Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.
An increase in the rate of speed.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Manner or style of walking.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Educational institutions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

Objectively measured physical activity and C-reactive protein: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. (1/226)

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Evaluation of 2 self-report measures of physical activity with accelerometry in young adults. (2/226)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate self-reported physical activity of young adults using 1-week and 1-year recall measures with an accelerometer as the criterion measure. METHODS: Participants were a subsample (N = 121, 24 +/- 1.7 yrs) from a large longitudinal cohort study. Participants completed a detailed 1-year physical activity recall, wore an accelerometer for 1 week and then completed a brief 1-week physical activity recall when they returned the accelerometer. RESULTS: Mean values for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the 3 instruments were 3.2, 2.2, and 13.7 hours/wk for the accelerometer, 1-week recall, and 1-year recall, respectively (all different from each other, P < .001). Spearman correlations for moderate, vigorous, and MVPA between the accelerometer and the 1-week recall (0.30, 0.50, and 0.40, respectively) and the 1-year recall (0.31, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively) demonstrated adequate validity. CONCLUSIONS: Both recall instruments may be used for ranking physical activity at the group level. At the individual level, the 1-week recall performed much better in terms of absolute value of physical activity. The 1-year recall overestimated total physical activity but additional research is needed to fully test its validity.  (+info)

A worksite vitality intervention to improve older workers' lifestyle and vitality-related outcomes: results of a randomised controlled trial. (3/226)

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Energy cost of common activities in children and adolescents. (4/226)

BACKGROUND: The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values. PURPOSE: To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium. METHODS: Thirty-two children (8-11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12-16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer. RESULTS: In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1-3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3-2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m . s(-1), 1.56 m . s(-1), and 1.34 m . s(-1) (0.4-0.8 METs lower)]. CONCLUSION: The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.  (+info)

Effect of a physical activity intervention on the metabolic syndrome in Pakistani immigrant men: a randomized controlled trial. (5/226)

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Use of accelerometry to measure physical activity in adults and the elderly. (6/226)

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Social cognitive influences on physical activity participation in long-term breast cancer survivors. (7/226)

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Habitual levels of high, but not moderate or low, impact activity are positively related to hip BMD and geometry: results from a population-based study of adolescents. (8/226)

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Accelerometry is the measurement of acceleration, or the rate of change in velocity of an object's movement. In the medical field, accelerometry is often used to measure a person's movements, such as their physical activity levels, balance, and gait. This is typically done using a small device called an accelerometer, which can be worn on the body to track motion in multiple directions. The data collected by an accelerometer can provide valuable insights into a person's health and mobility, and can be used to inform clinical decisions, monitor disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

Actigraphy is a non-invasive method used to estimate sleep-wake patterns and physical activity levels over extended periods, typically ranging from several days to weeks. It involves the use of a small device called an actigraph, which is usually worn on the wrist like a watch.

The actigraph contains an accelerometer that detects movement and records the intensity and duration of motion. This data is then analyzed using specialized software to provide information about sleep and wake times, as well as patterns of physical activity.

Actigraphy can be useful in assessing various sleep disorders, such as insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders. It can also help evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it is important to note that actigraphy is not a substitute for a formal sleep study (polysomnography) and should be used in conjunction with other assessment tools and clinical evaluations.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

A sedentary lifestyle is defined in medical terms as a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity. It is characterized by an expenditure of less than 150 kilocalories per day through physical activity, which is the equivalent of walking fewer than 2,000 steps a day. Sedentary behaviors include activities such as sitting, watching television, using a computer, and driving a car, among others.

Leading a sedentary lifestyle can have negative effects on health, increasing the risk of various conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders, among others. Regular physical activity is recommended to reduce these risks and maintain good health.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Diagnostic techniques for the digestive system are medical tests and procedures used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions and diseases related to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and associated organs. These techniques can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive methods.

Non-invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Imaging tests: These include X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and ultrasounds. They help visualize the structure and function of the digestive organs without requiring any invasive procedures.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood, stool, and urine samples can be analyzed to detect signs of infection, inflammation, or other abnormalities related to digestive system disorders. Examples include complete blood count (CBC), liver function tests (LFTs), coagulation studies, and fecal occult blood test (FOBT).
3. Breath tests: These are used to diagnose conditions like lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), or helicobacter pylori infection by analyzing the patient's exhaled air after consuming a specific substance.

Invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to its end is inserted through the mouth or rectum to directly visualize the GI tract's inner lining. There are different types of endoscopies, such as gastroscopy (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum), colonoscopy (colon and rectum), sigmoidoscopy (lower part of the colon), and enteroscopy (small intestine).
2. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): This combines endoscopy with ultrasound technology to provide detailed images of the digestive organs' structure and surrounding tissues, allowing for accurate diagnosis and staging of conditions like cancer.
3. Biopsy: During an endoscopy or surgery, a small tissue sample can be taken from the affected area for further examination under a microscope to confirm a diagnosis or assess the severity of a condition.
4. Capsule endoscopy: A patient swallows a tiny camera-equipped capsule that transmits images as it passes through the GI tract, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.
5. Imaging studies: Procedures like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET) scans can provide detailed images of the digestive organs and help diagnose conditions like tumors, inflammation, or obstructions.

These diagnostic techniques help healthcare providers identify and manage various gastrointestinal conditions, ensuring appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is a pharmacological state in which the communication between nerves and muscles is interrupted by blocking the neuromuscular junction, thereby preventing muscle contraction. This condition can be achieved through the use of certain medications called neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). These drugs are commonly used during surgical procedures to facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and to prevent patient movement and minimize potential injury during surgery. NMBs are classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing a sustained depolarization and muscle contraction followed by flaccid paralysis. Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, such as rocuronium, vecuronium, pancuronium, and atracurium, bind to the receptors without activating them, thereby preventing acetylcholine from binding and transmitting the signal for muscle contraction.

Clinical monitoring of neuromuscular blockade is essential to ensure proper dosing and avoid complications such as residual curarization, which can lead to respiratory compromise in the postoperative period. Monitoring techniques include peripheral nerve stimulation and train-of-four (TOF) assessment to evaluate the depth of neuromuscular blockade and guide the administration of reversal agents when appropriate.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic muscle contraction and relaxation that causes a shaking movement. It's a type of motion disorder that can affect any part of your body, but it most often occurs in your hands. Tremors can be harmless, but they can also be a symptom of a more serious neurological disorder. The cause of tremors isn't always known, but they can be the result of damage to the brain from a stroke, multiple sclerosis, or trauma. Certain medications, alcohol abuse, and drug withdrawal can also cause tremors. In some cases, tremors may be inherited and run in families.

Tremors can be classified based on their cause, appearance, and the situation in which they occur. The two most common types of tremors are:

* Resting tremors, which occur when your muscles are relaxed, such as when your hands are resting on your lap. Parkinson's disease is a common cause of this type of tremor.
* Action tremors, which occur with purposeful movement, such as when you're trying to hold something or when you're using a utensil. Essential tremor, the most common type of tremor, is an action tremor.

Tremors can also be classified based on their frequency (how often they occur) and amplitude (the size of the movement). High-frequency tremors are faster and smaller in amplitude, while low-frequency tremors are slower and larger in amplitude.

In general, tremors are not a life-threatening condition, but they can be embarrassing or make it difficult to perform daily activities. In some cases, tremors may indicate a more serious underlying condition that requires treatment. If you're concerned about tremors or have any questions about your symptoms, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Physical fitness is a state of being able to perform various physical activities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), physical fitness is defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity."

The AHA identifies five components of physical fitness:

1. Cardiorespiratory endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity.
2. Muscular strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single effort.
3. Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions or to continue to apply force against an external resistance over time.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion possible at a joint.
5. Body composition: The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and organs) to fat mass in the body.

Being physically fit can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. It can also improve mental health, increase energy levels, and enhance overall quality of life.

Indirect calorimetry is a method used to estimate an individual's energy expenditure or metabolic rate. It does not directly measure the heat produced by the body, but instead calculates it based on the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced during respiration. The principle behind indirect calorimetry is that the body's energy production is closely related to its consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism.

The most common application of indirect calorimetry is in measuring an individual's resting metabolic rate (RMR), which is the amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions while at rest. This measurement can be used to determine an individual's daily caloric needs and help guide weight loss or gain strategies, as well as assess nutritional status and health.

Indirect calorimetry can also be used in clinical settings to monitor the energy expenditure of critically ill patients, who may have altered metabolic rates due to illness or injury. This information can help healthcare providers optimize nutrition support and monitor recovery.

Overall, indirect calorimetry is a valuable tool for assessing an individual's energy needs and metabolic status in both healthy and clinical populations.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Neuromuscular non-depolarizing agents are a type of muscle relaxant medication used in anesthesia and critical care settings to facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and to prevent muscle contractions during surgery. These agents work by competitively binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, without activating them, thereby preventing the initiation of muscle contraction.

Examples of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents include:

* Vecuronium
* Rocuronium
* Pancuronium
* Atracurium
* Cisatracurium
* Mivacurium

These medications have a reversible effect and their duration of action can be prolonged in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, acid-base imbalances, electrolyte abnormalities, or in those who are taking other medications that interact with these agents. Therefore, it is important to monitor the patient's neuromuscular function during and after the administration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "running" as an exercise or physical activity. However, in a medical or clinical context, running usually refers to the act of moving at a steady speed by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, allowing for a faster motion than walking. It is often used as a form of exercise, recreation, or transportation.

Running can be described medically in terms of its biomechanics, physiological effects, and potential health benefits or risks. For instance, running involves the repetitive movement of the lower extremities, which can lead to increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolic demand, ultimately improving cardiovascular fitness and burning calories. However, it is also associated with potential injuries such as runner's knee, shin splints, or plantar fasciitis, especially if proper precautions are not taken.

It is important to note that before starting any new exercise regimen, including running, individuals should consult their healthcare provider, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or concerns about their ability to engage in physical activity safely.

Deglutition disorders, also known as swallowing disorders, are conditions that affect the ability to move food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach safely and efficiently. These disorders can occur at any stage of the swallowing process, which includes oral preparation (chewing and manipulating food in the mouth), pharyngeal phase (activating muscles and structures in the throat to move food toward the esophagus), and esophageal phase (relaxing and contracting the esophagus to propel food into the stomach).

Symptoms of deglutition disorders may include coughing or choking during or after eating, difficulty initiating a swallow, food sticking in the throat or chest, regurgitation, unexplained weight loss, and aspiration (inhaling food or liquids into the lungs), which can lead to pneumonia.

Deglutition disorders can be caused by various factors, such as neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), structural abnormalities (e.g., narrowing or blockage of the esophagus), muscle weakness or dysfunction, and cognitive or behavioral issues. Treatment for deglutition disorders may involve dietary modifications, swallowing exercises, medications, or surgical interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Calorimetry is the measurement and study of heat transfer, typically using a device called a calorimeter. In the context of medicine and physiology, calorimetry can be used to measure heat production or dissipation in the body, which can provide insight into various bodily functions and metabolic processes.

There are different types of calorimeters used for medical research and clinical applications, including direct and indirect calorimeters. Direct calorimetry measures the heat produced directly by the body, while indirect calorimetry estimates heat production based on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates. Indirect calorimetry is more commonly used in clinical settings to assess energy expenditure and metabolic rate in patients with various medical conditions or during specific treatments, such as critical illness, surgery, or weight management programs.

In summary, calorimetry in a medical context refers to the measurement of heat exchange within the body or between the body and its environment, which can offer valuable information for understanding metabolic processes and developing personalized treatment plans.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

A consensus sequence in genetics refers to the most common nucleotide (DNA or RNA) or amino acid at each position in a multiple sequence alignment. It is derived by comparing and analyzing several sequences of the same gene or protein from different individuals or organisms. The consensus sequence provides a general pattern or motif that is shared among these sequences and can be useful in identifying functional regions, conserved domains, or evolutionary relationships. However, it's important to note that not every sequence will exactly match the consensus sequence, as variations can occur naturally due to mutations or genetic differences among individuals.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Botany is the scientific study of plants, encompassing various disciplines such as plant structure, function, evolution, diversity, distribution, ecology, and application. It involves examining different aspects like plant anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, and ethnobotany. The field of botany has contributed significantly to our understanding of the natural world, agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

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"Dose-response associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and all cause mortality: ...
... using accelerometry and GPS to examine field biomechanics and assess the ecological impact of a widespread, semi-fossorial ...
Wearable technology incorporating multi-axis accelerometry or inertial motion units (IMU) are common place in a broad range of ...
She uses techniques such as field observations and technologies such as GPS tracking, accelerometry, camera trapping, ...
... or accelerometry signals. Breathing rate is often interchanged with the term breathing frequency. However, this should not be ...
A comparison of accelerometry and center of pressure measures during computerized dynamic posturography: A measure of balance. ...
... and 3-axis accelerometry. Zephyr most recent product, ZephyrLIFE, is one of the first entries into the emerging home telehealth ...
Cranial Accelerometry Can Detect Cerebral Vasospasm Caused by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Smith et al. (2015) Sun, M; Sekhar, LN; ...
Seven Day Accelerometry Based Study", British Medical Journal, 331 (7524): 1061-1062, doi:10.1136/bmj.38567.382731.ae, PMC ...
An update for 2002 Reliability of Accelerometry-Based Activity Monitors: A Generalizability Study. Gregory J. Welk, Jodee A. ...
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... of the Bubble Behavior in Vibrated Fluidized Beds by means of Two-Fluid CFD Simulations Coupled with Accelerometry Data , E. ... of the Bubble Behavior in Vibrated Fluidized Beds by means of Two-Fluid CFD Simulations Coupled with Accelerometry Data' in " ...
... swimming behavior of sailfish during predator-prey interactions using high-speed video and accelerometry". Integrative and ...
Application of single wrist-wearable accelerometry for objective motor diary assessment in fluctuating Parkinsons disease. * ... Application of single wrist-wearable accelerometry for objective motor diary assessment in fluctuating Parkinsons disease}}, ...
T1 - Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular ... title = "Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular ... Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular ... Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular ...
Maastricht Instruments BV provides innovative wearable accelerometry products for healthcare researchers and professionals ...
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Assessing Physical Activity in Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Accelerometry. * Published on August 2010 ...
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Golden Eagle B-roll for Accelerometry Data Characterization B-roll footage of a trained golden eagle. ... Golden Eagle B-roll for Accelerometry Data Characterization B-roll footage of a trained golden eagle. ...
ANTUNES, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos and VAN KESTEREN, Kirstin P.. Prediction of trip severity based on tri-axial accelerometry in ...
Accelerometry. During trials, sharks were equipped with Cefas G6A+ acceleration data loggers (Cefas Inc., Lowestoft, UK), which ... Accelerometry presents a means of translating metabolic rates measured in the laboratory to individuals studied in the field, ... Despite these challenges, accelerometry is likely to provide accurate estimates of FMR, particularly during activity, and ... Accelerometry estimates field metabolic rate in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding ...
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Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000157976.
... an International Childrens Accelerometry Database (ICAD) analysis. Sports Med 2018;48(10):2401-12. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279- ... a comparison between Hispanic and non-Hispanic children using accelerometry. Children (Basel) 2021;8(5):349. PubMed doi:10.3390 ... International Childrens Accelerometry Database (ICAD) Collaborators. Cross-sectional associations of reallocating time between ...
Naif Alzahrani: On generating synthetic data from accelerometry for Digital Health applications ... 2023: Ben Lam: digital phenotypes from accelerometry data [Machine Learning for Health] ...
objectively-measured physical activity; accelerometry devise: CSA 7164 activity monitor. IP: school years 2000/2001/2002 DA: ... and accelerometry [4]. The quantity of compulsory educational activities in a natural or cultural environment outside the ...
"Classifying prosthetic use via accelerometry in persons with transtibial amputations". Journal of Rehabilitation Research & ...
SAS programs and additional information about accelerometry data are included.. References. *Janz, KF (1994). Validation of the ...
... accelerometry; Actigraph; activity; exposure assessment; Fitbit; occupational; steps; work ...
Game exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and ...
Accelerometry data were analyzed using linear mixed models. During FBBI, mean (SE) moderate to vigorous PA increased by 4.1 ( ... Accelerometry data were available from 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities, age 14-22 years. Each completed the 6- ...
Detecting Asymmetry of Upper Limb Activity with Accelerometry in Infants at Risk for Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy Verhage ...
trunk-mounted accelerometry. , autocorrelation. , Fatigue. , detrended fluctuation analysis. , gait analysis. , Gaussian ...
Relationships of self-reported physical activity domains with accelerometry recordings in French adults. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009; ...
... also a significant increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity in the intervention group as measured by accelerometry (P ...
Evaluation of physiological workload assessment methods using heart rate and accelerometry for a smart wearable system. ...
Gasto energético, Educación Física, Acelerometría (Physical education, accelerometry, body mass index) Resumen. Introducción: ... a study by accelerometry. Archivos Argentinos De Pediatria, 110(5), 388-393. doi:10.5546/aap.2012.388 ...
Middle-Aged Men With HIV Have Diminished Accelerometry-Based Activity Profiles Despite Similar Lab-Measured Gait Speed: Pilot ... Middle-Aged Men With HIV Have Diminished Accelerometry-Based Activity Profiles Despite Similar Lab-Measured Gait Speed: Pilot ...
The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ... The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ... The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ... The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ...
Stroke Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Accelerometry. Stroke Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Accelerometry. *For Lab Members ...
Accelerometry is a powerful tool for this purpose, yet the current methods designed to evaluate energy expenditure are not ... The refinement of accelerometry signals into these new intervals, including 3 distinct ranges that fit inside the established ... Accelerometry-based physical activity features (count-per-minute CPM) were derived using Freedsons intervals and physical ... Predicting Poor Functional Status In Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis Using Real-life Accelerometry Data Sun, R., Kuwabara, A., ...
  • This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Age Differences in Estimating Physical Activity by Wrist Accelerometry Using Machine Learning. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results suggest that smartphone accelerometry, when used in a standardized testing procedure, can provide tremor descriptors that are sufficiently detailed and reliable to be used for closed-loop control of DBS. (lu.se)
  • Electromyography or accelerometry can be used to assess tremor frequency, rhythmicity, and amplitude but is not part of the routine evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • ANTUNES, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos and VAN KESTEREN, Kirstin P. . Prediction of trip severity based on tri-axial accelerometry in healthy older adults . (bvsalud.org)
  • Reads raw 'accelerometry' from 'GT3X+' data and plain table data to calculate Activity Index from 'Bai et al. (ethz.ch)
  • Accelerometry data were available from 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities, age 14-22 years. (humankinetics.com)
  • Accelerometry data were analyzed using linear mixed models. (humankinetics.com)
  • These data highlight the need to improve estimates of EE from wearable devices, and one way this can be achieved is with the addition of heart rate to accelerometry. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The Activity Index refers to the square root of the second-level average variance of the three 'accelerometry' axes. (ethz.ch)
  • The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Combining heart rate or heat sensing technology with accelerometry decreased the error in most activity types. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • An intriguing application of accelerometry was featured by BBC News this week. (telecareaware.com)
  • 1110 boys) from the 2003-6 NHANES with self-report MVPA & four 10-hour days of accelerometry (Actigraph 7164) were included. (nih.gov)
  • In the Accelerometry Sub-Study, we will collect objectively measured activity data using a device called an activity monitor on 20,000 CPS-3 participants who will be randomly selected and invited to participate. (cancer.org)
  • Accelerometry offers a practical and low cost method of objectively monitoring human movements, and has particular applicability to the monitoring of disability in an aging population. (isciii.es)
  • This longitudinal study will examine the relationship between habitual physical activity, captured objectively by accelerometry, and skeletal related events, (e.g. pathological fracture) in patients with metastatic disease (n=100) over 12-months. (tcd.ie)
  • How are participants selected to be invited in the Accelerometry Sub-Study? (cancer.org)
  • The ubiquity of wrist-worn accelerometry suggests a possible sensor modality for early detection of PD symptoms and subsequent tracking of PD symptom severity. (mit.edu)
  • As an initial proof of concept for this technological approach, we analyzed the U.K. Biobank data set, consisting of one week of wrist-worn accelerometry from a population with a PD primary diagnosis and an age-matched healthy control population. (mit.edu)
  • The validation study compares the self-reported physical activity of study respondents using the General Physical Activity Questionnaire(GPAQ) used in SAGE with data obtained from accelerometry using both waist worn and wrist worn devices. (who.int)
  • In this pilot study, tricuspid regurgitant jet and pulmonary artery acceleration time were the echocardiographic variables that correlated most with accelerometry data. (allenpress.com)
  • An accelerometer is an electromechanical device measuring acceleration, most commonly along all three dimensions (i.e. triaxial accelerometry). (biomedcentral.com)
  • When attached on animals, accelerometry (hereafter ACC) reflects two aspects of movement: static acceleration and dynamic acceleration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study examined NHSPAQ validity in adults with RA compared to accelerometry-based metabolic equivalents determined (METs) and results of performance tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accelerometry is an emerging option for real-time evaluation of functional capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (allenpress.com)
  • This prospective pilot study assesses the relationship between functional capacity by accelerometry and right ventricular measurements on echocardiography for this high-risk cohort. (allenpress.com)
  • Accelerometry is an objective physical activity measure, but not widely used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introduction Most accelerometry research is in children and adults. (theactigraph.com)
  • January - We also published research on flight accelerometry in Harris' Hawks. (hawk-conservancy.org)
  • Accelerometry is a way to measure energy expenditure through movement in animals, and this research looked at the hawks' flapping behaviour. (hawk-conservancy.org)
  • Working with Prof John Reilly (Human Nutrition), we have explored energy expenditure and activity in preschool children using objective techniques such as accelerometry to measure activity. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Accelerometry May be Superior to EMG for Early Evaluation of Vocal Cord Function After Nerve Injury in a Pig Model. (uib.no)
  • Electromyography or accelerometry can be used to assess tremor frequency, rhythmicity, and amplitude but is not part of the routine evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • Tricuspid regurgitant peak velocity had a negative correlation with 6-Minute Walk Test ( r = −0.58, P = .02), peak oxygen consumption on exercise testing ( r = −0.56, P = .03), and average daily steps on accelerometry ( r = −0.59, P = .03), but a positive correlation with median sedentary time on accelerometry ( r = 0.64, P = .02). (allenpress.com)
  • 28, 2012) years, 28 females (80%) recruited from a hospital-based clinic registry participated in a one-week accelerometry trial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our understanding of movement patterns and behaviours of wildlife has advanced greatly through the use of improved tracking technologies, including application of accelerometry (ACC) across a wide range of taxa. (biomedcentral.com)