A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents, including metformin, which primarily reduce blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing insulin sensitivity, but not by stimulating insulin secretion, and they are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Evidence that hsp90 is involved in the altered interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii variants with bacteria. (1/132)

There are many similarities between the interactions of environmental protozoa with pathogenic bacterial species and those observed in mammalian macrophages. Since single-celled protozoa predate mammalian hosts, it is likely that interactions in environmental biofilms have selected for many of the bacterial virulence mechanisms responsible for human disease. In order to better understand bacterial-phagocyte interactions, we developed a selection for Acanthamoeba castellanii variants that are more resistant to killing by bacterial pathogens. We identified four amoebal clones that display decreased phagocytosis of bacteria but no difference in uptake of latex beads compared to wild-type amoebae. These amoebal variants display differences in cellular morphology, partial resistance to killing by bacteria, more bactericidal activity, and higher frequencies of lysosome fusion with the bacterial vacuole. Three proteins are present at lower levels in these variants than in wild-type amoebae, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry allowed identification of two of them as actin and hsp90. We found that specific inhibitors of hsp90 produce a similar phenotypic effect in macrophages. These data suggest that hsp90 plays a role in phagocytic and, possibly, bactericidal pathways that affect interactions of phagocytic cells with bacteria.  (+info)

The contribution of uncoupling protein and ATP synthase to state 3 respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria. (2/132)

Mitochondria of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a free fatty acid-activated uncoupling protein (AcUCP) that mediates proton re-uptake driven by the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient. We show that AcUCP activity diverts energy from ATP synthesis during state 3 mitochondrial respiration in a fatty acid-dependent way. The efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increases when the state 3 respiratory rate decreases as the AcUCP contribution is constant at a given linoleic acid concentration while the ATP synthase contribution decreases with respiratory rate. Respiration sustained by this energy-dissipating process remains constant at a given linoleic acid concentration until more than 60% inhibition of state 3 respiration by n-butyl malonate is achieved. The present study supports the validity of the ADP/O method to determine the actual contributions of AcUCP (activated with various linoleic acid concentrations) and ATP synthase in state 3 respiration of A.castellanii mitochondria fully depleted of free fatty acid-activated and describes how the two contributions vary when the rate of succinate dehydrogenase is decreased by succinate uptake limitation.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine binding to mitochondrial membranes of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/132)

Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. For that purpose we applied Ro5-4864, a well-known ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) present in mammalian mitochondria. The levels of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding, the dissociation constant (K(D)) and the number of [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites (B(max)) determined for fractions of the studied mitochondria indicate the presence of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the outer membrane of yeast and amoeba mitochondria as well as in yeast mitoplasts. Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [(3)H]Ro5-4864. Labeling of amoeba, yeast and rat liver mitochondria with [(3)H]Ro5-4864 revealed proteins identified as the voltage dependent anion selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in the inner membrane. Therefore, the specific MBR ligand binding is not confined only to mammalian mitochondria and is more widespread within the eukaryotic world. However, it can not be excluded that MBR ligand binding sites are exploited efficiently only by higher multicellular eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the MBR ligand binding sites in mitochondria of lower eukaryotes can be applied as useful models in studies on mammalian MBR.  (+info)

The amoebae plate test implicates a paralogue of lpxB in the interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii. (4/132)

Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial parasite of freshwater amoebae which also grows in alveolar macrophages and thus causes the potentially fatal pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular growth within amoebae and macrophages is mechanistically similar and requires the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. This paper reports the development of an assay, the amoebae plate test (APT), to analyse growth of L. pneumophila wild-type and icm/dot mutant strains spotted on agar plates in the presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii. In the APT, wild-type L. pneumophila formed robust colonies even at high dilutions, icmT, -R, -P or dotB mutants failed to grow, and icmS or -G mutants were partially growth defective. The icmS or icmG mutant strains were used to screen an L. pneumophila chromosomal library for genes that suppress the growth defect in the presence of the amoebae. An icmS suppressor plasmid was isolated that harboured the icmS and flanking icm genes, indicating that this plasmid complements the intracellular growth defect of the mutant. In contrast, different icmG suppressor plasmids rendered the icmG mutant more cytotoxic for A. castellanii without enhancing intracellular multiplication in amoebae or RAW264.7 macrophages. Deletion of individual genes in the suppressor plasmids inserts identified lcs (Legionella cytotoxic suppressor) -A, -B, -C and -D as being required for enhanced cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant strain. The corresponding proteins show sequence similarity to hydrolases, NlpD-related metalloproteases, lipid A disaccharide synthases and ABC transporters, respectively. Overexpression of LcsC, a putative paralogue of the lipid A disaccharide synthase LpxB, increased cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant but not that of other icm/dot or rpoS mutant strains against A. castellanii. Based on sequence comparison and chromosomal location, lcsB and lcsC probably encode enzymes involved in cell wall maintenance and peptidoglycan metabolism. The APT established here may prove useful to identify other bacterial factors relevant for interactions with amoeba hosts.  (+info)

Development of colorimetric microtiter plate assay for assessment of antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba. (5/132)

We have developed and optimized a 96-well microtiter plate assay, based on the reduction of alamarBlue, to assess the efficacies of much needed new antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba species. This assay has been optimized for determination of drug efficacy against two potentially pathogenic species, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and has been validated by comparison of their relative susceptibilities to chlorhexidine, a drug widely used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. The results demonstrate that the assay is comparable to a manual counting assay and that A. polyphaga is more resistant to chlorhexidine than A. castellanii. Thus, by use of the manual counting assay, 3.125 microM chlorohexidine was almost completely effective against A. castellanii, whereas this concentration was less than 20% effective against A. polyphaga. Similar results were obtained by the alamarBlue assay. The new assay was used to determine the relative susceptibilities of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga to the alkylphosphocholines (APCs) hexadecylphosphocholine (hexadecyl-PC; miltefosine) and octadecylphosphocholine (octadecyl-PC) as well as an alkylgycerolphosphocholine, edelfosine. Both APCs studied were equally effective against A. castellanii, but octadecyl-PC was less effective than hexadecyl-PC against A. polyphaga. Both APCs were more effective than edelfosine against both Acanthamoeba species. A. polyphaga was found to be significantly less susceptible to each of the phosphocholine analogues. The newly described assay offers a number of advantages over those described previously. It is less labor-intensive than previously described assays and is sensitive and rapid, and the results can be read in a nonsubjective manner. As it is based on a standard 96-well, microtiter plate, it is amenable to automation and high throughput.  (+info)

Stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (6/132)

A simple method for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii using plasmids which confer resistance to neomycin G418 is described. Expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is driven by the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter, and can be monitored by cell growth in the presence of neomycin G418 or by Western blot analysis. Transfected cells can be passaged in the same manner as control cells and can be induced to differentiate into cysts, in which form they maintain resistance to neomycin G418 for at least several weeks, although expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is repressed during encystment. Expression of EGFP or an HA-tagged EGFP-TBP fusion can be driven from the same plasmid, using an additional copy of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter or a deletion mutant. The TBP-EGFP fusion is localized to the nucleus, except in a small proportion of presumptive pre-mitotic cells. EGFP expression can also be driven by the cyst-specific CSP21 gene promoter, which is completely repressed in growing cells but strongly induced in differentiating cells. Transfected cells maintain their phenotype for several weeks, even in the absence of neomycin G418, suggesting that transfected genes are stably integrated within the genome. These results demonstrate the utility of the neomycin resistance based plasmids for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba, and may assist a number of investigations.  (+info)

Structural implications of novel diversity in eucaryal RNase P RNA. (7/132)

Previous eucaryotic RNase P RNA secondary structural models have been based on limited diversity, representing only two of the approximately 30 phylogenetic kingdoms of the domain Eucarya. To elucidate a more generally applicable structure, we used biochemical, bioinformatic, and molecular approaches to obtain RNase P RNA sequences from diverse organisms including representatives of six additional kingdoms of eucaryotes. Novel sequences were from acanthamoeba (Acathamoeba castellanii, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Filamoeba nolandi), animals (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster), alveolates (Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis), conosids (Dictyostelium discoideum, Physarum polycephalum), trichomonads (Trichomonas vaginalis), microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi), and diplomonads (Giardia intestinalis). An improved alignment of eucaryal RNase P RNA sequences was assembled and used for statistical and comparative structural analysis. The analysis identifies a conserved core structure of eucaryal RNase P RNA that has been maintained throughout evolution and indicates that covariation in size occurs between some structural elements of the RNA. Eucaryal RNase P RNA contains regions of highly variable length and structure reminiscent of expansion segments found in rRNA. The eucaryal RNA has been remodeled through evolution as a simplified version of the structure found in bacterial and archaeal RNase P RNAs.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. (8/132)

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Next, we observed that Acanthamoeba specifically activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Acanthamoeba-mediated brain endothelial cell death was abolished using LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. These results were further confirmed using brain microvascular endothelial cells expressing dominant negative forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.  (+info)

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the cornea, which is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. It's caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is commonly found in water and soil.

The infection typically occurs in people who wear contact lenses, particularly those who do not clean and disinfect their lenses properly or who swim or shower while wearing their contacts. It can cause pain, redness, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and a feeling like there's something in your eye.

If left untreated, Acanthamoeba keratitis can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, loss of vision, or even blindness. Treatment typically involves the use of specialized antimicrobial drops and sometimes requires a corneal transplant in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper contact lens hygiene, avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contacts, and regularly replacing contact lens storage cases.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

"Legionella pneumophila" is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. It can also be found in man-made water systems like hot tubs, cooling towers, and decorative fountains. This bacterium is the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness resembling the flu. Infection typically occurs when people inhale tiny droplets of water containing the bacteria. It is not transmitted from person to person.

Trophozoites are the feeding and motile stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa, including those that cause diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. They are typically larger than the cyst stage of these organisms and have a more irregular shape. Trophozoites move by means of pseudopods (false feet) and engulf food particles through a process called phagocytosis. In the case of pathogenic protozoa, this feeding stage is often when they cause damage to host tissues.

In the case of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, trophozoites can invade the intestinal wall and cause ulcers, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. In malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, trophozoites infect red blood cells and multiply within them, eventually causing their rupture and release of more parasites into the bloodstream, which can lead to severe complications like cerebral malaria or organ failure.

It's important to note that not all protozoa have a trophozoite stage in their life cycle, and some may refer to this feeding stage with different terminology depending on the specific species.

Contact lens solutions are a type of disinfecting and cleaning solution specifically designed for use with contact lenses. They typically contain a combination of chemicals, such as preservatives, disinfectants, and surfactants, that work together to clean, disinfect, and store contact lenses safely and effectively.

There are several types of contact lens solutions available, including:

1. Multipurpose solution: This type of solution is the most commonly used and can be used for cleaning, rinsing, disinfecting, and storing soft contact lenses. It contains a combination of ingredients that perform all these functions in one step.
2. Hydrogen peroxide solution: This type of solution contains hydrogen peroxide as the main active ingredient, which is a powerful disinfectant. However, it requires a special case called a neutralizer to convert the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen before using the lenses.
3. Saline solution: This type of solution is used only for rinsing and storing contact lenses and does not contain any disinfecting or cleaning agents. It is often used in combination with other solutions for a complete contact lens care routine.
4. Daily cleaner: This type of solution is used to remove protein buildup and other deposits from the surface of contact lenses. It should be used in conjunction with a multipurpose or hydrogen peroxide solution as part of a daily cleaning routine.

It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using contact lens solutions to ensure that they are used safely and effectively. Failure to do so could result in eye irritation, infection, or other complications.

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

Naegleria is a genus of free-living excavate protists, commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It's also found in soil. The most notorious species within this genus is Naegleria fowleri, which is known to cause a rare but often fatal brain infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. This occurs when the amoeba enters the nose and migrates to the brain through the olfactory nerve. It's important to note that this type of infection is extremely rare, but can be deadly if not treated promptly and effectively.

Hartmannella is a genus of free-living amoebae, which are single-celled organisms found in soil and water. These amoebae are known to be able to ingest bacteria and other small particles as part of their feeding process. While they are generally harmless to humans, some species of Hartmannella have been associated with certain types of human illnesses, such as Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious eye infection that can cause blindness if left untreated. However, it is important to note that Hartmannella itself is not typically considered a pathogenic genus and is mainly studied in the context of environmental and microbiological research.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

In a medical context, "latex" refers to the natural rubber milk-like substance that is tapped from the incisions made in the bark of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). This sap is then processed to create various products such as gloves, catheters, and balloons. It's important to note that some people may have a latex allergy, which can cause mild to severe reactions when they come into contact with latex products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including muscle contraction and intracellular transport. They consist of heavy chains, which contain the motor domain responsible for generating force and motion, and light chains, which regulate the activity of the myosin. Based on their structural and functional differences, myosins are classified into over 35 classes, with classes II, V, and VI being the most well-studied.

Class II myosins, also known as conventional myosins, are responsible for muscle contraction in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. They form filaments called thick filaments, which interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement during muscle contraction.

Class V myosins, also known as unconventional myosins, are involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have a long tail that can bind to various cargoes, such as vesicles, mitochondria, and nuclei, and a motor domain that moves along actin filaments to transport the cargoes to their destinations.

Class VI myosins are also unconventional myosins involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have two heads connected by a coiled-coil tail, which can bind to various cargoes. Class VI myosins move along actin filaments in a unique hand-over-hand motion, allowing them to transport their cargoes efficiently.

Overall, myosins are essential for many cellular functions and have been implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is a nucleotide that is a fundamental unit of genetic material in DNA and RNA. It consists of a guanine base, a pentose sugar (ribose in the case of RNA, deoxyribose in DNA), and one phosphate group. GMP plays crucial roles in various biochemical reactions within cells, including energy transfer and signal transduction pathways. Additionally, it is involved in the synthesis of important molecules like nucleic acids, neurotransmitters, and hormones.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acid molecules, thereby reducing their saturation level. These enzymes play a crucial role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential components of cell membranes and precursors for various signaling molecules.

The position of the introduced double bond is specified by the type of desaturase enzyme. For example, Δ-9 desaturases introduce a double bond at the ninth carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain. This enzyme is responsible for converting saturated fatty acids like stearic acid (18:0) to monounsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid (18:1n-9).

In humans, there are several fatty acid desaturases, including Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, which introduce double bonds at the fifth and sixth carbon atoms from the methyl end, respectively. These enzymes are essential for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3).

Disorders in fatty acid desaturase activity or expression have been linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of these enzymes is crucial for developing strategies to modulate fatty acid composition in cells and tissues, which may have therapeutic potential.

5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a type of ribosomal RNA molecule that is a component of the large subunit of the ribosome, a complex molecular machine found in the cells of all living organisms. The "5S" refers to its sedimentation coefficient, a measure of its rate of sedimentation in an ultracentrifuge, which is 5S.

In prokaryotic cells, there are typically one or two copies of 5S rRNA molecules per ribosome, while in eukaryotic cells, there are three to four copies per ribosome. The 5S rRNA plays a structural role in the ribosome and is also involved in the process of protein synthesis, working together with other ribosomal components to translate messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

The 5S rRNA molecule is relatively small, ranging from 100 to 150 nucleotides in length, and has a characteristic secondary structure that includes several stem-loop structures. The sequence and structure of the 5S rRNA are highly conserved across different species, making it a useful tool for studying evolutionary relationships between organisms.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Cyanides are a group of chemical compounds that contain the cyano group, -CN, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are highly toxic and can cause rapid death due to the inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide ions (CN-) bind to the ferric iron in cytochrome c oxidase, a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, preventing the flow of electrons and the production of ATP, leading to cellular asphyxiation.

Common sources of cyanides include industrial chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as natural sources like certain fruits, nuts, and plants. Exposure to high levels of cyanides can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, leading to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Treatment for cyanide poisoning typically involves the use of antidotes that bind to cyanide ions and convert them into less toxic forms, such as thiosulfate and rhodanese.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The primary mechanism of action of biguanides is to decrease hepatic glucose production and increase insulin sensitivity, which leads to reduced fasting glucose levels and improved glycemic control.

The most commonly prescribed biguanide is metformin, which has been widely used for several decades due to its efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. Other biguanides include phenformin and buformin, but these are rarely used due to their association with a higher risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication.

In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, biguanides have also been shown to have potential benefits on cardiovascular health and weight management, making them a valuable treatment option for many individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, they should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or other underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

Microfilament proteins are a type of structural protein that form part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. They are made up of actin monomers, which polymerize to form long, thin filaments. These filaments are involved in various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, cell division, and cell motility. Microfilament proteins also interact with other cytoskeletal components like intermediate filaments and microtubules to maintain the overall shape and integrity of the cell. Additionally, they play a crucial role in the formation of cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix adhesions, which are essential for tissue structure and function.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

Influence of Acanthamoeba castellanii on Intracellular Growth of Different Legionella Species in Human Monocytes - Search ... Influence of Acanthamoeba castellanii on intracellular growth of different Legionella species in human monocytes. Neumeister B ... Influence of Acanthamoeba castellanii on intracellular growth of different Legionella species in human monocytes. Neumeister B ... In this study, we introduce an in vitro coculture model of legionellae, Mono Mac 6 cells (MM6) and Acanthamoeba castellanii, u ...
Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae A Essig 1 , M Heinemann, U Simnacher, R Marre ... Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae A Essig et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997 Apr. ... Differentially Expressed Gene Profile of Acanthamoeba castellanii Induced by an Endosymbiont Legionella pneumophila. Moon EK, ... We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii resulted in the production of large amounts of AMP, much of which was found extracellularly. At the ... Edwards S. W., Chagla A. H., Griffiths A. J., Lloyd D. 1977; The cytochromes of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Biochemical Journal ... Bowers B., Olszewski T. E. 1972; Pinocytosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Kinetics and morphology. Journal of Cell Biology 53: ... Weisman R. A., Korn E. D. 1967; Phagocytosis of latex beads by Acanthamoeba castellanii I. Biochemical properties. Biochemistry ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii str. Neff (GCA_000313135.1) (Acastellanii.strNEFF_v1) ▼ Favourite species. *Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 ...
Huang, JM, Liao, CC, Kuo, CC, Chen, LR, Huang, LLH, Shin, JW & Lin, WC 2017, Pathogenic acanthamoeba castellanii secretes the ... Pathogenic acanthamoeba castellanii secretes the extracellular aminopeptidase m20/m25/m40 family protein to target cells for ... Pathogenic acanthamoeba castellanii secretes the extracellular aminopeptidase m20/m25/m40 family protein to target cells for ... Pathogenic acanthamoeba castellanii secretes the extracellular aminopeptidase m20/m25/m40 family protein to target cells for ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii str. Neff. [74]. XP_004345382.1. A. castellanii str. Neff. [74]. ... Ctr family protein (A. castellanii str. Neff). [75]. P80 protein putative. XP_004367963.1. A. castellanii str. Neff. Copper. ... Hypothetical protein (A. castellanii str. Neff). [72,73]. Hypothetical protein. XP_004346469.1. A. castellanii str. Neff. Iron ... A. castellanii str. Neff. Copper. P80 protein (D. discoideum). [74]. NRAMP 1 homolog. XP_642974.1. D.discoideum Iron and ...
7 Among various species of Acanthamoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii accounts for 94.3% of AK.7 The most desirable treatment ... Effect of nitric oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018; 59(8): 3239-3248. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Methods: Acanthamoeba castellanii and primary cultured HCECs and keratocytes were treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), NO ... Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii. NOS3 Deletion in Cav1 Deficient Mice Decreases Drug Sensitivity to a Nitric ...
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
Acanthamoeba Keratitis, and Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE), fact sheet for Health Care Providers. ... Eight Acanthamoeba species have been isolated as etiologic agents in Acanthamoeba keratitis: A. castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. ... Hurt M, Niederkorn J, Alizadeh H. Effects of mannose on Acanthamoeba castellanii proliferation and cytolytic ability to corneal ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is a local infection of the eye that does not produce systemic illness. Unlike disseminated Acanthamoeba ...
TAGS: acanthamoeba castellanii, acanthamoeba keratitis, cats, cornea, keratitis, vaccination, acanthamoeba, contact lenses, ...
Glycosylation of Acanthamoeba castellanii). Simone Kurz (2010). (N-glycosylation in protozoal parasites) ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ... We also identified LOX homologs in the unicellular amoebozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii and the rhodophytes Cyanidioschyzon ... Pirum gemmata and Abeoforma whisleri or the amoebozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, display forms of LOX associated with domains ... 2), the C. merolae LOX and the 4 copies of A. castellanii (BS 98%, BPP 0.99) seem to be related to prokaryotic, environmental ...
1. An unusual thioredoxin system in the facultative parasite Acanthamoeba castellanii.. Leitsch D; Mbouaka AL; Köhsler M; ... 2. Transcriptional changes of proteins of the thioredoxin and glutathione systems in Acanthamoeba spp. under oxidative stress ...
The free-living amoebae that cause human infections include Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia ... The most common environmental and human pathogens belong to the T4 genotype, and correlate to the A. castellanii complex. ... encoded search term (Acanthamoeba Infection) and Acanthamoeba Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Acanthamoeba can be found in soil, fresh and brackish water, cooling towers, and heating or air conditioning units. [5] Most ...
Pathogenic of Acanthamoeba spp. detected in the super harsh environment.Fourteen T4 genotypes were identified based on the ... Resistance of Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts to physical, chemical, and radiological conditions. . Journal of Parasitology ... Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T4 genotype, which is implicated in the majority of Acanthamoeba infections. This river ... Genotyping of Acanthamoeba helps to identify the different species of this protozoan (Megha et al. 2023). In the current study ...
Quantitative proteomic analysis and functional characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii exosome-like vesicles. Parasit ...
No cross-amplification was observed when the analytical specificity was tested with human, amebal (Acanthamoeba castellanii ... Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, an emerging agent of pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:18-28. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Evidence of maternal-fetal transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:120-1. DOIPubMedGoogle ... Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Protochlamydia naegleriophila belong to the family Parachlamydiaceae (1,4). Increasing evidence ...
2017) Pyomelanin produced by Vibrio Cholerae confers resistance to predation by Acanthamoeba castellanii FEMS Microbiology ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...
Turner NA; Biagini GA; Lloyd D, 1997, Anaerobiosis-induced differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii, FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ... Lloyd D; Turner NA; Khunkitti W; Hann AC; Furr JR; Russell AD, 2000, Encystation in Acanthamoeba castellanii: Development of ... biguanide sorption and biguanide-induced pentose leakage during encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii, JOURNAL OF APPLIED ... 2000, Emergence of resistance to biocides during differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii, JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL ...
Acanthamoeba B01.046.500. Acanthamoeba castellanii B01.046.500.100.200 Blastocystina B01.046.500.100.200.200 ...
2010). Exploring the response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 within Acanthamoeba castellanii by genome-wide transcriptional ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii ( amoebae ). *Babesia ( generic, piroplasms ). *Chlamydomonas ( Chlamydomonas generic). *Dictyostelium ...
... in the single-cell soil protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, approximately forty years ago. Dr. Korns laboratory brings the ...
P. aeruginosa persisted when coincubated with the bacterivorous Acanthamoeba castellanii for extended periods and produced ... P. aeruginosa persisted when coincubated with the bacterivorous Acanthamoeba castellanii for extended periods and produced ...
An ultrathin section of a Pithovirus particle in an infected Acanthamoeba castellanii cell observed by transmission electron ...
SJL mice infected with Acanthamoeba castellanii develop central nervous system autoimmunity through the generation of cross- ...

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