Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.
An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by recurrent eruptions of vesicles and BULLAE mainly on the neck, axillae, and groin. Mutations in the ATP2C1 gene (encoding the secretory pathway Ca2++/Mn2++ ATPase 1 (SPCA1)) cause this disease. It is clinically and histologically similar to DARIER DISEASE - both have abnormal, unstable DESMOSOMES between KERATINOCYTES and defective CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is unrelated to PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS though it closely resembles that disease.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

The anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris sera are pathogenic. (1/42)

Pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus are two closely related, but clinically and histologically distinct, autoimmune skin diseases. The autoantigens for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus are desmoglein 3 and desmoglein 1, respectively. The anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies in pemphigus foliaceus and anti-desmoglein 3 antibodies in pemphigus vulgaris are pathogenic as determined by immunoglobulin G passive transfer animal models. More than 50% of pemphigus vulgaris sera also contain anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies; however, the pathogenicity of the anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris remains unknown. In this study, we used soluble recombinant extracellular domains of desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 to obtain affinity-purified anti-desmoglein 1 and anti-desmoglein 3 autoantibodies from pemphigus vulgaris sera and examined the pathogenicity of each fraction separately using the passive transfer mouse model. By immunoprecipitation, the purified anti-desmoglein 1 and anti-desmoglein 3 showed no cross-reactivity. The anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris induced typical pemphigus foliaceus lesions in neonatal mice, whereas the anti-desmoglein 3 fraction induced pemphigus vulgaris-like lesions. In addition, the pathogenic anti-desmoglein 1 and anti-desmoglein 3 autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris had predominant IgG4 subclass specificity. These findings suggest that the anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies in pemphigus vulgaris are pathogenic.  (+info)

Immune modulation in pemphigus vulgaris: role of CD28 and IL-10. (2/42)

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by Abs to the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-3. Although the autoantibodies have been shown to be pathogenic, the role of the cellular immune system in the pathology of pemphigus-induced acantholysis is unclear. To further delineate the potential role of T cell-signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of PV, we performed passive transfer experiments with PV IgG in gene-targeted mutant mice. Our results demonstrated that CD28-deficient mice (lacking a costimulatory signal for T cell activation) are 5-fold more sensitive to the development of PV than wild-type mice. To evaluate whether the higher incidence of disease was due to an impairment in intercellular adhesion of keratinocytes, we performed an in vitro acantholysis, using CD28-/- mice keratinocytes. No alteration in in vitro adhesion was detected in CD28-/--type keratinocytes. Because the CD28 molecule plays a pivotal role in the induction of Th2 cytokines, we examined the levels of a prototypic Th2 cytokine (IL-10) in CD28-/- mice. Lower levels of IL-10 mRNA were found in lesions from CD28-/- mice. To determine whether pemphigus susceptibility in CD28-/- was related to IL-10 deficiency, we performed passive transfer experiments in IL-10-/- mice that demonstrated increased blisters compared with controls. To confirm that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis, rIL-10 was given with PV IgG. IL-10 significantly suppressed the disease activity. These data suggest a potential role of IL-10 in PV.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo expression of interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in pemphigus vulgaris: interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are involved in acantholysis. (3/42)

Keratinocyte-derived cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of skin diseases. In this study we examined the possible role of keratinocyte-derived cytokines in the development of acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris. Nineteen patients with pemphigus vulgaris, demonstrating the characteristic clinical, pathologic, and immunopathologic findings were studied. In situ immunolabeling demonstrated the presence of two cytokines interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in lesional and perilesional areas. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating overexpression of both cytokines in vivo. To study the role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. The results of the in vitro study demonstrated that pemphigus vulgaris IgG induced interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in the skin. The potential pathogenic role of these mediators was demonstrated by a blocking study using antibodies against human interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in keratinocytes cultures. A combination of anti-interleukin-1alpha and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibodies inhibited in vitro pemphigus vulgaris IgG induced acantholysis. To confirm the role of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in pemphigus, we utilized passive transfer studies using interleukin-1 deficient mice (ICE-/-, interleukin-1beta-/-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor deficient mice (TNFR1R2-/-). Both groups demonstrated a decreased susceptibility to the passive transfer of pemphigus. Our data support the role of cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris.  (+info)

Novel human alpha9 acetylcholine receptor regulating keratinocyte adhesion is targeted by Pemphigus vulgaris autoimmunity. (4/42)

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease. It was assumed that PV is caused by anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoimmunity because absorption of PV sera with a chimeric baculoprotein containing the Dsg 3 and IgG1 portions, rDsg3-Ig-His, eliminated disease-causing antibodies. In this study we demonstrate that rDsg3-Ig-His adsorbs out autoantibodies to different keratinocyte antigens, including a non-Dsg 3 130-kd polypeptide. Because the pool of disease-causing PV IgGs contains antibodies against the keratinocyte acetylcholine receptor (AChR), we sought to identify the targeted receptor(s). Preincubation of monkey esophagus with PV antibodies blocked specific staining of the keratinocyte cell membrane with rabbit monoepitopic antibody to alpha9 AChR, indicating that this first of its kind AChR with dual, muscarinic and nicotinic pharmacology is targeted by PV autoimmunity. Anti-alpha9 antibody stained keratinocytes in a fishnet-like intercellular pattern, and visualized a single band at approximately 50 kd in Western blots of keratinocyte membrane proteins. Using step-by-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions with primers based on known alpha9 sequence regions, we identified the complete reading frame of human alpha9. Its amino acid sequence showed 85% similarity with rat alpha9. Treatment of keratinocyte monolayers with anti-alpha9 antibody induced pemphigus-like acantholysis, which could be reversed either spontaneously or by using the cholinergic agonist carbachol. We conclude that alpha9 is coupled to physiological regulation of keratinocyte adhesion, and its interaction with PV IgG may lead to blister development.  (+info)

Antibodies against keratinocyte antigens other than desmogleins 1 and 3 can induce pemphigus vulgaris-like lesions. (5/42)

Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease of skin adhesion associated with autoantibodies against a number of keratinocyte antigens, such as the adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3 and acetylcholine receptors. The notion that anti-Dsg antibodies alone are responsible for blisters in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) stems from the ability of rDsg1 and rDsg3 to absorb antibodies that cause PV-like skin blisters in neonatal mice. Here, we demonstrate that PV IgGs eluted from rDsg1-Ig-His and rDsg3-Ig-His show similar antigenic profiles, including the 38-, 43-, 115-, and 190-kDa keratinocyte proteins and a non-Dsg 3 130-kDa polypeptide present in keratinocytes from Dsg 3 knockout mouse. We injected into Dsg 3-lacking mice the PV IgGs that did not cross-react with the 160-kDa Dsg 1 or its 45-kDa immunoreactive fragment and that showed no reactivity with recombinant Dsg 1. We used both the Dsg3(null) mice with a targeted mutation of the Dsg3 gene and the "balding" Dsg3(bal)/Dsg3(bal) mice that carry a spontaneous null mutation in Dsg3. These PV IgGs caused gross skin blisters with PV-like suprabasal acantholysis and stained perilesional epidermis in a fishnet-like pattern, indicating that the PV phenotype can be induced without anti-Dsg 3 antibody. The anti-Dsg 1 antibody also was not required, as its presence in PV IgG does not alter the PV-like phenotype in skin organ cultures and because pemphigus foliaceus IgGs produce a distinct phenotype in Dsg3(null) mice. Therefore, mucocutaneous lesions in PV patients could be caused by non-Dsg antibodies.  (+info)

Immunologic and histopathologic characterization of an active disease mouse model for pemphigus vulgaris. (6/42)

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes that is caused by anti-desmoglein 3 IgG autoantibodies. Recently, we generated an active disease mouse model for pemphigus vulgaris by adoptive transfer of splenocytes from immunized desmoglein 3-/- mice to Rag2-/- mice. In this study, we performed immunologic and histopathologic studies using this pemphigus vulgaris model in mice and compared the gross and microscopic phenotypes of pemphigus vulgaris model mice and desmoglein 3-/- mice. Pemphigus vulgaris model mice showed strong in vivo IgG, and weak IgA deposition on keratinocyte cell surfaces in stratified squamous epithelia, and produced circulating anti-desmoglein 3 IgG antibodies without apparent cross-reactivity to desmoglein 1, in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The predominant IgG subclass was IgG1. Pemphigus vulgaris model mice and desmoglein 3-/- mice were almost indistinguishable in terms of both gross and microscopic findings. Both types of mice showed suprabasilar acantholysis in the stratified squamous epithelia, including the oral mucous membranes and traumatized skin around the snout or paws; however, some pemphigus vulgaris model mice demonstrated a more severe phenotype than desmoglein 3-/- mice. The esophagus and forestomach were affected in some pemphigus vulgaris model mice, but not in desmoglein 3-/- mice. Furthermore, eosinophilic spongiosis, which is found in early pemphigus vulgaris lesions in patients, was observed in pemphigus vulgaris model mice but not in desmoglein 3-/- mice. Pemphigus vulgaris model mice reflect several of the histopathologic and immunologic features seen in pemphigus vulgaris patients, and provide a valuable tool to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms of pemphigus vulgaris.  (+info)

Induction of pemphigus phenotype by a mouse monoclonal antibody against the amino-terminal adhesive interface of desmoglein 3. (7/42)

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-threatening autoimmune blistering disease that is caused by IgG autoantibodies against the cadherin-type adhesion molecule desmoglein (Dsg)3. Previously, we have generated an active mouse model for PV by adoptive transfer of Dsg3(-/-) splenocytes. In this study, we isolated eight AK series, anti-Dsg3 IgG mAbs from the PV mouse model, and examined their pathogenic activities in induction of blister formation. Intraperitoneal inoculation of the AK23 hybridoma, but not the other AK hybridomas, induced the virtually identical phenotype to that of PV model mice or Dsg3(-/-) mice with typical histology of PV. Epitope mapping with domain-swapped and point-mutated Dsg1/Dsg3 molecules revealed that AK23 recognized a calcium-dependent conformational epitope on Dsg3, which consisted of the V3, K7, P8, and D59 Dsg3-specific residues that formed the adhesive interface between juxtaposed Dsg, as predicted by the crystal structure. The epitopes of the mAbs that failed to show apparent pathogenic activity were mapped in the middle to carboxyl-terminal extracellular region of Dsg3, where no direct intermolecular interaction was predicted. These findings demonstrate the pathogenic heterogeneity among anti-Dsg3 IgG Abs due to their epitopes, and suggest the direct inhibition of adhesive interaction of Dsg as an initial molecular event of blister formation in pemphigus.  (+info)

A case of focal acantholytic dyskeratosis occurring on both the lip and the anal canal. (8/42)

Focal acantholytic dyskeratosis has a distinctive histological pattern that is associated with various clinical expressions. It rarely occurs on the lip or the perianal area. We report a patient with focal acantholytic dyskeratosis occurring on both the upper lip and the anal canal. Histopathologically, the lesions showed hyperkeratosis, suprabasilar clefting, epidermal acantholysis and dyskeratosis. This case represents the first report of a focal acantholytic dyskeratosis occurring on both the lip and the anal canal.  (+info)

Acantholysis is a medical term that refers to the separation of the cells in the upper layer of the skin (the epidermis), specifically between the pickle cell layer (stratum spinosum) and the granular cell layer (stratum granulosum). This separation results in the formation of distinct, round, or oval cells called acantholytic cells, which are typically seen in certain skin conditions.

Acantholysis is a characteristic feature of several skin disorders, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: A rare autoimmune blistering disorder where the immune system produces antibodies against desmoglein-1 and -3 proteins, leading to acantholysis and formation of flaccid blisters.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: Another autoimmune blistering disorder that specifically targets desmoglein-1 protein, causing superficial blisters and erosions on the skin.
3. Hailey-Hailey disease (familial benign chronic pemphigus): An autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting ATP2C1 gene, leading to defective calcium transport and abnormal keratinocyte adhesion, resulting in acantholysis and recurrent skin eruptions.
4. Darier's disease (keratosis follicularis): An autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting ATP2A2 gene, causing dysfunction of calcium transport and abnormal keratinocyte adhesion, resulting in acantholysis and characteristic papular or keratotic skin lesions.
5. Grover's disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis): An acquired skin disorder of unknown cause, characterized by the development of pruritic, red, and scaly papules and vesicles due to acantholysis.

The presence of acantholysis in these conditions can be confirmed through histopathological examination of skin biopsies.

Pemphigus is a group of rare, autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against desmoglein proteins, which are crucial for maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis (outermost layer of the skin). This results in the loss of keratinocyte cohesion and formation of flaccid blisters filled with serous fluid.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris - The most common form, primarily affecting middle-aged to older adults, with widespread erosions and flaccid blisters on the skin and mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, nose, genitals).
2. Pemphigus foliaceus - A more superficial form, mainly involving the skin, causing crusted erosions and scaly lesions without mucosal involvement. It is more prevalent in older individuals and in certain geographical regions like the Middle East.
3. Paraneoplastic pemphigus - A rare type associated with underlying neoplasms (cancers), such as lymphomas or carcinomas, characterized by severe widespread blistering of both skin and mucous membranes, along with antibodies against additional antigens besides desmogleins.
4. IgA pemphigus - A less common form characterized by localized or generalized erosions and blisters, with IgA autoantibodies targeting the basement membrane zone.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves high-dose systemic corticosteroids, often in combination with immunosuppressive agents (e.g., azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab) to control the disease activity and prevent complications. Regular follow-ups with dermatologists and oral specialists are essential for monitoring treatment response and managing potential side effects.

Desmoglein 3 is a type of desmoglein protein that is primarily found in the upper layers of the epidermis, specifically in the desmosomes of the skin. Desmogleins are part of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and cohesion of tissues, particularly in areas subjected to mechanical stress.

Desmoglein 3 is essential for the formation and maintenance of desmosomal junctions in stratified squamous epithelia, such as the skin and mucous membranes. It is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion by forming calcium-dependent homophilic interactions with other Desmoglein 3 molecules on adjacent cells.

Mutations in the gene encoding Desmoglein 3 have been associated with several skin disorders, including pemphigus vulgaris, a severe autoimmune blistering disease that affects the mucous membranes and skin. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies target Desmoglein 3 (and sometimes Desmoglein 1) molecules, leading to loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and formation of blisters and erosions.

Desmoglein 1 is a type of desmosomal cadherin, which is a transmembrane protein involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. It is primarily expressed in the upper layers of the epidermis and plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and stability of the skin. Desmoglein 1 forms desmosomes, specialized intercellular junctions that connect adjacent keratinocytes and help to resist shearing forces.

Desmoglein 1 is also a target for autoantibodies in certain blistering diseases, such as pemphigus foliaceus, where the binding of these antibodies to desmoglein 1 results in the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and formation of skin blisters.

Desmosomes are specialized intercellular junctions that provide strong adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells and help maintain the structural integrity and stability of tissues. They are composed of several proteins, including desmoplakin, plakoglobin, and cadherins, which form complex structures that anchor intermediate filaments (such as keratin) to the cell membrane. This creates a network of interconnected cells that can withstand mechanical stresses. Desmosomes are particularly abundant in tissues subjected to high levels of tension, such as the skin and heart.

Darier Disease is a genetic skin disorder, also known as Keratosis Follicularis. It is characterized by the formation of greasy, crusted, keratotic papules and plaques that typically appear on the upper arms, torso, and scalp. The lesions may also affect the nasolabial folds, central face, and mucous membranes. Darier Disease is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes a calcium pump protein involved in keratinization. It is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease if one of their parents is affected. The onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood. Treatment options include topical medications, oral retinoids, and photodynamic therapy.

Benign familial pemphigus is a rare, autosomal dominant blistering disorder that primarily affects the mucous membranes. It is characterized by the presence of flaccid blisters and erosions on the skin and mucous membranes. The lesions are usually painless and heal without scarring.

The condition is caused by mutations in the desmoglein-1 (DSG1) gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called desmoglein 1. This protein is a component of desmosomes, which are structures that help bind cells together. Mutations in the DSG1 gene lead to the production of an abnormal desmoglein 1 protein, which disrupts the formation of desmosomes and causes the cells in the epidermis to separate from each other, resulting in blister formation.

Benign familial pemphigus is typically a milder form of pemphigus and has a good prognosis. Treatment usually involves the use of topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and promote healing of the lesions. In severe cases, systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications may be necessary.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Desmogleins are a group of proteins that are part of the desmosomes, which are structures that help to strengthen and maintain the integrity of epithelial tissues. Desmogleins play a crucial role in cell-to-cell adhesion by forming intercellular junctions known as desmoglein adherens junctions. These junctions help to anchor intermediate filaments, such as keratin, to the plasma membrane and provide structural support to epithelial cells.

There are four main types of desmogleins (Dsg1-4), each with distinct expression patterns in different tissues. For example, Dsg1 is primarily expressed in the upper layers of the epidermis, while Dsg3 is found in the lower layers and in mucous membranes. Mutations in desmoglein genes have been associated with several skin disorders, including pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, which are autoimmune blistering diseases characterized by the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

... is the loss of intercellular connections, such as desmosomes, resulting in loss of cohesion between keratinocytes ... ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. "Acantholysis - Medical Definition from MediLexicon". medilexicon.com. Archived from the original on 2016- ...
Seshadri, Divya (2013). "Acantholysis revisited: Back to basics". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 79 (1): 120-6. doi:10.4103 ...
The process leads to the loss of cellular connections (acantholysis), and ultimately results in blistering of the skin. Lesions ... Bertaux B, Prost C, Heslan M, Dubertret L (February 1988). "Cantharide acantholysis: endogenous protease activation leading to ...
This in turn causes a loss of adhesion with acantholysis as a result. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...
In addition to blistering, other symptoms which accompany HHD include acantholysis, erythema and hyperkeratosis. The cause of ... causing acantholysis, blisters and rashes. There is no known cure.[citation needed] While the term pemphigus typically refers ...
The pathologist looks for an intraepidermal vesicle caused by the breaking apart of epidermal cells (acantholysis). Thus, the ... a phenomenon called acantholysis. This causes blisters that slough off and turn into sores. In some cases, these blisters can ... and acantholysis. The least common and most severe type of pemphigus is paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP). This disorder is a ... acantholysis), and by the presence of pathogenic (predominantly IgG) autoantibodies reacting against epithelial adhesion ...
... and acantholysis.: 465 Early descriptions were made by Darrell Wilkinson, a British dermatologist. Pemphigus List of cutaneous ...
PV is manifested by suprabasal acantholysis, or blisters in the mucous membrane and blisters in the epidermis. PF patients have ...
These blisters are due to acantholysis, or breaking apart of intercellular connections through an autoantibody-mediated ...
This results from the disruption of tonofilaments in the desmosomes with acantholysis and intra-epidermal blister formation. " ...
Grover's disease (GD) is a polymorphic, pruritic, papulovesicular dermatosis characterized histologically by acantholysis: 529 ...
... are present in sera from patients with paraneoplastic pemphigus and cause acantholysis in vivo in neonatal mice". The Journal ...
... is characterized by a tubular microscopic pattern and keratinocyte acantholysis. basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma is mostly ...
... pemphigoid does not feature acantholysis, a loss of connections between skin cells. Pemphigoid is more common than pemphigus, ...
... nondyskeratotic acantholysis. List of cutaneous conditions Skin lesion James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk Andrews' ...
... epidermal acantholysis (breaking apart of the skin), dyskeratotic keratinocytes and vacuolar changes in the layers of the skin ... Histologic evidence of acantholysis (loss of intercellular connections leading to breaking apart of the skin; lesion) Direct ...
Poikiloderma Hyperkeratosis Parakeratosis Hypergranulosis Acanthosis Papillomatosis Dyskeratosis Acantholysis Spongiosis ...
... acantholysis MeSH C17.800.865.187 - blister MeSH C17.800.865.360 - dermatitis herpetiformis MeSH C17.800.865.385 - eczema, ...
Acantholysis is the loss of intercellular connections, such as desmosomes, resulting in loss of cohesion between keratinocytes ... ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. "Acantholysis - Medical Definition from MediLexicon". medilexicon.com. Archived from the original on 2016- ...
Tag Archives: acantholysis Dyskeratosis follicularis and its oral manifestations Dariers disease, also known as keratosis ... This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged acantholysis, ATP2A2 mutations, Ca2+ ATPases, dariers disease, desmosome, ...
The primary cause of acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris is______? A. auto immunity B. Intercellular oedema C. intra epithelial ...
Acantholysis. 8/9 (89). Epithelial ballooning degeneration. 8/9 (89). Epithelial intranuclear inclusion bodies. 8/9 (89). ...
Acantholysis is usually absent.. Confirming a diagnosis of paraneoplastic NME is achieved by performing specific laboratory ...
Canine pemphigus foliaceus is an autoimmune antibody-mediated skin disease characterized by acantholysis. The objective of this ...
epidermolysis answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
... acantholysis). Acantholysis can cause skin irritation and itchiness and lead to reddened or missing patches of skin (erosions ...
All cases had acantholysis on cytological evaluation, and most cats were on average 6.8 years of age at the onset of clinical ... Acantholysis was confirmed via histopathology in 90% of cats and/or by cytology in 19% of cats. Possible drug-induced etiology ... primary bacterial-induced acantholysis, a combination of cytology and culture with sensitivity is typically used to start ... This disruption results in acantholysis (breaking up of cell-cell adhesions), resulting in separation and loss of integrity of ...
In addition, foci of suprabasal acantholysis are seen. Sometimes the acantholysis can be very difficult to find making ...
Histopathology of the skin biopsy showed widening of intercellular spaces and acantholysis of keratinocytes in the spinous ...
Some cases of mammary Paget disease show prominent acantholysis. slide 13 of 21 ...
... in a process known as acantholysis. The two main pemphigus variants are pemphigus vulgaris, which often originates with painful ...
Skin biopsy samples showed both suprabasal acantholysis and interface dermatitis. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing and ... PD-1 inhibitor-associated lichenoid inflammation with incidental suprabasilar acantholysis or vesiculation-Report of 4 cases. J ...
The causative pathogen of SSSS is the coagulase-positive group II S.aureus (especially strain 71). The skin acantholysis in the ...
... squamous carcinoma is notable for simulating angiosarcoma owing to a lack of keratin formation and acantholysis of squamous ...
Figure 2. Suprabasal acantholysis, corp rond and grain formation leading to villus (H&E x100) ... Suprabasal clefts, acantholysis with villous formation, luminal keratin plugs, dyskeratotic cells, and a few corps ronds were ... Histopathologically, acantholysis, dyskeratosis forming corps ronds and grains, and villi surrounded by a layer of basal cells ...
Acantholysis means loss of coherence between epidermal cells due to the breakdown of intercellular bridges. It is an important ...
acantholysis (Pemphigus, Transient acantholytic dermatosis) · Pemphigoid (Bullous, Cicatricial, Gestational) · Dermatitis ... a phenomenon known as acantholysis. This is because the desmosomes are attacked. In pemphigoid, the epitheium remains intact, ...
Acantholyses use Acantholysis Acantholysis Acantholysis Bullosa use Epidermolysis Bullosa Acantholytic Dyskeratotic Epidermal ...
Difference Between Acanthosis and Acantholysis. Difference Between Osmoregulation and Thermoregulation. Difference Between Gene ...
Intraepidermal Acantholysis. Fluid Loss. Infection. Nikolsky Positive. Diagnosis. Biopsy showing Autoantibodies. Treatment. ...
This group of rare, potentially life-threatening, chronic diseases is characterized by acantholysis, or the loss of ...
Molecular basis of keratinocyte desmosomes and acantholysis using imunoelectron microscopy. *. Principal Investigator. ISHIKO ...
Acantholyses use Acantholysis Acantholysis Acantholysis Bullosa use Epidermolysis Bullosa Acantholytic Dyskeratotic Epidermal ...
Acantholyses use Acantholysis Acantholysis Acantholysis Bullosa use Epidermolysis Bullosa Acantholytic Dyskeratotic Epidermal ...
Acantholyses use Acantholysis Acantholysis Acantholysis Bullosa use Epidermolysis Bullosa Acantholytic Dyskeratotic Epidermal ...

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