Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Hartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseLatex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)BiguanidesMicrofilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Legionellosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Dictyosteliida: An order of protozoa characterized by their ability to aggregate to form a multicellular pseudoplasmodium, which gives rise to a multispored fruiting body. A stalk tube is present.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nostrums: Medicines whose effectiveness is unproven and whose ingredients are often secret.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.

Evidence that hsp90 is involved in the altered interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii variants with bacteria. (1/132)

There are many similarities between the interactions of environmental protozoa with pathogenic bacterial species and those observed in mammalian macrophages. Since single-celled protozoa predate mammalian hosts, it is likely that interactions in environmental biofilms have selected for many of the bacterial virulence mechanisms responsible for human disease. In order to better understand bacterial-phagocyte interactions, we developed a selection for Acanthamoeba castellanii variants that are more resistant to killing by bacterial pathogens. We identified four amoebal clones that display decreased phagocytosis of bacteria but no difference in uptake of latex beads compared to wild-type amoebae. These amoebal variants display differences in cellular morphology, partial resistance to killing by bacteria, more bactericidal activity, and higher frequencies of lysosome fusion with the bacterial vacuole. Three proteins are present at lower levels in these variants than in wild-type amoebae, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry allowed identification of two of them as actin and hsp90. We found that specific inhibitors of hsp90 produce a similar phenotypic effect in macrophages. These data suggest that hsp90 plays a role in phagocytic and, possibly, bactericidal pathways that affect interactions of phagocytic cells with bacteria.  (+info)

The contribution of uncoupling protein and ATP synthase to state 3 respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria. (2/132)

Mitochondria of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a free fatty acid-activated uncoupling protein (AcUCP) that mediates proton re-uptake driven by the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient. We show that AcUCP activity diverts energy from ATP synthesis during state 3 mitochondrial respiration in a fatty acid-dependent way. The efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increases when the state 3 respiratory rate decreases as the AcUCP contribution is constant at a given linoleic acid concentration while the ATP synthase contribution decreases with respiratory rate. Respiration sustained by this energy-dissipating process remains constant at a given linoleic acid concentration until more than 60% inhibition of state 3 respiration by n-butyl malonate is achieved. The present study supports the validity of the ADP/O method to determine the actual contributions of AcUCP (activated with various linoleic acid concentrations) and ATP synthase in state 3 respiration of A.castellanii mitochondria fully depleted of free fatty acid-activated and describes how the two contributions vary when the rate of succinate dehydrogenase is decreased by succinate uptake limitation.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine binding to mitochondrial membranes of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/132)

Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. For that purpose we applied Ro5-4864, a well-known ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) present in mammalian mitochondria. The levels of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding, the dissociation constant (K(D)) and the number of [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites (B(max)) determined for fractions of the studied mitochondria indicate the presence of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the outer membrane of yeast and amoeba mitochondria as well as in yeast mitoplasts. Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [(3)H]Ro5-4864. Labeling of amoeba, yeast and rat liver mitochondria with [(3)H]Ro5-4864 revealed proteins identified as the voltage dependent anion selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in the inner membrane. Therefore, the specific MBR ligand binding is not confined only to mammalian mitochondria and is more widespread within the eukaryotic world. However, it can not be excluded that MBR ligand binding sites are exploited efficiently only by higher multicellular eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the MBR ligand binding sites in mitochondria of lower eukaryotes can be applied as useful models in studies on mammalian MBR.  (+info)

The amoebae plate test implicates a paralogue of lpxB in the interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii. (4/132)

Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial parasite of freshwater amoebae which also grows in alveolar macrophages and thus causes the potentially fatal pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular growth within amoebae and macrophages is mechanistically similar and requires the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. This paper reports the development of an assay, the amoebae plate test (APT), to analyse growth of L. pneumophila wild-type and icm/dot mutant strains spotted on agar plates in the presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii. In the APT, wild-type L. pneumophila formed robust colonies even at high dilutions, icmT, -R, -P or dotB mutants failed to grow, and icmS or -G mutants were partially growth defective. The icmS or icmG mutant strains were used to screen an L. pneumophila chromosomal library for genes that suppress the growth defect in the presence of the amoebae. An icmS suppressor plasmid was isolated that harboured the icmS and flanking icm genes, indicating that this plasmid complements the intracellular growth defect of the mutant. In contrast, different icmG suppressor plasmids rendered the icmG mutant more cytotoxic for A. castellanii without enhancing intracellular multiplication in amoebae or RAW264.7 macrophages. Deletion of individual genes in the suppressor plasmids inserts identified lcs (Legionella cytotoxic suppressor) -A, -B, -C and -D as being required for enhanced cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant strain. The corresponding proteins show sequence similarity to hydrolases, NlpD-related metalloproteases, lipid A disaccharide synthases and ABC transporters, respectively. Overexpression of LcsC, a putative paralogue of the lipid A disaccharide synthase LpxB, increased cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant but not that of other icm/dot or rpoS mutant strains against A. castellanii. Based on sequence comparison and chromosomal location, lcsB and lcsC probably encode enzymes involved in cell wall maintenance and peptidoglycan metabolism. The APT established here may prove useful to identify other bacterial factors relevant for interactions with amoeba hosts.  (+info)

Development of colorimetric microtiter plate assay for assessment of antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba. (5/132)

We have developed and optimized a 96-well microtiter plate assay, based on the reduction of alamarBlue, to assess the efficacies of much needed new antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba species. This assay has been optimized for determination of drug efficacy against two potentially pathogenic species, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and has been validated by comparison of their relative susceptibilities to chlorhexidine, a drug widely used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. The results demonstrate that the assay is comparable to a manual counting assay and that A. polyphaga is more resistant to chlorhexidine than A. castellanii. Thus, by use of the manual counting assay, 3.125 microM chlorohexidine was almost completely effective against A. castellanii, whereas this concentration was less than 20% effective against A. polyphaga. Similar results were obtained by the alamarBlue assay. The new assay was used to determine the relative susceptibilities of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga to the alkylphosphocholines (APCs) hexadecylphosphocholine (hexadecyl-PC; miltefosine) and octadecylphosphocholine (octadecyl-PC) as well as an alkylgycerolphosphocholine, edelfosine. Both APCs studied were equally effective against A. castellanii, but octadecyl-PC was less effective than hexadecyl-PC against A. polyphaga. Both APCs were more effective than edelfosine against both Acanthamoeba species. A. polyphaga was found to be significantly less susceptible to each of the phosphocholine analogues. The newly described assay offers a number of advantages over those described previously. It is less labor-intensive than previously described assays and is sensitive and rapid, and the results can be read in a nonsubjective manner. As it is based on a standard 96-well, microtiter plate, it is amenable to automation and high throughput.  (+info)

Stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (6/132)

A simple method for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii using plasmids which confer resistance to neomycin G418 is described. Expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is driven by the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter, and can be monitored by cell growth in the presence of neomycin G418 or by Western blot analysis. Transfected cells can be passaged in the same manner as control cells and can be induced to differentiate into cysts, in which form they maintain resistance to neomycin G418 for at least several weeks, although expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is repressed during encystment. Expression of EGFP or an HA-tagged EGFP-TBP fusion can be driven from the same plasmid, using an additional copy of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter or a deletion mutant. The TBP-EGFP fusion is localized to the nucleus, except in a small proportion of presumptive pre-mitotic cells. EGFP expression can also be driven by the cyst-specific CSP21 gene promoter, which is completely repressed in growing cells but strongly induced in differentiating cells. Transfected cells maintain their phenotype for several weeks, even in the absence of neomycin G418, suggesting that transfected genes are stably integrated within the genome. These results demonstrate the utility of the neomycin resistance based plasmids for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba, and may assist a number of investigations.  (+info)

Structural implications of novel diversity in eucaryal RNase P RNA. (7/132)

Previous eucaryotic RNase P RNA secondary structural models have been based on limited diversity, representing only two of the approximately 30 phylogenetic kingdoms of the domain Eucarya. To elucidate a more generally applicable structure, we used biochemical, bioinformatic, and molecular approaches to obtain RNase P RNA sequences from diverse organisms including representatives of six additional kingdoms of eucaryotes. Novel sequences were from acanthamoeba (Acathamoeba castellanii, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Filamoeba nolandi), animals (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster), alveolates (Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis), conosids (Dictyostelium discoideum, Physarum polycephalum), trichomonads (Trichomonas vaginalis), microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi), and diplomonads (Giardia intestinalis). An improved alignment of eucaryal RNase P RNA sequences was assembled and used for statistical and comparative structural analysis. The analysis identifies a conserved core structure of eucaryal RNase P RNA that has been maintained throughout evolution and indicates that covariation in size occurs between some structural elements of the RNA. Eucaryal RNase P RNA contains regions of highly variable length and structure reminiscent of expansion segments found in rRNA. The eucaryal RNA has been remodeled through evolution as a simplified version of the structure found in bacterial and archaeal RNase P RNAs.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. (8/132)

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Next, we observed that Acanthamoeba specifically activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Acanthamoeba-mediated brain endothelial cell death was abolished using LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. These results were further confirmed using brain microvascular endothelial cells expressing dominant negative forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.  (+info)

Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The role played by soluble molecules that may participate in acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be fully characterized. We demonstrate here that Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites constitutively release ADP in the medium. Cell-free supernatants prepared from A. castellanii, by interaction with specific P2y2 purinoceptors expressed on the Wish cell membrane, caused a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i, extensive cell membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal disorganization, and the breakdown of nuclei. Cell damage induced by amoebic supernatants was blocked by the P2y2 inhibitor Suramin. The same results were found in Wish cells exposed to purified ADP. These findings suggest that pathogenic free-living A. castellanii may have a cytopathic effect on human epithelial cells through ADP release, by a process that begins with a rise of cytosolic free-calcium concentration, and culminates in apoptosis. ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular respiratory pathogen, which, similar to Legionella, might have developed mechanisms to escape the intracellular bactericidal activity of both human host cells and amoeba. We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell culture, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. A castellanii was incubated with purified elementary bodies of C. pneumoniae TW 183 at a concentration of 10(6) inclusion-forming units (IFU)/ml to give a ratio of approximately 1 IFU of C. pneumoniae per amoeba. Quantitative determination of chlamydial growth within A. castellanii revealed viable and infective C. pneumoniae in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) IFU/ml between days 7 and 14 postinfection. Immunofluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscopy with subsequent immunogold staining confirmed evidence of infection of the amoebae by C. Pneumoniae and additionally revealed that C. ...
Tuberculosis remains a major threat to human health accounting for 2 million annual deaths worldwide. M. bovis causes TB in cattle which is a serious issue in the UK. Mycobacteria are widely distributed in the environments that are also colonized by free living amoebae. In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the intracellular survival of M. bovis. Role of region of difference 1 (RD1), isocitrate lyase (Rv0467), ClgR (Rv2745) and the VapC (Rv2548) toxin-antitoxin system was examined for survival in amoebae. While the role of RD1 in mycobacterial survival in amoebae could not be observed, isocitrate lyase and a transcriptional regulator (ClgR) might play some part in survival of M. bovis in A. castellanii. It was found that although the mycobacteria were able to remain inside the amoebae vacuoles, they were unable to control the pH as the vacuoles remained acidic. This is very interesting as it is in contrast to macrophages ...
Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms.. ...
In this study, Acanthamoeba castellanii was cultivated under different stress conditions to induce possible encystation. The morphological and histological properties were analysed by light and electron microscopy as well as cyst-specific staining. The findings revealed that cysts prepared through liquid medium using higher osmolarity as a trigger (10% glucose with 50mM magnesium chloride for 72 h) are similar to cysts prepared using non-nutrient agar (nutrient deprivation as a trigger in plating assays for 14 days), as determined by SDS-resistance, cyst-specific Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy. Using liquid medium assay, A. castellanii encystation was studied by exposing trophozoites to media lacking growth ingredients (phosphate buffered saline or distilled water), inappropriate temperatures (4-45°C), pH (3-9), artificial light-dark cycles, 5% CO2, and microaerophilic conditions. Optimal encystation was observed when cells were incubated in PBS with 50mM MgCl2 and 10%
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacillus that causes nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia and, rarely, extrapulmonary infections in humans. Signature-tagged mutagenesis employs uniquely tagged transposons that are used to randomly mutagenize a bacterial chromosome and create a library. A library of 700 mutant clones created by signature-tagged mutagenesis was screened using this negative-selection strategy in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba that may serve as an environmental reservoir of legionellae. The efficiency of invasion was studied by incubating L. pneumophila strains grown to postexponential phase with A. castellanii, using gentamicin to kill extracellular organisms and then determining remaining intracellular CFU. The behavior of the mutants was also examined in human macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated U-937 cells. In contrast, all of the mutants replicated within
In this study, we used a novel approach to detect internalized mycobacteria in environmental protozoa from badger latrines. Acid-fast micro-organisms were visualized in isolated amoebae, although we were unable to identify them to species level as no mycobacteria were grown from these samples nor was M. bovis detected by IS6110 PCR. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with virulent M. bovis substantially reduced levels of bacilli, indicating that the amoebae have a negative effect on the persistence of M. bovis. ...
Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after ...
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular gram-negative rod that causes pneumonia in humans. Free-living amoebas are thought to serve as a reservoir for Legionellainfections. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was employed to identifyLegionella pneumophila genes necessary for survival in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Six mutant strains were defective in assays of invasion and intracellular growth. Four mutants also exhibited invasion and replication defects in Hartmannella vermiformis, an amoeba linked to hospital outbreaks ofLegionella pneumonia. The six mutants also were tested in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Two mutants had intracellular replication defects, and two different strains entered cells less efficiently. Two transposon insertions were in known L. pneumophila genes, lspK andaroB. The other four were in novel genes. One gene has similarity to a cytochrome c-type biogenesis protein ofPseudomonas fluorescens. Another has similarity to a ...
1. Adl, S. M., Simpson, A. G. B., Farmer, M. A., Andersen, R. A. et al. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 2005, 52, p. 399-451. 2. Aichelburg, A. C., Walochnik, J., Assadian, O., Prosch, H. et al. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. infection with miltefosine. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2008, 14, p. 1743-1746. 3. Booton, G. C., Visvesvara, G. S., Byers, T. J., Kelly, D. J. et al. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2005, 43, p. 1689-693. 4. Cengiz, A. M., Harmis, N., Stapleton, F. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alters the survival of amoeba. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2000, 28, p. 191-193. 5. Chatton, E. Classe des Lobosa Leidy, 1879. Ordre des amoebiens nus ou Amoebaea. In Grassé, P. P. Traité de zoologie, anatomie, systématique, biologie. Tome I. Protozoaires. ...
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Fig. 7. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of amoeba SAMS2 with SAMS sequences of other organisms. Periods represent amino acids identical to those of MetK of E. coli, and dashes show gaps inserted for an optimal alignment of amino acids. *1, ATP-binding motif; *2, glycine-rich nanopeptide; *3, metal-binding sites; *4, a site for Cys-121 of human MAT1A, characteristic of liver enzymes; EC, E. coli; XB, X-bacteria; AC, Acanthamoeba castellanii; S2, SAMS2 of amoebae; PI, Phytophthora infestans; AP, Amoeba proteus. Complete genomic or cDNA sequences of SAMS proteins are available in GenBank, for E. coli (accession no. 1708999), A. castellanii (6016547), and P. infestans (23394401). Amino acid sequences of amoeba SAMS1 (U91602) and X-bacteria SAMS (AY324627) are from Choi et al. (Choi et al., 1997) and Jeon and Jeon (Jeon and Jeon, 2003).. ...
ID L8GWF8_ACACA Unreviewed; 916 AA. AC L8GWF8; DT 03-APR-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-APR-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 16. DE SubName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1}; GN ORFNames=ACA1_059840 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1}; OS Acanthamoeba castellanii str. Neff. OC Eukaryota; Amoebozoa; Discosea; Longamoebia; Centramoebida; OC Acanthamoebidae; Acanthamoeba. OX NCBI_TaxID=1257118 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Neff {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083}; RX PubMed=23375108; DOI=10.1186/gb-2013-14-2-r11; RA Clarke M., Lohan A.J., Liu B., Lagkouvardos I., Roy S., Zafar N., RA Bertelli C., Schilde C., Kianianmomeni A., Burglin T.R., Frech C., RA Turcotte B., Kopec K.O., Synnott J.M., Choo C., Paponov I., RA Finkler A., Soon Heng ...
Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2-3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H(2) in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. ...
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
So all five of my LQs are in premolt, and have been for months now. The temps are around 80F and I LIGHTLY mist them every week or two. Some eat and some dont.
The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large ...
New tool for the simultaneous detection of ten different genotypes of Acanthamoeba available from the American Type Culture Collection. Background: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection and none of the current diagnosis tests are able to detect in one reaction low levels of the vast majority of strains associated with pathology. The goal of this work was to validate a new tool for the detection of the American Type Cell Collection referenced Acanthamoeba monitoring simultaneously DNA extraction yields and PCR inhibitors. Performances were assessed on corneal scrapings.. Methods: Primers were selected in a region bracketing a 41591 bp of the A. castellanii mitochondrion gene. DNA extraction and PCR inhibitors were monitored by adding an internal control (virus). Acanthamoeba were detected and quantified by the real time fast duplex TaqMan® PCR (f-d-real-t PCR) and negativity confirmed by SYBR Green real time PCR.. Results: The f-d-real-t PCR detects 0.1 cyst/µl or less of ...
To transit from intra- to extracellular environments, Legionella pneumophila differentiates from a replicative/non-virulent to a transmissive/virulent form using the two-component system LetA/LetS and the global repressor protein CsrA. While investigating how both regulators act co-ordinately we characterized two ncRNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, that link the LetA/LetS and CsrA regulatory networks. We demonstrate that LetA directly regulates their expression and show that RsmY and RsmZ are functional in Escherichia coli and are able to bind CsrA in vitro. Single mutants have no (ΔrsmY) or a little (ΔrsmZ) impact on virulence, but the ΔrsmYZ strain shows a drastic defect in intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Analysis of the transcriptional programmes of the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains revealed that the switch to the transmissive phase is partially blocked. One major difference between the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains was that the latter
Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, a single-celled eukaryote commonly recovered from soil, fresh water and other habitats. Acanthamoeba has two evolutive forms, the metabolically active trophozoite and a dormant, stress resistant cyst. Trophozoites are small, usually 15 to 35 μm in length and amoeboid in shape. In nature, Acanthamoeba species are free-living bacterivores, but in certain situations they can cause infections (Acanthamebiasis) in humans and other animals. Acanthamoeba spp. are among the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. They are distributed worldwide, and have been isolated from soil, air, sewage, seawater, chlorinated swimming pools, domestic tap water, bottled water, dental treatment units, hospitals, air-conditioning units, and contact lens cases. Additionally, Acanthamoeba have been isolated from human skin, nasal cavities, throats, and intestines, as well as plants and other mammals. Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic ...
We present eight cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. In each case; the Acanthamoeba organisms were visualized in the epithelium and anterior stroma using tandem scanning confocal microscopy. The organisms were highly reflective, ovoid, and were 10-25 microns in diameter. The Acanthamoeba organisms in the human corneas were identical in size and shape to Acanthamoeba organisms on an agar plate visualized with the same confocal microscope. Confocal microscopy is a useful method for identifying Acanthamoeba organisms in vivo within the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma.
Acanthamoeba species are infected by the largest known DNA viruses. These include icosahedral Mimiviruses, amphora-shaped Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum, the latter one isolated from 30,000-y-old permafrost. Mollivirus sibericum, a fourth type of giant virus, was isolated from the same permafrost sample. Its approximately spherical virion (0.6-µm diameter) encloses a 651-kb GC-rich genome encoding 523 proteins of which 64% are ORFans; 16% have their closest homolog in Pandoraviruses and 10% in Acanthamoeba castellanii probably through horizontal gene transfer. The Mollivirus nucleocytoplasmic replication cycle was analyzed using a combination of
A new virus called Pithovirus sibericum has been isolated from 30,000 year old Siberian permafrost. It is the oldest DNA virus of eukaryotes ever isolated, showing that viruses can retain infectivity in nature for very long periods of time.. Pithovirus was isolated by inoculating cultures of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani with samples taken in the year 2000 from 30 meters below the surface of a late Pleistocene sediment in the Kolyma lowland region. This amoeba had been previously used to propagate other giant viruses, such as Mimivirus and Pandoravirus. Light microscopy of the cultures revealed the presence of ovoid particles which were subsequently shown by electron microscopy to resemble those of Pandoravirus. Pithovirus particles are flask-shaped and slightly larger than Pandoravirus - 1.5 microns long, 500 nm in diameter, encased by a 60 nm thick membrane. One end of the virus particle appears to be sealed with what the authors call a cork (photo). This feature, along with the shape of ...
Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis ATCC ® 50679™ Designation: SAWE94/4 Isolation: From eye of human with Acanthamoeba keratitis, South Africa, 1994
We have studied the kinetics of the gelation process that occurs upon warming cold extracts of Acanthamoeba using a low-shear falling ball assay. We find that the reaction has at least two steps, requires 0.5 mM ATP and 1.5 mM MgCl2, and is inhibited by micromolar Ca++. The optimum pH is 7.0 and temperature, 25 degrees-30 degrees C. The rate of the reaction is increased by cold preincubation with both MgCl2 and ATP. Nonhydrolyzable analogues of ATP will not substitute for ATP either in this "potentiation reaction" or in the gelation process. Either of two purified or any one of four partially purified Acanthamoeba proteins will cross-link purified actin to form a gel, but none can account for the dependence of the reaction in the crude extract on Mg-ATP or its regulation by Ca++. This suggests that the extract contains, in addition to actin-cross-linking proteins, factors dependent on Mg-ATP and Ca++ that regulate the gelation process. ...
I am finding it harder and harder to cut my fabric, my hand gets tired and my arms get tried with the rotary cutter. Will most LQS cut MY fabric into
The recent study, Acanthamoeba Infection market forecasts the business performance of the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. The study considers the estimated period as the base duration and brings to light the important information associated with the market size, share and growth rate of the Acanthamoeba Infection market.. Apart from this, the research closely examines the market share occupied by some of the prominent market players in the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. Researchers behind the research unmask vital statistics on market segmentation including product types, application, sale and geography.. FREE SAMPLE COPY [Customized Copy + CAGR and Gross Market Value Included] @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/sample-enquiry-form/74658. This study relies on the evolution of the industry to derive the trends that are observed. A significant increase in the global market is visible, which promises the expansion of the market ...
Another name for Acanthamoeba Infection is Acanthamoeba Infection. The evaluation of an acanthamoeba infection begins with a history and physical examination ...
Acanthamoeba infection of the eye is it contagious? Contagiousness of Acanthamoeba infection of the eye including infectiousness, transmission, and contagion methods and vectors.
Acanthamoeba spp. are microscopic organisms that can be found just about anywhere, from soil to water, to the air we breathe. They are the direct culprits of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) a relatively rare but sight-threatening disease which is actually caused by at least eight species of Acanthamoeba: A. castellanii, A. culbertsoni, A. polyphaga, A. hatchetti, A. rhysodes, A. lugdunesis, A. quina, and A. griffin. Ocular trauma and contaminated water are also associated with AK infections but it has been found that contact lens wearing accounts for , 80% of the cases. If found early the infection can be cured, but this gets progressively more difficult the longer it remains untreated. The difficulty lies with the life cycle of the Acanthamoeba species which consists of two stages: the trophozoite and the cyst ...
A. castellanii is a ubiquitous organism, found in many ecosystems worldwide. It is able to survive in harsh environmental circumstances - even in some contact lens solutions - and this is not the first occurrence of A. castellanii appearing in the eye. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a neglected malady frequently associated with contact lens wear.. Acanthamoeba infection of the cornea causes severe inflammation, intense pain and impaired vision, which is blinding if left untreated. Infection begins when the parasite is at its active feeding trophozoite stage and sticks to the corneal tissue before penetrating the lower stromal layer. The resulting opacity leads to less sharp vision and eventually blindness.. Acanthamoeba infections (not just in the eye) are being detected by clinicians with increasing frequency, especially as opportunistic infections in patients whose immune system is already compromised. This at-risk population is expanding as a result of increasing use of immune-suppressing ...
Several pathogens exhibit a considerable host range. Legionella pneumophila, for example, can infect various protozoa species, experimentally inoculated guinea pigs, and human macrophages, as well as epithelial cells. Vegetative cells of Dictyostelium feed on bacteria and upon starvation aggregate and differentiate into pluricellular fruiting bodies. To evaluate whether D. discoideum is a suitable model system for studying Legionella pathogenicity, the authors compared the intracellular growth of different Legionella species in Dictyostelium with the established host model system Acanthamoeba castellanii. The FlaA-and the Mip-negative mutant of L. pneumophila Corby revealed moderate growth defects and the ligA-negative mutant was severely impaired to grow intracellularly. To examine host functions required for growth, the authors also investigated defined Dictyostelium mutants. Identification of Legionella spp., Dictyostelium spp., and Hartmannella spp. by fluorescence-labeled rRNA probes have been
We report the identification and characterization of myr 4 (myosin from rat), the first mammalian myosin I that is not closely related to brush border myosin I. Myr 4 contains a myosin head (motor) domain, a regulatory domain with light chain binding sites and a tail domain. Sequence analysis of myosin I head (motor) domains suggested that myr 4 defines a novel subclass of myosin Is. This subclass is clearly different from the vertebrate brush border myosin I subclass (which includes myr 1) and the myosin I subclass(es) identified from Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum. In accordance with this notion, a detailed sequence analysis of all myosin I tail domains revealed that the myr 4 tail is unique, except for a newly identified myosin I tail homology motif detected in all myosin I tail sequences. The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin was demonstrated to be associated with myr 4. Calmodulin binding activity of myr 4 was mapped by gel overlay assays to the two consecutive light ...
Purpose: : To examine further the association between the recent outbreaks of microbial keratitis caused by unusual organisms and the contamination of multipurpose contact lens disinfection solutions (MPS) during use. Methods: : Conidia of representative isolates of the Fuarium solani-F. oxysporum complexes and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castelanii were inoculated (~104 ml-1) into 1-2 ml of MPS that contained either polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) or polyquaternium-1 (PQ) as active disinfecting components. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) served as a control. These preparations were examined microscopically during drying under a laminar flow hood at ambient temperatures. Results: : The various MPS formed distinct and characteristic concentric bands of precipitates and viscous globules while drying. The distribution of the conidia, trophozoites and amoebic cysts among the distinctive residual- precipitate patterns varied for the different MPS. Cysts were not evident in the initial trophozoite ...
There are three main genera of free living amoeba that infect humans - Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria that are are important causes of disease in humans and animals. The topic for todays podcast will be one of them- Acanthamoeba.. Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, free-living amoeba that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system.. Joining me to talk about Acanthamoeba is Parasitology teacher and author of Parasites: Tales of Humanitys Most Unwelcome Guests, Rosemary Drisdelle.. ...
Abstract: The free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in nature and are considered potentially pathogenic organisms. Occasionally they can trigger human infections such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. The investigation of differentiating characteristics between pathogenic strains and those not associated with infection may help to determine factors related to pathogenicity and the development of diagnostic tests. In this sense, the aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation; by means of physiological, morphological and immunochemical criteria; between clinical and environmental samples of Acanthamoeba. Trophozoites of four isolates were used: a clinical sample, obtained from a confirmed case of amoebic keratitis; an environmental sample, obtained from the dust of the residence of the same patient; and two reference samples A. poliphaga #2, obtained from an amoebic keratitis (ATCC 30641) and A. poliphaga #4, obtained from ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a serious, debilitating, and intensely painful infection of the cornea caused by parasites of the genus Acanthamoeba. At present,...
تعالى نفصصهم تاني … المرض الأول اسمه Acanthamoeba keratitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في قرنيه العين وده عامل كانه سدلك العدسة اللى بتصور بيها يعنى ممكن يسبب العمى.. المرض التاني Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انه ممكن يقتل رئيس دولتك يعنى يموت المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انهيار الدولة كلها يعنى يؤدي للموت. المرض التالت واسمه disseminated infection: وده ذي ما قولنا عامل ذي الغزو بينتشر في كل حتة وبيعمل التهابات في كل حتة.. You can say "This means that it is dangerous and can kill me and can attack me at any moment and you told me that this enemy lives everywhere… this is scary".. No, dont worry. It is rare to attack you because it is a weak ...
Purpose. To report a case of medication-resistant acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) treated successfully by corneal crosslinking (CXL). Methods. A 26-year-old male with medication-resistant AK underwent a standard CXL procedure with local anesthesia, follo
This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using...
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, Germany.
Key dates in the outbreak of eye infections linked to Advanced Medical Optics Complete MoisturePlus solution:. Feb. 2006- Nov. 2006: AMO receives nine reports involving patients infected with Acanthamoeba keratitis that go unreported.. March 2007: The CDC opens a multistate investigation into unusually high rates of the Acanthamoeba infection, which can result in permanent vision loss or blindness.. May 25, 2007: The CDC links AMOs Complete MoisturePlus to the outbreak and tells consumers to throw the product away.. May 26, 2007: AMO voluntarily recalls the solution under pressure from regulators at the CDC and the FDA.. May 29, 2007 to June 25, 2007: FDA inspectors arrive to investigate AMOs Irvine, Calif.-based headquarters. While there the FDA uncovers a series of problems, including the nine unreported complaint forms, which are finally submitted to the FDA.. Summer 2007: FDA officials schedule a meeting to discuss the problems uncovered at AMOs plant. No disciplinary action is ...
Hi, I am using QIAamp kit to extract DNA from Acanthamoeba culture. However, I just able to extract about 40ng/ul of concentration only when measured by NanoQuant. Is this concentration normal for Acanthamoeba ? This is because previously extraction from other sample can obtain high concentration up to 300ng/ul. Or is there any pre-treatment required to be done to the sample before using this Qiagen kit? I am sure there is no other step stated in Qiagen handbook, just that any other step that is specifically to acanthamoeba ...
Driving performance of patients with bilateral glaucoma. Photodynamic therapy to inhibit MRSA keratitis isolates. Refusal of surgical treatment for the fellow e
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Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium existing endemically in the water and soil of SE Asia and Northern Australia. This organism has shown the ability to remain dormant in its host for decades. B. thailandensis is a closely related non-pathogenic near neighbor that is also found in these soils. It has been suggested that free-living amoeba could be natural reservoirs for these organisms. The interactions of Burkholderia species and Acanthamoeba castellanii, a species of free-living amoeba, were studied to better understand the natural ecology of these organisms and to determine the effects amoeba interactions might have on pathogenesis. In this study, the adherence and persistence of several B. pseudomallei clinical isolates were compared to that of B. thailandensis within both amoeba and a human monocyte cell line. Results showed that B. pseudomallei isolates can enter amoeba and survive therein at varying levels of efficiency. Some isolates were
Acanthamoeba is a pathogen frequently infecting brain, eyes, skin and lung of human and animal. Seven Acanthamoeba local isolates from various sources, two Acanthamoeba type strains and one strain of Hartmannella vermiformis were characterized for their genetic variability using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using four different 10-mer oligonucleotides primers. Electrophoresis of the amplification products generated DNA bands ranging from approximately 0.25 to 7.50 kbp in size. A genetic relatedness among the isolates was examined using Dice similarity coefficient as the genetic distance measured between the strains of Acanthamoeba and H. vermiformis. Three distinct clusters could be separated at genetic distance of approximately 0.330. © 2006 Asian Network for Scientific Information. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates. AU - Iovieno, Alfonso. AU - Ledee, Dolena R.. AU - Miller, Darlene. AU - Alfonso, Eduardo C. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the presence of 4 clinically relevant bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and the possible contribution of endosymbionts to the pathogenesis of AK. Design: Experimental study. Participants: Acanthamoeba isolates (N = 37) recovered from the cornea and contact lens paraphernalia of 23 patients with culture-proven AK and 1 environmental isolate. Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Legionella, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Chlamydia using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and transmission electron microscopy. Corneal toxicity and ...
Acanthamoeba are tiny amoeba like parasites found in water sources such as tap water, well water, hot tubs and soil or sewage systems. Eye infections can occur when contact is made with these parasites and is usually due to the improper care of contact lenses or unhygienic conditions.. Recent outbreaks of acanthamoeba infections have been noted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention throughout the U.S. The use of contact lens solutions that were contaminated during the manufacturing process led to an outbreak in 2007.. The good news is that with proper contact lens care, most cases can be avoided and that contact lens solutions undergo rigorous testing to ensure a sterile products reaches market.. ...
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
"Gene Discovery in the Acanthamoeba castellanii Genome". Protist. 156 (2): 203-14. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2005.04.001. PMID ...
Bullerwell, CE; Schnare, MN; Gray, MW (March 2003). "Discovery and characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial ...
Lonergan, K.M. & Gray, M.W. (1993). "Predicted editing of additional transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria". ... insertion via the interaction between the gRNA and mRNA is similar to the tRNA editing processes in the animal and Acanthamoeba ...
"Evidence for a Hydrogenosomal-Type Anaerobic ATP Generation Pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e69532. ...
Pollard, Thomas D.; Korn, Edward D. (1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme ... Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global ...
It was discovered with its co-infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba castellanii mamavirus (ACMV). The virophage was named Sputnik ...
"Purification and characterization of a myosin I heavy chain kinase from Acanthamoeba castellanii". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (16): ... Brzeska H, Lynch TJ, Martin B, Corigliano-Murphy A, Korn ED (1990). "Substrate specificity of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain ... mutating the regulatory phosphoserine and conserved threonine on the activity of the expressed catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba ...
"Oscillations of redox states in synchronously dividing cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe". ...
It was originally isolated from Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but subsequent work has involved Acanthamoeba castellanii. Mamavirus, ... June 2011). "Viruses with more than 1000 genes: Mamavirus, a new Acanthamoeba castellanii mimivirus strain, and reannotation of ... Sputnik cannot replicate in acanthamoeba cells without a simultaneous infection by mamavirus (or mimivirus) so it infects the ...
In similar manner, the sputnik virophage is dependent on mimivirus, which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii. These ...
Genome analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii, an amoebozoan, revealed that a significant portion of the genome that is expressed ... 2013). "Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ... When analyzed, the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii shows genes with orthologs currently found in a diverse range of bacteria ...
2013). "Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
... pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii, its natural host. L. pneumophila exhibits a biphasic lifecycle and defines ...
... such as Acanthamoeba castellanii. and Naegleria fowleri. The receptor antagonists of M1 receptors have shown to be exert anti- ... Baig AM, Ahmad HR (2016). "Evidence of a M1-muscarinic GPCR homolog in unicellular eukaryotes: featuring Acanthamoeba spp ...
... was isolated by co-cultivation with a variety of Acanthamoeba laboratory strains (A. polyphaga, A. castellanii, A. ... "Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLoS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ... phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV). In colloquial speech, MGVC is more commonly referred to as ... a New Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Strain, and Reannotation of Mimivirus Genes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 3: 737-42. ...
... acanthamoeba MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.075.080.150 --- acanthamoeba castellanii MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.200 ...
The Arp2/3 complex was named after it was identified in 1994 by affinity chromatography from Acanthamoeba castellanii, though ... "Purification of a cortical complex containing two unconventional actins from Acanthamoeba by affinity chromatography on ...
... castellanii Poussard) A. triangularis (T4) A. tubiashi (T8) Acanthamoeba infection Acanthamoeba keratitis Balamuthia ... Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from contact lens keratitis Marciano-Cabral F, ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations. ...
"In vitro effects of selected contact lens care solutions on Acanthamoeba castellanii strains in Poland". Experimental ... 2 (non neutralized solution) is sufficient to kill bacteria, HIV, fungi, and Acanthamoeba.[77][78] This can be achieved by ... In 2002, concerns were raised that multipurpose solutions are not effective at disinfecting Acanthamoeba from the lens.[69] In ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis --- Multiple States, 2005-2007. Center for Disease Control MMWR dispatch. 26 May 2007 / 56(Dispatch);1-3 ...
... which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii.[57] These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus ...
I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme similar to muscle myosin." The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (13 ... of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global range of divergent myosin genes have been discovered ...
"Discovery and characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial 5S rRNA". RNA. 9 (3): 287-292. doi:10.1261/rna.2170803 ...
Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. B Neumeister, S Schöniger ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
Effect of growth at low temperature on the uncoupling protein activity and expression in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 50739™) Strain Designations: C3 / Depositor: R Michel / Biosafety Level: 2 ... Enlarged Chlamydia-like organisms as spontaneous infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Parasitol. Res. 87: 248-251, 2001. ... Legionella-like slender rods multiplying within a strain of Acanthamoeba sp. isolated from drinking water. Parasitol. Res. 84: ... nov., an obligate intracellular parasite of Acanthamoeba species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 63-72, 2000. PubMed: ...
Therefore, understanding of the effect of oxidative stress on vital characteristics of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) ... Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype). ... Impact of oxidative stress on Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial bioenergetics depends on cell growth stage. J Bioenerg ... Functional expression and characterization of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J Parasitol ...
... Amir Saeed, ... A. castellanii in the absence or presence of wild type, IpaB mutant, or plasmid-cured strain S. flexneri was cultured at C and ... castellanii. In contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces both necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii. The aim of this ... The outcome of the interaction was depended on the temperature since the growth of A. castellanii was inhibited at C, and A. ...
Lethal effects of Helianthemum lippii (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts in vitro. Korean Journal Parasitology, 52(3), 243- ... In vitro amoebicidal activity of Origanum syriacum and Origanumla evigatum on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. ... In vitro amoebicidal activities of Teucrium polium and T. chamaedrys on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts. ... Artemisia argyi Phytotoxic activity Acanthamoeba castellanii Amoebicidal activity Cytotoxic potential Antioxidant activity ...
The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii Laura M. Hales, Howard A. Shuman ... 1992) A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infect. Immun. 60:296 ... 1994) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Infect. Immun. 62:3254-3261. ... 1999) Legionella pneumophila utilize the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. Infect. ...
Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae.. A Essig, M Heinemann, U Simnacher, R Marre ... Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell ... A castellanii was incubated with purified elementary bodies of C. pneumoniae TW 183 at a concentration of 10(6) inclusion- ...
Choul Yong Park, Bora Yim, JooHee Park, Martha Kim, Roy S Chuck; Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii. Invest. ... Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Purpose : Acanthamoeba keratitis is a well-known intractable corneal infectious disease in which the conventional antibiotics ... Results : Sodium nitrite and sodium nitroprusside showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on A. castellanii viability. More ...
Purpose : Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) cause acanthamoeba keratitis, which is a serious infection of the eye, and ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases Christine Selhuber-Unkel; Sören ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases You will receive an email ... Christine Selhuber-Unkel, Sören Björn Gutekunst; Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact ...
Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion.. J D Cirillo, S Falkow, L S Tompkins ... Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... invasive ability of bacteria grown under standard laboratory conditions with that of bacteria grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii ... castellanii than were L. pneumophila cells grown on agar. Comparison of agar- and amoeba-grown L. pneumophila cells by light ...
A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. J F Moffat, L S Tompkins ... A model of intracellular growth for Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii has been developed and provides a ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
In Vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Macrolide Rokitamycin and Chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. ... Emergence of resistance to biocides during differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:27-34. ... Inhibition of multiplication in Acanthamoeba castellanii by specific inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase. J. Protozool. 34: ... In Vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Macrolide Rokitamycin and Chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
By long term cultivation, Acanthamoeba severely attenuated the encysting ability. To determine the changing of gene expression ... The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. The cyst form is resistant to almost all ... Expression levels of encystation mediating factors in fresh strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst ESTs Exp Parasitol. 2011 ... The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. The cyst form is resistant to almost all ...
Abbas, Rabiya. (2011) Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. Doctoral thesis, ... In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the ... castellanii. It was found that although the mycobacteria were able to remain inside the amoebae vacuoles, they were unable to ...
The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ... The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ... Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a ... 2013) Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
Using Acanthamoeba castellanii as bait, we isolated a new type of giant DNA virus from the same sample of 30,000-y-old ... Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Neff (ATCC 30010TM) cells adapted to resist Fungizone (2.5 μg/mL) were inoculated with 100 ... Mollivirus EdU-labeled DNA visualized in infected Acanthamoeba castellanii. (A) Early transfer of the labeled viral DNA in the ... 2013) Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
Oscillations in protein and RNA content during synchronous growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii: evidence for periodic turnover ... Oscillations in protein and RNA content during synchronous growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii: evidence for periodic turnover ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup Amoebozoa) rivals that of animals, fungi, and plants ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Acanthamoeba castellanii; Amoebozoa; Fungi. Abstract. We present a combined proteomic and bioinformatic investigation of ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. September 1, 2017. by Tim van ... Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.. Siddiqui R1, Yee Ong TY1, Jung ... As Acanthamoeba cysts are resilient and can disperse through the air, A. castellanii can act as a vector in providing shelter, ... Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist that is known to harbour microbial pathogens, provide shelter, and assist in their ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 30010™) ATCC® Number: 30010™ Deposited As Acanthamoeba sp. ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 50494™) ATCC® Number: 50494™ Organism: Acanthamoeba castellanii ... Acanthamoeba sp. (ATCC® PRA-7™) ATCC® Number: PRA-7™ Organism: Acanthamoeba sp. ... Acanthamoeba sp. 26 (ATCC® 50722™) ATCC® Number: 50722™ Organism: Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ... which was isolated from the eye of a human male from Florida with Acanthamoeba keratitis, ATCC, 1992 ...
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
  • L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. (asm.org)
  • According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. (asm.org)
  • A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. (asm.org)
  • L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. (asm.org)
  • The information of the expressed genes during encystation in only the fresh strain will provide new clues to understanding the encystation mechanism of encysting protozoa including Acanthamoeba. (nih.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba infections (not just in the eye) are being detected by clinicians with increasing frequency, especially as opportunistic infections in patients whose immune system is already compromised. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the last 2-3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ) or are predicted ( Naegleria gruberi , Acanthamoeba castellanii , Amoebidium parasiticum ) to produce H 2 in their metabolism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Different bacteria interact differently with FLA since Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonnei , and S. dysenteriae are able to grow inside A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • We compared the invasive ability of bacteria grown under standard laboratory conditions with that of bacteria grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii, one of the protozoan species that serves as a natural host for L. pneumophila in the environment. (asm.org)
  • In this model, Acanthamoeba monolayers were incubated with bacteria in tissue culture plates under nutrient-limiting conditions. (asm.org)
  • at an inoculum of 1.03 x 10(7) bacteria added to wells containing 1.10 x 10(5) amebae (multiplicity of infection of 100), approximately 4.4% of A. castellanii cells became infected. (asm.org)
  • Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba interactions with Streptococcus and the evolution of pathogenic bacteria and in turn expedite discovery of novel therapeutic and/or preventative measures. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • A. hydrophila and E. aerogenes also joined the ranks of other bacteria that could benefit from A. castellanii. (aku.edu)
  • If Acanthamoeba are present, they will ingest the bacteria, leaving a clear patch on the plate around the area of the lens. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, certain bacteria especially pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to escape the killing mechanisms of Acanthamoeba and instead use the amoeba as a Trojan horse or reservoir for their own benefit [ 12 , 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggest that Acanthamoeba and Bacteria encounter each other in the environment routinely. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of endophthalmitis without the detection of bacteria or fungi acanthamoeba should therefore always be c. (medworm.com)
  • Our results demonstrate the power of combining direct proteomic and bioinformatic approaches in the discovery of novel mitochondrial proteins, both nucleus-encoded and mitochondrion-encoded, and highlight the compositional complexity of the A. castellanii mitochondrial proteome, which rivals that of animals, fungi and plants. (canada.ca)
  • Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, the A. castellanii genome encodes an unusually high number (at least 29) of mitochondrion-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, organellar RNA metabolism factors in other organisms. (canada.ca)
  • The mitochondrial DNA of the amoeboid protozoon, Acanthamoeba castellanii: complete sequence, gene content and genome organization. (parasitol.kr)
  • Recently, proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by Acanthamoeba for non-pathogenic strain ATCC 30010 and clinically pathogenic isolates has been performed [ 13 ], revealing 44 secreted proteins, including 10 consensus secretory proteins and 34 strain specific secretory proteins. (parasitol.kr)
  • To gain more information on virulence factors of Acanthamoeba infection, the objective of this study was to compare the levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space between pathogenic ATCC 30011 strain and non-pathogenic ATCC 30868 strain of Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • We report here the first comprehensive investigation of the mitochondrial proteome in a member (A. castellanii) of the eukaryotic supergroup Amoebozoa. (canada.ca)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acanthamoeba species prevalence in household and hospital potable water in Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt, and to employ sequencing methods to identify positive Acanthamoeba species isolates and their potential health risks. (degruyter.com)
  • At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. (sunway.edu.my)
  • We report 1033 A. castellanii mitochondrial protein sequences, 709 supported by mass spectrometry data (676 nucleus-encoded and 33 mitochondrion-encoded), including two previously unannotated mtDNA-encoded proteins, which we identify as highly divergent mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. (canada.ca)
  • Other notable findings include duplicate proteins for all of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-which, along with the identification of a mitochondrial malate synthase-isocitrate lyase fusion protein, suggests the interesting possibility that the glyoxylate cycle operates in A. castellanii mitochondria. (canada.ca)
  • Total proteins of Acanthamoeba separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing in pH gradient 3-7. (parasitol.kr)
  • These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • Complete genomic or cDNA sequences of SAMS proteins are available in GenBank, for E. coli (accession no. 1708999), A. castellanii (6016547), and P. infestans (23394401). (biologists.org)
  • Di Gregorio C, Rivasi F, Mongiardo N, De Rienzo B, Wallace S, Visvesvara G (1992) Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • These data were used to reconstruct the metabolic pathways and protein complexes of A. castellanii mitochondria, and were integrated with data from other characterized mitochondrial proteomes to augment our understanding of mitochondrial proteome evolution. (canada.ca)
  • Mitochondria of amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii in addition to the conventional cytochrome pathway possess, like plant mitochondria, a cyanide-resistant alternative quinol oxidase. (edu.pl)
  • 2. Edwards, S.W. & Lloyd, D. (1978) Properties of mitochondria isolated from cyanide- stimulted and -sensitive cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (edu.pl)
  • The aim of this study is to examine the role of invasion plasmid of S. flexneri on the interaction with A. castellanii at two different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • However, E. aerogenes and E. coli exhibited significantly reduced association with and invasion of A. castellanii as compared with A. hydrophila (P (aku.edu)
  • A. castellanii were treated with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside abbreviated Man, with and without the EMS pre-treatment, and their adhesion and cytotoxicity were analyzed, using a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) as the target cell. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • Pretreatment of amoebae with CA-AuNPs inhibited A. castellanii -mediated host cell cytotoxicity. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. (sunway.edu.my)
  • Gunderson JH, Sogin ML. Length variation in eukaryotic rRNAs: small subunit rRNAs from the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii and Euglena gracilis. (parasitol.kr)