Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Imino Pyranoses: Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Postgastrectomy Syndromes: Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Micromonosporaceae: A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Sulfonylurea CompoundsForeign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.IrelandFood Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.

Manganese sulfate-dependent glycosylation of endogenous glycoproteins in human skeletal muscle is catalyzed by a nonglucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase and not glycogenin. (1/145)

Glycogenin, a Mn2+-dependent, self-glucosylating protein, is considered to catalyze the initial glucosyl transfer steps in glycogen biogenesis. To study the physiologic significance of this enzyme, measurements of glycogenin mediated glucose transfer to endogenous trichloroacetic acid precipitable material (protein-bound glycogen, i.e., glycoproteins) in human skeletal muscle were attempted. Although glycogenin protein was detected in muscle extracts, activity was not, even after exercise that resulted in marked glycogen depletion. Instead, a MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer to glycoproteins, inhibited by glycogen and UDP-pyridoxal (which do not affect glycogenin), and unaffected by CDP (a potent inhibitor of glycogenin), was consistently detected. MnSO4-dependent activity increased in concert with glycogen synthase fractional activity after prolonged exercise, and the MnSO4-dependent enzyme stimulated glucosylation of glycoproteins with molecular masses lower than those glucosylated by glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase. Addition of purified glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase to the muscle extract did not affect MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer, whereas glycogen synthase antibody completely abolished MnSO4-dependent activity. It is concluded that: (1) MnSO4-dependent glucose transfer to glycoproteins is catalyzed by a nonglucose 6-P-dependent form of glycogen synthase; (2) MnSO4-dependent glycogen synthase has a greater affinity for low molecular mass glycoproteins and may thus play a more important role than glucose 6-P-dependent glycogen synthase in the initial stages of glycogen biogenesis; and (3) glycogenin is generally inactive in human muscle in vivo.  (+info)

Modes of action of acarbose hydrolysis and transglycosylation catalyzed by a thermostable maltogenic amylase, the gene for which was cloned from a Thermus strain. (2/145)

A maltogenic amylase gene was cloned in Escherichia coli from a gram-negative thermophilic bacterium, Thermus strain IM6501. The gene encoded an enzyme (ThMA) with a molecular mass of 68 kDa which was expressed by the expression vector p6xHis119. The optimal temperature of ThMA was 60 degrees C, which was higher than those of other maltogenic amylases reported so far. Thermal inactivation kinetic analysis of ThMA indicated that it was stabilized in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. ThMA harbored both hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities. It hydrolyzed beta-cyclodextrin and starch mainly to maltose and pullulan to panose. ThMA not only hydrolyzed acarbose, an amylase inhibitor, to glucose and pseudotrisaccharide (PTS) but also transferred PTS to 17 sugar acceptors, including glucose, fructose, maltose, cellobiose, etc. Structural analysis of acarbose transfer products by using methylation, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance ion chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that PTS was transferred primarily to the C-6 of the acceptors and at lower degrees to the C-3 and/or C-4. The transglycosylation of sugar to methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside by forming an alpha-(1,3)-glycosidic linkage was demonstrated for the first time by using acarbose and ThMA. Kinetic analysis of the acarbose transfer products showed that the C-4 transfer product formed most rapidly but readily hydrolyzed, while the C-6 transfer product was stable and accumulated in the reaction mixture as the main product.  (+info)

The AcbC protein from Actinoplanes species is a C7-cyclitol synthase related to 3-dehydroquinate synthases and is involved in the biosynthesis of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. (3/145)

The putative biosynthetic gene cluster for the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose was identified in the producer Actinoplanes sp. 50/110 by cloning a DNA segment containing the conserved gene for dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, acbB. The two flanking genes were acbA (dTDP-D-glucose synthase) and acbC, encoding a protein with significant similarity to 3-dehydroquinate synthases (AroB proteins). The acbC gene was overexpressed heterologously in Streptomyces lividans 66, and the product was shown to be a C7-cyclitol synthase using sedo-heptulose 7-phosphate, but not ido-heptulose 7-phosphate, as its substrate. The cyclization product, 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone ((2S,3S,4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexanon-2,3,4,5-tetrol), is a precursor of the valienamine moiety of acarbose. A possible five-step reaction mechanism is proposed for the cyclization reaction catalyzed by AcbC based on the recent analysis of the three-dimensional structure of a eukaryotic 3-dehydroquinate synthase domain (Carpenter, E. P., Hawkins, A. R., Frost, J. W., and Brown, K. A. (1998) Nature 394, 299-302).  (+info)

Acarbose, a pseudooligosaccharide, is transported but not metabolized by the maltose-maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli. (4/145)

The pseudooligosaccharide acarbose is a potent inhibitor of amylases, glucosidases, and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and is clinically used for the treatment of so-called type II or insulin-independent diabetes. The compound consists of an unsaturated aminocyclitol, a deoxyhexose, and a maltose. The unsaturated aminocyclitol moiety (also called valienamine) is primarily responsible for the inhibition of glucosidases. Due to its structural similarity to maltotetraose, we have investigated whether acarbose is recognized as a substrate by the maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli. Acarbose at millimolar concentrations specifically affected the growth of E. coli K-12 on maltose as the sole source of carbon and energy. Uptake of radiolabeled maltose was competitively inhibited by acarbose, with a Ki of 1.1 microM. Maltose-grown cells transported radiolabeled acarbose, indicating that the compound is recognized as a substrate. Studying the interaction of acarbose with purified maltoporin in black lipid membranes revealed that the kinetics of acarbose binding to LamB is asymmetric. The on-rate of acarbose is approximately 30 times lower when the molecule enters the pore from the extracellular side than when it enters from the periplasmic side. Acarbose could not be utilized as a carbon source since the compound alone was not a substrate of amylomaltase (MalQ) and was only poorly attacked by maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ).  (+info)

A randomized double-blind trial of acarbose in type 2 diabetes shows improved glycemic control over 3 years (U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 44) (5/145)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree to which alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, with their unique mode of action primarily reducing postprandial hyperglycemia, offer an additional therapeutic approach in the long-term treatment of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 1,946 patients (63% men) who were previously enrolled in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). The patients were randomized to acarbose (n = 973), titrating to a maximum dose of 100 mg three times per day, or to matching placebo (n = 973). Mean +/- SD age was 59 +/- 9 years, body weight 84 +/- 17 kg, diabetes duration 7.6 +/- 2.9 years, median (interquartile range) HbA1c 7.9% (6.7-9.5), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 8.7 mmol/l (6.8-11.1). Fourteen percent of patients were treated with diet alone, 52% with monotherapy, and 34% with combined therapy. Patients were monitored in UKPDS clinics every 4 months for 3 years. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, FPG, body weight, compliance with study medication, incidence of side effects, and frequency of major clinical events. RESULTS: At 3 years, a lower proportion of patients were taking acarbose compared with placebo (39 vs. 58%, P < 0.0001), the main reasons for noncompliance being flatulence (30 vs. 12%, P < 0.0001) and diarrhea (16 vs. 8%, P < 0.05). Analysis by intention to treat showed that patients allocated to acarbose, compared with placebo, had 0.2% significantly lower median HbA1c at 3 years (P < 0.001). In patients remaining on their allocated therapy, the HbA1c difference at 3 years (309 acarbose, 470 placebo) was 0.5% lower median HbA1c (8.1 vs. 8.6%, P < 0.0001). Acarbose appeared to be equally efficacious when given in addition to diet alone; in addition to monotherapy with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin; or in combination with more complex treatment regimens. No significant differences were seen in FPG, body weight, incidence of hypoglycemia, or frequency of major clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: Acarbose significantly improved glycemic control over 3 years in patients with established type 2 diabetes, irrespective of concomitant therapy for diabetes. Careful titration of acarbose is needed in view of the increased noncompliance rate seen secondary to the known side effects.  (+info)

Changes of fermentation pathways of fecal microbial communities associated with a drug treatment that increases dietary starch in the human colon. (6/145)

Acarbose inhibits starch digestion in the human small intestine. This increases the amount of starch available for microbial fermentation to acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the colon. Relatively large amounts of butyrate are produced from starch by colonic microbes. Colonic epithelial cells use butyrate as an energy source, and butyrate causes the differentiation of colon cancer cells. In this study we investigated whether colonic fermentation pathways changed during treatment with acarbose. We examined fermentations by fecal suspensions obtained from subjects who participated in an acarbose-placebo crossover trial. After incubation with [1-13C]glucose and 12CO2 or with unlabeled glucose and 13CO2, the distribution of 13C in product C atoms was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Regardless of the treatment, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were produced from pyruvate formed by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Considerable amounts of acetate were also formed by the reduction of CO2. Butyrate formation from glucose increased and propionate formation decreased with acarbose treatment. Concomitantly, the amounts of CO2 reduced to acetate were 30% of the total acetate in untreated subjects and 17% of the total acetate in the treated subjects. The acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were 57, 20, and 23% of the total final concentrations, respectively, for the untreated subjects and 57, 13, and 30% of the total final concentrations, respectively, for the treated subjects.  (+info)

Structure-function relationships in glucoamylases encoded by variant Saccharomycopsis fibuligera genes. (7/145)

The mutation Gly467-->Ser in Glu glucoamylase was designed to investigate differences between two highly homologous wild-type Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Gla and Glu glucoamylases. Gly467, localized in the conserved active site region, S5, is replaced by Ser in the Gla glucoamylase. These amino acid residues are the only two known to occupy this position in the elucidated glucoamylase sequences. The data from the kinetic analysis revealed that replacement of Gly467 with Ser in Glu glucoamylase decreased the kcat towards all substrates tested to values comparable with those of the Gla enzyme. Moreover, the mutant glucoamylase appeared to be less stable compared to the wild-type Glu glucoamylase with respect to thermal unfolding. Microcalorimetric titration studies of the interaction with the inhibitor acarbose indicated differences in the binding between Gla and Glu enzymes. The Gla glucoamylase, although less active, binds acarbose stronger (Ka congruent with 10(13).M(-1)) than the Glu enzyme (Ka congruent with 10(12).M(-1)). In all enzymes studied, the binding of acarbose was clearly driven by enthalpy, with a slightly favorable entropic contribution. The binding of another glucoamylase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin, was about 8-9 orders of magnitude weaker (Ka congruent with 10(4).M(-1)) than that of acarbose. From comparison of kinetic parameters for the nonglycosylated and glycosylated enzymes it can be deduced that the glycosylation does not play a critical role in enzymatic activity. However, results from differential scanning calorimetry demonstrate an important role of the carbohydrate moiety in the thermal stability of glucoamylase.  (+info)

Mechanism of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition of amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibitor and comparison with that by acarbose. (8/145)

The effects of Phaseolus vulgaris inhibitor (alpha-AI) on the amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) were investigated. Based on a statistical analysis of the kinetic data and using the general velocity equation, which is valid at equilibrium for all types of inhibition in a single-substrate reaction, it was concluded that the inhibitory mode is of the mixed noncompetitive type involving two molecules of inhibitor. In line with this conclusion, the Lineweaver-Burk primary plots intersect in the second quadrant and the secondary plots of the slopes and the intercepts versus the inhibitor concentrations are parabolic curves, whether the substrate used was amylose or maltopentaose. A specific inhibition model of the mixed noncompetitive type applies here. This model differs from those previously proposed for acarbose [Al Kazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Payan, F., Forest, E. & Santimone, M. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 787-796 and Al Kazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Prodanov, E. & Santimone, M. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 252, 100-107]. In particular, with alpha-AI, the inhibition takes place only when PPA and alpha-AI are preincubated together before the substrate is added. This shows that the inhibitory PPA-alphaAI complex is formed during the preincubation period. Secondly, other inhibitory complexes are formed, in which two molecules of inhibitor are bound to either the free enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic efficiency was determined both with and without inhibitor. Using the same molar concentration of inhibitor, alpha-AI was found to be a much stronger inhibitor than acarbose. However, when the inhibitor amount is expressed on a weight basis (mg x L-1), the opposite conclusion is drawn. In addition, limited proteolysis was performed on PPA alone and on the alpha-AI-PPA complex. The results show that, in the complex, PPA is more sensitive to subtilisin attack, and shorter fragments are obtained. These data reflect the conformational changes undergone by PPA as the result of the protein inhibitor binding, which differ from those previously observed with acarbose.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on postprandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy dogs. AU - Robertson, Jane. AU - Nelson, Richard W. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Neal, Larry. PY - 1999/5. Y1 - 1999/5. N2 - Objective - To determine effects of acarbose on baseline and postprandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy dogs, if effects of acarbose were dosage related, and if acarbose caused any short- term adverse effects. Animals - 5 healthy dogs fed a high-fiber diet. Procedure - A Latin-square design was used. During each 1-week treatment period, dogs were given a placebo or 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg of acarbose, PO, twice daily immediately prior to feeding. There was a 1-week interval between periods. At the end of each treatment period, serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured prior to feeding and at 30- to 60-minute intervals for 6 hours after feeding. Results - Baseline serum glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin ...
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We assessed the cost-effectiveness of acarbose in the management of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Sweden, based on progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular (CV) events reported in the STOP-NIDDM trial population, including high-risk subgroups. The cost per patient free from T2D was SEK28 000 or SEK1260 per diabetes free month prior to progression to T2D. The cost per patient free from CV events was SEK101 000 or SEK5000 per CV event free month. For the high CV risk subgroups, acarbose treatment dominated placebo (i.e. acarbose was more effective, less costly).. Acarbose significantly reduces the incidence of diabetes and CV events in IGT patients. We predict this may translate into healthcare cost savings that partially or, in patients at high CV risk, fully offset the cost of acarbose. We conclude that acarbose is likely to be cost-effective in the management of impaired glucose tolerance.. ...
Buy generic Acarbose online Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. Related Tags: acarbose antidiabetic Where Can i Get Acarbose buy Acarbose
Optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes may require multiple forms of therapy, and an increasing number of hypoglycemic agents are now available. The study by Holman and colleagues describes the glucose-lowering properties of acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor that is used as an adjunct to preexisting therapy. This study confirms earlier reports of the efficacy of acarbose (1). Based on its mechanism of action, which is the delay of carbohydrate absorption, acarbose should predominantly affect postprandial hyperglycemia. This is supported by the current data showing that acarbose had no effect on FPG level but was associated with lowered HbA1c levels at 3 years. Although increased gut carbohydrate absorption has not traditionally been seen as a contributor to postprandial hyperglycemia, recent data suggest that splanchnic glucose uptake may be altered (2). Delayed entry of glucose from the gut by α-glucosidase inhibition may alleviate these altered splanchnic responses. The major problem ...
... is pseudo-oligosaccharide with a terminal C7-cyclitol patented in 1975 by Bayer. Acarbose is a component of the amylostatin complex produced by species of Actinoplanes and Streptomyces. Acarbose acts as a potent inhibitor of α-glucosidases and saccharases. Since 1990, acarbose has been used therapeutically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes ...
Acarbose acts as an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidases and is therefore clinically used. The biosynthesis gene cluster (acb) was identified and partly characterized. The proposed model describes a pathway in which acarbose might function as a carbophor. The molecule is secreted into the medium where, after hydrolysis of starch, it is charged with additional glucose moieties. Re-uptake by a binding-protein dependent ABC importer AcbHFG would then result in a net gain of carbon and energy. Besides extracting glucose from the extracellular pool acarbose also acts as an inhibitor of alpha-amylases secreted by competitors in the natural environment. Prompted by the structural similarity between acarbose and maltotetraose, the effects of acarbose on the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in whole cells of E. coli and on individual components of the maltose / maltodextrin system were studied. The results demonstrate that acarbose is efficiently transported but not metabolized by E. coli due to its ...
Acarbose (INN) is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and, in some countries, prediabetes. It is a generic sold in Europe and China as Glucobay (Bayer AG), in North America as Precose (Bayer Pharmaceuticals), and in Canada as Prandase (Bayer AG). It is cheap and popular in China, but not in the U.S. One physician explains the use in the U.S. is limited because it is not potent enough to justify the side effects of diarrhea and flatulence. However, a recent large study concludes "acarbose is effective, safe and well tolerated in a large cohort of Asian patients with type 2 diabetes." A possible explanation for the differing opinions is an observation that acarbose is significantly more effective in patients eating a relatively high carbohydrate Eastern diet. It is a starch blocker, and inhibits alpha glucosidase, an intestinal enzyme that releases glucose from larger carbohydrates. It is composed of an acarviosin moiety with a maltose at the reducing terminus. Acarbose ...
In general, though, Acarbose should be taken three times daily at the start (with the first bite) of each main meal. Acarbose should be started at a low dose, with gradual dose escalation as described below, both to reduce gastrointestinal side effects and to permit identification of the minimum dose required for adequate glycemic control of the patient. Do not take more or less of Acarbose than directed by your doctor ...
... slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Acarbose is sometimes used in combination with insulin or other diabetes medications you take by mouth. Acarbose may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Acarbose is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include diet, exercise, weight control, foot care, eye care, dental care, and testing your blood sugar. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very closely. Changing any of these factors can affect your blood sugar levels.. DOSAGE Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor.. STORAGE. Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.. MORE INFO. Active Ingredient: Acarbose. PRECOSE is available as 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg pills for oral use. The inactive ingredients are starch, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, and colloidal silicon dioxide.. SAFETY INFORMATION. Do not use this medication if you are allergic to acarbose, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin). You also should not use acarbose if you have ...
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This study is a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare the endocrine and metabolic effects of two anti diabetic drugs (metformin vs. acarbose)
Blocking the absorption of carbohydrates at the brush border of the small intestine with acarbose (an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) seems a promising possibility as a potential therapeutic agent. Although designed as a second-line diabetes drug, this medication has very little risk of hypoglycemia in older adults. In fact the risk of hypoglycemia is extremely low even in patients concurrently taking concurrent hypoglycemia agents (including insulin), and there is almost no risk of hypoglycemia in subjects not on other diabetes medications. Acarbose suppresses postprandial glycemia by slowing small intestinal digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, and has been shown to slow gastric emptying Acarbose has yet to be examined in a prospective fashion in older adults, despite the prevalence of PPH in this patient population. Preliminary, pilot work done in our laboratory on older adults with PPH has demonstrated that the hypotensive response over 90 minutes to a standardized meal was significantly ...
Conclusions: Type 2 Diabetes forms a significant share of the Diabetic load in India where cereals in the form of carbohydrates form the staple diet of most Indians. Thus α glucosidase inhibitors like Miglitol and acarbose are sure to play an important role as an add on therapy when first line drugs like sulphonylurea and biguanides fail to control the hyperglycaemia and they have minimum adverse effects, with more or less similar efficacy with Miglitol being better than Acarbose... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperglycaemia, PPBS, HbA1c, Miglitol, Acarbose ...
Acarbose was statistically significantly different from placebo at all doses with respect to effect on one-hour postprandial plasma glucose.. **The 300 mg t.i.d. acarbose regimen was superior to lower doses, but there were no statistically significant differences from 50 to 200 mg t.i.d. Clinical Experience in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Monotherapy, or in Combination with Sulfonylureas, Metformin or Insulin: acarbose was studied as monotherapy and as combination therapy to sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin treatment. The treatment effects on HbA1c levels and one-hour postprandial glucose levels are summarized for four placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized studies conducted in the United States in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The placebo-subtracted treatment differences, which are summarized below, were statistically significant for both variables in all of these studies.. Study 1 (n=109) involved patients on background treatment with diet only. The mean effect of the addition ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Acarbose Generic Name: acarbose (ah KAR bose) Brand Names: Precose, Glucoobay What is acarbose? Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Acarbose is sometimes used in combination with insulin or other diabetes medications you take by mouth. Acarbose may also be used for other purposes.. Please consult your medicial doctor for more information.. ...
Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Normally, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood stream after you eat. Insulin is used by all the cells in your body to help turn the food you eat into energy. This is done by using glucose (sugar) in the blood as quick energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, insulin is still produced by your pancreas, but the amount of insulin produced may not be enough or your body may not be using it properly and you may still need more. Because of this, the insulin is not able to lower your blood sugar properly and you will have too much sugar in your blood. Acarbose lowers your blood sugar by preventing the breakdown of starch into sugar. It may be used alone or in combination with another type of oral diabetes medicine called a sulfonylurea. ...
In book, A Quick Understanding on What Doctors Are Prescribing: Pharmacology for Everyday People & Finding Alternative Medications , it described that acarbose works by competiting against carbohydrates found in food supposedly binding to enzyme in order to be digested, but now the place of binding is blocked by acarbose. As a result, less carbohydrate will be broken down into glucose molecules and sugar level in the blood will not be dramatically increased ...
Acarbose definition, a drug, C 25 H 43 NO 18 , used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes: lowers blood sugar by inhibiting the enzymes that aid in starch and disaccharide digestion. See more.
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Acarbose, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (CAS 56180-94-0), with |99% purity. Water soluble compound. Join researchers using our high quality biochemicals.
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose. After an overnight fast, patients received a single dose of acarbose (100 mg) or placebo and then consumed a standardized 450 kcal meal. Blood pressure, glucose levels, heart rate (HR), and catecholamine levels were evaluated. Acarbose ameliorated PPH as determined by significant improvements in the duration and maximal fall in blood ...
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits high mortality rates and chemotherapeutic resistance. Immune-based therapies, including high-dose IL-2 and anti-PD1, are efficacious in ~20% of patients; however, both are associated with substantial toxicity. This highlights the need for additional research aimed at improving response rates while also limiting toxicity. Previous findings by other groups have demonstrated that nutrient deprivation prior to chemotherapy reduces treatment toxicity and may improve therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients. Recent murine research shows that diets containing calorie restriction mimetics (CRMs) can recapitulate these beneficial effects by enhancing anti-cancer immunity. Here, we examined the impact of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, a potential CRM, on renal tumor burden and immune profiles. BALB/c mice were fed an acarbose-containing diet or macronutrient-matched control diet for 4 weeks prior to challenge with syngeneic Renca renal carcinoma ...
Mushrooms are a low calorie food with very little fat and are highly suitable for obese persons. The objective of the present investigation was to study the interaction of aqueous extract of P. pulmonarius (called PP-aqu) with acarbose on serum glucose levels, and on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in alloxan induced diabetic mice. PP-aqu (500 mg/kg), acarbose (50 mg/kg) and their combination were administered orally in alloxan (70 mg/kg i.v.) induced diabetic mice. In the acute study, the serum glucose level was estimated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after drug administration. The subacute study involved repeated administration of the drugs for 28 days, a serum glucose level estimation at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and recording of the body weights of the mice. In the OGTT, D-glucose (2.5 g/kg) was administered in diabetic mice half an hour after pre-treatment with PP-aqu (500 mg/kg), acarbose (50 mg/kg) and their combination. Serum glucose levels were estimated 30 min prior to glucose ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2gjp: Structure of Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-Amylase, Crystallized With the Substrate Analogue Acarbose and Maltose
Acarbose 50 mg is a medicine for patient with diabetes mellitus. It controls blood sugar through reduce carbohydrate absorbtion in gut.
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This eMedTV Web page discusses some potential side effects of acarbose -- which can include gas, abdominal pain (or stomach pain), and diarrhea. This page also lists some serious side effects that you should report to your healthcare provider.
Acarbose Tablets slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels.It is used together with diet and exercise to treat
Detailed Acarbose dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Diabetes Type 2; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.
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Q1. Potency of action of a) Miglitol is six times higher than that of acarbose b) Acarbose is more than that of miglitol c) Miglitol and acarbose is equa
K16150 K16150; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K16150 K16150; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K16148 glgM; alpha-maltose-1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.4.1.342 ...
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the NER pathway are linked to at least three diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The repair of damaged DNA involves at least 30 polypeptides within two different sub-pathways of NER known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR-NER) and global genome repair (GGR-NER). TCR refers to the expedited repair of lesions located in the actively transcribed strand of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In GGR-NER the first step of damage recognition involves XPC-hHR23B complex together with XPE complex (in prokaryotes, uvrAB complex). The following steps of GGR-NER and TCR-NER are similar ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
This trial is investigating the effects of miglitol [Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho] versus acarbose versus sitagliptin versus no treatment on glucose metabolism and
PRECOSE was statistically significantly different from placebo at all doses with respect to effect on one-hour postprandial plasma glucose.. ** The 300 mg t.i.d. PRECOSE regimen was superior to lower doses, but there were no statistically significant differences from 50 to 200 mg t.i.d.. Clinical Experience in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Monotherapy, or in Combination with Sulfonylureas, Metformin or Insulin: PRECOSE was studied as monotherapy and as combination therapy to sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin treatment. The treatment effects on HbA1c levels and one-hour postprandial glucose levels are summarized for four placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized studies conducted in the United States in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The placebo-subtracted treatment differences, which are summarized below, were statistically significant for both variables in all of these studies.. Study 1 (n=109) involved patients on background treatment with diet only. The mean effect of the addition ...
1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types.[7] Lectins, or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding.[citation needed] An important example of oligosaccharide cell recognition is the role of glycolipids in determining blood types. The various blood types are distinguished by the glycan modification present on the surface of blood cells.[15] These can be visualized using mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharides found on the A, B, and H antigen occur on the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide. The H antigen (which indicates an O blood type) serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen.[7] Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood ...
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides-sucrose, lactose, and maltose-have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule.[3] The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase. As building the larger sugar ejects a water molecule, ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
The production of table sugar has a long history. Some scholars claim Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty, around AD 350.[19] Other scholars point to the ancient manuscripts of China, dated to the 8th century BC, where one of the earliest historical mentions of sugar cane is included along with the fact that their knowledge of sugar cane was derived from India.[20] Further, it appears that by about 500 BC, residents of present-day India began making sugar syrup and cooling it in large flat bowls to make raw table sugar crystals that were easier to store and transport. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda (खण्ड), which is the source of the word candy.[21] The army of Alexander the Great was halted on the banks of river Indus by the refusal of his troops to go further east. They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making granulated, salt-like sweet powder, locally called sākhar (साखर), pronounced ...
Many molecules that are considered to be "dietary fiber" are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods contain varying types of dietary fibers, all of which contribute to health in different ways. Dietary fibers make three primary contributions: bulking, viscosity and fermentation.[49] Different fibers have different effects, suggesting that a variety of dietary fibers contribute to overall health. Some fibers contribute through one primary mechanism. For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many dietary fibers can contribute to health through more than one of these mechanisms. For instance, psyllium provides bulking as well as viscosity. Bulking fibers can be soluble (i.e., psyllium) or insoluble (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose). They absorb water and can significantly increase stool weight and regularity. Most bulking fibers are not ...
HSGAG and CSGAG modified proteoglycans first begin with a consensus Ser-Gly/Ala-X-Gly motif in the core protein. Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. The first modification of the tetrasaccharide linker determines whether the HSGAGs or CSGAGs will be added. Addition of a GlcNAc promotes the addition of HSGAGs while addition of GalNAc to the tetrasaccharide linker promotes CSGAG development.[5] GlcNAcT-I transfers GlcNAc to the tetrasaccahride linker, which is distinct from glycosyltransferase GlcNAcT-II, the enzyme that is utilized to build HSGAGs. EXTL2 and EXTL3, two genes in the EXT tumor suppressor family, have been shown to have GlcNAcT-I activity. Conversely, GalNAc is transferred to the linker by the enzyme GalNAcT ...
For the 24 hours after self-tanner (containing high DHA levels, ~5%) is applied, the skin is especially susceptible to free-radical damage from sunlight, according to a 2007 study led by Katinka Jung of the Gematria Test Lab in Berlin.[17] Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples with high levels of DHA they found that more than 180 percent additional free radicals formed during sun exposure compared with untreated skin. Another self-tanner ingredient, erythrulose, produced a similar response at high levels. For a day after self-tanner application, excessive sun exposure should be avoided and sunscreen should be worn outdoors, they say; an antioxidant cream could also minimize free radical production. Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after application, and a fake tan itself will not protect the skin from UV exposure.[citation needed] The study by Jung et al. further confirms earlier results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
... was a luxury in Europe until the 18th century, when it became more widely available. It became highly popular and by the 19th century, sugar came to be considered[by whom?] a necessity. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient resulted in major economic and social changes.[30] Demand drove, in part, the colonization of tropical islands and areas where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and sugar manufacturing could be successful. The demand for cheap labor to perform the labor-intensive cultivation and processing increased the demand for the slave trade from Africa (in particular West Africa). After slavery was abolished, the demand for workers in the British Caribbean colonies was filled by indentured laborers from Indian subcontinent (in particular India).[31][32][33] Millions of slave and indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean and the Americas, Indian Ocean colonies, southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and East Africa and Natal. Thus the ...
Acarbose. *Fructooligosaccharide (FOS). *Galactooligosaccharide (GOS). *Isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO). *Maltodextrin. *Mannan- ...
Two monosaccharides with equivalent molecular graphs (same chain length and same carbonyl position) may still be distinct stereoisomers, whose molecules differ in the three-dimensional arrangement of the bonds of certain atoms. This happens only if the molecule contains a stereogenic center, specifically a carbon atom that is chiral (connected to four distinct molecular sub-structures). Those four bonds can have any of two configurations in space distinguished by their handedness. In a simple open-chain monosaccharide, every carbon is chiral except the first and the last atoms of the chain, and (in ketoses) the carbon with the keto group. For example, the triketose H(CHOH)(C=O)(CHOH)H (glycerone, dihydroxyacetone) has no stereogenic center, and therefore exists as a single stereoisomer. The other triose, the aldose H(C=O)(CHOH)2H (glyceraldehyde), has one chiral carbon - the central one, number 2 - which is bonded to groups −H, −OH, −C(OH)H2, and −(C=O)H. Therefore, it exists as two ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes.[2] It also exists as a syrup with a sweet taste. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol. Neither the ...
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"acarbose - oral, Precose". MedicineNet. MedicineNet. Retrieved 2014-01-27. "Peptimmune homepage". peptimmune.com. McBride, Ryan ... A similar medication designed for patients with Type 2 diabetes is Acarbose; which partially blocks absorption of carbohydrates ...
Lettieri JT, Dain B (1998). "Effects of beano on the tolerability and pharmacodynamics of acarbose". Clin Ther. 20 (3): 497-504 ... Another study indicates it may interfere with the diabetic medication acarbose.[4] ...
Miglitol is fairly well absorbed by the body, as opposed to acarbose. Moreover, acarbose inhibits pancreatic alpha-amylase in ... there are subtle differences between acarbose and miglitol. Acarbose is an oligosaccharide, whereas miglitol resembles a ... Acarbose also blocks pancreatic alpha-amylase in addition to inhibiting membrane-bound alpha-glucosidases. Pancreatic alpha- ... Examples of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include: Acarbose- Precose Miglitol - Glyset Voglibose Even though the drugs have a ...
June 2002). "Biosynthesis of the C(7)-cyclitol moiety of acarbose in Actinoplanes species SE50/110. 7-O-phosphorylation of the ... Valienamine is a C-7 aminocyclitol found as a substructure of pseudooligosaccharides such as the antidiabetic drug acarbose and ... Laube, Heiner (March 2002). "Acarbose An Update of Its Therapeutic Use in Diabetes Treatment". Clinical Drug Investigation. 22 ...
Acarbose is an enzyme inhibitor that is used as a drug against type 2 diabetes. Miglustat is an iminosugar in which the ring ... Tamiflu is an enzyme inhibitor that blocks the action of influenza virus neuraminidases (sialidases). Acarbose is a ...
Laube, Heiner (March 2002). "Acarbose An Update of Its Therapeutic Use in Diabetes Treatment". Clinical Drug Investigation. 22 ... a precursor to the antidiabetic drug acarbose and the antibiotic validamycin), teicoplanin, and ramoplanin. Euzéby, J. P. " ...
Acarbose may have the capability to stop developing diabetic symptoms. Hence, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (like acarbose) are ... Diabetes: Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, competitively and reversibly inhibits alpha-glucosidase in the intestines. ...
Another study indicates it may interfere with the diabetic medication acarbose. Besides the ingredient α-GAL, Beano tablets ... Lettieri JT, Dain B (1998). "Effects of beano on the tolerability and pharmacodynamics of acarbose". Clin Ther. 20 (3): 497-504 ...
In contrast to acarbose (another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), miglitol is systemically absorbed; however, it is not ...
... is part of the potent α-amylase inhibitor acarbose and its derivatives. The nitrogen atom binds to α-amylase more ...
The 3D structure of the pseudo-tetrasaccharide acarbose complexed with glucoamylase II(471) from Aspergillus awamori var. X100 ... Aleshin AE, Firsov LM, Honzatko RB (1994). "Refined structure for the complex of acarbose with glucoamylase from Aspergillus ...
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Acarbose: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking acarbose,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to acarbose or any other drugs. ... Continue to take acarbose even if you feel well. Do not stop taking acarbose without talking to your doctor. ... Acarbose comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken three times a day. It is very important to take each dose with ...
Glucobay tablets contain the active ingredient acarbose, which is a medicine used to help control blood sugar levels in people ... Glucobay (acarbose). Glucobay tablets contain the active ingredient acarbose, which is a medicine used to help control blood ... Acarbose may reduce the absorption of digoxin from the gut, which may reduce its blood level and make it less effective. If you ... Acarbose is taken with meals to delay the breakdown of sugars and starches in the gut and slow down their absorption into the ...
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Acarbose definition, a drug, C 25 H 43 NO 18 , used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes: lowers blood sugar by ...
Acarbose (INN) is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and, in some countries, prediabetes. It is a ... Since acarbose prevents the digestion of complex carbohydrates, the drug should be taken at the start of main meals (taken with ... Because acarbose blocks the breakdown of table sugar and other complex sugars, fruit juice or starchy foods will not ... Adults may take doses of 25 mg 3 times daily, increasing to 100 mg 3 times a day.[citation needed] Since acarbose prevents the ...
Acarbose, miglitol, and pramlintide help prevent glucose absorption to treat diabetes. Learn how they work, how you take them, ... Acarbose and miglitol are available as generic and brand-name drugs. Precose is the brand-name drug for acarbose. Glyset is the ... Side effects of acarbose, miglitol, and pramlintide. Acarbose, miglitol, and pramlintide can cause side effects for some people ... Both acarbose and miglitol come in a tablet you take by mouth. You take them with the first bite of each meal. If you dont ...
ACARBOSE- acarbose tablet To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... The fraction of acarbose that is absorbed as intact drug is almost completely excreted by the kidneys. When acarbose was given ... Acarbose Tablets are an oral alpha-glucosidase inhibitor for use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose is an ... Acarbose Tablets are available for oral administration containing 25 mg, 50 mg or 100 mg acarbose. Each tablet contains the ...
The fraction of acarbose that is absorbed as intact drug is almost completely excreted by the kidneys. When acarbose was given ... PRECOSE- acarbose tablet To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... Acarbose is soluble in water and has a pKa of 5.1. Its empirical formula is C25H43NO18 and its chemical structure is as follows ... Acarbose was also given in food and by postprandial gavage in two separate studies in Wistar rats. No increased incidence of ...
... acarbose) is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. Side effects may include diarrhea and flatulence (gas). Serious ... Acarbose alone does not produce hypoglycemia.. *Charcoal may absorb acarbose and digestive enzyme preparations such as amylase ... When was acarbose approved by the FDA?. *The FDA approved acarbose in September 1995. ... Since adding insulin or a sulfonylurea to acarbose therapy may lower blood glucose more than acarbose alone, the risk for ...
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Acarbose) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... The fraction of acarbose that is absorbed as intact drug is almost completely excreted by the kidneys. When acarbose was given ... acarbose) Tablets. DESCRIPTION. PRECOSE® (acarbose tablets) is an oral alpha-glucosidase inhibitor for use in the management of ... Acarbose is soluble in water and has a pKa of 5.1. Its empirical formula is C25H43NO18 and its chemical structure is as follows ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between acarbose and dexbrompheniramine / pseudoephedrine. View detailed information ... Drug Interactions between acarbose and dexbrompheniramine / pseudoephedrine. This report displays the potential drug ... Pseudoephedrine may interfere with blood glucose control and reduce the effectiveness of acarbose and other diabetic ...
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Acarbose lowers your blood sugar by preventing the breakdown of starch into sugar. It may be used alone or in combination with ... Acarbose is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Normally, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood stream after you eat. ...
Acarbose is sometimes used in combination with insulin or other diabetes medications you take by mouth. Acarbose may also be ... Acarbose is used together with diet and exercise to treat type 2 diabetes. ... Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. ... What is acarbose?. Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. ...
... is a brand of medicine containing the active ingredient Acarbose. Find out about side effects, who can ... Before you take ACARBOSE MYLAN. When you must not take it. Do not take ACARBOSE MYLAN if you have an allergy to:. *acarbose, ... What ACARBOSE MYLAN is used for. ACARBOSE MYLAN tablets contain the active drug acarbose. They are used for the treatment of ... After taking ACARBOSE MYLAN. When treatment with ACARBOSE MYLAN is to be stopped, your prescribing doctor may need to alter the ...
MODIFIED ACARBOSE HEXASACCHARIDE. C37 H63 N O26. YXELUDMUQSCWQW-HCVSURSQSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Structure of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase complexed with the inhibitor acarbose at 2.0 A resolution.. Brzozowski, A.M. ... The three-dimensional structure of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase (TAKA-amylase), in complex with the inhibitor acarbose ... The three-dimensional structure of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase (TAKA-amylase), in complex with the inhibitor acarbose ...
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Acarbose hat als Inhibitor von Hydrolasen alpha-1,4-glykosidischer Bindungen medizinische Bedeutung. Das Acarbose-Biosynthese- ... Prompted by the structural similarity between acarbose and maltotetraose, the effects of acarbose on the metabolism of maltose ... Acarbose acts as an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidases and is therefore clinically used. The biosynthesis gene cluster (acb) was ... The proposed model describes a pathway in which acarbose might function as a carbophor. The molecule is secreted into the ...
Drug Name: Acarbose. Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]. Imprint: E71. Dosage: 25 mg. Color(s): White. Shape: Round. Size (mm): ... Drug Name: Acarbose. Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]. Imprint: E72. Dosage: 50 mg. Color(s): White. Shape: Round. Size (mm): ... Drug Name: Acarbose. Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]. Imprint: AR. Dosage: 25 mg. Color(s): White. Shape: Round. Size (mm): 6 ... Drug Name: Acarbose. Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]. Imprint: AR;50. Dosage: 50 mg. Color(s): White. Shape: Round. Size (mm) ...
Effectiveness of acarbose in the control of glucose tolerance worsening in pregnancy].. [Article in Spanish] ... Six pregnant women who had moderate elevated level of blood glucose at fasting and postprandial were treated with acarbose, ... Acarbose was associated with intestinal discomfort which persisted during the whole pregnancy. ...
Drug: Acarbose Acarbose 50 mg given during Meal Test and Acarbose 25 mg taken with first bite of the next 3 meals. ... During the second Meal Test subject will receive Acarbose 50mg and will take Acarbose 25mg with first bite of each of the next ... Acarbose and Older Adults With Postprandial Hypotension (PPH). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Starting the day following each meal test, each subject with PPH will take either acarbose 25 mg po tid (prior to each meal) or ...
Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial.. Chiasson JL1, Josse RG, Gomis R, ... Acarbose could be used, either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of type 2 ... We aimed to assess the effect of acarbose in preventing or delaying conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes ... Acarbose delays onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [J Fam Pract. 2002] ...
Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes.. G S Meneilly, E A Ryan, J Radziuk, D C Lau, J F ... Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes.. G S Meneilly, E A Ryan, J Radziuk, D C Lau, J F ... Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... acarbose group, P , 0.001) between groups. There was a significant difference in the change in HbA(1c) values in response to ...
  • The antihyperglycemic action of acarbose results from a competitive, reversible inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • The delayed absorption of acarbose-related radioactivity reflects the absorption of metabolites that may be formed by either intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzymatic hydrolysis. (nih.gov)
  • Acarbose is metabolized exclusively within the gastrointestinal tract, principally by intestinal bacteria, but also by digestive enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Before taking acarbose, tell your doctor if you have liver disease, or any type of stomach or intestinal disorder. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Acarbose was associated with intestinal discomfort which persisted during the whole pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Acarbose suppresses postprandial glycemia by slowing small intestinal digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, and has been shown to slow gastric emptying Acarbose has yet to be examined in a prospective fashion in older adults, despite the prevalence of PPH in this patient population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After oral application of acarbose, human intestinal α-glucosidases are inhibited, which leads to a retarded release of monosaccharides. (frontiersin.org)
  • In US studies including acarbose doses up to the maximum approved dose of 100 mg t.i.d., treatment-emergent elevations of AST and/or ALT at any level of severity were similar between acarbose-treated patients and placebo-treated patients (p ≥ 0.496). (wikidoc.org)
  • 211 (31%) of 682 patients in the acarbose group and 130 (19%) of 686 on placebo discontinued treatment early. (nih.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly treated in a double-blind fashion with placebo (n = 23) or acarbose (n = 22) for 12 months. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Neither the placebo nor acarbose altered leptin concentrations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There were only minor changes in body weight during the l6-week follow-up: decrease in the placebo group (change −0.5 kg/m 2 , P = 0.07) and acarbose (change −0.7 kg/m 2 , P = 0.046) and increase in the glibenclamide group (change 0.8 kg/m 2 , P = 0.27). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For the high CV risk subgroups, acarbose treatment dominated placebo (i.e. acarbose was more effective, less costly). (diva-portal.org)
  • Patients were allocated to acarbose ( n = 973), titrated to a maximum dose of 100 mg 3 times/d, or placebo ( n = 973). (acpjc.org)
  • Acarbose more effectively maintained glycemic control in patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus on preexisting therapy but had higher rates of noncompliance and adverse effects than did placebo. (acpjc.org)
  • After 6 weeks, 172 patients were assigned to acarbose and 182 to placebo. (acpjc.org)
  • More symptoms of abdominal cramps and discomfort (25% vs 9%), diarrhea (44% vs 20%), and flatulence (73% vs 39%) occurred in patients receiving acarbose than in those receiving placebo. (acpjc.org)
  • Chiasson and colleagues compared acarbose with placebo in a large group of patients whose diabetes was moderately well controlled by diet, oral hypoglycemic agents, or insulin (mean hemoglobin A 1c levels were within 2% of the normal range). (acpjc.org)
  • 81% in the placebo group and 74% in the acarbose group) were white.Rhamnose is also a component of the outer cell membrane of acid-fast bacteria in the Mycobacterium genus,.Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects With Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes. (radio-zoki-zox.tk)
  • Do not stop taking acarbose without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may want you to stop taking acarbose for a short time if you become ill, have a fever or infection, or if you have surgery or a medical emergency. (silverpharmacy.com)
  • The author is also occasioned hj a hour of rapid part, as i have ascertained by the granulation of the neck into the discount acarbose. (websiteribbon.com)
  • increases intracellular calcium inclusive of an IL-1 type 1 receptor mediated works in C6 astrocytic cells discount acarbose 50 mg.The inactive ingredients are starch, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium. (essenfrmasseaufbau.ga)
  • Acarbose alone does not produce hypoglycemia. (medicinenet.com)
  • When taking acarbose, dextrose will work better than cane sugar or table sugar in treating hypoglycemia. (uwhealth.org)
  • Because of its mechanism of action, acarbose when administered alone should not cause hypoglycemia in the fasted or postprandial state. (wikidoc.org)
  • Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, and no increased incidence of hypoglycemia was observed in patients when acarbose was added to metformin therapy. (wikidoc.org)
  • Compared with sulfonylureas as the add-on therapy to metformin, the use of acarbose was associated with significantly lower risks of hospitalizations for major atherosclerotic events (hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 0.69, 0.52-0.91), ischemic stroke (0.68, 0.49-0.94), and hypoglycemia (0.23, 0.08-0.71), after accounting for major confounding factors. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In T2D treatment, use of acarbose as the add-on remedy to metformin was associated with lower risks of major atherosclerotic events, ischemic stroke, and hypoglycemia, compared with sulfonylurea. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When used alone, acarbose does not cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). (emedtv.com)
  • If you are using acarbose with insulin or other diabetes medications, your blood sugar levels will be too low (hypoglycemia). (blogspot.com)
  • After-meal hypoglycemia is a potentially severe complication of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. (pharmanerd.com)
  • If dietary modifications are not effective, taking acarbose before a meal can prevent carbohydrates from being broken down and thus also prevent the excess insulin and hypoglycemia. (pharmanerd.com)
  • The aim of present study is to compare the endocrine and metabolic effects of these two antidiabetic drugs (metformin vs. acarbose) in infertile overweight women with PCOS. (knowcancer.com)
  • Do not use it if you had an allergic reaction to acarbose, or if you have cirrhosis or a bowel disorder such as colitis, Crohn disease, or a blockage in your bowel. (allinahealth.org)
  • Acarbose has an excellent safety record but may initially cause flatulence, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • The major problem is that acarbose tends to cause flatulence and diarrhea. (acpjc.org)
  • causes flatulence, cramps Acarbose (precose.This news feed is dedicated to the field of Personal Branding as well as news related to Relevant Asset, LLC.There is a marked parallel between the dose-response relationship of acarbose and the frequency of gastrointes-tinal complaints. (radio-zoki-zox.tk)
  • In this report, the global Acarbose market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Acarbose industry. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body, which helps control blood sugar levels. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Acarbose helps to control your blood sugar levels in conjunction with diet, exercise, weight loss and other measures by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates (complex sugars) from your diet. (nps.org.au)
  • Acarbose slows the digestion of carbohydrates in the body. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, foods containing sucrose often cause abdominal discomfort or diarrhoea in people taking acarbose. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This study confirms earlier reports of the efficacy of acarbose ( 1 ). (acpjc.org)
  • The efficacy of acarbose in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (acpjc.org)
  • Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of acarbose in patients with diabetes mellitus : a postmarketing surveillance study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Substrat-Bindungsstudien konnte für das Bindeprotein AcbH eine Interaktion mit Acarbose und längerkettigen Derivaten, nicht jedoch mit Maltose/Maltodextrinen beobachtet werden. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the substrate binding protein AcbH binds acarbose and longer derivatives, but not maltose and maltodextrins. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Essentiality of the Maltase AmlE in Maltose Utilization and Its Transcriptional Regulation by the Repressor AmlR in the Acarbose-Producing Bacterium Actinoplanes sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although maltose is an important building block of acarbose, the maltose/maltodextrin metabolism has not been studied in Actinoplanes sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The first crystal form was obtained by crystallisation of BHA at room temperature in the presence of acarbose and maltose - data was collected at cryogenic temperatures to a resolution of 1.9 Å. (dtu.dk)
  • Precose is the brand-name drug for acarbose. (healthline.com)
  • Following oral dosing of healthy volunteers with 14 C-labeled acarbose, peak plasma concentrations of radioactivity were attained 14 to 24 hours after dosing, while peak plasma concentrations of active drug were attained at approximately 1 hour. (nih.gov)
  • Following oral dosing of healthy volunteers with 14 C-labeled acarbose, peak plasma concentrations of radioactivity were attained 14-24 hours after dosing, while peak plasma concentrations of active drug were attained at approximately 1 hour. (nih.gov)
  • ACARBOSE MYLAN tablets contain the active drug acarbose. (nps.org.au)
  • There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with acarbose or any other anti-diabetic drug . (wikidoc.org)
  • Arranged for the use of Students, glucobay acarbose tablets precose drug classification previous methyldopa therapy has been associated with liver disorders. (sayitwithwine.co.uk)
  • with acarbose, a therapeutic drug used as positivecontrol. (nanospheres.tk)