Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Inflammation of the cornea.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents, including metformin, which primarily reduce blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing insulin sensitivity, but not by stimulating insulin secretion, and they are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.

In vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy in acanthamoeba keratitis. (1/141)

The in vivo confocal microscopy technique provides us with a real-time, non-invasive way of examining the human cornea. The most important advantage of this type of microscopy is to reveal the etiologic agents in infectious keratitis such as Acanthamoeba keratitis. We present several representative cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, which were diagnosed in their early stages using in vivo confocal microscopy and managed based on that diagnosis. In our Acanthamoeba keratitis cases, highly-reflective round or ovoid organisms with a diameter of about 10-25 um were visualized distinctly against relatively-dark normal parenchymal structures, such as epithelial cells or keratocyte nuclei. Double-walled structures of Acanthamoeba cysts were clearly demonstrated in some cases. We can confirm that in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying the infecting organisms in Acanthamoeba keratitis.  (+info)

Corneal ulceration in the elderly in Hyderabad, south India. (2/141)

AIMS: To report demographic, microbiological, therapeutic, anatomical, and visual results of corneal ulceration in the elderly patients seen at a tertiary eye care centre in south India. METHODS: 102 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis in patients 65 years and older were studied. Inclusion criteria were: (i) presence of corneal stromal infiltrate upon slit lamp examination; and (ii) microbiological evaluation of corneal scrapings for suspected microbial keratitis. RESULTS: The principal predisposing factors identified in this study were ocular disease (38.2%), previous ocular surgery in the same eye (29.4%), trauma (17.6%), and severe systemic disease (16.7%). Contact lens wear was associated with only two cases (2.0%). 99 organisms were isolated in cultures of corneal scrapings from 74 (72.5%) of the 102 cases. Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.1%), filamentous fungi (25.7%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.5%) were the most common isolates. 12 eyes (11.8%) required surgery, 15 (14.7%) eventually required evisceration, and nine (9.6%) of the 94 followed patients achieved an unaided vision of 20/60 or better at last follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This work represents the largest recent single centre study on (non-viral) microbial keratitis in the elderly, its management, and outcomes of therapy. While the predisposing factors differ from those of general population, the spectrum of microbes responsible for keratitis in the elderly appears to reflect the local microbial flora rather than a predilection for elderly patients. Delay in diagnosis and systemic conditions associated with advancing age probably contribute to poorer outcome from therapeutic measures.  (+info)

Random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles as a tool for the characterization of Brazilian keratitis isolates of the genus Acanthamoeba. (3/141)

The genus Acanthamoeba comprises free-living amebae identified as opportunistic pathogens of humans and other animal species. Morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches have shown wide genetic diversity within the genus. In an attempt to determine the genetic relatedness among isolates of Acanthamoeba we analyzed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of 11 Brazilian isolates from cases of human keratitis and 8 American type culture collection (ATCC) reference strains. We found that ATCC strains belonging to the same species present polymorphic RAPD profiles whereas strains of different species show very similar profiles. Although most Brazilian isolates could not be assigned with certainty to any of the reference species, they could be clustered according to pattern similarities. The results show that RAPD analysis is a useful tool for the rapid characterization of new isolates and the assessment of genetic relatedness of Acanthamoeba spp. A comparison between RAPD analyses and morphological characteristics of cyst stages is also discussed.  (+info)

Isoenzyme patterns and phylogenetic relationships in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from contact lens containers in Korea. (4/141)

In order to refer to the basic information regarding the identification of isolates obtained from a contact lens container in Korea, the isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the isoenzyme band patterns among Acanthamoeba spp. including eight isolates and the simple pairwise dissimilarity analysis was carried out. For an alkaline phosphate development, isolate 7 and Acanthamoeba polyphaga showed homologous band patterns, and isolates 1, 2, and 3 showed the same patterns. For lactate dehydrogenase, similar patterns were observed in isolates 2 and 3. Isolates 3 and 5 showed homologous band patterns for malate dehydrogenase and glucose phosphate isomerase. For hexokinase, isolates 4, 7, and A, hatchetti showed the same band patterns. In others, a considerable number of interstrain polymorphisms was observed in nine isoenzyme band patterns. In Acanthamoeba group II, genetic distances among isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ranged from 0.104 to 0.200. In comparison to A. castellanii, A. hatchetti, and A. polyphaga, genetic distances of isolates 7 and 8 were 0.254 and 0.219, respectively. In Acanthamoeba group III, including A. culbertsoni, A. healyi, and A. royreba, isolate 6 had genetic distances which ranged from 0.314 to 0.336. Finally, when comparing to the six reference Acanthamoeba, it was possible to classify isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, as genetically close-related species and as independent species group. Furthermore, isolates 6, 7 and 8 were identified as independent species as well.  (+info)

Unusual case of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis in a contact lens wearer from Gauteng, South Africa. (5/141)

Acanthamoeba species can cause a chronic, progressive ulcerative keratitis of the eye which is not responsive to the usual antimicrobial therapy and is frequently mistaken for stromal herpes keratitis. An unusual case of coinfection with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as causes of corneal keratitis in a contact lens wearer from Gauteng, South Africa, is reported. These two pathogens have previously been assumed to be selectively exclusive. Cysts of the isolated acanthameba tolerated an incubation temperature of 40 degrees C, indicating a pathogenic species. This case highlights the importance of culture methods in the diagnosis of corneal infection and the choice of treatment regimen. The patient's history of careless contact lens-disinfecting habits emphasizes the need to adhere strictly to recommended methods of contact lens care.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba keratitis. (6/141)

Acanthamoeba keratitis, common in soft lens wearers, is not commonly isolated. The reports of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Indian literature are few. We report here a case of Acanthamoeba Keratitis in a medical student using soft contact lenses, initially diagnosed and treated as a bacterial and later as a viral corneal ulcer, who responded extremely well to medical line of therapy.  (+info)

Phylogenetic diversity among geographically dispersed Chlamydiales endosymbionts recovered from clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. (7/141)

The recently proposed reorganization of the order Chlamydiales and description of new taxa are broadening our perception of this once narrowly defined taxon. We have recovered four strains of gram-negative cocci endosymbiotic in Acanthamoeba spp., representing 5% of the Acanthamoeba sp. isolates examined, which displayed developmental life cycles typical of members of the Chlamydiales. One of these endosymbiont strains was found stably infecting an amoebic isolate recovered from a case of amoebic keratitis in North America, with three others found in acanthamoebae recovered from environmental sources in North America (two isolates) and Europe (one isolate). Analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates by neighbor joining, parsimony, and distance matrix methods revealed their clustering with other members of the Chlamydiales but in a lineage separate from those of the genera Chlamydia, Chlamydophila, Simkania, and Waddlia (sequence similarities, <88%) and including the recently described species Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (sequence similarities, 91.2 to 93.1%). With sequence similarities to each other of 91.4 to 99.4%, these four isolates of intra-amoebal endosymbionts may represent three distinct species and, perhaps, new genera within the recently proposed family Parachlamydiaceae. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes targeted to 16S rRNA signature regions were able to readily differentiate two groups of intra-amoebal endosymbionts which corresponded to two phylogenetic lineages. These results reveal significant phylogenetic diversity occurring among the Chlamydiales in nontraditional host species and supports the existence of a large environmental reservoir of related species. Considering that all described species of Chlamydiales are known to be pathogenic, further investigation of intra-amoebal parachlamydiae as disease-producing agents is warranted.  (+info)

Heterogeneity in cyst morphology within isolates of Acanthamoeba from keratitis patients in Thailand. (8/141)

We isolated Acanthamoebae from the first two keratitis patients identified in Thailand in 1988 and 1990. The patients developed decreased vision, severe photophobia, severe eye pain and foreign body sensation after minor corneal trauma. The lesions included generalized superficial punctate keratitis, stromal corneal ulcer with keratic precipitate and uveitis in one case, and corneal ulcer with abscess in the other. Both cases were diagnosed by isolation of characteristic trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba from corneal tissue by non-nutrient agar culture method. Based on cyst morphology, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga were detected in one case, and A. castellanii and A. triangularis in the other. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-RFLP) revealed that each patient harboured a single parasite population. One shared mtDNA-RFLP with an authentic strain of A. castellanii, and the other gave a new unique pattern. Thus species identification of Acanthamoeba based on cyst morphology per se can be arbitrary, and mtDNA-RFLP may be more appropriate for accurate species/strain differentiation amongst morphologically heterogeneous populations of Acanthamoebae.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the cornea, which is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. It's caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is commonly found in water and soil.

The infection typically occurs in people who wear contact lenses, particularly those who do not clean and disinfect their lenses properly or who swim or shower while wearing their contacts. It can cause pain, redness, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and a feeling like there's something in your eye.

If left untreated, Acanthamoeba keratitis can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, loss of vision, or even blindness. Treatment typically involves the use of specialized antimicrobial drops and sometimes requires a corneal transplant in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper contact lens hygiene, avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contacts, and regularly replacing contact lens storage cases.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Contact lens solutions are a type of disinfecting and cleaning solution specifically designed for use with contact lenses. They typically contain a combination of chemicals, such as preservatives, disinfectants, and surfactants, that work together to clean, disinfect, and store contact lenses safely and effectively.

There are several types of contact lens solutions available, including:

1. Multipurpose solution: This type of solution is the most commonly used and can be used for cleaning, rinsing, disinfecting, and storing soft contact lenses. It contains a combination of ingredients that perform all these functions in one step.
2. Hydrogen peroxide solution: This type of solution contains hydrogen peroxide as the main active ingredient, which is a powerful disinfectant. However, it requires a special case called a neutralizer to convert the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen before using the lenses.
3. Saline solution: This type of solution is used only for rinsing and storing contact lenses and does not contain any disinfecting or cleaning agents. It is often used in combination with other solutions for a complete contact lens care routine.
4. Daily cleaner: This type of solution is used to remove protein buildup and other deposits from the surface of contact lenses. It should be used in conjunction with a multipurpose or hydrogen peroxide solution as part of a daily cleaning routine.

It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using contact lens solutions to ensure that they are used safely and effectively. Failure to do so could result in eye irritation, infection, or other complications.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to absorb and retain water. These lenses are made from materials that have an affinity for water, which helps them to remain moist and comfortable on the eye. The water content of hydrophilic contact lenses can vary, but typically ranges from 30-80% by weight.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are often used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. They can be made in a variety of materials, including soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel.

One advantage of hydrophilic contact lenses is that they tend to be more comfortable to wear than other types of contacts, as they retain moisture and conform closely to the shape of the eye. However, they may also be more prone to deposits and buildup, which can lead to protein accumulation and discomfort over time. Proper care and cleaning are essential to maintain the health of the eyes when wearing hydrophilic contact lenses.

A corneal ulcer is a medical condition that affects the eye, specifically the cornea. It is characterized by an open sore or lesion on the surface of the cornea, which can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or fungal infections, viruses, or injury to the eye.

The cornea is a transparent tissue that covers the front part of the eye and protects it from harmful particles, bacteria, and other foreign substances. When the cornea becomes damaged or infected, it can lead to the development of an ulcer. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a white spot on the surface of the eye.

Corneal ulcers require prompt medical attention to prevent further damage to the eye and potential loss of vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and measures to protect the eye while it heals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damage to the cornea.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The primary mechanism of action of biguanides is to decrease hepatic glucose production and increase insulin sensitivity, which leads to reduced fasting glucose levels and improved glycemic control.

The most commonly prescribed biguanide is metformin, which has been widely used for several decades due to its efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. Other biguanides include phenformin and buformin, but these are rarely used due to their association with a higher risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication.

In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, biguanides have also been shown to have potential benefits on cardiovascular health and weight management, making them a valuable treatment option for many individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, they should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or other underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Benzamidines are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to an amidine functional group. They are commonly used as antimicrobial agents, particularly in the treatment of various gram-negative bacterial infections. Benzamidines work by inhibiting the enzyme bacterial dehydrogenases, which are essential for the bacteria's survival.

Some examples of benzamidine derivatives include:

* Tempanamine hydrochloride (Tembaglanil): used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
* Chlorhexidine: a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used as a disinfectant and preservative in various medical and dental applications.
* Prothiobenzamide: an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug used to treat gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

It is important to note that benzamidines have a narrow therapeutic index, which means that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery where the entire thickness of the host's damaged or diseased cornea is removed and replaced with a similar full-thickness portion of a healthy donor's cornea. The procedure aims to restore visual function, alleviate pain, and improve the structural integrity of the eye. It is typically performed for conditions such as severe keratoconus, corneal scarring, or corneal ulcers that cannot be treated with other, less invasive methods. Following the surgery, patients may require extended recovery time and rigorous postoperative care to minimize the risk of complications and ensure optimal visual outcomes.

Parasitic eye infections are conditions characterized by the invasion and infestation of the eye or its surrounding structures by parasites. These can be protozoans, helminths, or ectoparasites. Examples of such infections include Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is caused by a free-living amoeba found in water and soil; Toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; Loiasis, which is caused by the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa; and Demodicosis, which is caused by the mite Demodex folliculorum. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of parasite but often include redness, pain, discharge, and vision changes. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications and sometimes surgery to remove the parasites or damaged tissue. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Herpetic keratitis is a specific type of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It is further divided into two types: dendritic and disciform keratitis. Dendritic keratitis is characterized by the development of branching ulcers on the surface of the cornea, while disciform keratitis involves inflammation and opacity in the stroma (middle layer) of the cornea. Both types of herpetic keratitis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. If left untreated, herpetic keratitis can lead to serious complications, including blindness.

Dendritic keratitis is a specific form of keratitis, which is inflammation of the cornea. The term "dendritic" refers to the characteristic appearance of the lesion on the cornea, which resembles a branching tree or a dendrite.

Dendritic keratitis is most commonly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, although other infectious and non-infectious etiologies can also produce similar lesions. The condition is characterized by the presence of a branching, dendrite-like ulcer on the corneal epithelium, often accompanied by symptoms such as eye pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and tearing.

Treatment for dendritic keratitis typically involves antiviral medications to manage the underlying HSV-1 infection, as well as measures to promote corneal healing and reduce discomfort. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention if you suspect dendritic keratitis, as untreated or improperly managed cases can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, vision loss, and potential blindness.

Fungal eye infections, also known as fungal keratitis or ocular fungal infections, are caused by the invasion of fungi into the eye. The most common types of fungi that cause these infections include Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida. These infections can affect any part of the eye, including the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, and vitreous humor.

Fungal eye infections often present with symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, blurred vision, and discharge. In severe cases, they can lead to corneal ulcers, perforation of the eye, and even blindness if left untreated. Risk factors for fungal eye infections include trauma to the eye, contact lens wear, immunosuppression, and pre-existing eye conditions such as dry eye or previous eye surgery.

Diagnosis of fungal eye infections typically involves a thorough eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit lamp examination, and sometimes corneal scrapings for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Treatment usually involves topical antifungal medications, such as natamycin or amphotericin B, and in some cases may require oral or intravenous antifungal therapy. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair any damage caused by the infection.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Bacterial eye infections, also known as bacterial conjunctivitis or bacterial keratitis, are caused by the invasion of bacteria into the eye. The most common types of bacteria that cause these infections include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. Symptoms include redness, swelling, pain, discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye. Bacterial keratitis is an infection of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. Symptoms include severe pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, and decreased vision.

Bacterial eye infections are typically treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointments. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect a bacterial eye infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing your eyes.

Extended-wear contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to be worn continuously, including during sleep, for an extended period of time. These lenses are typically made from materials that allow more oxygen to reach the eye, reducing the risk of eye irritation and infection compared to traditional overnight wear of non-extended wear lenses.

Extended-wear contact lenses can be worn for up to 30 days or longer, depending on the specific lens material and the individual's tolerance. However, it is important to note that even extended-wear contacts come with some risks, including a higher risk of eye infections and corneal ulcers compared to daily wear lenses. Therefore, it is essential to follow the recommended wearing schedule and replacement schedule provided by an eye care professional, as well as to have regular eye exams to monitor the health of the eyes.

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Clodronic acid is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. It is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fracture, as well as to treat Paget's disease of bone.

Clodronic acid works by inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts, which helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density. This can help reduce the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and intravenous solutions. It is usually taken or administered once a day or once a week, depending on the specific formulation and the individual patient's needs.

Like all medications, clodronic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as muscle pain, joint pain, and headaches. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as esophageal ulcers and bone necrosis of the jaw. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

"Cricetulus" is a genus of rodents that includes several species of hamsters. These small, burrowing animals are native to Asia and have a body length of about 8-15 centimeters, with a tail that is usually shorter than the body. They are characterized by their large cheek pouches, which they use to store food. Some common species in this genus include the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Daurian hamster (Cricetulus dauuricus). These animals are often kept as pets or used in laboratory research.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

Eye infections, also known as ocular infections, are conditions characterized by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in any part of the eye or its surrounding structures. These infections can affect various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis), cornea (keratitis), eyelid (blepharitis), or the internal structures of the eye (endophthalmitis, uveitis). The symptoms may include redness, pain, discharge, itching, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. The cause can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic, and the treatment typically involves antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungals, depending on the underlying cause.

"Acanthamoeba-General Information-Acanthamoeba keratitis". CDC. 2019-01-04. Neelam S, Niederkorn JY (June 2017). "Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-02. Baig AM (2019). "Drug targeting in Acanthamoeba keratitis: ... Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front ... In fact, the first case of Acanthamoeba keratitis described was due to ocular trauma. Once on the contact lens, Acanthamoeba is ...
... keratitis cases in the past have resolved from a therapy consisting of atropine and some other drugs with no ... Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). The latter is often but not ... When present in the eye, Acanthamoeba strains can cause acanthamoebic keratitis, which may lead to corneal ulcers or even ... Baig AM, Zuberi H, Khan NA (May 2014). "Recommendations for the management of Acanthamoeba keratitis". Journal of Medical ...
... eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Chlorhexidine is very ... Alkharashi M, Lindsley K, Law HA, Sikder S (February 2015). "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". The Cochrane ...
PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. It is sold as a swimming pool and spa ... "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2 (2): CD0010792. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010792. ...
"Polymicrobial Keratitis: Acanthamoeba and Infectious Crystalline Keratopathy". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 148 (1): 13- ...
Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) ... "Acanthamoeba , Microworld". www.arcella.nl. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016. "Microscopy ... This finding suggests that the ''Acanthamoeba'' are capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual ... Orthologs of genes employed in meiosis of sexual eukaryotes have recently been identified in the Acanthamoeba genome. These ...
On May 25, 2007, the U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis ... Acute epithelial keratitis Nummular keratitis Interstitial keratitis Disciform keratitis Neurotrophic keratitis Mucous plaque ... Superficial punctate keratitis Ulcerative keratitis Exposure keratitis (also known as exposure keratopathy) - due to dryness of ... Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia (2015). "An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis ...
It has also been used for the laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, Francisella and Nocardia. This culture is to be ... "Laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis using buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 126 (4): 590-2. ...
1172 Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing Acanthamoeba keratitis. Balamuthia infection James, William D.; ... Acanthamoeba infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions.: 422 : ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. Khan, Naveed Ahmed (2009). Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Horizon Scientific Press. p. 127. ...
They are particularly used for the topical treatment of acanthamoebiasis (Acanthamoeba keratitis). "Final Report on the Safety ...
"EyeRounds.org:Acanthamoeba Keratitis: 39-year-old contact lens wearer with persisting keratitis & pain". Retrieved 2009-01-17. ... It can be caused by Acanthamoeba or Entamoeba histolytica.: 421 When associated with Acanthamoeba, it is also known as " ... "A case of successful treatment of cutaneous Acanthamoeba infection in a lung transplant recipient". Transpl Infect Dis. 9 (1): ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis). Many complications arise when contact lenses are worn not as prescribed (improper wear schedule or ... "The relationship between environmental sources and the susceptibility of Acanthamoeba keratitis in the United Kingdom". PLOS ... Microbial keratitis is a serious focal point of current research due to its potentially devastating effect on the eye, ... Bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. In: Smolin G, Thoft RA, editors. The Cornea. Scientific Foundations and Clinical ...
It has orphan drug status in the United States for acanthamoeba keratitis and primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). ... for the treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis with miltefosine". Profounda Inc. Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. ... and Acanthamoeba. However, later studies showed that it is not as potent as other drugs, such as chlorpromazine and diminazene ... Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 53 (2): 121-126. doi:10.1111/j.1550- ...
... viral and fungal endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolates in keratitis patients of Iran". Experimental Parasitology. 200: 48-54. ... Parachlamydia acanthamoebae) to counter giant viruses from Marseilleviridae and Mimiviridae. Acanthamoeba that are infected ... Acanthamoeba that are not infected by the symbiont or virus have the highest fitness with a doubling time that is twice as fast ... D. discoideum and other social amoeba differ from free living Acanthamoeba in that instead of encysting, they undergo a social ...
Hydrogen peroxide solutions have a greater ability to fight acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare infection that can cause blindness. ...
The solution has been linked to cases of an eye infection (keratitis) caused by an organism of the genus Acanthamoeba. The ... In May 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention linked AMO MoisturePlus eye solution to Acanthamoeba keratitis ... including eye infection and microbial keratitis.[citation needed] The voluntary and limited recall was caused by an isolated ... company was sued in June 2007 by Michael Connolly, who claimed to have developed a keratitis infection after using AMO's ...
Protozoa infection like Acanthamoeba keratitis is characterized by severe pain and is associated with contact lens users ... Small satellite lesions around the ulcer are a common feature of fungal keratitis and hypopyon is usually seen. Viral keratitis ... Fungal keratitis causes deep and severe corneal ulcer. It is caused by Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Candida sp., as also ... The typical feature of fungal keratitis is slow onset and gradual progression, where signs are much more than the symptoms. ...
In December 1997, he contracted acanthamoeba keratitis in his right eye due to a contact lens mishap sustained whilst on ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis, and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (naegleriasis). Parasitic worms (helminths) are macroparasites ...
... masquerading as acanthamoeba keratitis or other infectious keratitis. When a keratitis is unresponsive to treatment and ... July 1997). "Topical anesthetic abuse ring keratitis: report of four cases". Cornea. 16 (4): 424-9. doi:10.1097/00003226- ... "Corneal anesthetic abuse and Candida keratitis". Ophthalmology. 103 (1): 37-40. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(96)30735-5. PMID 8628558 ... challenges for correct diagnosis in that it is a relatively uncommon entity that may initially present as a chronic keratitis, ...
... causes toxoplasmosis Acanthamoeba: causes acanthamoeba keratitis Leishmania: causes leishmaniasis Babesia: causes babesiosis ...
1 March 2004 Acanthamoeba keratitis and overnight orthokeratology Case presentation: Canadian Adverse Reaction Newsletter ... The Globe and Mail reported two cases in Canada in which Acanthamoeba infections during ortho-k treatment, possibly related to ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis, and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (naegleriasis). Parasitic worms (Helminths) are macroparasites ...
... keratitis MeSH C11.204.564.112 - acanthamoeba keratitis MeSH C11.204.564.225 - corneal ulcer MeSH C11.204.564.425 - keratitis, ... acanthamoeba keratitis MeSH C11.294.725.562 - onchocerciasis, ocular MeSH C11.294.725.781 - toxoplasmosis, ocular MeSH C11.294. ... keratitis, herpetic MeSH C11.294.800.475.450 - keratitis, dendritic MeSH C11.319.217 - conjunctival neoplasms MeSH C11.319.421 ... herpetic MeSH C11.204.564.425.450 - keratitis, dendritic MeSH C11.204.564.585 - keratoconjunctivitis MeSH C11.204.564.585.500 ...
... acanthamoeba keratitis MeSH C03.752.700.700.055.250 - blastocystis infections MeSH C03.752.700.700.055.328 - dysentery, amebic ...
Kusrini E, Hashim F, Azmi WN, Amin NM, Estuningtyas A (2016). "A novel antiamoebic agent against Acanthamoeba sp. - A causative ... agent for eye keratitis infection". Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Spectroscopy. 153: 714-21. Bibcode:2016AcSpA.153.. ...
Acanthamoeba - an amoeba that can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans Balamuthia mandrillaris - an amoeba that ... Fowler, M.; Carter, R. F. (September 1965). "Acute pyogenic meningitis probably due to Acanthamoeba sp.: a preliminary report ... as a structural homolog of animal CHRM1 has been shown to be present in Naegleria and Acanthamoeba. It takes one to twelve days ...
In addition, Acanthamoeba spp. can cause granulomatous skin lesions and, more seriously, keratitis and corneal ulcers following ... Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris cysts and trophozoites are found in tissue.[citation needed] In Acanthamoeba ... Unlike N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have only two stages, cysts and trophozoites, in their life cycle. No ... Acanthamoeba spp. causes mostly subacute or chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), with a clinical picture of ...
Contamination of contact lenses is another cause as fungi, bacteria and parasites, microscopic parasite acanthamoeba, in ... Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis (PUK) is a group of destructive inflammatory diseases involving the peripheral cornea in human ... Cao, Yan; Zhang, Wensong; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Hongyan (2017-07-13). "Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis Associated with ... Gomes, Beatriz Fiuza; Santhiago, Marcony R. (March 2021). "Biology of peripheral ulcerative keratitis". Experimental Eye ...
Acanthamoeba, Onchocerciasis or river blindness, Leishmaniasis, Trypanosoma cruzi or Chagas disease, Trypanosoma brucei or ... Keratitis means corneal inflammation. Acutely, early symptoms include a painful, photophobic, red watery eye. This is due to ... Interstitial keratitis (IK) is corneal scarring due to chronic inflammation of the corneal stroma. Interstitial means space ... "Keratitis, Interstitial" emedicine Dec 2007 Dr Khairul Nazri Mohammad (Articles' Author), Waterford General Hospital, IRELAND ...
What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent ... Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea. ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ... The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other eye infections. These symptoms, which can ...
"Acanthamoeba-General Information-Acanthamoeba keratitis". CDC. 2019-01-04. Neelam S, Niederkorn JY (June 2017). "Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-02. Baig AM (2019). "Drug targeting in Acanthamoeba keratitis: ... Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front ... In fact, the first case of Acanthamoeba keratitis described was due to ocular trauma. Once on the contact lens, Acanthamoeba is ...
The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis is significantly higher in some countries than others, with the United Kingdom having ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated With Tap Water Use During Contact Lens Cleaning. Manufacturer Guidelines Need to Change. ... The epidemiological characteristics of the Chicago Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak revealed unevenly distributed infection ... Another common source of inadvertent exposure to Acanthamoeba spp among even compliant contact lens wearers is rinsing of the ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis. Introduction. Acanthamoeba spp are free-living cyst-forming protozoans, ubiquitous in air, soil, dust ... AcanthamoebaKeratitis Investigation Team. National outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of a contact lens ... Risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis in contact lens users: a case-control study. BMJ 1995;310:1567-70.doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis and treatment update 2009. Am J Ophthalmol 2009;148:487-99.doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2009.06.009 ...
Backgroud To report the clinical and microbiological features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) related to contact lens in a ... Genotypic identification of Acanthamoeba sp. isolates associated with an outbreak of acanthamoeba keratitis. Cornea 2009;28:673 ... The culture of Acanthamoeba was required in any suspected infective keratitis. The culture-positive rate of Acanthamoeba had ... Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolates and clinical characteristics of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in China. J Med ...
Access Acanthamoeba Keratitis case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Advice of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Find out things that have helped others to improve. , Diseasemaps ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness ... Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea. ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. ...
Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis could benefit from vigilant glaucoma monitoring, researchers suggest.. ... Ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma are frequent complications in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), according to findings ... Close more info about Ocular Hypertension, Glaucoma Frequent Complications of Acanthamoeba Keratitis ... Close more info about Ocular Hypertension, Glaucoma Frequent Complications of Acanthamoeba Keratitis ...
A) Corneal melting and vascularization in a patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis. (B) Observed corneal damage in AK is shown ... Application of the omics sciences to the study of Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris: current ... Transcriptional changes of proteins of the thioredoxin and glutathione systems in Acanthamoeba spp. under oxidative stress - an ... Free-living amoebae (FLA): detection, morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba genus in the hydraulic system ...
... developed recurrent episodes of corneal and scleral inflammation with viable Acanthamoeba in the cornea despite prolonged ... In our large series of Acanthamoeba keratitis with a positive microbiologic diagnosis at presentation, nearly 5% ... Persistently culture positive acanthamoeba keratitis: in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity Ophthalmology. 2003 Aug;110(8 ... Conclusions: In our large series of Acanthamoeba keratitis with a positive microbiologic diagnosis at presentation, nearly 5% ...
Acanthamoebic keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis. *Amoebic infection of the cornea is a serious corneal infection, often ... Adenoviral keratitis of a 24-year-old woman. *Herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis). Viral infection of the cornea is ... Fungal keratitis, caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans (cf. Fusarium, causing an outbreak of keratitis in 2005- ... On May 25, 2007, the U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis ...
Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team. Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011. ... Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011.. January 2017 , Eye and Contact Lens ...
Acanthamoeba Keratitis, Leishmaniasis and Dry Nose discussed with Profoundas CEO Todd MacLaughlan. By Adam Torres. April 6, ... Home » Acanthamoeba Keratitis, Leishmaniasis and Dry Nose discussed with Profoundas CEO Todd MacLaughlan ... Impavido has shown great promise in the treatment of over 200 patients with Acanthamoeba Keratitis, also known as AK, which is ...
Interstitial Keratitis;. Fungal Keratitis;. Acanthamoeba Keratitis;. Band Keratopathy;. Actinic Keratopathy;. Keratoconus; etc ...
Silver nanoparticles conjugated with contact lens solutions may reduce the risk of acanthamoeba keratitis * Hendiger, E.B. ...
Systemic Miltefosine as an Adjunct Treatment of Progressive Acanthamoeba Keratitis.. Naranjo, Andrea; Martinez, Jaime D; Miller ... To report our experience with oral miltefosine (MLT) as an adjunct treatment for progressive Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).. ... Queratitis por Acanthamoeba/diagnóstico Queratitis por Acanthamoeba/etiología Administración Oral Adolescente Adulto Lentes de ... Six females from 16 to 55 years old, with a microbiologic diagnosis of Acanthamoeba, were treated with MLT and standard medical ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis occurs in contact lens users. It is more likely to happen in people who make their own homemade cleaning ... Fungal keratitis can occur after a corneal injury involving plant material. It may also occur in people with a suppressed ... Herpes simplex keratitis is a serious viral infection. It may cause repeated attacks that are triggered by stress, exposure to ... Azar DT, Hallak J, Barnes SD, Giri P, Pavan-Langston D. Microbial keratitis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, ...
The free-living amoebae that cause human infections include Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia ... Acanthamoeba keratitis multiple states, 2005-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Jun 1. 56(21):532-4. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Acanthamoeba keratitis cases substantially increased in the 1980s with the introduction of disposable soft contact lenses. [14 ... The epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis: where do we stand?. Cornea. 1998 Jan. 17(1):3-10. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
... chlorhexidine drops for management of acanthamoeba keratitis; and a safe surgical procedure for control of keratoglobus. He was ...
As a reporter for the Shropshire Star, he was able to chronicle his own struggles with acanthamoeba keratitis. He wrote about ... The problem is not Acanthamoeba polyphaga possibly being in the shower water but the contact lenses. Acanthamoeba keratitis is ... This video from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) profiles a third case of acanthamoeba keratitis: ... this parasite can infect your cornea and cause a condition called acanthamoeba keratitis. This infection can result in scarring ...
Krumholz was diagnosed with acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious infection.. 22 Feb, 2023, 04:05 PM IST. ...
Categories: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Acanthamoeba Keratitis...113 • Plateau Iris...114 • Hans Goldmann...115 • Phacoemulsification Fluidics...116 • Rosacea...117 • ... Visual Agnosia...348 • Prentices Rule...349 • Amblyopia...350 • Thygesons Superficial Punctate Keratitis...351 • Laser ... Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis...181 • Abu Ali Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham...182 • Congenital Eyelid Deformities...183 • Corneal ... Keratitis and Keratopathy...282 • Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction...283 OCTOBER Sympathetic Ophthalmia...285 • Surgical ...
Good lens care and cleaning are important for eye health and can help prevent problems such as acanthamoeba keratitis. ...
Introduction: Acanthamoeba is a ubiquitous protozoan found in soil and freshwater. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an ... Conclusions: Acanthamoeba cysts can be identified in Diff-Quik® stained corneal scrapings. This has not previously been ... One corneal scraping was positive for Acanthamoeba cysts on Diff-Quik®, with the result subsequently confirmed with a positive ... High-magnification of extracellular Acanthamoeba cyst identified in corneal scraping. Note the large size of the cyst with a ...
Miltefosine May Be Effective for Progressive Acanthamoeba Keratitis This article is part of MPRs coverage of the American ... Close more info about Miltefosine May Be Effective for Progressive Acanthamoeba Keratitis ... Close more info about Miltefosine May Be Effective for Progressive Acanthamoeba Keratitis ...
Risk factors, demographics and clinical profile of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Melbourne: an 18-year retrospective study Matthew ...
  • Most cases of brain and spinal cord infection with Acanthamoeba (Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis) are fatal. (hamrodoctor.com)
  • In fact, the first case of Acanthamoeba keratitis described was due to ocular trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis could benefit from vigilant glaucoma monitoring, researchers suggest. (optometryadvisor.com)
  • Regarding the side effects, MacLaughlan noted that "experience in the US with over 250 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis and over 200 patients with leishmaniasis has shown that the management of side effects is possible and the reward outweighs the risk of therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Infection of the cornea by Acanthamoeba is difficult to treat with conventional medications, and AK may cause permanent visual impairment or blindness, due to damage to the cornea or through damage to other structures important to vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a severe and vision-threatening infection of the cornea. (researchsquare.com)
  • Viruses that can cause keratitis include herpes simplex virus (HSV) , varicella zoster virus (VZV) , and adenovirus. (healthline.com)
  • Other types of viruses that cause keratitis include varicella zoster viruses associated with chickenpox, herpes zoster, and adenovirus, which causes upper respiratory tract infections. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis causes severe pain and blindness if left untreated. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Extended-wear contact lenses can cause added risk in developing this condition, and if left untreated, keratitis can scar your cornea, which can possibly lead to blindness. (vistaeyecare.ca)
  • If left untreated, Acanthamoeba eventually leads to vision loss, requiring a corneal transplant to restore sight. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • These are features also seen in viral and bacterial keratitis, and may be misleading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the relative rarity of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) compared to other causes of keratitis (bacterial, viral, etc.), it is often misdiagnosed, especially in the early stages of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex keratitis is a serious viral infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Keratitis nummularis - a viral keratitis characterized by disc-shaped whitish and granular spots in the center of the cornea. (hickeysolution.com)
  • What are the symptoms of infection or parasites (acanthamoeba keratitis) in your eye? (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other eye infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba are protozoa found nearly ubiquitously in soil and water and can cause infections of the skin, eyes, and central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin infections that are caused by Acanthamoeba but have not spread to the central nervous system can be successfully treated. (hamrodoctor.com)
  • The subsequent infections are called " keratitis dendritica " and are characterized by a lesion pattern that resembles the veins of a leaf. (hickeysolution.com)
  • If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye care professional right away, as Acanthamoeba keratitis and other eye infections can lead to permanent loss of vision if not addressed immediately. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a painful corneal infection for controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Background/aims Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a chronic debilitating corneal infection principally affecting contact lens (CL) users. (bmj.com)
  • These scratches can sometimes lead to a non-infectious form of keratitis. (healthline.com)
  • Although lens contamination is primarily bacterial, lens cases tend to be colonized with mixed populations of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, including Acanthamoeba. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoeba are among the most prevalent environmental protozoa and have been classified by 18s rDNA sequencing into at least 20 genotypes, designated T1-T20. (medscape.com)
  • This infection is caused by amoebas or protozoa, the so-called Acanthamoeba . (hickeysolution.com)
  • While the vast majority of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis occur in contact lens wearers, there have been many cases of Acanthamoeba described in those who do not wear contact lenses, especially outside the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another common source of inadvertent exposure to Acanthamoeba spp among even compliant contact lens wearers is rinsing of the storage case with tap water. (medscape.com)
  • Clinicians must be aware of the increased risk for ocular keratitis among contact lens wearers and those with corneal trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Fungal keratitis , caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans (cf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal keratitis can occur after a corneal injury involving plant material. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fungal keratitis can be caused by infection by Aspergillus , Fusarium , and Candida species. (healthline.com)
  • The fungal keratitis or mycotic keratitis or is caused by a fungus. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Bacterial keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial keratitis can be caused by several types of bacteria, including Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus species. (healthline.com)
  • Bacterial keratitis can occur when bacteria are transferred from your fingers to your contacts, such as when you put your contacts in or take them out. (vistaeyecare.ca)
  • Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea of the eye. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Keratitis punctata - an inflammation of the cornea characterized by small grayish dots on the corneal epithelium. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Aciclovir is the mainstay of treatment for HSV keratitis and steroids should be avoided at all costs in this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this interview from AAO 2022, Dr. Anthony Aldave talked about controversies in cornea discussed at the meeting such as the preferred treatment for recurrent corneal erosions, and the role of steroids in Acanthamoeba keratitis treatment. (aao.org)
  • The cysts are extremely resilient and are the form of the organism responsible for persistent relapsing keratitis. (bmj.com)
  • When the corneal scraping and culture were negative, the cases were identified if Acanthamoeba cysts were observed by in vivo confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany) together with a typical clinical sign. (researchsquare.com)
  • The isolation of Acanthamoeba cysts from swimming pool water is not unusual, as they resist chlorination. (medscape.com)
  • Microbial keratitis is a specific type of keratitis where germs enter the cornea and cause an eye infection . (healthline.com)
  • What types of germs cause microbial keratitis? (healthline.com)
  • A variety of germs can cause microbial keratitis. (healthline.com)
  • A small 2020 case-control study found that showering with contacts was the greatest hygiene-related risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. (healthline.com)
  • Out of every 10,000 people who sleep in their contact lenses overnight, 18 - 20 every year will get an infection of microbial keratitis . (cdc.gov)
  • Once diagnosed, Acanthamoeba keratitis can be fairly difficult to cure, but is treated with topical anti-microbial agents. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Acanthamoeba can Acanthamoebic keratitis (corneal tissue) enter by way of the cribiform plate, the lungs, or via pores and skin after trauma. (ehd.org)
  • Dr. Patnaik will use the IRIS Registry to better understand and improve diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (rpbusa.org)
  • When brought into contact with your eyeball, this parasite can infect your cornea and cause a condition called acanthamoeba keratitis. (forbes.com)
  • If keratitis isn't treated promptly, vision loss can occur. (healthline.com)
  • As a rule, keratitis affects one eye, but it can also occur on both sides. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Application of the omics sciences to the study of Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Acanthamoeba is a type of amoeba that can be found in a variety of water sources. (healthline.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is a type of microscopic, single-celled organism known as an amoeba. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. (ac.ir)
  • Scrapings of her cornea revealed a species of parasite, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, which is commonly found in different water sources such as lakes, swimming pools, tap water, and heating and air conditioning units. (forbes.com)
  • Corneal ulceration caused by Acanthamoeba is on the rise, and recent publications indicate an outbreak in the UK over the last few years [1]. (uk.com)
  • Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • When an Acanthamoeba infects the translucent, outer layer of the eye (the cornea), Acanthamoeba keratitis results. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Recently, AK has been recognized as an orphan disease and a funded project, orphan diseases Acanthamoeba keratitis (ODAK), has tested the effects of a diverse range drugs and biocides on AK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its comparative rarity, and status as an orphan disease, Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is of concern because of its severe and prolonged morbidity in the young and economically active contact lens (CL) users who constitute 90% of affected patients in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is more common in people who wear contact lenses . (hickeysolution.com)
  • Individuals who wear contact lenses are substantially more likely to become infected with Acanthamoeba keratitis. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis genotype T4D: An environmental isolate displays pathogenic behavior. (ac.ir)
  • Individuals who develop GAE or disseminated disease usually are immunocompromised, whereas those with keratitis usually are immunocompetent. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoebae are a causative agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in immunocompetent individuals. (ac.ir)
  • Herpetic keratitis can spread to the eyelids, conjunctiva (the thin mucous membrane of the inside of the eyelid and white areas of the eye) and cornea. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Wearing contact lenses can put you at increased risk for Acanthamoeba keratitis , a severe type of eye infection caused by a free-living ameba commonly found in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a relatively rare type of eye infection, but it can become quite serious. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Among the most common types is keratitis caused by the herpes simplex virus . (hickeysolution.com)
  • The herpes simplex virus can also lead to keratitis disciformis , which is an inflammation with edema formation in the corneal stroma. (hickeysolution.com)
  • One to be particularly aware of in relation to water is a type of parasitic keratitis that's caused by Acanthamoeba . (healthline.com)
  • In our large series of Acanthamoeba keratitis with a positive microbiologic diagnosis at presentation, nearly 5% developed recurrent episodes of corneal and scleral inflammation with viable Acanthamoeba in the cornea despite prolonged treatment with biguanides and/or diamidines. (nih.gov)
  • Six females from 16 to 55 years old, with a microbiologic diagnosis of Acanthamoeba , were treated with MLT and standard medical treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • To characterize the risk factors, clinical course, treatment outcome and the association between in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity for subjects with persistently culture-positive Acanthamoeba keratitis. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systemic Miltefosine as an Adjunct Treatment of Progressive Acanthamoeba Keratitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • To report our experience with oral miltefosine (MLT) as an adjunct treatment for progressive Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , treatment for this type of keratitis can last a year or longer. (healthline.com)
  • Even if you haven't exposed your contacts to water, it's important that you receive prompt treatment if you suspect that you have keratitis. (healthline.com)
  • Since access to propamidine isethionate (Brolene®) as a first-line treatment has been limited in recent years, in the current study, we examined the effects of pentamidine isethionate against trophozoite and cyst forms of Acanthamoeba . (ac.ir)
  • The infection is usually diagnosed by an eye care provider based on symptoms, growth of the Acanthamoeba ameba from a scraping of the eye, and/or seeing the ameba by a process called confocal microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally speaking, the symptoms of keratitis are similar across different causes. (healthline.com)
  • What are the symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis? (hickeysolution.com)
  • The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, excessive tearing, and the sensation that something is stuck in one's eye. (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • Contact lens acute red eye (CLARE) - a non-ulcerative sterile keratitis associated with colonization of Gram-negative bacteria on contact lenses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Acanthamoeba keratitis often presents with atypical features, diagnosis from slit-lamp examination alone can often be. (uk.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis will eventually cause severe pain and possible vision loss or blindness if untreated. (cdc.gov)
  • As Acanthamoeba persists in warmer temperatures, the incidence increases during warmer months. (medscape.com)
  • Backgroud To report the clinical and microbiological features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) related to contact lens in a tertiary hospital in China. (researchsquare.com)
  • Only subjects with 2 or more positive cultures, availability of the clinical data, and availability of the last Acanthamoeba isolate were included in this study. (nih.gov)
  • Early recognition of the signs of amoebic keratitis, including pain (often out of proportion to clinical findings), tearing, photophobia, and foreign body sensation, warrant aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. (medscape.com)
  • Although the exact host factors have not been fully described, it is likely that corneal epithelial defects, tear film composition, eye surface pH, and the level of anti-Acanthamoeba IgA antibodies in the tear film play a role in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba spp are free-living cyst-forming protozoans, ubiquitous in air, soil, dust and water, to which 50%-100% of us develop antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • [ 5 ] Most persons appear to have been exposed to this organism during their lifetime, as 50%-100% of healthy people have serum antibodies directed against Acanthamoeba , but whether this leads to protective immunity is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • Species within the genus, Acanthamoeba, are generally free-living trophozoites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adverse environments, including the nutrient deficiency and noxious treatments that the organisms are exposed to in keratitis, trophozoites encyst. (bmj.com)
  • What can I do to decrease my risk of developing Acanthamoeba keratitis? (cdc.gov)
  • Beyond the route of inoculation into the eye and external risk factors, host factors are also likely to play a significant role in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of Acanthamoeba contamination in end-user drinking water would contribute to our understanding of regional variations in the risk of exposure. (bmj.com)
  • On May 25, 2007, the U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of Advanced Medical Optics Complete Moisture Plus Multi-Purpose eye solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011. (cunyisph.org)
  • individuals swimming with contact lenses are at increased risk for amoebic keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • People that wear contacts are at a higher risk of keratitis , a condition where your cornea becomes inflamed. (healthline.com)
  • Who is at risk from keratitis? (hickeysolution.com)
  • Who Is at Risk of Contracting Acanthamoeba Keratitis? (sedona-ophthal.com)
  • In non-contact lens users, the greatest risks for developing Acanthamoeba infection are trauma and exposure to contaminated water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure keratitis (also known as exposure keratopathy) - due to dryness of the cornea caused by incomplete or inadequate eyelid closure ( lagophthalmos ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Photokeratitis - keratitis due to intense ultraviolet radiation exposure (e.g. snow blindness or welder 's arc eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front (cornea) of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, water sources can have tiny, single-celled organisms called acanthamoebae living in them. (vistaeyecare.ca)
  • Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austin A, Lietman T, Rose-Nussbaumer J. Update on the management of infectious keratitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contralateral Clinically Unaffected Eyes of Patients With Unilateral Infectious Keratitis Demonstrate a Sympathetic Immune Response. (nih.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. (cdc.gov)
  • A canthamoeba keratitis is rare if you are not wearing contact lenses. (forbes.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare and potentially blinding eye condition. (rpbusa.org)
  • Thygeson's keratitis - a rare disease in which small corneal injuries form in both eyes. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious eye infection that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Viruses such as the herpes virus (herpes simplex and herpes zoster ), the mumps virus, and the virus that causes chlamydia can cause keratitis. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Soft contact lenses are more adherent to the corneal surface than hard lenses, which allows the Acanthamoeba organism to bind to mannosylated glycoproteins on the corneal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 9 ] Adherence rates of Acanthamoeba spp among hydrogel lenses vary according to the type of polymer. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis can develop sporadically among people who wear water-contaminated contact lenses or have had corneal trauma. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] Keratitis has been associated with wearing nondisposable contact lenses, using homemade sodium chloride solution to clean the lenses, and wearing lenses while swimming and showering. (medscape.com)
  • The problem is not Acanthamoeba polyphaga possibly being in the shower water but the contact lenses. (forbes.com)
  • One can take several precautions against becoming infected with Acanthamoeba keratitis, such as always taking proper care of contact lenses, which includes cleaning and rubbing them after each use with a brand of contact solution recommended by an eye care professional. (sedona-ophthal.com)