Fe2+ giving rise to the highest enzyme activity. (genome.jp)
  • The specific activity of CLEAs prepared from wild type LS (44.9 U/mg of CLEA), R360K (56.5 U/mg of CLEA) and Y429N (1.2 U/mg of CLEA) mutants were approximately 70, 40 and 200-fold higher, respectively, than equivalent Eupergit C ® immobilized enzyme preparations (U/mg of Eupergit), where units refer to global LS activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A single mutation, F91Y was found to substantially increase the reaction rate of the enzyme with a fluorescent-coupled acceptor, bodipy-lactose. (ubc.ca)
  • The complex structure of the Cst-I enzyme with the donor analogue CMP-3FNeu5Ac provides a platform for molecular modeling of various acceptors into the active sites of Cst-I and Cst-II. (ubc.ca)
  • nase/ [-ki´nas]), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase, is an enzyme of the liver , intestine , and kidney cortex. (bionity.com)
  • It further provides a basis for understanding why this enzyme has a higher pH optimum than has been reported elsewhere for TSs and gives rise to the prediction that the equivalent enzyme from Thermus thermophilus will exhibit similar behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • The enzyme acts on saccharides with a β-fructofuranosidic linkage and other substances including other saccharides, sugar alcohols, and alcohols to produce fructosyl-transferred saccharides in a relatively high yield. (google.com)
  • 4. Mannose from GDP-mannose was also incorporated into two other acceptors, (2y being insoluble in chloroform-methanol (2:1, v/v) but soluble in choloroform-methanol-water (10:10:3, by vol.) and (ii) protein. (biochemj.org)
  • The Le a tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against carcinoma growth. (mdpi.com)
  • Significantly lower levels of Man6P and progressively higher GDP-mannose indicated partially impaired incorporation of this sugar nucleotide during co- or post-translational protein glycosylation pathways at the 10,000 L compared to the 10 L scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show how the OST-mediated N- and O-glycosylation pathways share cytoplasmic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, flipping across the ER/periplasmic/cytoplasmic membranes, and transferring " en bloc " to the protein acceptor. (hindawi.com)
  • Such arrays allow the high-throughput, parallel analysis of protein occurrence and interactions and gene expression. (jove.com)
  • The importance of the in solution characterisation of the conformational behaviour and ligand binding properties of proteins in both far- andnear-UV regions and the use of high-throughput CD (HT-CD) using 96- and 384-well multiplates to study the folding effects in various protein crystallisation buffers are also discussed. (springer.com)
  • This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes alpha-D-mannose 1-phosphate from D-fructose 6-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • One of the most important tools for probing these interactions is high-field solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) through protein-observed and ligand-observed experiments, where the protein receptor or the organic compounds are selectively detected. (springer.com)
  • Wells JA, McClendon CL (2007) Reaching for high-hanging fruit in drug discovery at protein-protein interfaces. (springer.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the unique Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ETFQO revealed high similarity to the mammalian ETFQO protein. (plantcell.org)
  • These data demonstrate the involvement of a mitochondrial protein, ETFQO, in the catabolism of Leu and potentially of other amino acids in higher plants and also imply a novel role for this protein in the chlorophyll degradation pathway activated during dark-induced senescence and sugar starvation. (plantcell.org)
  • The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R or IGF2R) traffics IGF2 and M6P ligands between pre-lysosomal and extra-cellular compartments. (nature.com)
  • The function of the fifteen homologous extra-cellular domains of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R or IGF2R) include the binding, trafficking and extra-cellular internalisation of ligands, such as Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) modified lysosomal proteases and plasminogen 1 . (nature.com)
  • The electrophilic C=E multiple bond is designed to act as an acceptor moiety that adapts its binding mode to the electronic structure of reactive intermediates with the unique additional possibility of involving the lone pairs on heteroelement E in cooperative reactivity. (europa.eu)
  • This strain could grow with As III as an energy source, CO 2 -HCO 3 - as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is one of the few known facultative microorganisms that can grow anaerobically by oxidizing organic compounds to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transxylosylation is the particular name given to the reaction where a retaining β-xylosidase catalyzes the transfer of a xylose residue from a xylosyl donor, such as xylobiose, to an acceptor (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sialyltransferase reaction is believed to proceed through an inversion mechanism, catalyzing the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid onto different acceptors. (ubc.ca)
  • A central unsolved problem in early evolution concerns self-organization towards higher complexity in chemical reaction networks. (springer.com)
  • The triflated acceptors were constructed in two reaction steps, regioselective benzoylation and triflation. (go.jp)
  • The microsomal uptake of mannose was highly dependent on retinyl phosphate and was saturable against increasing amounts of retinyl phosphate, a concentration of 15μ m giving half-maximal transfer. (biochemj.org)
  • At 2min, 90% of the radioactivity retained on the filter could be extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) and mainly co-migrated with retinyl phosphate mannose by t.l.c. (biochemj.org)
  • The amount of retinyl phosphate mannose formed in the bovine serum albumin/retinyl phosphate incubation is about 100-fold greater than in incubations containing 0.5% Triton X-100. (biochemj.org)
  • 2. It was stable to mild alkaline hydrolysis but yielded (14-C)mannose on mild acid hydrolysis. (biochemj.org)
  • The outer branches of the molecules of wheat amylopectins were obtained by partial hydrolysis with pullulanase and analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. (go.jp)
  • However to see laxative action it's necessary that they are swallowed like glycosides ( so preparations with aglycones are active only in high doses), that there is bile in intestine and an active intestinal flora. (diff.org)
  • In contrast with the wild type, the mutants demonstrated a significant accumulation of several amino acids, an intermediate of Leu catabolism, and, strikingly, high-level accumulation of phytanoyl-CoA. (plantcell.org)
  • This thesis is to understand through high-resolution structural characterization, site specific mutagenesis and kinetic analysis, the mechanism of the glycosyl transfer(s) in both monofunctional and bifunctional Csts. (ubc.ca)
  • 1. Vitamin A deficiency led to an increase in the oligonucleotide fraction of testes and intestinal mucosa of rats at the expense of high-molecular-weight RNA and 4S RNA, but no such changes were observed in the liver. (portlandpress.com)
  • possibly, intermediate B can little translocate finger to cell acceptor and normal binding liver. (evakoch.com)
  • Due to the high concentration of iron and thiol-containing enzymes in bacterial respiratory chains, a primary effect of NO· at levels of ≥500 nM is the disruption of cellular respiration ( 7 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we identify glycolytic hexose catabolism as being essential for S. aureus growth in the presence of high levels of NO·. We determine that glycolysis supports S. aureus NO· resistance by allowing for ATP and precursor metabolite production in a redox-balanced and respiration-independent manner. (asm.org)
  • It has a high affinity for the type I IGF receptor, a membrane bound tyrosine kinase with similar organisation to the insulin receptor. (patentgenius.com)
  • More specifically, our previous work suggested that the metabolic changes observed at the industrial scale could affect membrane permeability, likely leading to higher cell volume (as can be judged from WCW). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of the high-affinity pentasaccharide fragment inspired the preparation of synthetic analogues thereof. (sumobrain.com)