Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Deceleration: A decrease in the rate of speed.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Hypergravity: Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.Coriolis Force: The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Accelerometry: Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Recorded electrical responses from muscles, especially the neck muscles or muscles around the eyes, following stimulation of the EAR VESTIBULE.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome: An occupational disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to vibration, affecting the fingers, hands, and forearms. It occurs in workers who regularly use vibrating tools such as jackhammers, power chain saws, riveters, etc. Symptoms include episodic finger blanching, NUMBNESS, tingling, and loss of nerve sensitivity.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)LizardsEquipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.WingMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ovum Transport: Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Mice, Inbred C57BLMicro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Gravity, Altered: A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ribosome Subunits: The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
(1/829) Visual motion analysis for pursuit eye movements in area MT of macaque monkeys.

We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of dynamics normally seen during smooth pursuit eye movements. When the target motion provided steps of target speed, MT neurons showed a continuum from purely tonic responses to those with large transient pulses of firing at the onset of motion. Cells with large transient responses for steps of target speed also had larger responses for smooth accelerations than for decelerations through the same range of target speeds. Condition-test experiments with pairs of 64 msec pulses of target speed revealed response attenuation at short interpulse intervals in cells with large transient responses. For sinusoidal modulation of target speed, MT neuron responses were strongly modulated for frequencies up to, but not higher than, 8 Hz. The phase of the responses was consistent with a 90 msec time delay between target velocity and firing rate. We created a model that reproduced the dynamic responses of MT cells using divisive gain control, used the model to visualize the population response in MT to individual stimuli, and devised weighted-averaging computations to reconstruct target speed and acceleration from the population response. Target speed could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to its preferred speed. Target acceleration could be reconstructed if each neuron's output was weighted according to the product of preferred speed and a measure of the size of its transient response.  (+info)

(2/829) Velocity associated characteristics of force production in college weight lifters.

OBJECTIVE: To determine velocity specific isokinetic forces and cross sectional areas of reciprocal muscle groups in Olympic weight lifters. METHODS: The cross sectional area of the flexor or extensor muscles of the elbow or knee joint was determined by a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus in 34 college weight lifters and 31 untrained male subjects matched for age. Maximum voluntary force produced in the flexion and extension of the elbow and knee joints was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300 degrees/s. RESULTS: The average cross sectional area was 31-65% higher, and the force was 19-62% higher in weight lifters than in the untrained subjects. The ratio of force to cross sectional area was the same in both groups. The weight lifters showed a lower velocity associated decline in force than untrained subjects in the elbow and knee flexors but not in the extensors. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that for muscle contractions with velocities between 60 degrees/s and 300 degrees/s the difference in isokinetic force between weight lifters and untrained subjects can be primarily attributed to the difference in the muscle cross sectional area. However, the lower velocity associated decline in force implies that weight lifters may have a higher force per cross sectional area than untrained subjects at velocities above 300 degrees/s.  (+info)

(3/829) Effects of tilt of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector on the angular vestibuloocular reflex during centrifugation.

Effects of tilt of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector on the angular vestibuloocular reflex during centrifugation. Interaction of the horizontal linear and angular vestibuloocular reflexes (lVOR and aVOR) was studied in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys during centered rotation and off-center rotation at a constant velocity (centrifugation). During centered rotation, the eye velocity vector was aligned with the axis of rotation, which was coincident with the direction of gravity. Facing and back to motion centrifugation tilted the resultant of gravity and linear acceleration, gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), inducing cross-coupled vertical components of eye velocity. These components were upward when facing motion and downward when back to motion and caused the axis of eye velocity to reorient from alignment with the body yaw axis toward the tilted GIA. A major finding was that horizontal time constants were asymmetric in each monkey, generally being longer when associated with downward than upward cross coupling. Because of these asymmetries, accurate estimates of the contribution of the horizontal lVOR could not be obtained by simply subtracting horizontal eye velocity profiles during facing and back to motion centrifugation. Instead, it was necessary to consider the effects of GIA tilts on velocity storage before attempting to estimate the horizontal lVOR. In each monkey, the horizontal time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) was reduced as a function of increasing head tilt with respect to gravity. When variations in horizontal time constant as a function of GIA tilt were included in the aVOR model, the rising and falling phases of horizontal eye velocity during facing and back to motion centrifugation were closely predicted, and the estimated contribution of the compensatory lVOR was negligible. Beating fields of horizontal eye position were unaffected by the presence or magnitude of linear acceleration during centrifugation. These conclusions were evaluated in animals in which the low-frequency aVOR was abolished by canal plugging, isolating the contribution of the lVOR. Postoperatively, the animals had normal ocular counterrolling and horizontal eye velocity modulation during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), suggesting that the otoliths were intact. No measurable horizontal eye velocity was elicited by centrifugation with angular accelerations +info)

(4/829) Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations.

Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations. The effect of vertical eye-in-head position on the compensatory eye rotation response to passive and active high acceleration yaw head rotations was examined in eight normal human subjects. The stimuli consisted of brief, low amplitude (15-25 degrees ), high acceleration (4,000-6,000 degrees /s2) yaw head rotations with respect to the trunk (peak velocity was 150-350 degrees /s). Eye and head rotations were recorded in three-dimensional space using the magnetic search coil technique. The input-output kinematics of the three-dimensional vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) were assessed by finding the difference between the inverted eye velocity vector and the head velocity vector (both referenced to a head-fixed coordinate system) as a time series. During passive head impulses, the head and eye velocity axes aligned well with each other for the first 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus, regardless of vertical eye-in-head position. After the initial 47-ms period, the degree of alignment of the eye and head velocity axes was modulated by vertical eye-in-head position. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye and head velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. However, when fixation was on targets at 0 and 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward relative to the head velocity axis. During active head impulses, the axis tilt became apparent within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. When fixation was on a target at 0 degrees, the velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye velocity axis tilted backward, when fixation was on a target 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward. The findings show that the VOR compensates very well for head motion in the early part of the response to unpredictable high acceleration stimuli-the eye position- dependence of the VOR does not become apparent until 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus. In contrast, the response to active high acceleration stimuli shows eye position-dependence from within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. A model using a VOR-Listing's law compromise strategy did not accurately predict the patterns observed in the data, raising questions about how the eye position-dependence of the VOR is generated. We suggest, in view of recent findings, that the phenomenon could arise due to the effects of fibromuscular pulleys on the functional pulling directions of the rectus muscles.  (+info)

(5/829) Cervical electromyographic activity during low-speed rear impact.

Whiplash motion of the neck is characterized by having an extension-flexion motion of the neck. It has been previously assumed that muscles do not play a role in the injury. Eight healthy males were seated in a car seat mounted on a sled. The sled was accelerated by a spring mechanism. Muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured by wire electrodes in semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and levator scapulae. Surface EMG activity was measured over trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus. Wavelet analysis was used to establish the onset of muscle activity with respect to sled movement. Shorter reaction times were found to be as low as 13.2 ms from head acceleration and 65.6 ms from sled acceleration. Thus the muscles could influence the injury pattern. It is of interest that clinical symptoms are often attributed to muscle tendon injuries.  (+info)

(6/829) Transformations in flagellar structure of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and possible relationship to changes in swimming speed.

Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a photosynthetic bacterium which swims by rotating a single flagellum in one direction, periodically stopping, and reorienting during these stops. Free-swimming R. sphaeroides was examined by both differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which allows the flagella of swimming cells to be seen in vivo, and tracking microscopy, which tracks swimming patterns in three dimensions. DIC microscopy showed that when rotation stopped, the helical flagellum relaxed into a high-amplitude, short-wavelength coiled form, confirming previous observations. However, DIC microscopy also revealed that the coiled filament could rotate slowly, reorienting the cell before a transition back to the functional helix. The time taken to reform a functional helix depended on the rate of rotation of the helix and the length of the filament. In addition to these coiled and helical forms, a third conformation was observed: a rapidly rotating, apparently straight form. This form took shape from the cell body out and was seen to form directly from flagella that were initially in either the coiled or the helical conformation. This form was always significantly longer than the coiled or helical form from which it was derived. The resolution of DIC microscopy made it impossible to identify whether this form was genuinely in a straight conformation or was a low-amplitude, long-wavelength helix. Examination of the three-dimensional swimming pattern showed that R. sphaeroides changed speed while swimming, sometimes doubling the swimming speed between stops. The rate of acceleration out of stops was also variable. The transformations in waveform are assumed to be torsionally driven and may be related to the changes in speed measured in free-swimming cells. The roles of and mechanisms that may be involved in the transformations of filament conformations and changes in swimming speed are discussed.  (+info)

(7/829) Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. I. Normal responses.

The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in five squirrel monkeys with intact vestibular function. The VOR evoked by steps of acceleration in darkness (3,000 degrees /s(2) reaching a velocity of 150 degrees /s) began after a latency of 7.3 +/- 1.5 ms (mean +/- SD). Gain of the reflex during the acceleration was 14.2 +/- 5.2% greater than that measured once the plateau head velocity had been reached. A polynomial regression was used to analyze the trajectory of the responses to steps of acceleration. A better representation of the data was obtained from a polynomial that included a cubic term in contrast to an exclusively linear fit. For sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz with a peak velocity of 20 degrees /s, the VOR gain measured 0.83 +/- 0.06 and did not vary across frequencies or animals. The phase of these responses was close to compensatory except at 15 Hz where a lag of 5.0 +/- 0.9 degrees was noted. The VOR gain did not vary with head velocity at 0.5 Hz but increased with velocity for rotations at frequencies of >/=4 Hz (0. 85 +/- 0.04 at 4 Hz, 20 degrees /s; 1.01 +/- 0.05 at 100 degrees /s, P < 0.0001). No responses to these rotations were noted in two animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy indicating that inertia of the eye had a negligible effect for these stimuli. We developed a mathematical model of VOR dynamics to account for these findings. The inputs to the reflex come from linear and nonlinear pathways. The linear pathway is responsible for the constant gain across frequencies at peak head velocity of 20 degrees /s and also for the phase lag at higher frequencies being less than that expected based on the reflex delay. The frequency- and velocity-dependent nonlinearity in VOR gain is accounted for by the dynamics of the nonlinear pathway. A transfer function that increases the gain of this pathway with frequency and a term related to the third power of head velocity are used to represent the dynamics of this pathway. This model accounts for the experimental findings and provides a method for interpreting responses to these stimuli after vestibular lesions.  (+info)

(8/829) Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. II. Responses after canal plugging.

The horizontal angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evoked by high-frequency, high-acceleration rotations was studied in four squirrel monkeys after unilateral plugging of the three semicircular canals. During the period (1-4 days) that animals were kept in darkness after plugging, the gain during steps of acceleration (3, 000 degrees /s(2), peak velocity = 150 degrees /s) was 0.61 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SD) for contralesional rotations and 0.33 +/- 0.03 for ipsilesional rotations. Within 18-24 h after animals were returned to light, the VOR gain for contralesional rotations increased to 0. 88 +/- 0.05, whereas there was only a slight increase in the gain for ipsilesional rotations to 0.37 +/- 0.07. A symmetrical increase in the gain measured at the plateau of head velocity was noted after animals were returned to light. The latency of the VOR was 8.2 +/- 0. 4 ms for ipsilesional and 7.1 +/- 0.3 ms for contralesional rotations. The VOR evoked by sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz, +/-20 degrees /s had no significant half-cycle asymmetries. The recovery of gain for these responses after plugging was greater at lower than at higher frequencies. Responses to rotations at higher velocities for frequencies >/=4 Hz showed an increase in contralesional half-cycle gain, whereas ipsilesional half-cycle gain was unchanged. A residual response that appeared to be canal and not otolith mediated was noted after plugging of all six semicircular canals. This response increased with frequency to reach a gain of 0.23 +/- 0.03 at 15 Hz, resembling that predicted based on a reduction of the dominant time constant of the canal to 32 ms after plugging. A model incorporating linear and nonlinear pathways was used to simulate the data. The coefficients of this model were determined from data in animals with intact vestibular function. Selective increases in the gain for the linear and nonlinear pathways predicted the changes in recovery observed after canal plugging. An increase in gain of the linear pathway accounted for the recovery in VOR gain for both responses at the velocity plateau of the steps of acceleration and for the sinusoidal rotations at lower peak velocities. The increase in gain for contralesional responses to steps of acceleration and sinusoidal rotations at higher frequencies and velocities was due to an increase in the gain of the nonlinear pathway. This pathway was driven into inhibitory cutoff at low velocities and therefore made no contribution for rotations toward the ipsilesional side.  (+info)

*  Fin and flipper locomotion
Caudal fin shape modulation and control during acceleration, braking and backing maneuvers in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis ... which enable fish to exhibit such complex maneuvers such as control during acceleration, braking and backing. Studies have ...
*  Ambling gait
Known for its explosive acceleration and speed, it is also comfortable and ground-covering. There is considerable variation in ...
*  Acceleration
Vintage ISBN 0-375-72720-5 Acceleration Calculator Simple acceleration unit converter Measurespeed.com - Acceleration ... These components are called the tangential acceleration and the normal or radial acceleration (or centripetal acceleration in ... Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time. An object's acceleration is the ... This acceleration is a radial acceleration since it is always directed toward the centre of the circle and takes the magnitude ...
*  Academic acceleration
... comes in all shapes and sizes. One influential study has defined 18 forms of academic acceleration. In ... Research has provided no evidence of social or emotional maladjustment due to acceleration. Academic acceleration contributes ... administrators and parents being skeptical of the benefits of acceleration. Adults who have experienced acceleration themselves ... This form of acceleration poses fewer obstacles than others, as places the student in a peer group with whom the student is ...
*  Acceleration voltage
The longitudinal effective acceleration voltage is given by the kinetic energy gain experienced by a particle with velocity β c ... For the special case of an electrostatic field that is surpassed by a particle, the acceleration voltage is directly given by ... If not specified further, the term is likely to refer to the longitudinal effective acceleration voltage V ∥ {\displaystyle V ... In accelerator physics, the term acceleration voltage means the effective voltage surpassed by a charged particle along a ...
*  Plasma acceleration
laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA): A laser pulse is introduced to form an electron plasma wave. laser beat-wave acceleration ... The advantage of plasma acceleration is that its acceleration field can be much stronger than that of conventional radio- ... The acceleration gradient for a linear plasma wave is: E = c ⋅ m e ⋅ n e ε 0 . {\displaystyle E=c\cdot {\sqrt {\frac {m_{e}\ ... Plasma acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons, and ions, using the ...
*  Acceleration test
This constant acceleration level must be reached within 50ms. During the test the sides of the pallet load are not supported, ... An acceleration test is designed to quantify the rigidity of palletized goods subject to horizontal inertial forces. The test ... Most often an acceleration level of 0.5 gravities is used according to legislation in most countries. Eumos 40509 includes ... A test pallet is put on a loading platform that is accelerated at a constant acceleration for 0.3 seconds or longer. ...
*  Cognitive acceleration
... or CA is an approach to teaching designed to develop students' thinking ability, developed by Michael ... London: Routledge Adey, P. (Ed.) (2008, forthcoming). Let's Think! Handbook: A Guide to Cognitive Acceleration in the Primary ... The first teaching materials, written for Years 7 and 8 (ages 11-13) science lessons, were called Cognitive Acceleration ... "King's College London - Cognitive Acceleration (CASE and other projects)". 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012. Adey, P. S..(1993). ...
*  Acceleration 2014
However, Acceleration in Zolder, Acceleration at Paul Ricard, and Acceleration at Grobnik were cancelled on 27 June 2014 and ... "Welcome to Acceleration , Acceleration". Acceleration14.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17. "Acceleration 2014 verkrijgt FIA goedkeuring ... Acceleration 2014 was a multi-day festival combining top class car and bike racing with live music and other entertainment. The ... "Acceleration: 15 coureurs testen in MW-V6 Pickups op Zandvoort". Autosport.nl. Retrieved 2014-05-17. Official website. ...
*  Angular acceleration
Above relationship indicates that, unlike the relationship between force and acceleration, the angular acceleration need not be ... The angular acceleration of a point particle α can be connected to the applied torque τ by the following equation: I α = τ − 2 ... Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity. In three dimensions, it is a pseudovector. In SI units, it is ... Torque Angular momentum Angular speed Angular velocity "Angular Velocity and Acceleration". Theory.uwinnipeg.ca. Retrieved 2015 ...
*  Acceleration clause
An acceleration clause -or acceleration covenant- in the law of contracts, is a term that fully matures the performance due ... Promissory Note - Installment - With Acceleration Clause Acceleration Clause (Investorwords.com). ... If A makes the first two payments, but fails to make the third payment, an acceleration clause would require that A must ... A sample acceleration clause reads like this: In the event of default in the payment of any of the said installments or said ...
*  Sales acceleration
... what-is-sales-acceleration-new-research-highlights-sales-acceleration-tools-technologies-market-size-and-top-sales-acceleration ... Sales acceleration refers to the process of increasing a sales team's velocity. This can be achieved via a better process, a ...
*  Gravitational acceleration
There is no gravitational acceleration, in that the proper acceleration and hence four-acceleration of objects in free fall are ... In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation. Neglecting friction ... The barycentric gravitational acceleration at a point in space is given by: g = − G M r 2 r ^ {\displaystyle \mathbf {g} =-{GM ... For example, the equation above gives the acceleration at 9.820 m/s2, when GM = 3.986×1014 m3/s2, and R=6.371×106 m. The ...
*  Proper acceleration
In relativity theory, proper acceleration is the physical acceleration (i.e., measurable acceleration as by an accelerometer) ... Proper acceleration reduces to coordinate acceleration in an inertial coordinate system in flat spacetime (i.e. in the absence ... The "acceleration of gravity" ("force of gravity") never contributes to proper acceleration in any circumstances, and thus the ... Proper acceleration contrasts with coordinate acceleration, which is dependent on choice of coordinate systems and thus upon ...
*  CODEC Acceleration
Video codec acceleration is where video (usually including audio as well) encoding and decoding is accelerated in hardware. ... Audio codec acceleration is where audio encoding and decoding is accelerated in hardware. iDCT Motion Compensation DCT ... Codec Acceleration describes computer hardware that offloads the computationally intensive compression or decompression. This ... and similar acceleration is used on a broad variety of other appliances and computers for similar reasons. What could take a ...
*  Fermi acceleration
... , sometimes referred to as diffusive shock acceleration (a subclass of Fermi acceleration ), is the ... There are two types of Fermi acceleration: first-order Fermi acceleration (in shocks) and second-order Fermi acceleration (in ... David Darling's article on Fermi acceleration Rieger, Bosch-Ramon and Duffy: Fermi acceleration in astrophysical jets. ... Second order Fermi Acceleration relates to the amount of energy gained during the motion of a charged particle in the presence ...
*  Series acceleration
... techniques may also be used, for example, to obtain a variety of identities on special functions. Thus, the ... Techniques for series acceleration are often applied in numerical analysis, where they are used to improve the speed of ... In mathematics, series acceleration is one of a collection of sequence transformations for improving the rate of convergence of ... Two classical techniques for series acceleration are Euler's transformation of series and Kummer's transformation of series. A ...
*  Acceleration (disambiguation)
Acceleration, in physics, is the rate at which the velocity of a body changes over time. Acceleration may also refer to: ... in developmental biology Academic acceleration, the rapid advancement of students Cardiotocographic acceleration, an apparent ... Acceleration (differential geometry), the rate of change of velocity of a curve with respect to a given linear connection ... usually controlled by a throttle such as an accelerator pedal in a car The sensation of a change in speed Series acceleration, ...
*  Acceleration (album)
Acceleration is the first full-length album by Norwegian avant-garde progressive metal band Age of Silence. It was released on ... "Auditorium of Modern Movements" (Winter, Lazare) - 3:36 "Acceleration" (Winter, Lazare) - 4:30 "The Concept of Hate" (Winter, ...
*  Hardware acceleration
Examples of hardware acceleration include Bit blit acceleration functionality in graphics processing units (GPUs) and regular ... In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible ... The hardware that performs the acceleration, when in a separate unit from the CPU, is referred to as a hardware accelerator, or ... Hardware acceleration is suitable for any repetitive, intensive key algorithm. Depending upon granularity, hardware ...
*  Planck acceleration
... tP is the Planck time and g is the standard acceleration of gravity. The Planck acceleration is the highest acceleration ... The Planck acceleration is the acceleration from zero speed to the speed of light during one Planck time. It is a derived unit ... One event where the Planck acceleration was possibly reached was the Big Bang, in regard to the acceleration of the expanding ... thereby achieving a Planck acceleration. In other words, nothing higher than the Planck acceleration can be measured, since ...
*  Spatial acceleration
The spatial acceleration ψ → P {\displaystyle {\vec {\psi }}_{P}} at P is expressed in terms of the spatial acceleration ψ → C ... This is similar to the acceleration definition fluid dynamics where typically one can measure velocity and/or accelerations on ... The author also chooses to use spatial accelerations extensively in place of material accelerations as they simplify the ... The material acceleration at P is: a → P = d v → P d t {\displaystyle {\vec {a}}_{P}={\frac {{\rm {d}}{\vec {v}}_{P}}{{\rm {d}} ...
*  TCP acceleration
XipLink SCPS based TCP Acceleration SuperTCP TCP Acceleration TCP tuning TCP congestion avoidance algorithm. ... Asymmetric TCP acceleration implies the WAN-side protocol has to be TCP of the same 5-tuples and states. The implementations ... TCP acceleration is the name of a series of techniques for achieving better throughput on a network connection than standard ... The acceleration node splits the feedback loop between the sender and the receiver and thus guarantees a shorter round trip ...
*  Particle acceleration
... the particle acceleration or sound acceleration with the symbol a in metre/second2. In acoustics or physics, acceleration ( ... One common unit of acceleration is g-force, one g being the acceleration caused by the gravity of Earth. In classical mechanics ... Acceleration is defined technically as "the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time" and is given by the ... For this centripetal acceleration we have a = − v 2 r r r = − ω 2 r {\displaystyle \mathbf {a} =-{\frac {v^{2}}{r}}{\frac {\ ...
*  Mortgage acceleration
In addition, acceleration may refer to a clause in a mortgage note (See Acceleration clause) that allows the mortgage holder to ... Mortgage acceleration is the practice of paying off a mortgage loan faster than required by terms of the mortgage agreement. As ... A commonplace method of mortgage acceleration is a so-called bi-weekly payment plan, in which half of the normal calendar ... and home equity line of credit loan facilities advertised as being capable of assisting in achieving mortgage acceleration, and ...
3aSA11. Relationship of weighted acceleration levels between the ground surface and the floors of a wooden house.  3aSA11. Relationship of weighted acceleration levels between the ground surface and the floors of a wooden house.
Relationship of weighted acceleration levels between the ground surface and the floors of a wooden house.. Session: Wednesday ... This value is a median value of the difference of magnitude of vertically frequency-weighted acceleration between the second ...
more infohttp://www.auditory.org/asamtgs/asa96haw/3aSA/3aSA11.html
Series acceleration - Wikipedia  Series acceleration - Wikipedia
Techniques for series acceleration are often applied in numerical analysis, where they are used to improve the speed of ... Series acceleration techniques may also be used, for example, to obtain a variety of identities on special functions. Thus, the ... In mathematics, series acceleration is one of a collection of sequence transformations for improving the rate of convergence of ... Two classical techniques for series acceleration are Euler's transformation of series[1] and Kummer's transformation of series. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergence_acceleration
Customer acquisition acceleration | Adobe  Customer acquisition acceleration | Adobe
Adobe acquisition acceleration helps you to create and enrich high lifetime value audience segment, and deliver dynamic offers ... Acquisition acceleration is the ability to engage high-value customers at a faster pace and a lower cost, no matter where they ...
more infohttp://www.adobe.com/hr/experience-cloud/use-cases/customer-acquisition-acceleration.html
Customer acquisition acceleration | Adobe  Customer acquisition acceleration | Adobe
Adobe acquisition acceleration helps you to create and enrich high lifetime value audience segment, and deliver dynamic offers ... Acquisition acceleration is the ability to engage high-value customers at a faster pace and a lower cost, no matter where they ...
more infohttps://www.adobe.com/africa/experience-cloud/use-cases/customer-acquisition-acceleration.html
Portfolio Acceleration Consulting  Portfolio Acceleration Consulting
Portfolio Acceleration. Making savvy investment decisions is no longer enough. Successful financial sponsors must have a clear ...
more infohttps://www.bcg.com/en-nl/industries/principal-investors-private-equity/portfolio-acceleration.aspx
Intel® I/O Acceleration Technology  Intel® I/O Acceleration Technology
I/O Acceleration Technology, a component of Intel® Virtualization Technology for Connectivity, improves data flow and system ... I/O Acceleration for Consolidated Workloads. Server consolidation requires large numbers of virtual machines (VMs) per physical ... Intel® I/O Acceleration Technology (Intel® I/OAT), a component of Intel® Virtualization Technology for Connectivity, improves ... The features of Intel I/OAT enhance data acceleration across the computing platform. ...
more infohttps://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/wireless-network/accel-technology.html?eu-cookie-notice
Acceleration  Acceleration
Information for Alliance Promotion chipset users : Acceleration. Previous: Support chipsets. Next: DGA 2. Acceleration. The apm ... Information for Alliance Promotion chipset users : Acceleration. Previous: Support chipsets. Next: DGA ... driver uses the XAA (XFree86 Acceleration Architecture) in the SVGA server. It has support for the following acceleration:. * ...
more infohttp://www.xfree86.org/4.4.0/apm2.html
Acceleration  Acceleration
Information for Alliance Promotion chipset users : Acceleration. Previous: Support chipsets. Next: DGA 2. Acceleration. The apm ... Information for Alliance Promotion chipset users : Acceleration. Previous: Support chipsets. Next: DGA ... driver uses the XAA (XFree86 Acceleration Architecture) in the SVGA server. It has support for the following acceleration:. * ...
more infohttp://www.xfree86.org/4.1.0/apm2.html
Business Acceleration System Events | Eventbrite  Business Acceleration System Events | Eventbrite
Check out Business Acceleration System's events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... Business Acceleration System is using Eventbrite to organize 1 upcoming events. ...
more infohttps://www.eventbrite.com/o/business-acceleration-system-2343641450
FineGround Acceleration Software Supports WebSphere  FineGround Acceleration Software Supports WebSphere
FineGround Networks announces that its patent-pending application acceleration software platform, the Condenser, will support ... FineGround Acceleration Software Supports WebSphere By: Darryl K. Taft , May 07, 2002 ... The Campbell, Calif., company focuses on enterprise Web application acceleration.. "Our approach is a bit different from other ... on Tuesday announced that its patent-pending application acceleration software platform, the Condenser, will support the IBM ...
more infohttp://www.eweek.com/development/fineground-acceleration-software-supports-websphere
Four-acceleration - Wikiversity  Four-acceleration - Wikiversity
of the acceleration field ∇. ν. ∇. ν. U. μ. +. R. μ. ν. U. ν. =. 4. π. η. c. 2. J. μ. ,. {\displaystyle ~\nabla ^{\nu }\nabla ... For the four-acceleration components the following is then obtained: A. 0. =. u. 0. c. d. u. 0. d. t. +. Γ. μ. ν. 0. u. μ. u. ν ... is needed to determine the four-acceleration with a covariant index: A. ν. =. g. ν. λ. A. λ. =. D. u. ν. D. τ. =. u. μ. ∇. μ. u ... as the components of the acceleration tensor u. μ. ν. {\displaystyle ~u_{\mu \nu }}. : ∇. σ. u. μ. ν. +. ∇. μ. u. ν. σ. +. ∇. ν ...
more infohttps://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Four-acceleration
Intel® Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS)  Intel® Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS)
Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS) caches frequently accessed data to improve server application performance. ... Intel® Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS) software is licensed per SSD and includes one year of standard support. Intel® ... Intel® Cache Acceleration Software (Intel® CAS) installs in moments. Whether you are using VMs or dedicated servers, you will ... They got it by deploying Intel® Cache Acceleration Software (CAS) 3.0 on the Intel® SSD data center family for PCIe* in their ...
more infohttps://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/software/intel-cache-acceleration-software-performance.html
Mouse acceleration - ArchWiki  Mouse acceleration - ArchWiki
xset m ACCELERATION THRESHOLD where ACCELERATION defines how many times faster the cursor will move than the default speed, ... Disabling mouse acceleration. Mouse acceleration has changed dramatically in recent X server versions; using xset. to disable ... ACCELERATION can be a fraction, so if you want to slow down the mouse you can use 1/2, and if 3 is slightly too fast, but 2 is ... Setting mouse acceleration. In xorg configuration. See man xorg.conf. for details. ...
more infohttps://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php?title=Mouse_acceleration&direction=next&oldid=235988
3D Acceleration problems  3D Acceleration problems
I am not getting any 3D acceleration. I have the right driver i think because my system recognized it.. ... 3d Acceleration/OpenGL Problems in Suse 9.3 suse123456789. SUSE / openSUSE. 6. 07-16-2005 10:26 PM. ... 3D Acceleration problems (nVidia) Mcthings. SUSE / openSUSE. 5. 09-13-2005 11:33 AM. ... Rage 128 Pro 3D Acceleration problems mc_03. Linux - Hardware. 0. 05-27-2004 10:13 PM. ...
more infohttps://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-newbie-8/3d-acceleration-problems-295649/
Acceleration with Palladium XP
	  Acceleration with Palladium XP
Topics may include preparing a design for acceleration, improving simulation acceleration performance, creating synthesizable ... testbenches, an introduction to transaction-based and UVM acceleration, and design debugging using Palladium XP I/II. This ... transaction-based acceleration, UVM acceleration, and synthesizable testbench acceleration. ... Topics may include preparing a design for acceleration, improving simulation acceleration performance, creating synthesizable ...
more infohttps://www.cadence.com/content/cadence-www/global/zh_CN/home/training/all-courses/86165.html
acceleration  acceleration
Post Tagged with: "acceleration" Read By Acura Alfa Romeo Aston Martin Audi Bentley BMW Bugati Buick Cadillac Caterharm ... Woman confuses acceleration for brake, gets on top of a Porsche 911. By Cristian Gnaticov May 13, 2015. Car crashes, News, ... An acceleration test between the Audi R8 V10 Plus and the Mercedes-AMG GT S is proving once again that we have the winner on ... VIDEO] Audi RS Q3 - 0-100 km/h acceleration. By Cristian Gnaticov December 4, 2014. Audi, News, Videos ...
more infohttp://www.inautonews.com/tag/acceleration
Nate Chinen | Movement, Acceleration  Nate Chinen | Movement, Acceleration
a. Trenton nothing to hold. nowhere to go. this is Trenton -- on the platform, a father smokes with his two teenage daughters, both girls trying not to look impossibly young -- heavy Eagles jackets, silver hoop earrings, ponytails peeking through matching baseball caps. In Trenton, Christmas has come and gone. snow sits heavy over this city -- rowhouses and water towers flash by, gaunt and awkward. we lurch forward. the tracks stretch on this way for miles. b. Bristol = quiet dull metal scraps jut from the snow like scabs a blank high school football field a penitentiary the Grundy Industrial & Office Complex stretches like Babel into the ashen sky at the post office, an american flag hangs, tattered, from its pole UNHAPPY WITH THAT CAR YOUR DRIVING? Go to Northeast Lincoln Mercury. c. Croyden the train kicks up snowpuff and the sun emerges, cold and dizzyingly bright. on the cracked wooden platform, one patient woman, icecaked boots and the Zober Development Co. smokestacks coughing soot that ...
more infohttp://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/xconnect/v3/i3/t/chinen.html
Management Acceleration Programme  Management Acceleration Programme
The coaching process on the Management Acceleration Programme. Coaching forms a vital part of the Management Acceleration ... The coaching process on the Management Acceleration Programme. Coaching forms a vital part of the Management Acceleration ... The Management Acceleration Programme equips you with the relevant perspectives and skills to work effectively across functions ... The Management Acceleration Programme is designed for individual contributors who aspire to - or have recently gained - ...
more infohttps://www.insead.edu/executive-education/general-management/management-acceleration-programme
Management Acceleration Programme Testimonials | INSEAD  Management Acceleration Programme Testimonials | INSEAD
This year, three managers attended the Management Acceleration Programme, and I am happy to say that they are on their way to ... Here is a sample of what participants have to say about the value of the Management Acceleration Programme. ...
more infohttps://www.insead.edu/executive-education/general-management/management-acceleration-programme-testimonials
Gecko:GPU Acceleration - MozillaWiki  Gecko:GPU Acceleration - MozillaWiki
Retrieved from "https://wiki.mozilla.org/index.php?title=Gecko:GPU_Acceleration&oldid=98172" ...
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  • Since the wagon is going to accelerate straight forward, you want the X-Components of each force which pet 1 and pet 2 exert to be equal and opposite, and hence no acceleration in either the left or right direction. (physicsforums.com)
  • where ACCELERATION defines how many times faster the cursor will move than the default speed, when the cursor moves more than THRESHOLD pixels in a short time. (archlinux.org)
  • The influential 2004 U.S. report A Nation Deceived articulated 20 benefits of academic acceleration, which can be further distilled into four key points: Academic acceleration provides greater benefits than any approach, such as differentiated instruction or enrichment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It hasn't been long since the California-based luxury electric automaker released into the world the Model S P100D range-topping model, and an onslaught of videos of its acceleration times soon followed. (inautonews.com)
  • Any physical system, whether a point material particle or a connected set of particles, has its own four-acceleration. (wikiversity.org)
  • An object's acceleration is the net result of any and all forces acting on the object, as described by Newton's Second Law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Well-administered academic acceleration programs have been generally found to be highly beneficial to students. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2015 follow-up to that report, A Nation Empowered, highlights the research that has occurred over the past decade, and provides further evidence that academic acceleration, when applied correctly, can be highly beneficial for gifted students. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since iodine is the autocatalytic species of the IAA reaction, this additional gas-phase transport may lead to an acceleration of the propagating reaction front. (springer.com)
  • Because it provides students with level-appropriate material, academic acceleration has been described as a "fundamental need" for gifted students. (wikipedia.org)
  • Academic acceleration is the advancement of gifted students in subjects at a rate that places them ahead of where they would be in the regular school curriculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cisco's Country Digital Acceleration Strategy is a long-term partnership with national leadership, industry & academia. (cisco.com)