An increase in the rate of speed.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
A decrease in the rate of speed.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The position or attitude of the body.
Manner or style of walking.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.
The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Recorded electrical responses from muscles, especially the neck muscles or muscles around the eyes, following stimulation of the EAR VESTIBULE.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
An occupational disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to vibration, affecting the fingers, hands, and forearms. It occurs in workers who regularly use vibrating tools such as jackhammers, power chain saws, riveters, etc. Symptoms include episodic finger blanching, NUMBNESS, tingling, and loss of nerve sensitivity.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
*Medical Definition:* 'Lizards' are not typically defined in the field of medicine, as they are a type of reptile and not a medical condition or healthcare-related concept; however, certain lizard species such as the Gila monster and beaded lizards possess venomous bites, which can lead to medical emergencies like envenomation requiring medical attention.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
In a medical context, the term "wing" is not typically used as a standalone definition; however, it can refer to various flat, wing-shaped structures in anatomy, such as the iliac wings of the pelvis or the zygomatic wings of the cheekbone.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.

Visual motion analysis for pursuit eye movements in area MT of macaque monkeys. (1/829)

We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of dynamics normally seen during smooth pursuit eye movements. When the target motion provided steps of target speed, MT neurons showed a continuum from purely tonic responses to those with large transient pulses of firing at the onset of motion. Cells with large transient responses for steps of target speed also had larger responses for smooth accelerations than for decelerations through the same range of target speeds. Condition-test experiments with pairs of 64 msec pulses of target speed revealed response attenuation at short interpulse intervals in cells with large transient responses. For sinusoidal modulation of target speed, MT neuron responses were strongly modulated for frequencies up to, but not higher than, 8 Hz. The phase of the responses was consistent with a 90 msec time delay between target velocity and firing rate. We created a model that reproduced the dynamic responses of MT cells using divisive gain control, used the model to visualize the population response in MT to individual stimuli, and devised weighted-averaging computations to reconstruct target speed and acceleration from the population response. Target speed could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to its preferred speed. Target acceleration could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to the product of preferred speed and a measure of the size of its transient response.  (+info)

Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters. (2/829)

OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s.  (+info)

Effects of tilt of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector on the angular vestibuloocular reflex during centrifugation. (3/829)

Effects of tilt of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector on the angular vestibuloocular reflex during centrifugation. Interaction of the horizontal linear and angular vestibuloocular reflexes (lVOR and aVOR) was studied in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys during centered rotation and off-center rotation at a constant velocity (centrifugation). During centered rotation, the eye velocity vector was aligned with the axis of rotation, which was coincident with the direction of gravity. Facing and back to motion centrifugation tilted the resultant of gravity and linear acceleration, gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), inducing cross-coupled vertical components of eye velocity. These components were upward when facing motion and downward when back to motion and caused the axis of eye velocity to reorient from alignment with the body yaw axis toward the tilted GIA. A major finding was that horizontal time constants were asymmetric in each monkey, generally being longer when associated with downward than upward cross coupling. Because of these asymmetries, accurate estimates of the contribution of the horizontal lVOR could not be obtained by simply subtracting horizontal eye velocity profiles during facing and back to motion centrifugation. Instead, it was necessary to consider the effects of GIA tilts on velocity storage before attempting to estimate the horizontal lVOR. In each monkey, the horizontal time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) was reduced as a function of increasing head tilt with respect to gravity. When variations in horizontal time constant as a function of GIA tilt were included in the aVOR model, the rising and falling phases of horizontal eye velocity during facing and back to motion centrifugation were closely predicted, and the estimated contribution of the compensatory lVOR was negligible. Beating fields of horizontal eye position were unaffected by the presence or magnitude of linear acceleration during centrifugation. These conclusions were evaluated in animals in which the low-frequency aVOR was abolished by canal plugging, isolating the contribution of the lVOR. Postoperatively, the animals had normal ocular counterrolling and horizontal eye velocity modulation during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), suggesting that the otoliths were intact. No measurable horizontal eye velocity was elicited by centrifugation with angular accelerations +info)

Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations. (4/829)

Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations. The effect of vertical eye-in-head position on the compensatory eye rotation response to passive and active high acceleration yaw head rotations was examined in eight normal human subjects. The stimuli consisted of brief, low amplitude (15-25 degrees ), high acceleration (4,000-6,000 degrees /s2) yaw head rotations with respect to the trunk (peak velocity was 150-350 degrees /s). Eye and head rotations were recorded in three-dimensional space using the magnetic search coil technique. The input-output kinematics of the three-dimensional vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) were assessed by finding the difference between the inverted eye velocity vector and the head velocity vector (both referenced to a head-fixed coordinate system) as a time series. During passive head impulses, the head and eye velocity axes aligned well with each other for the first 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus, regardless of vertical eye-in-head position. After the initial 47-ms period, the degree of alignment of the eye and head velocity axes was modulated by vertical eye-in-head position. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye and head velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. However, when fixation was on targets at 0 and 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward relative to the head velocity axis. During active head impulses, the axis tilt became apparent within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. When fixation was on a target at 0 degrees, the velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye velocity axis tilted backward, when fixation was on a target 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward. The findings show that the VOR compensates very well for head motion in the early part of the response to unpredictable high acceleration stimuli-the eye position- dependence of the VOR does not become apparent until 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus. In contrast, the response to active high acceleration stimuli shows eye position-dependence from within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. A model using a VOR-Listing's law compromise strategy did not accurately predict the patterns observed in the data, raising questions about how the eye position-dependence of the VOR is generated. We suggest, in view of recent findings, that the phenomenon could arise due to the effects of fibromuscular pulleys on the functional pulling directions of the rectus muscles.  (+info)

Cervical electromyographic activity during low-speed rear impact. (5/829)

Whiplash motion of the neck is characterized by having an extension-flexion motion of the neck. It has been previously assumed that muscles do not play a role in the injury. Eight healthy males were seated in a car seat mounted on a sled. The sled was accelerated by a spring mechanism. Muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured by wire electrodes in semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and levator scapulae. Surface EMG activity was measured over trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus. Wavelet analysis was used to establish the onset of muscle activity with respect to sled movement. Shorter reaction times were found to be as low as 13.2 ms from head acceleration and 65.6 ms from sled acceleration. Thus the muscles could influence the injury pattern. It is of interest that clinical symptoms are often attributed to muscle tendon injuries.  (+info)

Transformations in flagellar structure of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and possible relationship to changes in swimming speed. (6/829)

Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a photosynthetic bacterium which swims by rotating a single flagellum in one direction, periodically stopping, and reorienting during these stops. Free-swimming R. sphaeroides was examined by both differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which allows the flagella of swimming cells to be seen in vivo, and tracking microscopy, which tracks swimming patterns in three dimensions. DIC microscopy showed that when rotation stopped, the helical flagellum relaxed into a high-amplitude, short-wavelength coiled form, confirming previous observations. However, DIC microscopy also revealed that the coiled filament could rotate slowly, reorienting the cell before a transition back to the functional helix. The time taken to reform a functional helix depended on the rate of rotation of the helix and the length of the filament. In addition to these coiled and helical forms, a third conformation was observed: a rapidly rotating, apparently straight form. This form took shape from the cell body out and was seen to form directly from flagella that were initially in either the coiled or the helical conformation. This form was always significantly longer than the coiled or helical form from which it was derived. The resolution of DIC microscopy made it impossible to identify whether this form was genuinely in a straight conformation or was a low-amplitude, long-wavelength helix. Examination of the three-dimensional swimming pattern showed that R. sphaeroides changed speed while swimming, sometimes doubling the swimming speed between stops. The rate of acceleration out of stops was also variable. The transformations in waveform are assumed to be torsionally driven and may be related to the changes in speed measured in free-swimming cells. The roles of and mechanisms that may be involved in the transformations of filament conformations and changes in swimming speed are discussed.  (+info)

Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. I. Normal responses. (7/829)

The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in five squirrel monkeys with intact vestibular function. The VOR evoked by steps of acceleration in darkness (3,000 degrees /s(2) reaching a velocity of 150 degrees /s) began after a latency of 7.3 +/- 1.5 ms (mean +/- SD). Gain of the reflex during the acceleration was 14.2 +/- 5.2% greater than that measured once the plateau head velocity had been reached. A polynomial regression was used to analyze the trajectory of the responses to steps of acceleration. A better representation of the data was obtained from a polynomial that included a cubic term in contrast to an exclusively linear fit. For sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz with a peak velocity of 20 degrees /s, the VOR gain measured 0.83 +/- 0.06 and did not vary across frequencies or animals. The phase of these responses was close to compensatory except at 15 Hz where a lag of 5.0 +/- 0.9 degrees was noted. The VOR gain did not vary with head velocity at 0.5 Hz but increased with velocity for rotations at frequencies of >/=4 Hz (0. 85 +/- 0.04 at 4 Hz, 20 degrees /s; 1.01 +/- 0.05 at 100 degrees /s, P < 0.0001). No responses to these rotations were noted in two animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy indicating that inertia of the eye had a negligible effect for these stimuli. We developed a mathematical model of VOR dynamics to account for these findings. The inputs to the reflex come from linear and nonlinear pathways. The linear pathway is responsible for the constant gain across frequencies at peak head velocity of 20 degrees /s and also for the phase lag at higher frequencies being less than that expected based on the reflex delay. The frequency- and velocity-dependent nonlinearity in VOR gain is accounted for by the dynamics of the nonlinear pathway. A transfer function that increases the gain of this pathway with frequency and a term related to the third power of head velocity are used to represent the dynamics of this pathway. This model accounts for the experimental findings and provides a method for interpreting responses to these stimuli after vestibular lesions.  (+info)

Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. II. Responses after canal plugging. (8/829)

The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in four squirrel monkeys after unilateral plugging of the three semicircular canals. During the period (1-4 days) that animals were kept in darkness after plugging, the gain during steps of acceleration (3, 000 degrees /s(2), peak velocity = 150 degrees /s) was 0.61 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SD) for contralesional rotations and 0.33 +/- 0.03 for ipsilesional rotations. Within 18-24 h after animals were returned to light, the VOR gain for contralesional rotations increased to 0. 88 +/- 0.05, whereas there was only a slight increase in the gain for ipsilesional rotations to 0.37 +/- 0.07. A symmetrical increase in the gain measured at the plateau of head velocity was noted after animals were returned to light. The latency of the VOR was 8.2 +/- 0. 4 ms for ipsilesional and 7.1 +/- 0.3 ms for contralesional rotations. The VOR evoked by sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz, +/-20 degrees /s had no significant half-cycle asymmetries. The recovery of gain for these responses after plugging was greater at lower than at higher frequencies. Responses to rotations at higher velocities for frequencies >/=4 Hz showed an increase in contralesional half-cycle gain, whereas ipsilesional half-cycle gain was unchanged. A residual response that appeared to be canal and not otolith mediated was noted after plugging of all six semicircular canals. This response increased with frequency to reach a gain of 0.23 +/- 0.03 at 15 Hz, resembling that predicted based on a reduction of the dominant time constant of the canal to 32 ms after plugging. A model incorporating linear and nonlinear pathways was used to simulate the data. The coefficients of this model were determined from data in animals with intact vestibular function. Selective increases in the gain for the linear and nonlinear pathways predicted the changes in recovery observed after canal plugging. An increase in gain of the linear pathway accounted for the recovery in VOR gain for both responses at the velocity plateau of the steps of acceleration and for the sinusoidal rotations at lower peak velocities. The increase in gain for contralesional responses to steps of acceleration and sinusoidal rotations at higher frequencies and velocities was due to an increase in the gain of the nonlinear pathway. This pathway was driven into inhibitory cutoff at low velocities and therefore made no contribution for rotations toward the ipsilesional side.  (+info)

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The otolithic membrane is a part of the inner ear's vestibular system, which contributes to our sense of balance and spatial orientation. It is composed of a gelatinous material containing tiny calcium carbonate crystals called otoconia or otoliths. These crystals provide weight to the membrane, allowing it to detect linear acceleration and gravity-induced head movements.

There are two otolithic membranes in each inner ear, located within the utricle and saccule, two of the three main vestibular organs. The utricle is primarily responsible for detecting horizontal movement and head tilts, while the saccule senses vertical motion and linear acceleration.

Damage to the otolithic membrane can result in balance disorders, vertigo, or dizziness.

In medical terms, deceleration refers to a decrease in the rate or speed of a physiological process or body function. It is often used in the context of fetal heart rate monitoring during labor and delivery, where a deceleration is a decrease in the fetal heart rate from its baseline level. Decelerations can be classified into early, late, and variable types based on their timing and shape, and they may indicate fetal distress or hypoxia if they are prolonged or severe. Other examples of deceleration in medical context include blood pressure deceleration during a surgical procedure or deceleration in the respiratory rate during anesthesia.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gravitation" is not a term that is typically used in the context of medical definitions. Gravitation is a fundamental force that attracts two objects with mass towards each other. It is the force that causes objects to fall towards the earth and keeps the planets in orbit around the sun.

In the field of medicine, the concepts of gravity or gravitational forces are not directly relevant to the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. However, there may be some indirect applications related to physiology and human health, such as the effects of microgravity on the human body during space travel.

A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a automatic motion of the eyes that helps to stabilize images on the retina during head movement. It is mediated by the vestibular system, which includes the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the inner ear.

When the head moves, the movement is detected by the vestibular system, which sends signals to the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem. These nuclei then generate an eye movement that is equal and opposite to the head movement, allowing the eyes to remain fixed on a target while the head is moving. This reflex helps to maintain visual stability during head movements and is essential for activities such as reading, walking, and driving.

The VOR can be tested clinically by having the patient follow a target with their eyes while their head is moved passively. If the VOR is functioning properly, the eyes should remain fixed on the target despite the head movement. Abnormalities in the VOR can indicate problems with the vestibular system or the brainstem.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

The vestibular system is a part of the inner ear that contributes to our sense of balance and spatial orientation. It is made up of two main components: the vestibule and the labyrinth.

The vestibule is a bony chamber in the inner ear that contains two important structures called the utricle and saccule. These structures contain hair cells and fluid-filled sacs that help detect changes in head position and movement, allowing us to maintain our balance and orientation in space.

The labyrinth, on the other hand, is a more complex structure that includes the vestibule as well as three semicircular canals. These canals are also filled with fluid and contain hair cells that detect rotational movements of the head. Together, the vestibule and labyrinth work together to provide us with information about our body's position and movement in space.

Overall, the vestibular system plays a crucial role in maintaining our balance, coordinating our movements, and helping us navigate through our environment.

'Gravity sensing' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the context of physiology and neuroscience, it refers to the ability of certain cells or organisms to detect and respond to changes in gravity. This is particularly relevant in the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation.

In the human body, gravity sensing in the vestibular system is achieved through the detection of head movement and position by hair cells located in the inner ear. These hair cells are embedded in a gel-like structure within the semicircular canals and the utricle and saccule of the vestibular apparatus. When the head moves, the fluid within these structures moves as well, bending the hair cells and stimulating nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. The brain then interprets these signals to help us maintain our balance and spatial orientation.

Therefore, while not a traditional medical definition, gravity sensing is an important concept in understanding how the body maintains its equilibrium and navigates through space.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

The semicircular canals are part of the vestibular system in the inner ear that contributes to the sense of balance and spatial orientation. They are composed of three fluid-filled tubes, each located in a different plane (anterior, posterior, and horizontal) and arranged at approximately right angles to each other. The semicircular canals detect rotational movements of the head, enabling us to maintain our equilibrium during movement.

When the head moves, the fluid within the semicircular canals moves in response to that motion. At the end of each canal is a structure called the ampulla, which contains hair cells with hair-like projections (stereocilia) embedded in a gelatinous substance. As the fluid moves, it bends the stereocilia, stimulating the hair cells and sending signals to the brain via the vestibular nerve. The brain then interprets these signals to determine the direction and speed of head movement, allowing us to maintain our balance and orientation in space.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "running" as an exercise or physical activity. However, in a medical or clinical context, running usually refers to the act of moving at a steady speed by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, allowing for a faster motion than walking. It is often used as a form of exercise, recreation, or transportation.

Running can be described medically in terms of its biomechanics, physiological effects, and potential health benefits or risks. For instance, running involves the repetitive movement of the lower extremities, which can lead to increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolic demand, ultimately improving cardiovascular fitness and burning calories. However, it is also associated with potential injuries such as runner's knee, shin splints, or plantar fasciitis, especially if proper precautions are not taken.

It is important to note that before starting any new exercise regimen, including running, individuals should consult their healthcare provider, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or concerns about their ability to engage in physical activity safely.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

Hypergravity is a term used to describe an environment where the force of gravity is greater than that which we normally experience on Earth's surface (1G). This can occur in various situations such as high-speed aircraft rides, space travel, or in certain laboratory settings. It leads to increased gravitational load and force on the body, which can have various physiological effects, including cardiovascular changes, muscle tension, and altered body positioning. Prolonged exposure to hypergravity can lead to physical fatigue and discomfort.

The Coriolis force is an apparent force that acts on objects in motion relative to a rotating frame of reference. In the context of meteorology and oceanography, the Earth's rotation creates a Coriolis force that affects large-scale air and water movements.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis force causes deflection of moving objects, such as wind or ocean currents, to the right. In the Southern Hemisphere, the deflection is to the left. The magnitude of the Coriolis force depends on the speed and latitude of the moving object. It is named after French scientist Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis, who first described it in 1835.

It's important to note that the Coriolis force is not a true force but rather an apparent force that arises due to the rotation of the Earth.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

The vestibular nerve, also known as the vestibulocochlear nerve or cranial nerve VIII, is a pair of nerves that transmit sensory information from the balance-sensing structures in the inner ear (the utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals) to the brain. This information helps the brain maintain balance and orientation of the head in space. The vestibular nerve also plays a role in hearing by transmitting sound signals from the cochlea to the brain.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Accelerometry is the measurement of acceleration, or the rate of change in velocity of an object's movement. In the medical field, accelerometry is often used to measure a person's movements, such as their physical activity levels, balance, and gait. This is typically done using a small device called an accelerometer, which can be worn on the body to track motion in multiple directions. The data collected by an accelerometer can provide valuable insights into a person's health and mobility, and can be used to inform clinical decisions, monitor disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Postural balance is the ability to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity. It involves the integration of sensory information (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) to control and adjust body position in space, thereby maintaining the center of gravity within the base of support. This is crucial for performing daily activities and preventing falls, especially in older adults and individuals with neurological or orthopedic conditions.

"Animal Flight" is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is studied in the field of comparative physiology and biomechanics, which are disciplines related to medicine. Animal flight refers to the ability of certain animal species to move through the air by flapping their wings or other appendages. This mode of locomotion is most commonly associated with birds, bats, and insects, but some mammals such as flying squirrels and sugar gliders are also capable of gliding through the air.

The study of animal flight involves understanding the biomechanics of how animals generate lift and propulsion, as well as the physiological adaptations that allow them to sustain flight. For example, birds have lightweight skeletons and powerful chest muscles that enable them to flap their wings rapidly and generate lift. Bats, on the other hand, use a more complex system of membranes and joints to manipulate their wings and achieve maneuverability in flight.

Understanding animal flight has important implications for the design of aircraft and other engineering systems, as well as for our broader understanding of how animals have evolved to adapt to their environments.

Motion perception is the ability to interpret and understand the movement of objects in our environment. It is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain and the visual system. In medical terms, motion perception refers to the specific function of the visual system to detect and analyze the movement of visual stimuli. This allows us to perceive and respond to moving objects in our environment, which is crucial for activities such as driving, sports, and even maintaining balance. Disorders in motion perception can lead to conditions like motion sickness or difficulty with depth perception.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

In the context of medical terminology, I believe you may be referring to "pursuit" as it relates to neurological tests. A smooth pursuit is a type of eye movement in which the eyes smoothly and slowly follow a moving object. It requires coordination between the extraocular muscles, vestibular system, and visual system. If there are issues with any of these systems, smooth pursuit can be affected, leading to abnormalities such as jerky or saccadic movements.

Therefore, "smooth pursuit" is a medical term used to describe the normal, coordinated movement of the eyes that allows for the tracking of moving objects in a smooth and continuous manner.

Head protective devices are equipment designed to protect the head from potential injuries or trauma. These devices often include helmets, hard hats, and bump caps. They are engineered to absorb the impact force, shield the head from sharp objects, or prevent contact with harmful substances. The specific design and construction of these devices vary depending on their intended use, such as for construction, sports, military, or healthcare purposes. It's important to choose and use a head protective device that is appropriate for the specific activity and follows established safety guidelines.

Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency electromyographic responses recorded from the sternocleidomastoid or other neck muscles in response to intense, high-frequency bone conducted vibration or air-conducted sound. They reflect the activation of the vestibular afferents that innervate the otolithic organs (saccule and utricle) in response to linear acceleration and head tilt. VEMPs are used in clinical settings to assess the function of the vestibular system, particularly the sacculocollic reflex pathway, and can help diagnose various vestibular disorders such as superior canal dehiscence syndrome, vestibular neuritis, and Meniere's disease.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. In medical terms, there is no definition for "tidal waves." However, the term "tidal wave" is commonly used in layman's language to refer to massive waves caused by earthquakes or underwater landslides, which are technically called tsunamis. Tsunamis are rapid, long-wavelength sea waves that can cause extensive coastal damage and loss of life.

If you meant a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please clarify so I can provide an accurate definition.

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a disorder that affects the nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and joints of the hands and arms. It's primarily caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of hand-transmitted vibration, such as from operating power tools or machinery that vibrate.

The symptoms of HAVS can include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or loss of sensation in the fingers.
2. Fingertip color changes (blanching) when exposed to cold.
3. Impaired blood flow, leading to finger blotchiness and skin color changes.
4. Reduced hand grip strength and coordination.
5. Pain and stiffness in the hands and arms.

The symptoms can develop gradually over time and may not be immediately noticeable. Early recognition and limiting exposure to vibration sources are crucial for preventing further progression of HAVS.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

The vestibular nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem that receive and process information from the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular nuclei help to coordinate movements of the eyes, head, and body in response to changes in position or movement. They also play a role in reflexes that help to maintain posture and stabilize vision during head movement. There are four main vestibular nuclei: the medial, lateral, superior, and inferior vestibular nuclei.

A medical definition of the wrist is the complex joint that connects the forearm to the hand, composed of eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. The wrist allows for movement and flexibility in the hand, enabling us to perform various activities such as grasping, writing, and typing. It also provides stability and support for the hand during these movements. Additionally, numerous ligaments, tendons, and nerves pass through or near the wrist, making it susceptible to injuries and conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide support and stability to the body during motion. Joints can be classified in several ways, including structure, function, and the type of tissue that forms them. The three main types of joints based on structure are fibrous (or fixed), cartilaginous, and synovial (or diarthrosis). Fibrous joints do not have a cavity and have limited movement, while cartilaginous joints allow for some movement and are connected by cartilage. Synovial joints, the most common and most movable type, have a space between the articular surfaces containing synovial fluid, which reduces friction and wear. Examples of synovial joints include hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, saddle, and condyloid joints.

In medical terms, fingers are not specifically defined as they are common anatomical structures. However, I can provide you with a general anatomy definition:

Fingers are the terminal parts of the upper limb in primates, including humans, consisting of four digits (thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers) and one opposable thumb. They contain bones called phalanges, connected by joints that allow for movement and flexibility. Each finger has a nail, nerve endings for sensation, and blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Fingers are crucial for various activities such as grasping, manipulating objects, and tactile exploration of the environment.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Vestibular diseases are a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular system includes the inner ear and parts of the brain that process sensory information related to movement and position.

These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, nausea, and visual disturbances. Examples of vestibular diseases include:

1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): a condition in which small crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and cause brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that can cause sudden onset of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular neuronitis: inflammation of the vestibular nerve that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance but typically spares hearing.
4. Meniere's disease: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that includes vestibular symptoms such as dizziness, imbalance, and disorientation.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: a condition in which there is a thinning or absence of bone over the superior semicircular canal in the inner ear, leading to vertigo, sound- or pressure-induced dizziness, and hearing loss.
7. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: reduced function of both vestibular systems, causing chronic imbalance, unsteadiness, and visual disturbances.

Treatment for vestibular diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The saccule and utricle are components of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation within the inner ear. Here are the medical definitions:

1. Saccule: A small sac-like structure located in the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear. It is one of the two otolith organs (the other being the utricle) that detect linear acceleration and gravity. The saccule contains hair cells with stereocilia, which are embedded in a gelatinous matrix containing calcium carbonate crystals called otoconia. When the head changes position or moves linearly, the movement of these otoconia stimulates the hair cells, sending signals to the brain about the direction and speed of the motion.

2. Utricle: Another sac-like structure in the vestibular labyrinth, similar to the saccule but slightly larger. The utricle is also an otolith organ that detects linear acceleration and head tilts. It contains hair cells with stereocilia embedded in a gelatinous matrix filled with otoconia. When the head tilts or moves linearly, the movement of the otoconia stimulates the hair cells, providing information about the position and motion of the head to the brain.

In summary, both the saccule and utricle are essential for maintaining balance and spatial orientation by detecting linear acceleration and gravity through the movement of otoconia on their hair cell receptors.

A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. In the context of medicine and biology, transducers often refer to devices that convert a physiological parameter (such as blood pressure, temperature, or sound waves) into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of medical transducers include:

1. Blood pressure transducer: Converts the mechanical force exerted by blood on the walls of an artery into an electrical signal.
2. Temperature transducer: Converts temperature changes into electrical signals.
3. ECG transducer (electrocardiogram): Converts the electrical activity of the heart into a visual representation called an electrocardiogram.
4. Ultrasound transducer: Uses sound waves to create images of internal organs and structures.
5. Piezoelectric transducer: Generates an electric charge when subjected to pressure or vibration, used in various medical devices such as hearing aids, accelerometers, and pressure sensors.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

The inner ear is the innermost part of the ear that contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. It consists of a complex system of fluid-filled tubes and sacs called the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation, and the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ that converts sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The inner ear is located deep within the temporal bone of the skull and is protected by a bony labyrinth. The vestibular system includes the semicircular canals, which detect rotational movements of the head, and the otolith organs (the saccule and utricle), which detect linear acceleration and gravity.

Damage to the inner ear can result in hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (a spinning sensation), and balance problems.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

Physiologic nystagmus is a type of normal, involuntary eye movement that occurs in certain situations. It is characterized by rhythmical to-and-fro movements of the eyes, which can be horizontal, vertical, or rotatory. The most common form of physiologic nystagmus is called "optokinetic nystagmus," which occurs when a person looks at a moving pattern, such as stripes on a rotating drum or scenery passing by a car window.

Optokinetic nystagmus helps to stabilize the image of the environment on the retina and allows the brain to perceive motion accurately. Another form of physiologic nystagmus is "pursuit nystagmus," which occurs when the eyes attempt to follow a slowly moving target. In this case, the eyes may overshoot the target and then make a corrective movement in the opposite direction.

Physiologic nystagmus is different from pathological nystagmus, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as brain damage, inner ear disorders, or medications that affect the nervous system. Pathological nystagmus may indicate a serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

In the context of medical terminology, "motion" generally refers to the act or process of moving or changing position. It can also refer to the range of movement of a body part or joint. However, there is no single specific medical definition for the term "motion." The meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Image enhancement in the medical context refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of medical images, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound images, to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Image enhancement techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, or sharpness; removing noise or artifacts; or applying specialized algorithms to highlight specific features or structures within the image.

The goal of image enhancement is to provide clinicians with more accurate and detailed information about a patient's anatomy or physiology, which can help inform medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "physical phenomena" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a broader term that refers to observable events or processes in the natural world that can be explained by physical laws and principles. This might include things like gravity, electromagnetism, or motion.

If you're looking for medical definitions related to physical phenomena, you might consider terms like "physical examination," which refers to the process of evaluating a patient's health status using observation, palpation, percussion, and auscultation to assess various body systems. Or, you might consider "physiological response," which refers to the body's natural reaction to a stimulus or change in environment.

If you meant something different by "physical phenomena" in a medical context, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

"Spheniscidae" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to the family of birds that includes penguins. The misinterpretation might have arisen because sometimes common names of animals are mistakenly used as scientific terms in a medical context. However, it's essential to use the correct and precise scientific terminology for accurate communication, especially in fields like medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "football" is a popular sport and not a medical term. The term "football" refers to a group of sports that involve kicking a ball with the foot to score goals. The most popular types of football are soccer, American football, Canadian football, Australian rules football, and rugby football.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question as "automobiles" is a general term used to describe wheeled motor vehicles for transportation, and it's not typically a medical term with its own specific definition. However, I can provide you with some automobile-related terms that have medical implications:

1. **Driving fitness**: This refers to the physical and mental abilities required to operate a vehicle safely. Various medical conditions or treatments can impact driving fitness, such as seizure disorders, sleep apnea, certain medications, or alcohol/substance use disorders.
2. **Driving simulator**: A device used in research and rehabilitation settings that presents a realistic driving environment for assessing and training individuals with various medical conditions or disabilities affecting their ability to drive.
3. **Adaptive automobile equipment**: Devices designed to assist people with disabilities in operating vehicles, such as hand controls, wheelchair lifts, or pedal extensions.
4. **Transportation disadvantage**: A situation where an individual's medical condition, disability, or lack of access to suitable transportation limits their ability to obtain necessary healthcare services.
5. **Motor vehicle crash (MVC) outcomes**: Medical consequences resulting from motor vehicle crashes, including injuries and fatalities. These outcomes are often studied in public health and injury prevention research.

If you have a specific medical term or concept related to automobiles that you would like me to define or explain, please provide more details, and I will be happy to help.

The torso refers to the central part of the human body, which is composed of the spine, ribcage, and the abdomen. It does not include the head, neck, arms, or legs. In anatomical terms, it is often used to describe the area between the neck and the pelvis.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Aerospace medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the health and safety of pilots, astronauts, and passengers during space travel or aircraft flight. It involves studying the effects of various factors such as altitude, weightlessness, radiation, noise, vibration, and temperature extremes on the human body, and developing measures to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects.

Aerospace medicine also encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions that occur during space travel or aircraft flight, as well as the development of medical standards and guidelines for pilot and astronaut selection, training, and fitness for duty. Additionally, it includes research into the physiological and psychological challenges of long-duration space missions and the development of countermeasures to maintain crew health and performance during such missions.

Data compression, in the context of medical informatics, refers to the process of encoding data to reduce its size while maintaining its integrity and accuracy. This technique is commonly used in transmitting and storing large datasets, such as medical images or genetic sequences, where smaller file sizes can significantly improve efficiency and speed up processing times.

There are two main types of data compression: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression ensures that the original data can be reconstructed exactly from the compressed data, making it essential for applications where data accuracy is critical, such as medical imaging or electronic health records. On the other hand, lossy compression involves discarding some redundant or less important data to achieve higher compression rates, but at the cost of reduced data quality.

In summary, data compression in a medical context refers to the process of reducing the size of digital data while maintaining its accuracy and integrity, which can improve efficiency in data transmission and storage.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

An "escape reaction" is a behavioral response displayed by an organism when it attempts to escape from a harmful, noxious, or stressful stimulus or situation. This response is typically characterized by rapid and directed movement away from the source of discomfort or danger. It is a fundamental survival mechanism that is observed across many species, including humans.

In a medical context, an escape reaction may be observed in response to painful medical procedures or treatments. For example, a patient may try to move or pull away during an injection or other invasive procedure. Healthcare providers must be aware of and prepared to manage escape reactions to ensure the safety and comfort of their patients during medical procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "galaxies" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Galaxies are massive collections of stars, gas, dust, and dark matter bound together by gravity. They come in various sizes and shapes, with our own galaxy, the Milky Way, being just one example. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help!

"Acinonyx" is a genus name that refers to a single species of big cat, the cheetah. The correct medical definition of "Acinonyx" is:

* Acinonyx jubatus: a large, slender wild cat that is known for its incredible speed and unique adaptations for running. It is the fastest land animal, capable of reaching speeds up to 60-70 miles per hour. The cheetah's body is built for speed, with long legs, a flexible spine, and a non-retractable claw that provides traction while running.

The cheetah's habitat ranges from the savannas of Africa to the deserts of Iran. It primarily hunts medium-sized ungulates, such as gazelles and wildebeest. The cheetah's population has been declining due to habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and illegal wildlife trade. Conservation efforts are underway to protect this iconic species and its habitat.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Man-Machine Systems" is not a commonly used medical term or concept in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is more commonly associated with fields such as engineering, human factors, and ergonomics.

In those contexts, "Man-Machine Systems" typically refers to systems where humans and machines work together to achieve a common goal. The human operator provides intelligence, decision-making capabilities, and the ability to adapt to new situations, while the machine provides strength, precision, and the ability to process large amounts of data quickly.

Examples of Man-Machine Systems in healthcare might include robotic surgical systems, where a surgeon uses a robot to perform precise movements during surgery, or computerized decision support systems that help healthcare providers make informed decisions based on patient data.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Computer-assisted image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist healthcare professionals in analyzing and interpreting medical images. These systems use various techniques such as pattern recognition, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to help identify and highlight abnormalities or patterns within imaging data, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI, and ultrasound images. The goal is to increase the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of image interpretation, while also reducing the potential for human error. It's important to note that these systems are intended to assist healthcare professionals in their decision making process and not to replace them.

A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is typically caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. A concussion can also occur from a fall or accident that causes the head to suddenly jerk forward or backward.

The impact or forceful movement causes the brain to move back and forth inside the skull, which can result in stretching and damaging of brain cells, as well as disrupting the normal functioning of the brain. Concussions can range from mild to severe and may cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
* Temporary loss of consciousness
* Confusion or fogginess
* Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
* Dizziness or "seeing stars"
* Ringing in the ears
* Nausea or vomiting
* Slurred speech
* Fatigue

In some cases, concussions may also cause more serious symptoms, such as seizures, difficulty walking, loss of balance, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has a brain concussion. A healthcare professional can evaluate the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care.

I apologize for any confusion, but "lizards" is not a term used in medical definition. Lizards are a group of scaled reptiles constituting the order Squamata, characterized by having skin covered with overlapping scales, external ears, and movable eyelids. They are found worldwide in a variety of habitats, ranging from desert to tropical environments. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to help!

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Telemetry is the automated measurement and wireless transmission of data from remote or inaccessible sources to receiving stations for monitoring and analysis. In a medical context, telemetry is often used to monitor patients' vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other important physiological parameters continuously and remotely. This technology allows healthcare providers to track patients' conditions over time, detect any abnormalities or trends, and make informed decisions about their care, even when they are not physically present with the patient. Telemetry is commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and research settings to monitor patients during procedures, after surgery, or during extended stays in intensive care units.

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Vestibular hair cells are specialized sensory receptor cells located in the vestibular system of the inner ear. They play a crucial role in detecting and mediating our sense of balance and spatial orientation by converting mechanical stimuli, such as head movements and gravity, into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The hair cells are shaped like a tuft of hair, with stereocilia projecting from their tops. These stereocilia are arranged in rows of graded height, and they are embedded in a gel-like structure within the vestibular organ. When the head moves or changes position, the movement causes deflection of the stereocilia, which opens ion channels at their tips and triggers nerve impulses that are sent to the brain via the vestibular nerve.

There are two types of vestibular hair cells: type I and type II. Type I hair cells have a large, spherical shape and are more sensitive to changes in head position, while type II hair cells are more cylindrical in shape and respond to both linear and angular acceleration. Together, these hair cells help us maintain our balance, coordinate our movements, and keep our eyes focused during head movements.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Weightlessness, also known as zero gravity or microgravity, is a condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. The effects of weightlessness on the human body are similar to those experienced during freefall.

This state can be achieved in various ways:

1. Freefall: This is the natural weightless state that occurs when an object is in free fall and accelerating towards the center of a celestial body such as Earth, but is not being affected by any other forces (like air resistance). During this state, the only force acting upon the object is gravity, which pulls everything towards the center of the planet. This is why astronauts experience weightlessness during space travel.

2. Neutral Buoyancy: In a fluid medium like water, an object can achieve neutral buoyancy when its weight equals the weight of the fluid it displaces. This creates a state where the object neither sinks nor floats, appearing to be weightless.

3. Specialized Equipment: Devices such as aircraft that fly in parabolic arcs can create short periods of weightlessness for training purposes or research. These flights involve climbing steeply, then diving towards the earth, creating a state of freefall and thus weightlessness.

Prolonged exposure to weightlessness can have significant effects on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, balance disorders, and changes in cardiovascular function.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

In medical terms, "wing" is not a term that is used as a standalone definition. However, it can be found in the context of certain anatomical structures or medical conditions. For instance, the "wings" of the lungs refer to the upper and lower portions of the lungs that extend from the main body of the organ. Similarly, in dermatology, "winging" is used to describe the spreading out or flaring of the wings of the nose, which can be a characteristic feature of certain skin conditions like lupus.

It's important to note that medical terminology can be highly specific and context-dependent, so it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information related to medical definitions or diagnoses.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

'Ovum transport' refers to the movement of an egg or ovum from the mature follicle within the ovary, through the fallopian tube, and ultimately to the uterus. This process is a critical part of the female reproductive system and occurs during each menstrual cycle.

The ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle triggers the release of a mature egg from the follicle in the ovary. The fimbriated end of the fallopian tube captures the egg and transports it into the tube, where it may encounter sperm for fertilization. Cilia lining the inside of the fallopian tubes create wave-like motions that help propel the egg towards the uterus.

If fertilization occurs, the resulting zygote will continue to travel down the fallopian tube and implant itself into the uterine lining, initiating pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the egg will be shed along with the uterine lining during menstruation.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "physics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter, energy, and their interactions. It may be studied in the context of medical physics, which involves the application of physical principles to medicine, such as in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment or imaging techniques like MRI and CT scans. However, "physics" itself is not a medical term with a specific definition within the field of medicine.

The term "back" is a common word used to describe the large posterior part of the body of a human or an animal, which extends from the neck to the pelvis and contains the spine, spinal cord, ribs, muscles, and other various tissues. In medical terms, the back is also known as the dorsal region. It provides support, protection, and mobility for the body, allowing us to stand upright, bend, twist, and perform various physical activities. The back is susceptible to various injuries, disorders, and conditions, such as back pain, strains, sprains, herniated discs, scoliosis, and arthritis, among others.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that measures the magnetic fields produced by the electrical activity of the heart. It uses highly sensitive devices called magnetometers to detect and record these magnetic signals, which are then processed and analyzed to provide information about the heart's electrical function and structure.

MCG can be used to detect and monitor various cardiac conditions, including arrhythmias, ischemia (reduced blood flow to the heart), and myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can also help in identifying abnormalities in the heart's conduction system and assessing the effectiveness of treatments such as pacemakers.

One advantage of MCG over other diagnostic techniques like electrocardiography (ECG) is that it is not affected by the conductive properties of body tissues, which can distort ECG signals. This makes MCG a more accurate tool for measuring the heart's magnetic fields and can provide additional information about the underlying electrical activity. However, MCG requires specialized equipment and shielding to reduce interference from external magnetic sources, making it less widely available than ECG.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is not a medical term, but rather a technology term that refers to the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronic components on a single silicon chip through microfabrication technology. MEMS devices are extremely small (typically measured in micrometers or millionths of a meter), and can be found in various consumer products such as accelerometers in smartphones and automobiles, inkjet printheads, and biosensors.

In the medical field, MEMS technology has been used to develop various diagnostic and therapeutic devices, including lab-on-a-chip platforms for point-of-care diagnostics, drug delivery systems, and implantable sensors for monitoring physiological parameters such as glucose levels or blood pressure.

Therefore, while MEMS is not a medical definition itself, it is a technology that has significant applications in the medical field.

"Torque" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical concept used in the fields of physics and engineering, referring to a twisting force that causes rotation around an axis. However, in certain medical contexts, such as in discussions of spinal or joint biomechanics, the term "torque" may be used to describe a rotational force applied to a body part. But generally speaking, "torque" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology.

Conductometry is a method used to measure the electrical conductivity of a solution, which can change in the presence of certain ions or chemical reactions. In conductometry, a conductivity probe or electrode is placed in the solution and an electrical current is passed through it. The resistance of the solution is then measured and converted into a measurement of conductivity.

Conductometry is often used to monitor chemical reactions that produce or consume ions, such as acid-base titrations, oxidation-reduction reactions, and complexation reactions. By measuring changes in conductivity over time, researchers can gain insights into the rate and extent of these reactions.

In medical research, conductometry may be used to study the electrical properties of biological tissues, such as skin or blood, or to monitor chemical processes in the body, such as the metabolism of drugs or other substances. However, it is not a commonly used diagnostic tool in clinical medicine.

Rheology is not a term that is specific to medicine, but rather it is a term used in the field of physics to describe the flow and deformation of matter. It specifically refers to the study of how materials flow or deform under various stresses or strains. This concept can be applied to various medical fields such as studying the flow properties of blood (hematology), understanding the movement of tissues and organs during surgical procedures, or analyzing the mechanical behavior of biological materials like bones and cartilages.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "friction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Friction is a physical concept that describes the force that resists the sliding of one surface over another. It is commonly described as the "roughness" between two surfaces. While friction can have effects on various biological processes and medical devices, it does not have a unique medical meaning in and of itself.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

"Altered gravity" is not a medical condition or diagnosis itself, but rather a state that can have various medical implications. It refers to a situation where the force of gravity is different from what humans normally experience on Earth's surface (approximately 9.8 m/s²). This could include conditions such as:

1. Microgravity: This is the condition experienced in outer space, where the force of gravity is significantly reduced. It can have various effects on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, fluid shifts, and changes in balance and coordination.

2. Hypergravity: This refers to environments where the force of gravity is greater than Earth's normal level. Examples might include high-speed centrifuges or certain types of space travel. Hypergravity can lead to symptoms such as nausea, disorientation, and cardiovascular changes.

Medical research into altered gravity conditions is important for understanding the effects of space travel on the human body, as well as for developing countermeasures to mitigate these effects.

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

Vestibular function tests are a series of diagnostic assessments used to determine the functionality and health of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. These tests typically include:

1. **Caloric Testing:** This test evaluates the response of each ear to stimulation with warm and cold water or air. The resulting responses are recorded and analyzed to assess the function of the horizontal semicircular canals and the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR).

2. **Rotary Chair Testing:** This test measures how well the vestibular system adapts to different speeds of rotation. The patient sits in a chair that moves in a controlled, consistent manner while their eye movements are recorded.

3. **Videonystagmography (VNG):** This test uses video goggles to record eye movements in response to various stimuli, such as changes in head position, temperature, and visual environment.

4. **Electronystagmography (ENG):** Similar to VNG, this test records eye movements but uses electrodes placed near the eyes instead of video goggles.

5. **Dix-Hallpike Test:** This is a clinical maneuver used to diagnose benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It involves rapidly moving the patient's head from an upright position to a position where their head is hanging off the end of the examination table.

6. **Head Shaking Test:** This test involves shaking the head back and forth for 15-20 seconds and then observing the patient's eye movements for nystagmus (involuntary eye movement).

These tests help diagnose various vestibular disorders, including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, labyrinthitis, vestibular neuritis, Meniere's disease, and other balance disorders.

Ventricular function, in the context of cardiac medicine, refers to the ability of the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers) to fill with blood during the diastole phase and eject blood during the systole phase. The ventricles are primarily responsible for pumping oxygenated blood out to the body (left ventricle) and deoxygenated blood to the lungs (right ventricle).

There are several ways to assess ventricular function, including:

1. Ejection Fraction (EF): This is the most commonly used measure of ventricular function. It represents the percentage of blood that is ejected from the ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal left ventricular ejection fraction is typically between 55% and 70%.
2. Fractional Shortening (FS): This is another measure of ventricular function, which calculates the change in size of the ventricle during contraction as a percentage of the original size. A normal FS for the left ventricle is typically between 25% and 45%.
3. Stroke Volume (SV): This refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the ventricle with each heartbeat. SV is calculated by multiplying the ejection fraction by the end-diastolic volume (the amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole).
4. Cardiac Output (CO): This is the total amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.

Impaired ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. Assessing ventricular function is crucial for diagnosing these conditions, monitoring treatment response, and guiding clinical decision-making.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

In a medical context, "orientation" typically refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their personal identity, place, time, and situation. It is a critical component of cognitive functioning and mental status. Healthcare professionals often assess a person's orientation during clinical evaluations, using tests that inquire about their name, location, the current date, and the circumstances of their hospitalization or visit.

There are different levels of orientation:

1. Person (or self): The individual knows their own identity, including their name, age, and other personal details.
2. Place: The individual is aware of where they are, such as the name of the city, hospital, or healthcare facility.
3. Time: The individual can accurately state the current date, day of the week, month, and year.
4. Situation or event: The individual understands why they are in the healthcare setting, what happened leading to their hospitalization or visit, and the nature of any treatments or procedures they are undergoing.

Impairments in orientation can be indicative of various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as delirium, dementia, or substance intoxication or withdrawal. It is essential for healthcare providers to monitor and address orientation issues to ensure appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and patient safety.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Equipment" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It generally refers to the physical items or gear used in sports and athletic activities, such as balls, bats, helmets, protective pads, etc. If you're looking for a term related to sports that has a medical definition, I'd be happy to help with that!

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

In the context of physiology and medicine, "kinesis" refers to a type of movement or motion that is spontaneous and not under the direct control of willful thought. It is a broad term that can encompass various forms of involuntary movements in the body, including muscle contractions, heartbeats, and peristalsis (the wave-like muscular contractions that move food through the digestive system).

It's worth noting that "kinesis" is also a term used in the field of psychology to refer to an individual's range of motion or mobility, but this usage is less common in medical contexts.

Equidae is the biological family that includes horses, donkeys, zebras, and their extinct relatives. These mammals are known for their hooves, long faces, and distinctive teeth adapted for grazing on grasses. They are also characterized by a unique form of locomotion in which they move both legs on one side of the body together, a gait known as "diagonal couple-hoofed" or "pacing."

The family Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes other odd-toed ungulates such as rhinos and tapirs. The fossil record of Equidae dates back to the early Eocene epoch, around 56 million years ago, with a diverse array of species that inhabited various habitats across the world.

Some notable members of the family Equidae include:

* Equus: This is the genus that includes modern horses, donkeys, and zebras. It has a wide geographic distribution and includes several extinct species such as the now-extinct American wild horse (Equus ferus) and the quagga (Equus quagga), a subspecies of the plains zebra that went extinct in the late 19th century.
* Hyracotherium: Also known as Eohippus, this is one of the earliest and smallest members of Equidae. It lived during the early Eocene epoch and had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet.
* Mesohippus: This was a slightly larger and more advanced member of Equidae that lived during the middle Eocene epoch. It had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet, but its middle toe was larger and stronger than in Hyracotherium.
* Merychippus: This was a diverse and successful member of Equidae that lived during the late Miocene epoch. It had a more modern-looking skeleton and teeth adapted for grazing on grasses.
* Pliohippus: This was a transitional form between early members of Equidae and modern horses. It lived during the Pliocene epoch and had a single toe on each foot, like modern horses. Its teeth were also more specialized for grinding grasses.

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

An air bag is a type of vehicle safety device that uses a inflatable cushion to protect occupants from collision forces in the event of a car accident. When a crash occurs, a sensor triggers the inflation of the air bag, which then rapidly deploys and fills the space between the driver or passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard. This helps to absorb the impact and reduce the risk of injury. Air bags are typically installed in the steering wheel, dashboard, and sides of the vehicle, and they can significantly improve safety in the event of a crash. However, air bags can also pose a risk of injury if they deploy improperly or in certain types of crashes, so it is important for drivers to understand how they work and when they are most effective.

The cerebellar nuclei are clusters of neurons located within the white matter of the cerebellum, a region of the brain responsible for motor coordination, balance, and fine movement regulation. There are four main pairs of cerebellar nuclei: the fastigial, interpositus, dentate, and vestibular nuclei. These nuclei receive input from various parts of the cerebellar cortex and project to different areas of the brainstem and thalamus, contributing to the regulation of muscle tone, posture, and movement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Perciformes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology, specifically in taxonomy and ichthyology (the study of fish). Perciformes is an order of ray-finned bony fishes that includes over 10,000 species, making it the largest order of vertebrates. Examples of fish within this order include perch, sea bass, sunfish, and tuna.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

A ribosome is a complex molecular machine found in all living cells, responsible for protein synthesis. It consists of two subunits: the smaller **ribosomal subunit** and the larger **ribosomal subunit**. These subunits are composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal proteins.

The small ribosomal subunit is responsible for decoding messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis, while the large ribosomal subunit facilitates peptide bond formation between amino acids. In eukaryotic cells, the small ribosomal subunit is composed of one 18S rRNA and approximately 30 ribosomal proteins, whereas the large ribosomal subunit contains three larger rRNAs (5S, 5.8S, and 28S or 25S) and around 45-50 ribosomal proteins.

In prokaryotic cells like bacteria, the small ribosomal subunit consists of a single 16S rRNA and approximately 21 ribosomal proteins, while the large ribosomal subunit contains three rRNAs (5S, 5.8S, and 23S) and around 30-33 ribosomal proteins.

These ribosome subunits come together during protein synthesis to form a functional ribosome, which translates the genetic code present in mRNA into a polypeptide chain (protein).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Motion sickness is a condition characterized by a disturbance in the balance and orientation senses, often triggered by conflicting information received from the eyes, inner ears, and other bodily sensory systems. It's typically brought on by motion such as that experienced during travel in cars, trains, boats, or airplanes, or even while using virtual reality devices. Symptoms can include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and cold sweats.

The inner ear's vestibular system plays a key role in this condition. When the body is in motion but the inner ear remains still, or vice versa, it can cause the brain to receive conflicting signals about the body's state of motion, leading to feelings of disorientation and sickness.

Preventative measures for motion sickness include fixating on a stationary point outside the vehicle, avoiding reading or looking at electronic screens during travel, taking over-the-counter medications like dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) or scopolamine (Transderm Scop), and engaging in relaxation techniques such as deep breathing.

Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a type of involuntary eye movement that occurs in response to large moving visual patterns. It serves as a mechanism for stabilizing the image on the retina during head movement and helps in maintaining visual fixation.

In OKN, there are two phases of eye movement: a slow phase where the eyes follow or track the moving pattern, and a fast phase where the eyes quickly reset to the starting position. This results in a back-and-forth or "to-and-fro" motion of the eyes.

Optokinetic nystagmus can be elicited by observing a large moving object or a series of alternating visual stimuli, such as stripes on a rotating drum. It is often used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of the visual system, including oculomotor function and visual acuity.

Abnormalities in OKN can indicate problems with the vestibular system, brainstem, or cerebellum, and may be associated with conditions such as brain injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral palsy.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

An echidna is not a medical term, but rather it is the name given to a type of mammal that is native to Australia and New Guinea. Echidnas are also known as spiny anteaters because they have sharp spines on their bodies and feed on ants and termites.

Echidnas are unique among mammals because they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like most other mammals do. The egg is incubated in the female's pouch, where it hatches after about 10 days. The newly hatched baby, called a puggle, is then cared for and fed by the mother's milk until it is ready to leave the pouch and fend for itself.

There are two species of echidnas: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus bruijni). Both species are protected under Australian law, and they play an important role in the ecosystem by controlling insect populations.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

"Nonlinear dynamics is a branch of mathematics and physics that deals with the study of systems that exhibit nonlinear behavior, where the output is not directly proportional to the input. In the context of medicine, nonlinear dynamics can be used to model complex biological systems such as the human cardiovascular system or the brain, where the interactions between different components can lead to emergent properties and behaviors that are difficult to predict using traditional linear methods. Nonlinear dynamic models can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of these systems, make predictions about their behavior, and develop interventions to improve health outcomes."

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when there is extensive damage to the nerve fibers (axons) in the brain. It is often caused by rapid acceleration or deceleration forces, such as those experienced during motor vehicle accidents or falls. In DAI, the axons are stretched and damaged, leading to disruption of communication between different parts of the brain. This can result in a wide range of symptoms, including cognitive impairment, loss of consciousness, and motor dysfunction. DAI is often difficult to diagnose and can have long-term consequences, making it an important area of study in traumatic brain injury research.

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In relativity theory, proper acceleration is the physical acceleration (i.e., measurable acceleration as by an accelerometer) ... Proper acceleration reduces to coordinate acceleration in an inertial coordinate system in flat spacetime (i.e. in the absence ... Proper acceleration contrasts with coordinate acceleration, which is dependent on choice of coordinate systems and thus upon ... The "acceleration of gravity" (involved in the "force of gravity") never contributes to proper acceleration in any ...
... and futurist Wikiquote has quotations related to Great Acceleration. "Definition of Great Acceleration". Future Earth. January ... The Great Acceleration is the dramatic, continuous and roughly simultaneous surge across a large range of measures of human ... In the concept, the Great Acceleration can be variously classified as the only age of the epoch to date, one of many ages of ... Related to Great Acceleration is the concept of accelerating change. While not explicitly commenting on whether the Great ...
... is the practice of paying off a mortgage loan faster than required by terms of the mortgage agreement. As ... A commonplace method of mortgage acceleration is a so-called bi-weekly payment plan, in which half of the normal calendar ... Thomsett, Michael C. (1989-03-20). Saving $ On Your Home Mortgage: Mortgage Acceleration Techniques. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471- ... Thomsett, Michael C. (1989). Save $ on your home mortgage: mortgage acceleration techniques. Goodman, Jordan Elliot; Westrom, ...
"Acceleration (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 19, 2019. Acceleration at IMDb Acceleration at Rotten Tomatoes v t e ... "Acceleration". The Austin Chronicle. November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019. "'Acceleration': Film Review". The ... Acceleration is a 2019 American action film directed by Michael Merino and Daniel Zirilli. The film stars Sean Patrick Flanery ... Acceleration': Film Review". Detroit Free Press. November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019. "ETC News: Exclusive clip from ...
In mathematics, Anderson acceleration, also called Anderson mixing, is a method for the acceleration of the convergence rate of ... Anderson acceleration is a method to accelerate the convergence of the fixed-point sequence. Define the residual g ( x ) = f ( ... Anderson acceleration requires only one evaluation of the function f ( x ) {\displaystyle f(x)} per iteration, and no ... The following is an example implementation in MATLAB language of the Anderson acceleration scheme for finding the fixed-point ...
... or CA is an approach to teaching designed to develop students' thinking ability, developed by Michael ... London: Routledge Adey, P. (Ed.) (2008, forthcoming). Let's Think! Handbook: A Guide to Cognitive Acceleration in the Primary ... The first teaching materials, written for Years 7 and 8 (ages 11-13) science lessons, were called Cognitive Acceleration ... "King's College London - Cognitive Acceleration (CASE and other projects)". 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012. Adey, P. S..(1993). ...
... (formerly known as SSL acceleration) is a method of offloading processor-intensive public-key encryption for ... Sometimes data centers employ dedicated servers for TLS acceleration in a reverse proxy configuration. Modern x86 CPUs support ... and all ARM CPUs have acceleration in the later ARMv8 architecture. The accelerator provides the RSA public-key algorithm, ... Add Allwinner Security System crypto accelerator on Linux ARM kernel mailing list SSL Acceleration and Offloading: What Are the ...
An acceleration clause, also known as an acceleration covenant, may be included within a contract, so as to fully mature the ... Acceleration is defined in law as a shortening of the time period in which something is to take place. The concept of ... With an acceleration clause a landlord may be able to sue for damages when a breach of the lease agreement occurs. Lehman, ... An acceleration clause was examined in the 1971 Rhode Island Supreme Court case of Scullian v. Petrucci, in which the clause ...
... the particle acceleration or sound acceleration with the symbol a in metre/second2. In acoustics or physics, acceleration ( ... One common unit of acceleration is g-force, one g being the acceleration caused by the gravity of Earth. In classical mechanics ... Acceleration is defined technically as "the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time" and is given by the ... For this centripetal acceleration we have a = − v 2 r r r = − ω 2 r {\displaystyle \mathbf {a} =-{\frac {v^{2}}{r}}{\frac {\ ...
Look up acceleration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Acceleration, in physics, is the rate at which the velocity of a body ... Acceleration may also refer to: Acceleration (biology), the speeding up of some part of embryonic development, a form of ... Acceleration (film), 2019 American action film Accelerationism, critical and social theory Accelerations Waltz (1860) by Johann ... in developmental biology Acceleration (law), a shortening of the time period in which something is to take place Academic ...
The longitudinal effective acceleration voltage is given by the kinetic energy gain experienced by a particle with velocity β c ... For the special case of an electrostatic field that is surpassed by a particle, the acceleration voltage is directly given by ... If not specified further, the term is likely to refer to the longitudinal effective acceleration voltage V ∥ {\displaystyle V ... In accelerator physics, the term acceleration voltage means the effective voltage surpassed by a charged particle along a ...
Subject-matter acceleration/partial acceleration This practice allows students to be placed with classes with older peers for a ... The Acceleration Institute includes a section on state policies relevant to acceleration. The document, Developing Academic ... The Acceleration Institute website provides many resources about acceleration, including research articles, free resources, and ... More information about subject acceleration is provided on the Acceleration Institute website. Mentoring In mentoring, a ...
... (SA) is a unit measured in g (the acceleration due to Earth's gravity, equivalent to g-force) that ... Some seismic hazard maps are also produced using spectral acceleration. Seismic scale Spectral Acceleration Hazard Map of ... Spectral acceleration, with a value related to the natural frequency of vibration of the building, is used in earthquake ... "spectral acceleration" or SA? United States Geological Survey, accessed 2011-04-14 v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, ...
A writ in acceleration, commonly called a writ of acceleration, is a type of writ of summons that enabled the eldest son and ... It was far more common for eldest sons of peers to sit in the House of Commons than to receive a writ of acceleration or a new ... A writ of acceleration was granted only if the peerage being accelerated was a subsidiary one, and not the father's highest, ... Acceleration could affect the numbering of holders of peerages. In the example above, the 1st Earl of Burlington was also the ...
... is the Venezuelan team of Formula Acceleration 1, an international racing series. They are run by ... "FA1 LINE-UP , Acceleration". 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-04-28. (Acceleration teams, National sports teams ... "ENTRY LIST , Acceleration". Archived from the original on 2014-04-26. Retrieved 2014-04-28. " ... Drivers: Rodolfo González The team announced Rodolfo Gonzalez as their driver for the inaugural Formula Acceleration 1 season ...
... (DSA) is a group of technologies which make the delivery of dynamic websites more efficient. ... Also, revenue might increase from lower page-loading times "How Dynamic Site Acceleration Works? - GlobalDots". www.globaldots. ...
Acceleration Calculator Simple acceleration unit converter Acceleration Calculator Acceleration Conversion calculator converts ... are called the tangential acceleration and the normal or radial acceleration (or centripetal acceleration in circular motion, ... In mechanics, acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time. Acceleration is one of ... Proper acceleration, the acceleration of a body relative to a free-fall condition, is measured by an instrument called an ...
You will need to add a valid email address to complete this application. Please fill out questions in the application and submit when completed ...
Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS) caches frequently accessed data to improve server application performance. ... Intelligent Cache Acceleration Software. Cache acceleration software (CAS) enables the implementation of media aware storage ... Open Cache Acceleration Software (Open CAS) Open CAS Linux is an open source project that can accelerate your I/O-bound ... Cache acceleration software was designed to use a relatively small capacity of very fast media, such as Intel® Optane™ SSDs, to ...
Run Acceleration Mode from the User Interface. To accelerate a model, first open it, and then on the Simulation tab, in the ... Perform Acceleration. Customize the Build Process. Compiler optimizations are off by default. This results in faster build ...
Server System D50DNP2MFALAC Acceleration Module quick reference with specifications, features, and technologies. ...
Server System D50TNP2MFALAC Acceleration Module quick reference with specifications, features, and technologies. ... A 2U high-density full-width Acceleration Module integrated with the Intel® Server Board D50TNP1SB intended to address ... acceleration solutions that support up to four 300 W PCIe* accelerator add-in cards. ...
... are going to be more excited about full acceleration or partial acceleration? Full acceleration dilutes the shareholders 15%, ... Enter acceleration. Acceleration in an options plan can cause vesting to accelerate based on some event, such as an acquisition ... Double trigger acceleration usually refers to a situation in which the options plan grants partial acceleration on an ... partial acceleration. Full acceleration means that if the accelerating event happens, 100% of unvested options are vested and ...
This way, you can still take advantage of hardware acceleration everywhere else. See Control hardware acceleration for more ... Hardware acceleration. Stay organized with collections Save and categorize content based on your preferences. Beginning in ... Hardware acceleration is enabled by default if your Target API level is ,=14, but can also be explicitly enabled. If your ... However, because hardware acceleration is not supported for all of the 2D drawing operations, turning it on might affect some ...
Similar acceleration patterns can be seen in online education, nearshoring, and remote working, to name but a few areas. All ... What we are seeing is a great acceleration of trends that existed before the crisis. For example, online deliverys volume ... Regardless of your context, given the speed at which this crisis has been unfolding and the great acceleration of trends ... Whats the unique window of opportunity this great acceleration presents for your particular business? ...
Toll, Micah (November 11, 2020), Energicas 2021 electric motorcycle lineup gets faster 2.6 sec 0-60 mph acceleration;. ... This is a list of street legal production motorcycles ranked by acceleration from a standing start, limited to 0 to 60 mph ... "2007 Honda CBR1100XX Super Blackbird detailed performance review, speed vs rpm and accelerations chart". MotorbikeCatalog.. ... The widely varying testing methodologies mean that, even between identical motorcycles, the acceleration times vary. Some of ...
This way, you can still take advantage of hardware acceleration everywhere else. See Control hardware acceleration for more ... Hardware acceleration. Stay organized with collections Save and categorize content based on your preferences. Beginning in ... Hardware acceleration is enabled by default if your Target API level is ,=14, but can also be explicitly enabled. If your ... However, because hardware acceleration is not supported for all of the 2D drawing operations, turning it on might affect some ...
Acceleration/Differentiation at Gifted Education : Learn more about these two significant and successful ways that schools can ... A basic overview of whole grade acceleration, or grade skipping Myths and Realities of Early College Early College is a topic ... Why are so many schools opposed to any sort of acceleration? Stepping Outside the Paradigm Gifted children dont always fit ... This article explores a few of the most common myths about radical acceleration into college. ...
Attended: Management Acceleration Programme I am one of only very few Cambodian nationals to have passed through an INSEAD ... Attended: Management Acceleration Programme "It gave me the opportunity to take a step back, reflect and see things more ... Management Acceleration Programme Expand your business expertise and give yourself the confidence you need to take that next ... Attended: Management Acceleration Programme It really takes you outside of your comfort zone and provides you with a much ...
Tag: cosmic acceleration. Posted on June 24, 2018. by Matt Williams. The Tools Humanity Will Need for Living in the Year 1 ... In addition to being responsible for cosmic acceleration, this energy is also thought to comprise 68.3% of the universes non- ... beyond their main sequence before reaching the destination and low-mass stars would not generate enough energy for acceleration ...
SOLVED] acceleration and velocity 1. Homework Statement EXACT PROBLEM: A car accelerates from rest W at 5.0m/s2 for 10.0s, then ... SOLVED] acceleration and velocity. 1. Homework Statement EXACT PROBLEM:. A car accelerates from rest W at 5.0m/s2 for 10.0s, ... Centripetal acceleration and tangential velocity of an object that revolves and rotates ... then continues this acceleration NE for another 10.0s. What is the average velocity of the car for its journey to its position ...
Calculating the Acceleration. *Force and Motion activity 2: Relating graphs and free body diagrams using Moving Man and Forces ... To study the dependance of time period on (i) length of the pendulum and (ii) acceleration due to gravity ... Balanced and Unbalanced Forces - What Causes Acceleration. *Ladybug Motion 2D Vector controls for circle/elliptical motion ( ...
Application-acceleration vendors need to squeeze more capabilities into fewer products, make them work better together, and pay ... and SSL acceleration to best practices on incorporating acceleration tools into existing routing and QoS efforts. ... Many acceleration products require that an appliance be installed in the data center and in every remote or branch location. ... Application-acceleration vendors need to squeeze more capabilities into fewer products, make them work better together, and pay ...
The DPU-based Acceleration for VMware NSX solution supports leading server and DPU vendors. We continue to expand access to the ... DPU-based Acceleration for NSX runs networking and security services on Data Processing Units connected to hosts, offering ... Networking and Security Powered by SmartNICs DPU-based Acceleration for NSX Enable accelerated networking, performant security ... Utilizing accelerators on the DPU to run network overlays, network acceleration, and load balancing enhances performance while ...
Jentschura, U. , Mohr, P. , Soff, G. and Weniger, W. (1999), Convergence Acceleration via Combined Nonlinear-Condensation ...
Acceleration is sold as the way to fill academic holes left by less-than-ideal learning conditions last school year. But there ... Understanding Learning Acceleration: Going Slow to Go Fast. By Stephen Sawchuk. & Liana Loewus. - June 22, 2021 4 min read ... But acceleration is also more feasible than most people think. Mathematics learning is not always linear; concepts repeat and ... And once youve started developing your own acceleration plans this fall and begun teaching, why not reach back to us and let ...
Plasma acceleration: Its all in the mix. A pinch of nitrogen and artificial intelligence are moving laser plasma acceleration ... The acceleration takes place in a tiny channel, just a few millimetres long, filled with an ionised gas called a plasma. An ... "Plasma acceleration: Its all in the mix." ScienceDaily. /. releases. /. 2021. /. 04. /. 210427094738.htm ... Plasma acceleration is an innovative technology that is giving rise to a new generation of particle accelerators which are not ...
GPU acceleration promises to speed up the next generation of browsers, but competing standards from a plethora of competitors ... That looks a little simpler, though its interesting to note that MacOS will still be handling 2D acceleration for Firefox ... Petersons slide shows four browsers, five video rendering engines and five 2D graphics acceleration standards. ... So why are all the mainstream browsers moving rapidly towards implementing GPU acceleration? ...
DPU-based Acceleration is a technology that enables offloading of networking and security functions from the application host ... What is DPU-based Acceleration? DPU-based Acceleration is a technology that enables offloading of networking and security ... Benefits of DPU-based Acceleration DPU-based Acceleration for NSX offers high performance networking and security implemented ... How does DPU-based Acceleration work? A Data Processing Unit (i.e., DPU or SmartNIC) has its own CPU, Memory, I/O and various ...
Watch the teams record-setting acceleration in the video player above. Watch a longer version of the teams run at this link. ... p,Students in Switzerland celebrate with the car that broke the world record for 0-100 km/h acceleration by an electric car. ... Students at two Swiss universities got together, built a vehicle and smashed the world record for acceleration by an electric ... The group boasts that no other car on Earth can match the Grimsels acceleration rate. ...
Downside Acceleration?. By Henry To - Mar 22, 2005, 12:00 AM CST It has certainly been an interesting week for the markets - ... What does this mean? I am only guessing here, but it probably means that the market is vulnerable to a further acceleration on ...
Legislation passed in the last session paved the way for the acceleration of construction or rebuilding of freeways, state ... Those are a few of the transportation acceleration projects recently approved by the Maricopa Association of Governments and ... Same situation in terms of the scheduling and the acceleration on the widening on interstate 10? Eric Anderson: Thats correct ... There has been some acceleration of certain projects. But my recall is that usually was the locality stepping forward and ...
Suggested for: Easy Acceleration / Friction question Friction, Mass and Acceleration: Analyzing Block Motion ... If the friction between the box and the roof is .15, then the box will move at an acceleration of .70 m/s2.f ... But my question is how do I figure out the acceleration with friction of .15? Where do I apply the .15 in my equation? ... I figured out the Acceleration with no friction is 1.70 m/s2 85.09/50. Any help is appreciated, thanks ...
At this years Sogeti Executive Summit, you will be able to meet our Acceleration Experts who will present our most innovative ...
For more information, please read the SDG Acceleration Pavilion Concept Note.. QUESTIONS? PLEASE CONTACT: Symone McCollin- ... Please note that major group and other stakeholder representatives wishing to exhibit at the SDG Acceleration Pavilion must ... The APFSD Secretariat is organising an SDG Acceleration Pavilion for ESCAP Member States, UN agencies, international ...
UN-Water is developing SDG 6 Country Acceleration Case Studies to explore countries pathways to achieving accelerated progress ... To accelerate the achievement of SDG 6 targets as part of the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework, ... To accelerate the achievement of SDG 6 targets as part of the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework, UN-Water is developing SDG 6 ... Country Acceleration Case Studies to explore countries pathways to achieving accelerated progress on SDG 6 at the national ...
  • LOL i do find it entertaining that Mono/Moonlight video is going almost unnoticed as MS get ready to move into ARM Linux land and yet the desktop Linux video playback is still stumbling over API this API that and making very little progress compared to today's Moonlight Gets Generic GPU Video Acceleration news. (
  • Because of the increased resources required to enable hardware acceleration, your app will consume more RAM. (
  • However, because hardware acceleration is not supported for all of the 2D drawing operations, turning it on might affect some of your custom views or drawing calls. (
  • To remedy this, Android gives you the option to enable or disable hardware acceleration at multiple levels. (
  • See Control hardware acceleration . (
  • If your application performs custom drawing, test your application on actual hardware devices with hardware acceleration turned on to find any problems. (
  • The Support for drawing operations section describes known issues with hardware acceleration and how to work around them. (
  • If your application does not behave properly with hardware acceleration turned on globally, you can control it for individual activities as well. (
  • You currently cannot disable hardware acceleration at the window level. (
  • View layers have other functions besides disabling hardware acceleration. (
  • Optimized hardware acceleration of both AI inference and other performance-critical functions by tightly coupling custom accelerators into a dynamic architecture silicon device. (
  • because with a GPU, the other performance-critical functions of the application must still run in software, without the performance or efficiency of custom hardware acceleration. (
  • Tom Barclay, senior product marketing manager, Platform Business Unit, Adobe Systems, said Adobe Flash Player 10 delivers enhancements and new features such as new support for custom filters and effects, native 3-D transformation and animation, advanced audio processing, and GPU hardware acceleration. (
  • Disabling hardware acceleration through the plug-in settings somehow didn't affect that, however. (
  • The hardware acceleration works, at the moment, only through Nvidia hardware on Windows and Linux, but all platforms see the other improvements to VLC, including WebM streaming. (
  • Alexandre d'Aspremont, Damien Scieur and Adrien Taylor (2021), "Acceleration Methods", Foundations and Trends® in Optimization: Vol. 5: No. 1-2, pp 1-245. (
  • This monograph covers some recent advances in a range of acceleration techniques frequently used in convex optimization. (
  • Ipanema Technologies, the leader in WAN Optimization and Application Performance Management solutions for Managed Service Providers, today announced the launch of SWAN, the Strategic WAN Acceleration Navigator to help enterprises navigate across the sea of WAN Acceleration requirements. (
  • SWAN makes the connection between business applications and WAN Optimization and Acceleration technology requirements," says Frank Lyonnet, VP Product Marketing at Ipanema Technologies. (
  • In mechanics, acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time. (
  • Obsessive neurosis and time: incidences of social acceleration? (
  • incidences of social acceleration? (
  • The paper discusses the implications of obsessional neurosis, temporality, and social acceleration. (
  • We questioned about the reverberations of social acceleration in the psychic suffering of the obsessive in their complaints and symptoms related to hurry, to procrastination and to the superinvestment of thinking. (
  • Social Acceleration. (
  • Informed by theories on social acceleration and principles of constructivist grounded theory, 34 semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out. (
  • The acceleration of the vehicle in its current direction of motion is called a linear (or tangential during circular motions) acceleration, the reaction to which the passengers on board experience as a force pushing them back into their seats. (
  • Each of these accelerations (tangential, radial, deceleration) is felt by passengers until their relative (differential) velocity are neutralized in reference to the acceleration due to change in speed. (
  • If the speed of the vehicle decreases, this is an acceleration in the opposite direction of the velocity vector (mathematically a negative, if the movement is unidimensional and the velocity is positive), sometimes called deceleration or retardation, and passengers experience the reaction to deceleration as an inertial force pushing them forward. (
  • Both acceleration and deceleration are treated the same, as they are both changes in velocity. (
  • Following the "recognition" interval are the four pandemic intervals - "initiation," "acceleration," "deceleration" and "preparation. (
  • Within the pandemic intervals, the hypothetical number of influenza cases are normally distributed, where the greatest number of cases are located between the "acceleration" and "deceleration" intervals. (
  • Full acceleration means that if the accelerating event happens, 100% of unvested options are vested and the employee is fully vested. (
  • If you started your job last Wednesday, the board approved your options grant on Thursday with full acceleration, and the company was acquired on Friday, congratulations, you just vested 100% of your options….you are just as vested as Schmucky in Biz Dev who was employee number 2 and started 3 years and 10 months ago (although shmucky may of course have a larger total number of options than you). (
  • Do you think the shareholders (common and preferred) are going to be more excited about full acceleration or partial acceleration? (
  • Full acceleration dilutes the shareholders 15%, whereas partial acceleration only dilutes the shareholders…well, partially. (
  • Options holders and those negotiating their employment of course prefer full acceleration. (
  • The driver alleged that something in Tesla's system "triggered the sudden spontaneously full acceleration, resulting in this collision. (
  • Cache acceleration software was designed to use a relatively small capacity of very fast media, such as Intel® Optane™ SSDs, to modernize data center environments and accelerate storage performance. (
  • Intel® Optane™ SSDs can accelerate applications, reduce transaction costs, and improve overall data center TCO when absorbed into storage architectures via cache acceleration software. (
  • Acceleration in an options plan can cause vesting to accelerate based on some event, such as an acquisition. (
  • To accelerate the achievement of SDG 6 targets as part of the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework, UN-Water is developing SDG 6 Country Acceleration Case Studies to explore countries' pathways to achieving accelerated progress on SDG 6 at the national level. (
  • 1. In 2005, ministers of health adopted resolution AFR/RC55/R6 on acceleration of HIV prevention in the African Region, calling upon Member States to accelerate HIV prevention and declaring 2006 the Year of Acceleration of HIV Prevention in the African Region. (
  • Acceleration is one of several components of kinematics, the study of motion. (
  • Cache acceleration software (CAS) enables the implementation of media aware storage architectures through intelligent storage caching that effectively combines a layer of fast media and a lower-cost storage pool to deliver affordable, high performance storage. (
  • DPU-based Acceleration is a technology that enables offloading of networking and security functions from the application host server onto data processing units (DPUs) aka SmartNICs. (
  • This patch by kugel and me enables scrollwheel acceleration for the e200v2: fast wheel turning will cause lists to jump over items for fast scrolling. (
  • Students meeting qualifying criteria in grades K-7 can take advanced academic content in mathematics or English Language Arts through Single Subject Acceleration (SSA). (
  • This initial GPU acceleration support was largely focused on accelerating 3D transforms of objects -- just not videos, but all of the Silverlight content -- and other surfaces. (
  • Utilizing accelerators on the DPU to run network overlays, network acceleration, and load balancing enhances performance while maintaining proximity to applications and supporting operational features such as vMotion and DRS. (
  • Plasma acceleration is an innovative technology that is giving rise to a new generation of particle accelerators which are not only remarkably compact but also extremely versatile. (
  • Using this technique, plasma accelerators are able to achieve accelerations that are up to a thousand times higher than those of the most powerful machines in use today," adds Sören Jalas, author of the second paper. (
  • In summary, Homework Equations state that the total force (in the direction of the slope) is equal to the mass times the acceleration. (
  • This means the mass of the black hole likely determines the size of the acceleration zone. (
  • The collaboration has continued in 2018 when the Creative Tour was launched, an acceleration process for start-ups and entrepreneurs in the Scania region that are working towards a smarter society. (
  • A 2U high-density full-width Acceleration Module integrated with the Intel® Server Board D50TNP1SB intended to address acceleration solutions that support up to four 300 W PCIe* accelerator add-in cards. (
  • When changing direction, the effecting acceleration is called radial (or centripetal during circular motions) acceleration, the reaction to which the passengers experience as a centrifugal force. (
  • In this case it is said to be undergoing centripetal (directed towards the center) acceleration. (
  • The Barcamper study "Entrepreneurial Learning in Acceleration Programs" will appear in a special issue on Entrepreneurial Learning in The Learning Organization . (
  • This research is underway and will result in further studies of acceleration processes in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. (
  • What explains the differential rates of acceleration in our technology performance curves (computing, storage, bandwidth, energy production, etc.) as documented in Performance Curve Databases ? (
  • Common acceleration techniques rely directly on the knowledge of some of the regularity parameters in the problem at hand. (
  • DPU-based Acceleration provides the building blocks for a performant zero-trust solution, providing workload-infrastructure isolation, complete stateful L7 controls, advanced threat prevention, strong perimeter defenses, and granular micro-segmentation with a single solution that provides consistent policy and automation across virtualized, containerized, and bare metal workloads. (
  • Instantaneous acceleration, meanwhile, is the limit of the average acceleration over an infinitesimal interval of time. (
  • From "initiation" to "acceleration," the distribution curve of the hypothetical number of influenza cases greatly increases, showing the greatest number of hypothetical influenza cases at the end of the "acceleration" interval. (
  • The Management Acceleration Programme equips you with the relevant perspectives and skills to work effectively across functions and cultures. (
  • There's no recipe for acceleration that will work in every single instance. (
  • And sometimes acceleration won't work. (
  • How does DPU-based Acceleration work? (
  • Here is a new patch, it's compiling again (old patch didn't work since r20757), has a little faster acceleration and is more simple. (
  • This book provides the reader with an in-depth description of the developments in Acceleration Methods since the early 2000s, whilst referring the reader back to underpinning earlier work for further understanding. (
  • Pushed into Moonlight's Git repository today is more GPU acceleration work, but this time focusing upon optimizing Moonlight's engine for video rendering operations. (
  • This article explores how the acceleration of social time shapes the everyday work of museum and library professionals in Estonia and Sweden. (
  • The 'symptoms' of the acceleration of social time create several temporal tensions in organizations, therefore, various tactics can be applied to cope with the time-related issues in work. (
  • In the post, Uro says web developers actually have to enable GPU acceleration manually in the code. (
  • The DPU-based Acceleration for VMware NSX solution supports leading server and DPU vendors. (
  • For one thing, the general definition of acceleration doesn't apply here: It doesn't mean going faster. (
  • that is, the area under the curve of an acceleration vs. time (a vs. t) graph corresponds to the change of velocity. (
  • Likewise, the integral of the jerk function j(t), the derivative of the acceleration function, can be used to find the change of acceleration at a certain time: Δ a = ∫ j d t . {\displaystyle \mathbf {\Delta a} =\int \mathbf {j} \,dt. (
  • Acceleration has the dimensions of velocity (L/T) divided by time, i.e. (
  • One of the best known uses of WAN Acceleration is the reduction of response time for users accessing files or applications on servers in a central datacenter. (
  • As the enterprise describes its situation, SWAN generates a map in real-time showing the company requirements across 5 key axes Business Application Acceleration, User Experience Guarantees, Slashing Network Costs, Simplification of Network Operations and WAN Governance. (
  • We further cover proximal acceleration, at the heart of the Catalyst and Accelerated Hybrid Proximal Extragradient frameworks, using similar algorithmic patterns. (
  • Anchored on our assessment center methodology, Acceleration Centers ® experiences can include exercises such as immersive day-in-the-life simulations, tests, and interviews, followed by executive coaching and leadership development opportunities. (
  • Use of accelerometers as an ergonom ic assessment method for arm acceleration - a large-scale field trial. (
  • If the vehicle turns, an acceleration occurs toward the new direction and changes its motion vector. (
  • As expected, the linear acceleration data obtained from the activity monitor showed statistically significant differences between three occupational groups known observationally to have different upper limb motion requirements. (
  • Several observation-based ergonom ic exposure measures were found to explain differences in the acceleration measure among the production employees who performed different jobs: hand and arm motion speed, use of the hand as a hammer, and, negatively, resisting forearm rotation from the torque of a power tool. (
  • The activity monitors were found to be easy to use and non-intrusive, and to be able to distinguish arm acceleration among groups with diverse upper limb motion characteristics as well as between different assembly job tasks where arm monitors were performed repeatedly at a fixed rate. (
  • Research advances of nanomaterials for the acceleration of fracture healing. (
  • AI Acceleration Suite has solutions for developers and non-developers alike to build personalized, AI-driven customer experiences. (
  • Miguel de Icaza, David Reveman, and their Novell team working on Mono/Moonlight began working on GPU acceleration support. (
  • The resolution also requested the Regional Director to develop a strategy for acceleration of HIV prevention, provide the necessary technical support to countries, help mobilize additional resources and monitor implementation. (
  • These questions have been in focus in an ongoing collaboration between academic researchers and the organizers of the Barcamper journey, an acceleration process launched in 2017 aimed at boosting start-ups and entrepreneurs within cultural and creative sectors in southern Sweden. (
  • The APFSD Secretariat is organising an SDG Acceleration Pavilion for ESCAP Member States, UN agencies, international organisations and representatives from major groups and other stakeholders* from the Asia-Pacific region to showcase their initiatives and solutions for accelerating SDG implementation in the Asia-Pacific region. (
  • Peterson's slide shows four browsers, five video rendering engines and five 2D graphics acceleration standards. (
  • Watch the team's record-setting acceleration in the video player above. (
  • Video acceleration nowadays means offload of the actual video decoding. (
  • It's fantastic to see the speed with which the new technology of plasma acceleration is reaching a level of maturity where it can be used in a wide range of applications," congratulates Wim Leemans, Director of the Accelerator Division at DESY. (
  • DPU-based Acceleration leverages granular network segmentation to isolate devices and applications and prevent attacks from communicating with other parts of the network. (
  • DPU-based Acceleration for NSX runs networking and security services on Data Processing Units connected to hosts, offering superior networking and security performance along with comprehensive observability and reduced costs. (
  • DPU-based Acceleration for NSX offers high performance networking and security implemented on DPUs connected to the hosts. (
  • However, this compactness is both a curse and a blessing: since the acceleration process is concentrated in a tiny space that is up to 1000 times smaller than conventional, large-scale machines, the acceleration takes place under truly extreme conditions. (
  • Vonage AI Acceleration Suite offers integrated no-code/low-code solutions to simplify the process. (
  • The researchers followed the acceleration process and conducted multiple interviews with entrepreneurs, coaches and investors, complemented with participatory observations and secondary sources of data. (
  • At this year's Sogeti Executive Summit, you will be able to meet our Acceleration Experts who will present our most innovative solutions to help you speed up your business. (
  • Participation in the Twilio Acceleration Program (" Program ") is subject to the terms set forth on the Twilio Build Partner Program site located at . (
  • DDI's Acceleration Center ® experience provides powerful insights and ignites growth for leaders. (
  • An Acceleration Center experience can be in person or virtual. (
  • The Acceleration Center experience is designed to give the participant a realistic "day in the life" of an executive-level leader. (
  • WAN Acceleration can play a key role in making sure the network meets its objective of ensuring productivity across the organization. (
  • In DPU-based Acceleration for NSX, the data plane functions are completely offloaded to the DPU. (
  • Plus, AI Studio integrates with your CRM, customer data, and other products in the Acceleration Suite. (
  • If you have already spent some years working as a high-performing functional expert and are ready to move forward in your career, then the Management Acceleration Programme is for you. (
  • The widely varying testing methodologies mean that, even between identical motorcycles, the acceleration times vary. (
  • We'll start with full vs. partial acceleration. (
  • These methods are covered in detail and include Chebyshev Acceleration, Nonlinear Acceleration, Nesterov Acceleration, Proximal Acceleration and Catalysts and Restart Schemes. (
  • So says a recently published paper by Port80 Software, a maker of Web acceleration technologies. (
  • Students in Switzerland celebrate with the car that broke the world record for 0-100 km/h acceleration by an electric car. (
  • Students at two Swiss universities got together, built a vehicle and smashed the world record for acceleration by an electric car. (

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