A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEGIONELLA.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
An order of protozoa characterized by their ability to aggregate to form a multicellular pseudoplasmodium, which gives rise to a multispored fruiting body. A stalk tube is present.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Medicines whose effectiveness is unproven and whose ingredients are often secret.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.

Evidence that hsp90 is involved in the altered interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii variants with bacteria. (1/132)

There are many similarities between the interactions of environmental protozoa with pathogenic bacterial species and those observed in mammalian macrophages. Since single-celled protozoa predate mammalian hosts, it is likely that interactions in environmental biofilms have selected for many of the bacterial virulence mechanisms responsible for human disease. In order to better understand bacterial-phagocyte interactions, we developed a selection for Acanthamoeba castellanii variants that are more resistant to killing by bacterial pathogens. We identified four amoebal clones that display decreased phagocytosis of bacteria but no difference in uptake of latex beads compared to wild-type amoebae. These amoebal variants display differences in cellular morphology, partial resistance to killing by bacteria, more bactericidal activity, and higher frequencies of lysosome fusion with the bacterial vacuole. Three proteins are present at lower levels in these variants than in wild-type amoebae, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry allowed identification of two of them as actin and hsp90. We found that specific inhibitors of hsp90 produce a similar phenotypic effect in macrophages. These data suggest that hsp90 plays a role in phagocytic and, possibly, bactericidal pathways that affect interactions of phagocytic cells with bacteria.  (+info)

The contribution of uncoupling protein and ATP synthase to state 3 respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria. (2/132)

Mitochondria of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a free fatty acid-activated uncoupling protein (AcUCP) that mediates proton re-uptake driven by the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient. We show that AcUCP activity diverts energy from ATP synthesis during state 3 mitochondrial respiration in a fatty acid-dependent way. The efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increases when the state 3 respiratory rate decreases as the AcUCP contribution is constant at a given linoleic acid concentration while the ATP synthase contribution decreases with respiratory rate. Respiration sustained by this energy-dissipating process remains constant at a given linoleic acid concentration until more than 60% inhibition of state 3 respiration by n-butyl malonate is achieved. The present study supports the validity of the ADP/O method to determine the actual contributions of AcUCP (activated with various linoleic acid concentrations) and ATP synthase in state 3 respiration of A.castellanii mitochondria fully depleted of free fatty acid-activated and describes how the two contributions vary when the rate of succinate dehydrogenase is decreased by succinate uptake limitation.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine binding to mitochondrial membranes of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/132)

Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. For that purpose we applied Ro5-4864, a well-known ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) present in mammalian mitochondria. The levels of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding, the dissociation constant (K(D)) and the number of [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites (B(max)) determined for fractions of the studied mitochondria indicate the presence of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the outer membrane of yeast and amoeba mitochondria as well as in yeast mitoplasts. Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [(3)H]Ro5-4864. Labeling of amoeba, yeast and rat liver mitochondria with [(3)H]Ro5-4864 revealed proteins identified as the voltage dependent anion selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in the inner membrane. Therefore, the specific MBR ligand binding is not confined only to mammalian mitochondria and is more widespread within the eukaryotic world. However, it can not be excluded that MBR ligand binding sites are exploited efficiently only by higher multicellular eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the MBR ligand binding sites in mitochondria of lower eukaryotes can be applied as useful models in studies on mammalian MBR.  (+info)

The amoebae plate test implicates a paralogue of lpxB in the interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii. (4/132)

Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial parasite of freshwater amoebae which also grows in alveolar macrophages and thus causes the potentially fatal pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular growth within amoebae and macrophages is mechanistically similar and requires the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. This paper reports the development of an assay, the amoebae plate test (APT), to analyse growth of L. pneumophila wild-type and icm/dot mutant strains spotted on agar plates in the presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii. In the APT, wild-type L. pneumophila formed robust colonies even at high dilutions, icmT, -R, -P or dotB mutants failed to grow, and icmS or -G mutants were partially growth defective. The icmS or icmG mutant strains were used to screen an L. pneumophila chromosomal library for genes that suppress the growth defect in the presence of the amoebae. An icmS suppressor plasmid was isolated that harboured the icmS and flanking icm genes, indicating that this plasmid complements the intracellular growth defect of the mutant. In contrast, different icmG suppressor plasmids rendered the icmG mutant more cytotoxic for A. castellanii without enhancing intracellular multiplication in amoebae or RAW264.7 macrophages. Deletion of individual genes in the suppressor plasmids inserts identified lcs (Legionella cytotoxic suppressor) -A, -B, -C and -D as being required for enhanced cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant strain. The corresponding proteins show sequence similarity to hydrolases, NlpD-related metalloproteases, lipid A disaccharide synthases and ABC transporters, respectively. Overexpression of LcsC, a putative paralogue of the lipid A disaccharide synthase LpxB, increased cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant but not that of other icm/dot or rpoS mutant strains against A. castellanii. Based on sequence comparison and chromosomal location, lcsB and lcsC probably encode enzymes involved in cell wall maintenance and peptidoglycan metabolism. The APT established here may prove useful to identify other bacterial factors relevant for interactions with amoeba hosts.  (+info)

Development of colorimetric microtiter plate assay for assessment of antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba. (5/132)

We have developed and optimized a 96-well microtiter plate assay, based on the reduction of alamarBlue, to assess the efficacies of much needed new antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba species. This assay has been optimized for determination of drug efficacy against two potentially pathogenic species, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and has been validated by comparison of their relative susceptibilities to chlorhexidine, a drug widely used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. The results demonstrate that the assay is comparable to a manual counting assay and that A. polyphaga is more resistant to chlorhexidine than A. castellanii. Thus, by use of the manual counting assay, 3.125 microM chlorohexidine was almost completely effective against A. castellanii, whereas this concentration was less than 20% effective against A. polyphaga. Similar results were obtained by the alamarBlue assay. The new assay was used to determine the relative susceptibilities of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga to the alkylphosphocholines (APCs) hexadecylphosphocholine (hexadecyl-PC; miltefosine) and octadecylphosphocholine (octadecyl-PC) as well as an alkylgycerolphosphocholine, edelfosine. Both APCs studied were equally effective against A. castellanii, but octadecyl-PC was less effective than hexadecyl-PC against A. polyphaga. Both APCs were more effective than edelfosine against both Acanthamoeba species. A. polyphaga was found to be significantly less susceptible to each of the phosphocholine analogues. The newly described assay offers a number of advantages over those described previously. It is less labor-intensive than previously described assays and is sensitive and rapid, and the results can be read in a nonsubjective manner. As it is based on a standard 96-well, microtiter plate, it is amenable to automation and high throughput.  (+info)

Stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (6/132)

A simple method for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii using plasmids which confer resistance to neomycin G418 is described. Expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is driven by the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter, and can be monitored by cell growth in the presence of neomycin G418 or by Western blot analysis. Transfected cells can be passaged in the same manner as control cells and can be induced to differentiate into cysts, in which form they maintain resistance to neomycin G418 for at least several weeks, although expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is repressed during encystment. Expression of EGFP or an HA-tagged EGFP-TBP fusion can be driven from the same plasmid, using an additional copy of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter or a deletion mutant. The TBP-EGFP fusion is localized to the nucleus, except in a small proportion of presumptive pre-mitotic cells. EGFP expression can also be driven by the cyst-specific CSP21 gene promoter, which is completely repressed in growing cells but strongly induced in differentiating cells. Transfected cells maintain their phenotype for several weeks, even in the absence of neomycin G418, suggesting that transfected genes are stably integrated within the genome. These results demonstrate the utility of the neomycin resistance based plasmids for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba, and may assist a number of investigations.  (+info)

Structural implications of novel diversity in eucaryal RNase P RNA. (7/132)

Previous eucaryotic RNase P RNA secondary structural models have been based on limited diversity, representing only two of the approximately 30 phylogenetic kingdoms of the domain Eucarya. To elucidate a more generally applicable structure, we used biochemical, bioinformatic, and molecular approaches to obtain RNase P RNA sequences from diverse organisms including representatives of six additional kingdoms of eucaryotes. Novel sequences were from acanthamoeba (Acathamoeba castellanii, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Filamoeba nolandi), animals (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster), alveolates (Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis), conosids (Dictyostelium discoideum, Physarum polycephalum), trichomonads (Trichomonas vaginalis), microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi), and diplomonads (Giardia intestinalis). An improved alignment of eucaryal RNase P RNA sequences was assembled and used for statistical and comparative structural analysis. The analysis identifies a conserved core structure of eucaryal RNase P RNA that has been maintained throughout evolution and indicates that covariation in size occurs between some structural elements of the RNA. Eucaryal RNase P RNA contains regions of highly variable length and structure reminiscent of expansion segments found in rRNA. The eucaryal RNA has been remodeled through evolution as a simplified version of the structure found in bacterial and archaeal RNase P RNAs.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. (8/132)

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Next, we observed that Acanthamoeba specifically activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Acanthamoeba-mediated brain endothelial cell death was abolished using LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. These results were further confirmed using brain microvascular endothelial cells expressing dominant negative forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.  (+info)

Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The role played by soluble molecules that may participate in acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be fully characterized. We demonstrate here that Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites constitutively release ADP in the medium. Cell-free supernatants prepared from A. castellanii, by interaction with specific P2y2 purinoceptors expressed on the Wish cell membrane, caused a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i, extensive cell membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal disorganization, and the breakdown of nuclei. Cell damage induced by amoebic supernatants was blocked by the P2y2 inhibitor Suramin. The same results were found in Wish cells exposed to purified ADP. These findings suggest that pathogenic free-living A. castellanii may have a cytopathic effect on human epithelial cells through ADP release, by a process that begins with a rise of cytosolic free-calcium concentration, and culminates in apoptosis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The interaction of F-actin with phosphorylated and unphosphorylated myosins IA and IB from Acanthamoeba castellanii.. AU - Albanesi, J. P.. AU - Hammer, J. A.. AU - Korn, E. D.. PY - 1983/8/25. Y1 - 1983/8/25. N2 - Myosins IA and IB from Acanthamoeba castellanii are single-headed molecules which, upon phosphorylation of their heavy chains by a specific kinase, express actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity. These myosins show no tendency to self-associate under assay conditions, a property which allows unambiguous kinetic and actin-binding data to be obtained. Both myosin isoenzymes exhibit a complex dependence of actomyosin ATPase activity on F-actin concentration. A conventional hyperbolic dependence is observed at low concentrations of F-actin but at higher F-actin concentrations, inhibition and then apparent reactivation are seen to occur. From those early portions of the velocity profiles which do not deviate from simple Michaelis-Menten type kinetics, values for the Vmax (10 ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular respiratory pathogen, which, similar to Legionella, might have developed mechanisms to escape the intracellular bactericidal activity of both human host cells and amoeba. We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell culture, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. A castellanii was incubated with purified elementary bodies of C. pneumoniae TW 183 at a concentration of 10(6) inclusion-forming units (IFU)/ml to give a ratio of approximately 1 IFU of C. pneumoniae per amoeba. Quantitative determination of chlamydial growth within A. castellanii revealed viable and infective C. pneumoniae in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) IFU/ml between days 7 and 14 postinfection. Immunofluorescence analysis and transmission electron microscopy with subsequent immunogold staining confirmed evidence of infection of the amoebae by C. Pneumoniae and additionally revealed that C. ...
Despite significant public health impact, there is no specific antiprotozoal therapy for prevention and treatment of Acanthamoeba castellanii infection. There is a need for new and efficient anti-Acanthamoeba drugs that are less toxic and can reduce treatment duration and frequency of administration. In this context a new, rapid and sensitive assay is required for high-throughput activity testing and screening of new therapeutic compounds. A colorimetric assay based on sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining has been developed for anti-Acanthamoeba drug susceptibility testing and adapted to a 96-well microtiter plate format. Under these conditions chlorhexidine was tested to validate the assay using two clinical strains of A. castellanii (Neff strain, T4 genotype [IC50 4.68±0.6 _M] and T3 genotype [IC50 5.69±0.9 _M]). These results were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional Alamar Blue assay, OCR cytotoxicity assay and manual cell counting method. Our new assay offers an ...
The activity of microsomal delta 12-desaturase in Acanthamoeba castellanii was increased after growing cultures were chilled from the optimal growth temperature (30 degrees C) to 15 degrees C. This increase was detectable in microsomes isolated from organisms subjected to only 10 min chilling. The mechanism of induction was investigated. The increase in activity on chilling was greatly reduced when protein synthesis was blocked before the temperature shift. Thus the major mechanism for the induction of delta 12-desaturase is increased protein synthesis. delta 12-Desaturase activity was higher when assayed at 20 degrees C than when assayed at 30 degrees C, but these changes were not due to the increased solubility of O2 at 20 degrees C. The major substrate of delta 12-desaturase was found to be 1-acyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine.. ...
Tuberculosis remains a major threat to human health accounting for 2 million annual deaths worldwide. M. bovis causes TB in cattle which is a serious issue in the UK. Mycobacteria are widely distributed in the environments that are also colonized by free living amoebae. In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the intracellular survival of M. bovis. Role of region of difference 1 (RD1), isocitrate lyase (Rv0467), ClgR (Rv2745) and the VapC (Rv2548) toxin-antitoxin system was examined for survival in amoebae. While the role of RD1 in mycobacterial survival in amoebae could not be observed, isocitrate lyase and a transcriptional regulator (ClgR) might play some part in survival of M. bovis in A. castellanii. It was found that although the mycobacteria were able to remain inside the amoebae vacuoles, they were unable to control the pH as the vacuoles remained acidic. This is very interesting as it is in contrast to macrophages ...
Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms.. ...
In this study, Acanthamoeba castellanii was cultivated under different stress conditions to induce possible encystation. The morphological and histological properties were analysed by light and electron microscopy as well as cyst-specific staining. The findings revealed that cysts prepared through liquid medium using higher osmolarity as a trigger (10% glucose with 50mM magnesium chloride for 72 h) are similar to cysts prepared using non-nutrient agar (nutrient deprivation as a trigger in plating assays for 14 days), as determined by SDS-resistance, cyst-specific Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy. Using liquid medium assay, A. castellanii encystation was studied by exposing trophozoites to media lacking growth ingredients (phosphate buffered saline or distilled water), inappropriate temperatures (4-45°C), pH (3-9), artificial light-dark cycles, 5% CO2, and microaerophilic conditions. Optimal encystation was observed when cells were incubated in PBS with 50mM MgCl2 and 10%
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacillus that causes nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia and, rarely, extrapulmonary infections in humans. Signature-tagged mutagenesis employs uniquely tagged transposons that are used to randomly mutagenize a bacterial chromosome and create a library. A library of 700 mutant clones created by signature-tagged mutagenesis was screened using this negative-selection strategy in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba that may serve as an environmental reservoir of legionellae. The efficiency of invasion was studied by incubating L. pneumophila strains grown to postexponential phase with A. castellanii, using gentamicin to kill extracellular organisms and then determining remaining intracellular CFU. The behavior of the mutants was also examined in human macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated U-937 cells. In contrast, all of the mutants replicated within
In this study, we used a novel approach to detect internalized mycobacteria in environmental protozoa from badger latrines. Acid-fast micro-organisms were visualized in isolated amoebae, although we were unable to identify them to species level as no mycobacteria were grown from these samples nor was M. bovis detected by IS6110 PCR. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with virulent M. bovis substantially reduced levels of bacilli, indicating that the amoebae have a negative effect on the persistence of M. bovis. ...
Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after ...
Aims: This study investigates the effects of biguanides during encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Methods and Results: A non-nutrient encystment system was used to investigate the changes in the levels of sorption (uptake) of three non-cysticidal concentrations (10, 20 and 50 μg ml−1) of chlorhexidine diacetate (CHA) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) as well as their effects on viability and leakage of pentose sugars during the first 36 h of encystment. Trophozoites treated with CHA or PHMB were more sensitive and generally sorbed more of each biocide than cysts. During encystment, the largest increases in resistance developed between 18 and 36 h for both biguanides with the resistance emerging to biguanide concentrations of 10 or 20 μg ml−1 between 18 and 24 h. At 50 μg ml−1 resistance emerged between 24 and 36 h. There was a general decrease in biocide sorption during encystment between 0-24 and 0-21 h for CHA and PHMB, respectively, at a concentration of 50 μg ml−1. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of anti-neoplastic drugs against acanthamoeba. AU - Beattie, T.K.. AU - Tomlinson, A.. AU - Seal, D.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Purpose:Late presenting cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis are particularly difficult to treat. The organism can persist, despite treatment with chlorhexidine or PHMB, maintaining an active infection. New drug therapies with enhanced activity are therefore needed to treat this painful, potentially blinding infection. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of three anti-cancer drugs against Acanthamoeba. Methods:Doubling dilutions of MGBG [10-0.15mg/ml (38.5-0.6mM)], CHS 828 [660-10µg/ml (1782-27µM)] and hexadecyl-phosphocholine [HePC, Miltefosine; 660-10µg/ml (1782-27µM)] were tested alone or in combination with chlorhexidine, PHMB and propamidine, for efficacy against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites or cysts. Sensitivity assays were performed over 48h in 96-well microtitre plates. Results: MGBG killed trophozoites at ...
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular gram-negative rod that causes pneumonia in humans. Free-living amoebas are thought to serve as a reservoir for Legionellainfections. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was employed to identifyLegionella pneumophila genes necessary for survival in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Six mutant strains were defective in assays of invasion and intracellular growth. Four mutants also exhibited invasion and replication defects in Hartmannella vermiformis, an amoeba linked to hospital outbreaks ofLegionella pneumonia. The six mutants also were tested in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Two mutants had intracellular replication defects, and two different strains entered cells less efficiently. Two transposon insertions were in known L. pneumophila genes, lspK andaroB. The other four were in novel genes. One gene has similarity to a cytochrome c-type biogenesis protein ofPseudomonas fluorescens. Another has similarity to a ...
1. Adl, S. M., Simpson, A. G. B., Farmer, M. A., Andersen, R. A. et al. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 2005, 52, p. 399-451. 2. Aichelburg, A. C., Walochnik, J., Assadian, O., Prosch, H. et al. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. infection with miltefosine. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2008, 14, p. 1743-1746. 3. Booton, G. C., Visvesvara, G. S., Byers, T. J., Kelly, D. J. et al. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2005, 43, p. 1689-693. 4. Cengiz, A. M., Harmis, N., Stapleton, F. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alters the survival of amoeba. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2000, 28, p. 191-193. 5. Chatton, E. Classe des Lobosa Leidy, 1879. Ordre des amoebiens nus ou Amoebaea. In Grassé, P. P. Traité de zoologie, anatomie, systématique, biologie. Tome I. Protozoaires. ...
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Fig. 7. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of amoeba SAMS2 with SAMS sequences of other organisms. Periods represent amino acids identical to those of MetK of E. coli, and dashes show gaps inserted for an optimal alignment of amino acids. *1, ATP-binding motif; *2, glycine-rich nanopeptide; *3, metal-binding sites; *4, a site for Cys-121 of human MAT1A, characteristic of liver enzymes; EC, E. coli; XB, X-bacteria; AC, Acanthamoeba castellanii; S2, SAMS2 of amoebae; PI, Phytophthora infestans; AP, Amoeba proteus. Complete genomic or cDNA sequences of SAMS proteins are available in GenBank, for E. coli (accession no. 1708999), A. castellanii (6016547), and P. infestans (23394401). Amino acid sequences of amoeba SAMS1 (U91602) and X-bacteria SAMS (AY324627) are from Choi et al. (Choi et al., 1997) and Jeon and Jeon (Jeon and Jeon, 2003).. ...
The Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-Is were the first unconventional myosins to be discovered, and the myosin-I class has since been found to be one of the more diverse and abundant classes of the myosin superfamily. We used two-dimensional (2D) crystallization on phospholipid monolayers and negative stain electron microscopy to calculate a projection map of a classical myosin-I, Acanthamoeba myosin-IB (MIB), at ∼18 Å resolution. Interpretation of the projection map suggests that the MIB molecules sit upright on the membrane. We also used cryoelectron microscopy and helical image analysis to determine the three-dimensional structure of actin filaments decorated with unphosphorylated (inactive) MIB. The catalytic domain is similar to that of other myosins, whereas the large carboxy-terminal tail domain differs greatly from brush border myosin-I (BBM-I), another member of the myosin-I class. These differences may be relevant to the distinct cellular functions of these two types of myosin-I. ...
ID L8GWF8_ACACA Unreviewed; 916 AA. AC L8GWF8; DT 03-APR-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-APR-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 16. DE SubName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1}; GN ORFNames=ACA1_059840 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1}; OS Acanthamoeba castellanii str. Neff. OC Eukaryota; Amoebozoa; Discosea; Longamoebia; Centramoebida; OC Acanthamoebidae; Acanthamoeba. OX NCBI_TaxID=1257118 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Neff {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELR17267.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000011083}; RX PubMed=23375108; DOI=10.1186/gb-2013-14-2-r11; RA Clarke M., Lohan A.J., Liu B., Lagkouvardos I., Roy S., Zafar N., RA Bertelli C., Schilde C., Kianianmomeni A., Burglin T.R., Frech C., RA Turcotte B., Kopec K.O., Synnott J.M., Choo C., Paponov I., RA Finkler A., Soon Heng ...
Protists account for the bulk of eukaryotic diversity. Through studies of gene and especially genome sequences the molecular basis for this diversity can be determined. Evident from genome sequencing are examples of versatile metabolism that go far beyond the canonical pathways described for eukaryotes in textbooks. In the last 2-3 years, genome sequencing and transcript profiling has unveiled several examples of heterotrophic and phototrophic protists that are unexpectedly well-equipped for ATP production using a facultative anaerobic metabolism, including some protists that can (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) or are predicted (Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Amoebidium parasiticum) to produce H(2) in their metabolism. It is possible that some enzymes of anaerobic metabolism were acquired and distributed among eukaryotes by lateral transfer, but it is also likely that the common ancestor of eukaryotes already had far more metabolic versatility than was widely thought a few years ago. ...
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
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The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large ...
New tool for the simultaneous detection of ten different genotypes of Acanthamoeba available from the American Type Culture Collection. Background: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection and none of the current diagnosis tests are able to detect in one reaction low levels of the vast majority of strains associated with pathology. The goal of this work was to validate a new tool for the detection of the American Type Cell Collection referenced Acanthamoeba monitoring simultaneously DNA extraction yields and PCR inhibitors. Performances were assessed on corneal scrapings.. Methods: Primers were selected in a region bracketing a 41591 bp of the A. castellanii mitochondrion gene. DNA extraction and PCR inhibitors were monitored by adding an internal control (virus). Acanthamoeba were detected and quantified by the real time fast duplex TaqMan® PCR (f-d-real-t PCR) and negativity confirmed by SYBR Green real time PCR.. Results: The f-d-real-t PCR detects 0.1 cyst/µl or less of ...
To transit from intra- to extracellular environments, Legionella pneumophila differentiates from a replicative/non-virulent to a transmissive/virulent form using the two-component system LetA/LetS and the global repressor protein CsrA. While investigating how both regulators act co-ordinately we characterized two ncRNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, that link the LetA/LetS and CsrA regulatory networks. We demonstrate that LetA directly regulates their expression and show that RsmY and RsmZ are functional in Escherichia coli and are able to bind CsrA in vitro. Single mutants have no (ΔrsmY) or a little (ΔrsmZ) impact on virulence, but the ΔrsmYZ strain shows a drastic defect in intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Analysis of the transcriptional programmes of the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains revealed that the switch to the transmissive phase is partially blocked. One major difference between the ΔletA, ΔletS and ΔrsmYZ strains was that the latter
Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, a single-celled eukaryote commonly recovered from soil, fresh water and other habitats. Acanthamoeba has two evolutive forms, the metabolically active trophozoite and a dormant, stress resistant cyst. Trophozoites are small, usually 15 to 35 μm in length and amoeboid in shape. In nature, Acanthamoeba species are free-living bacterivores, but in certain situations they can cause infections (Acanthamebiasis) in humans and other animals. Acanthamoeba spp. are among the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. They are distributed worldwide, and have been isolated from soil, air, sewage, seawater, chlorinated swimming pools, domestic tap water, bottled water, dental treatment units, hospitals, air-conditioning units, and contact lens cases. Additionally, Acanthamoeba have been isolated from human skin, nasal cavities, throats, and intestines, as well as plants and other mammals. Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic ...
We present eight cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. In each case; the Acanthamoeba organisms were visualized in the epithelium and anterior stroma using tandem scanning confocal microscopy. The organisms were highly reflective, ovoid, and were 10-25 microns in diameter. The Acanthamoeba organisms in the human corneas were identical in size and shape to Acanthamoeba organisms on an agar plate visualized with the same confocal microscope. Confocal microscopy is a useful method for identifying Acanthamoeba organisms in vivo within the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma.
Acanthamoeba species are infected by the largest known DNA viruses. These include icosahedral Mimiviruses, amphora-shaped Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum, the latter one isolated from 30,000-y-old permafrost. Mollivirus sibericum, a fourth type of giant virus, was isolated from the same permafrost sample. Its approximately spherical virion (0.6-µm diameter) encloses a 651-kb GC-rich genome encoding 523 proteins of which 64% are ORFans; 16% have their closest homolog in Pandoraviruses and 10% in Acanthamoeba castellanii probably through horizontal gene transfer. The Mollivirus nucleocytoplasmic replication cycle was analyzed using a combination of
A new virus called Pithovirus sibericum has been isolated from 30,000 year old Siberian permafrost. It is the oldest DNA virus of eukaryotes ever isolated, showing that viruses can retain infectivity in nature for very long periods of time.. Pithovirus was isolated by inoculating cultures of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani with samples taken in the year 2000 from 30 meters below the surface of a late Pleistocene sediment in the Kolyma lowland region. This amoeba had been previously used to propagate other giant viruses, such as Mimivirus and Pandoravirus. Light microscopy of the cultures revealed the presence of ovoid particles which were subsequently shown by electron microscopy to resemble those of Pandoravirus. Pithovirus particles are flask-shaped and slightly larger than Pandoravirus - 1.5 microns long, 500 nm in diameter, encased by a 60 nm thick membrane. One end of the virus particle appears to be sealed with what the authors call a cork (photo). This feature, along with the shape of ...
Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis ATCC ® 50679™ Designation: SAWE94/4 Isolation: From eye of human with Acanthamoeba keratitis, South Africa, 1994
We have studied the kinetics of the gelation process that occurs upon warming cold extracts of Acanthamoeba using a low-shear falling ball assay. We find that the reaction has at least two steps, requires 0.5 mM ATP and 1.5 mM MgCl2, and is inhibited by micromolar Ca++. The optimum pH is 7.0 and temperature, 25 degrees-30 degrees C. The rate of the reaction is increased by cold preincubation with both MgCl2 and ATP. Nonhydrolyzable analogues of ATP will not substitute for ATP either in this potentiation reaction or in the gelation process. Either of two purified or any one of four partially purified Acanthamoeba proteins will cross-link purified actin to form a gel, but none can account for the dependence of the reaction in the crude extract on Mg-ATP or its regulation by Ca++. This suggests that the extract contains, in addition to actin-cross-linking proteins, factors dependent on Mg-ATP and Ca++ that regulate the gelation process. ...
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The recent study, Acanthamoeba Infection market forecasts the business performance of the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. The study considers the estimated period as the base duration and brings to light the important information associated with the market size, share and growth rate of the Acanthamoeba Infection market.. Apart from this, the research closely examines the market share occupied by some of the prominent market players in the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. Researchers behind the research unmask vital statistics on market segmentation including product types, application, sale and geography.. FREE SAMPLE COPY [Customized Copy + CAGR and Gross Market Value Included] @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/sample-enquiry-form/74658. This study relies on the evolution of the industry to derive the trends that are observed. A significant increase in the global market is visible, which promises the expansion of the market ...
Another name for Acanthamoeba Infection is Acanthamoeba Infection. The evaluation of an acanthamoeba infection begins with a history and physical examination ...
Acanthamoeba infection of the eye is it contagious? Contagiousness of Acanthamoeba infection of the eye including infectiousness, transmission, and contagion methods and vectors.
Acanthamoeba spp. are microscopic organisms that can be found just about anywhere, from soil to water, to the air we breathe. They are the direct culprits of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) a relatively rare but sight-threatening disease which is actually caused by at least eight species of Acanthamoeba: A. castellanii, A. culbertsoni, A. polyphaga, A. hatchetti, A. rhysodes, A. lugdunesis, A. quina, and A. griffin. Ocular trauma and contaminated water are also associated with AK infections but it has been found that contact lens wearing accounts for , 80% of the cases. If found early the infection can be cured, but this gets progressively more difficult the longer it remains untreated. The difficulty lies with the life cycle of the Acanthamoeba species which consists of two stages: the trophozoite and the cyst ...
A. castellanii is a ubiquitous organism, found in many ecosystems worldwide. It is able to survive in harsh environmental circumstances - even in some contact lens solutions - and this is not the first occurrence of A. castellanii appearing in the eye. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a neglected malady frequently associated with contact lens wear.. Acanthamoeba infection of the cornea causes severe inflammation, intense pain and impaired vision, which is blinding if left untreated. Infection begins when the parasite is at its active feeding trophozoite stage and sticks to the corneal tissue before penetrating the lower stromal layer. The resulting opacity leads to less sharp vision and eventually blindness.. Acanthamoeba infections (not just in the eye) are being detected by clinicians with increasing frequency, especially as opportunistic infections in patients whose immune system is already compromised. This at-risk population is expanding as a result of increasing use of immune-suppressing ...
Several pathogens exhibit a considerable host range. Legionella pneumophila, for example, can infect various protozoa species, experimentally inoculated guinea pigs, and human macrophages, as well as epithelial cells. Vegetative cells of Dictyostelium feed on bacteria and upon starvation aggregate and differentiate into pluricellular fruiting bodies. To evaluate whether D. discoideum is a suitable model system for studying Legionella pathogenicity, the authors compared the intracellular growth of different Legionella species in Dictyostelium with the established host model system Acanthamoeba castellanii. The FlaA-and the Mip-negative mutant of L. pneumophila Corby revealed moderate growth defects and the ligA-negative mutant was severely impaired to grow intracellularly. To examine host functions required for growth, the authors also investigated defined Dictyostelium mutants. Identification of Legionella spp., Dictyostelium spp., and Hartmannella spp. by fluorescence-labeled rRNA probes have been
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires disease. Due to the hot climate and intermittent water supply, the West Bank, Palestine, can be considered a high-risk area for this often fatal atypical pneumonia. L. pneumophila occurs in biofilms of natural and man-made freshwater environments, where it infects and replicates intracellularly within protozoa. To correlate the genetic diversity of the bacteria in the environment with their virulence properties for protozoan and mammalian host cells, 60 genotyped isolates from hospital water systems in the West Bank were analyzed. The L. pneumophila isolates were previously genotyped by high resolution Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA-8(12)) and sorted according to their relationship in clonal complexes (VACC). Strains of relevant genotypes and VACCs were compared according to their capacity to infect Acanthamoeba castellanii and THP-1 macrophages, and to mediate pore-forming cytotoxicity in sheep red blood ...
We report the identification and characterization of myr 4 (myosin from rat), the first mammalian myosin I that is not closely related to brush border myosin I. Myr 4 contains a myosin head (motor) domain, a regulatory domain with light chain binding sites and a tail domain. Sequence analysis of myosin I head (motor) domains suggested that myr 4 defines a novel subclass of myosin Is. This subclass is clearly different from the vertebrate brush border myosin I subclass (which includes myr 1) and the myosin I subclass(es) identified from Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum. In accordance with this notion, a detailed sequence analysis of all myosin I tail domains revealed that the myr 4 tail is unique, except for a newly identified myosin I tail homology motif detected in all myosin I tail sequences. The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin was demonstrated to be associated with myr 4. Calmodulin binding activity of myr 4 was mapped by gel overlay assays to the two consecutive light ...
Acanthamoeba Infections. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Bernstein J. Papadakis M.A., & McPhee S.J., & Bernstein J(Eds.),Eds. Maxine A. Papadakis, et al.eds. Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2021. McGraw-Hill; Accessed November 26, 2020. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2986§ionid=251085632 ...
Purpose: : To examine further the association between the recent outbreaks of microbial keratitis caused by unusual organisms and the contamination of multipurpose contact lens disinfection solutions (MPS) during use. Methods: : Conidia of representative isolates of the Fuarium solani-F. oxysporum complexes and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castelanii were inoculated (~104 ml-1) into 1-2 ml of MPS that contained either polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) or polyquaternium-1 (PQ) as active disinfecting components. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) served as a control. These preparations were examined microscopically during drying under a laminar flow hood at ambient temperatures. Results: : The various MPS formed distinct and characteristic concentric bands of precipitates and viscous globules while drying. The distribution of the conidia, trophozoites and amoebic cysts among the distinctive residual- precipitate patterns varied for the different MPS. Cysts were not evident in the initial trophozoite ...
There are three main genera of free living amoeba that infect humans - Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria that are are important causes of disease in humans and animals. The topic for todays podcast will be one of them- Acanthamoeba.. Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, free-living amoeba that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system.. Joining me to talk about Acanthamoeba is Parasitology teacher and author of Parasites: Tales of Humanitys Most Unwelcome Guests, Rosemary Drisdelle.. ...
Abstract: The free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in nature and are considered potentially pathogenic organisms. Occasionally they can trigger human infections such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. The investigation of differentiating characteristics between pathogenic strains and those not associated with infection may help to determine factors related to pathogenicity and the development of diagnostic tests. In this sense, the aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation; by means of physiological, morphological and immunochemical criteria; between clinical and environmental samples of Acanthamoeba. Trophozoites of four isolates were used: a clinical sample, obtained from a confirmed case of amoebic keratitis; an environmental sample, obtained from the dust of the residence of the same patient; and two reference samples A. poliphaga #2, obtained from an amoebic keratitis (ATCC 30641) and A. poliphaga #4, obtained from ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a serious, debilitating, and intensely painful infection of the cornea caused by parasites of the genus Acanthamoeba. At present,...
تعالى نفصصهم تاني … المرض الأول اسمه Acanthamoeba keratitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في قرنيه العين وده عامل كانه سدلك العدسة اللى بتصور بيها يعنى ممكن يسبب العمى.. المرض التاني Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انه ممكن يقتل رئيس دولتك يعنى يموت المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انهيار الدولة كلها يعنى يؤدي للموت. المرض التالت واسمه disseminated infection: وده ذي ما قولنا عامل ذي الغزو بينتشر في كل حتة وبيعمل التهابات في كل حتة.. You can say This means that it is dangerous and can kill me and can attack me at any moment and you told me that this enemy lives everywhere… this is scary.. No, dont worry. It is rare to attack you because it is a weak ...
L. pneumophila grows intracellularly and kills the host cell due to the activity of the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which is believed to form a protein complex that translocates effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into the host cell. The icm/dot system was recently discovered also in C. burnetii and included all of the icm/dot genes except for icmR (30, 31). The icmR gene, together with icmQLp, is located in region IIa; their gene products are predicted to be found in the bacterial cytoplasm and are not homologous to conjugation-related proteins encoded by plasmid R64. This information, together with the finding that C. burnetii contains the entire icm/dot system except for icmR, led us to focus on region IIa as a potential cause for differences between bacteria that contain the Icm/Dot virulence system.. Besides L. pneumophila, several pathogenic Legionella species have been described, and we chose to study two of them: L. micdadei which is the second most common agent of ...
Purpose. To report a case of medication-resistant acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) treated successfully by corneal crosslinking (CXL). Methods. A 26-year-old male with medication-resistant AK underwent a standard CXL procedure with local anesthesia, follo
This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using...
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, Germany.
Key dates in the outbreak of eye infections linked to Advanced Medical Optics Complete MoisturePlus solution:. Feb. 2006- Nov. 2006: AMO receives nine reports involving patients infected with Acanthamoeba keratitis that go unreported.. March 2007: The CDC opens a multistate investigation into unusually high rates of the Acanthamoeba infection, which can result in permanent vision loss or blindness.. May 25, 2007: The CDC links AMOs Complete MoisturePlus to the outbreak and tells consumers to throw the product away.. May 26, 2007: AMO voluntarily recalls the solution under pressure from regulators at the CDC and the FDA.. May 29, 2007 to June 25, 2007: FDA inspectors arrive to investigate AMOs Irvine, Calif.-based headquarters. While there the FDA uncovers a series of problems, including the nine unreported complaint forms, which are finally submitted to the FDA.. Summer 2007: FDA officials schedule a meeting to discuss the problems uncovered at AMOs plant. No disciplinary action is ...
Acanthamoeba - pathogen and vector of highly pathogenic bacteria strains to healthy and immunocompromised individuals / - BAZA PUBLIKACJI PRACOWNIKÓW US
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Hi, I am using QIAamp kit to extract DNA from Acanthamoeba culture. However, I just able to extract about 40ng/ul of concentration only when measured by NanoQuant. Is this concentration normal for Acanthamoeba ? This is because previously extraction from other sample can obtain high concentration up to 300ng/ul. Or is there any pre-treatment required to be done to the sample before using this Qiagen kit? I am sure there is no other step stated in Qiagen handbook, just that any other step that is specifically to acanthamoeba ...
Driving performance of patients with bilateral glaucoma. Photodynamic therapy to inhibit MRSA keratitis isolates. Refusal of surgical treatment for the fellow e
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A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
"Gene Discovery in the Acanthamoeba castellanii Genome". Protist. 156 (2): 203-14. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2005.04.001. PMID ...
Bullerwell, CE; Schnare, MN; Gray, MW (March 2003). "Discovery and characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial ...
Lonergan KM, Gray MW (September 1993). "Predicted editing of additional transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria ... insertion via the interaction between the gRNA and mRNA is similar to the tRNA editing processes in the animal and Acanthamoeba ...
... this phenomenon is also present when infecting host amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Although more research is required it is ... Members of the family Mimiviridae includes the type species Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) that is known for its large ...
"Evidence for a Hydrogenosomal-Type Anaerobic ATP Generation Pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e69532. ...
Pollard TD, Korn ED (July 1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme similar to ... Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global ...
It was discovered with its co-infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba castellanii mamavirus (ACMV). The virophage was named Sputnik ...
"Purification and characterization of a myosin I heavy chain kinase from Acanthamoeba castellanii". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (16): ... Brzeska H, Lynch TJ, Martin B, Corigliano-Murphy A, Korn ED (1990). "Substrate specificity of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain ... mutating the regulatory phosphoserine and conserved threonine on the activity of the expressed catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba ...
"Oscillations of redox states in synchronously dividing cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe". ...
"In vitro effects of selected contact lens care solutions on Acanthamoeba castellanii strains in Poland". Experimental ... Poor lens care can lead to infections by various microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and Acanthamoeba (Acanthamoeba ... Gray T.B.; Cursons R.T.; Sherwan J.F.; Rose P.R. (1995). "Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens ... In May 2007, one brand of multipurpose solution was recalled due to a cluster of Acanthamoeba infections. Since then, studies ...
In similar manner, the sputnik virophage is dependent on mimivirus, which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii. These ...
The presently generally utilized and best-explored amoebae that host other organisms are Acanthamoeba castellanii and ... Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) ... "Acanthamoeba , Microworld". www.arcella.nl. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016. "Microscopy ... This finding suggests that the ''Acanthamoeba'' are capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual ...
Discovered in 2008 in a strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii mimivirus, virophages are an element of the virus mobilome. ...
It was originally isolated from Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but subsequent work has involved Acanthamoeba castellanii (Acanthamoeba ... June 2011). "Viruses with more than 1000 genes: Mamavirus, a new Acanthamoeba castellanii mimivirus strain, and reannotation of ... Sputnik cannot replicate in acanthamoeba cells without a simultaneous infection by mamavirus (or mimivirus) so it infects the ... castellanii mamavirus, ACMV). Mamavirus, like other mimiviridae, is icosahedral with a core capsid and a peripheral fiber layer ...
"In vitro effects of selected contact lens care solutions on Acanthamoeba castellanii strains in Poland". Experimental ... 2 (non neutralized solution) is sufficient to kill bacteria, HIV, fungi, and Acanthamoeba.[77][78] This can be achieved by ... In 2002, concerns were raised that multipurpose solutions are not effective at disinfecting Acanthamoeba from the lens.[69] In ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis --- Multiple States, 2005-2007. Center for Disease Control MMWR dispatch. 26 May 2007 / 56(Dispatch);1-3 ...
The virus can harden amoebas of the species Acanthamoeba castellanii into stone-like cysts, but infection usually causes ...
... which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii.[57] These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus ...
... pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii, its natural host. L. pneumophila exhibits a biphasic lifecycle and defines ... In nature, L. pneumophila infects freshwater and soil amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. The mechanism of ... especially species of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which can thus serve as a reservoir for L. pneumophila. These ...
... a rare modification that is only known to also exist in the protist species Acanthamoeba castellanii and the fungal species ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii mamavirus (ACMV) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ACMV. If an ...
... was isolated by co-cultivation with a variety of Acanthamoeba laboratory strains (A. polyphaga, A. castellanii, A. ... a New Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Strain, and Reannotation of Mimivirus Genes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 3: 737-42. ... phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV). In colloquial speech, Megavirus chilensis is more commonly ... "Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLOS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ...
... acanthamoeba MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.075.080.150 - acanthamoeba castellanii MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.200 - ...
A structural but not sequential homolog of the human M1 receptor has been reported in Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria ... featuring Acanthamoeba spp bioinformatics 3D-modelling and experimentations". Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction ...
... of central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba castellanii, ...
... castellanii. Blocking these muscarinic receptors in past studies has proven to be amoebicidal in Acanthamoeba spp. More ... Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae that are commonly recovered from soil, fresh water, and other habitats. Acanthamoeba has two ... Acanthamoeba infection Balamuthia mandrillaris Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G (April 2003). "Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of ... citing public domain text from the CDC Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from ...
"Discovery and characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial 5S rRNA". RNA. 9 (3): 287-292. doi:10.1261/rna.2170803 ...
I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme similar to muscle myosin." The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (13 ... of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global range of divergent myosin genes have been discovered ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 50739™) Strain Designations: C3 / Depositor: R Michel / Biosafety Level: 2 ... Enlarged Chlamydia-like organisms as spontaneous infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Parasitol. Res. 87: 248-251, 2001. ... Legionella-like slender rods multiplying within a strain of Acanthamoeba sp. isolated from drinking water. Parasitol. Res. 84: ... nov., an obligate intracellular parasite of Acanthamoeba species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 63-72, 2000. PubMed: ...
Therefore, understanding of the effect of oxidative stress on vital characteristics of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) ... Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype). ... Impact of oxidative stress on Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial bioenergetics depends on cell growth stage. J Bioenerg ... Functional expression and characterization of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J Parasitol ...
... Amir Saeed, ... A. castellanii in the absence or presence of wild type, IpaB mutant, or plasmid-cured strain S. flexneri was cultured at C and ... castellanii. In contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces both necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii. The aim of this ... The outcome of the interaction was depended on the temperature since the growth of A. castellanii was inhibited at C, and A. ...
Lethal effects of Helianthemum lippii (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts in vitro. Korean Journal Parasitology, 52(3), 243- ... In vitro amoebicidal activity of Origanum syriacum and Origanumla evigatum on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. ... In vitro amoebicidal activities of Teucrium polium and T. chamaedrys on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts. ... Artemisia argyi Phytotoxic activity Acanthamoeba castellanii Amoebicidal activity Cytotoxic potential Antioxidant activity ...
The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii Laura M. Hales, Howard A. Shuman ... 1992) A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infect. Immun. 60:296 ... 1994) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Infect. Immun. 62:3254-3261. ... 1999) Legionella pneumophila utilize the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. Infect. ...
Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae.. A Essig, M Heinemann, U Simnacher, R Marre ... Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell ... A castellanii was incubated with purified elementary bodies of C. pneumoniae TW 183 at a concentration of 10(6) inclusion- ...
Choul Yong Park, Bora Yim, JooHee Park, Martha Kim, Roy S Chuck; Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii. Invest. ... Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Purpose : Acanthamoeba keratitis is a well-known intractable corneal infectious disease in which the conventional antibiotics ... Results : Sodium nitrite and sodium nitroprusside showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on A. castellanii viability. More ...
Purpose : Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) cause acanthamoeba keratitis, which is a serious infection of the eye, and ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases Christine Selhuber-Unkel; Sören ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases You will receive an email ... Christine Selhuber-Unkel, Sören Björn Gutekunst; Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact ...
Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion.. J D Cirillo, S Falkow, L S Tompkins ... Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... invasive ability of bacteria grown under standard laboratory conditions with that of bacteria grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii ... castellanii than were L. pneumophila cells grown on agar. Comparison of agar- and amoeba-grown L. pneumophila cells by light ...
A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. J F Moffat, L S Tompkins ... A model of intracellular growth for Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii has been developed and provides a ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. B Neumeister, S Schöniger ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
In Vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Macrolide Rokitamycin and Chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. ... Emergence of resistance to biocides during differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:27-34. ... Inhibition of multiplication in Acanthamoeba castellanii by specific inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase. J. Protozool. 34: ... In Vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Macrolide Rokitamycin and Chlorpromazine against Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
By long term cultivation, Acanthamoeba severely attenuated the encysting ability. To determine the changing of gene expression ... The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. The cyst form is resistant to almost all ... Expression levels of encystation mediating factors in fresh strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst ESTs Exp Parasitol. 2011 ... The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. The cyst form is resistant to almost all ...
Abbas, Rabiya. (2011) Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. Doctoral thesis, ... In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the ... castellanii. It was found that although the mycobacteria were able to remain inside the amoebae vacuoles, they were unable to ...
The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ... The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ... Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a ... 2013) Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
Ortega-Rivas, Antonio and Padrón, José M. and Valladares, Basilio and Elsheikha, Hany M. (2016) Acanthamoeba castellanii: a new ... Acanthamoeba castellanii: a new high-throughput method for drug screening in vitro ... there is no specific antiprotozoal therapy for prevention and treatment of Acanthamoeba castellanii infection. There is a need ... Acanthamoeba, Colorimetric assay, Drug screening, Sulforhodamine B. Schools/Departments:. University of Nottingham, UK , ...
Oxygen induces fatty acid (n-6)-desaturation independently of temperature in Acanthamoeba castellanii. FEBS Letters 425 (1) , ... Oxygen induces fatty acid (n-6)-desaturation independently of temperature in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... increase in membrane lipid unsaturation at low temperature has been observed in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
Using Acanthamoeba castellanii as bait, we isolated a new type of giant DNA virus from the same sample of 30,000-y-old ... Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Neff (ATCC 30010TM) cells adapted to resist Fungizone (2.5 μg/mL) were inoculated with 100 ... Mollivirus EdU-labeled DNA visualized in infected Acanthamoeba castellanii. (A) Early transfer of the labeled viral DNA in the ... 2013) Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
Oscillations in protein and RNA content during synchronous growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii: evidence for periodic turnover ... Oscillations in protein and RNA content during synchronous growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii: evidence for periodic turnover ...
Intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii affects monocyte entry mechanisms and enhances virulence of Legionella ... Intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii affects monocyte entry mechanisms and enhances virulence of Legionella ... L. pneumophila grown in one of its environmental hosts, Acanthamoeba castellanii, is phenotypically different from L. ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup Amoebozoa) rivals that of animals, fungi, and plants ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Acanthamoeba castellanii; Amoebozoa; Fungi. Abstract. We present a combined proteomic and bioinformatic investigation of ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. September 1, 2017. by Tim van ... Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.. Siddiqui R1, Yee Ong TY1, Jung ... As Acanthamoeba cysts are resilient and can disperse through the air, A. castellanii can act as a vector in providing shelter, ... Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist that is known to harbour microbial pathogens, provide shelter, and assist in their ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 30010™) ATCC® Number: 30010™ Deposited As Acanthamoeba sp. ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 50494™) ATCC® Number: 50494™ Organism: Acanthamoeba castellanii ... Acanthamoeba sp. (ATCC® PRA-7™) ATCC® Number: PRA-7™ Organism: Acanthamoeba sp. ... Acanthamoeba sp. 26 (ATCC® 50722™) ATCC® Number: 50722™ Organism: Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ... which was isolated from the eye of a human male from Florida with Acanthamoeba keratitis, ATCC, 1992 ...
... trophozoites of the eye pathogen Acanthamoeba castellanii make a cyst wall, which contains cellulose and has two layers ...
Differential expression of Acanthamoeba castellanii proteins during amoebic keratitis in rats. Carvalho-Silva, Ana Carolina; ... Differential expression of Acanthamoeba castellanii proteins during amoebic keratitis in rats. Exp Parasitol. 2021 Fev;221: ... In this study, we evaluated changes in the expression profile of Acanthamoeba proteins triggered by the invasive process, using ... Our analysis also revealed that a concerted modulation of several biochemical pathways is triggered when A. castellanii ...
Photomicrographs of the cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. KA/S2 strain; B. Castellani strain; C. Neff strain; D. Ma strain ... Nucleotide sequences of Acanthamoeba castellanii 5S and 5.8S ribosomal ribonucleic acids: phylogenetic and comparative ... Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil ... Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil. ...
... dc. ... In vitro amoebicidal activities of Teucrium polium and T. chamaedrys on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts. en_US ... In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoeba castellani ...
Acanthamoeba castellanii/drug effects , Amebiasis/parasitology , Animals , CHO Cells , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell ... In this study, to understand functional roles of a mannose-binding protein (MBP), Acanthamoeba castellanii was treated with ... Acanthamoeba castellanii Language: English Journal: The Korean Journal of Parasitology Year: 2012 Type: Article ... Acanthamoeba castellanii Language: English Journal: The Korean Journal of Parasitology Year: 2012 Type: Article ...
  • In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the intracellular survival of M. bovis. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Induction of a microsomal oleate delta12 (n-6) desaturase which is mainly responsible for an increase in membrane lipid unsaturation at low temperature has been observed in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Here, the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii , was investigated for its antibacterial activity against representative Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, while bacterial isolates were tested for their anti-amoebic properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overall aim of this study was to determine whether S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae can interact with A. castellanii by associating, invading, and surviving inside trophozoites and cysts. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoeba castellani trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • Met-MNPs-Amp exhibited IC 50 at 50 μg/mL against both A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts. (springeropen.com)
  • In the present study we evaluated the efficacies of various biocides against trophozoites and cysts of several Acanthamoeba strains. (asm.org)
  • Enlarged Chlamydia-like organisms as spontaneous infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (atcc.org)
  • Infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii by Chlamydia pneumoniae. (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) cause acanthamoeba keratitis, which is a serious infection of the eye, and 85% of acanthamoeba keratitis cases are related to wrong contact lens usage. (arvojournals.org)
  • The effect of nutrient limitation on A. castellanii during the assay prevented multiplication of the amebae and increased the level of infection by Legionella spp. (asm.org)
  • at an inoculum of 1.03 x 10(7) bacteria added to wells containing 1.10 x 10(5) amebae (multiplicity of infection of 100), approximately 4.4% of A. castellanii cells became infected. (asm.org)
  • L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. (asm.org)
  • Despite significant public health impact, there is no specific antiprotozoal therapy for prevention and treatment of Acanthamoeba castellanii infection. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Amoebic keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection characterized by a severe inflammation of the cornea, caused by the free-living protozoan of the genus Acanthamoeba. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. (parasitol.kr)
  • However, information regarding the mechanism of pathogenic Acanthamoeba for adhesion, tissue invasion, and infection is limited. (parasitol.kr)
  • To gain more information on virulence factors of Acanthamoeba infection, the objective of this study was to compare the levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space between pathogenic ATCC 30011 strain and non-pathogenic ATCC 30868 strain of Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii is one of the etiological agents of chronic granulomatous amebic encephalitis [ 10 ] and amoebic keratitis, a progressive and painful sightthreatening eye infection [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protist pathogen that is responsible for serious human and animal infection. (sunway.edu.my)
  • Generally, the bacterial infection increased the usage of exogenous glucose via glycolysis by A. castellanii . (emergence-of-life.de)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii is a single-celled protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is a well-known of causing human keratitis, a vision-threatening infection. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • The most frequent infection associated with Acanthamoeba spp. (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a local infection of the eye that does not produce systemic illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike disseminated Acanthamoeba infection, corneal disease is not associated with immunosuppression. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact lens wear may facilitate direct inoculation of Acanthamoeba into the eye and promote infection through mechanical or hypoxic trauma to the cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • A previous study using the presence of a unique Rns intron as a marker had conclusively shown that the home water supply could be the source of an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Correct and timely diagnosis as well as improved treatment methods as well as understanding of the parasite are important factors in improving the outcome of infection by Acanthamoeba . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The genus Acanthamoeba includes several species of opportunistic free-living amebae that might invade the brain through the blood, probably from a primary infection in the skin (from ulcers or dermatitis) or sinuses. (cdc.gov)
  • Several species of Acanthamoeba are associated with infection (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • A negative test on CSF does not rule out Acanthamoeba infection because the organism is not commonly present in the CSF. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a local infection of the cornea (outer layer of the visual pathway of the eye) caused by a microscopic, free-living ameba belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba . (cdc.gov)
  • abstract = "Myosins IA and IB from Acanthamoeba castellanii are single-headed molecules which, upon phosphorylation of their heavy chains by a specific kinase, express actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Most recently, Acanthamoeba has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen of humans and other animals and is known to cause a spectrum of infections in immunocompromised individuals, including those with AIDS ( 4 , 6 , 8 , 20 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis [ 1 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii , which causes keratitis and blindness in under-resourced countries, is an emerging pathogen worldwide, because of its association with contact lens use. (scienceopen.com)
  • For the first time, we conjugated AuNPs with CA (yielding CA-AuNPs) and tested their effects against the protist pathogen Acanthamoeba castellanii , belonging to the T4 genotype, Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. (asm.org)
  • Multiplication of members of the genus Legionella in A. castellanii seems to be dependent on mechanisms different from those in monocytes. (asm.org)
  • Free-living amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba are commonly found in soil and aquatic environments worldwide [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Editorial Note: Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are the most common free-living amoebae in fresh water and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Free-living amoebae that belong to the genus Acanthamoeba are widespread in the environment, including water. (asm.org)
  • More recent genotyping work has focused on the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba as a basis for taxonomy of the genus. (cdc.gov)
  • Identification of Acanthamoeba Rns genotypes was based on sequences of ∼113 bp within the genus-specific amplicon ASA.S1. (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae , one of the most common protozoa in soil, and also frequently found in fresh water and other habitats . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The evolutionary history of the genus Acanthamoeba and the indentification of eight new 18S rRNA gene sequence types. (ajtmh.org)
  • Acanthamoeba has 22 genotypes with the T4 genotype being the main causative agent of amoebic granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, understanding of the effect of oxidative stress on vital characteristics of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) and the antioxidant defense responses of Acanthamoeba to oxidative status will cast light on immune cell-parasite interactions. (springer.com)
  • Under these conditions chlorhexidine was tested to validate the assay using two clinical strains of A. castellanii (Neff strain, T4 genotype [IC50 4.68±0.6 _M] and T3 genotype [IC50 5.69±0.9 _M]). These results were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional Alamar Blue assay, OCR cytotoxicity assay and manual cell counting method. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • AK was induced by intrastromal inoculation in Wistar rats, using trophozoites from a T4 genotype, human case-derived A. castellanii strain under prolonged axenic culture. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype is a potential environment" by Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui et al. (aku.edu)
  • Here, we used a keratitis isolate of A. castellanii of the T4 genotype and studied its interactions with two bacterial genera which have not been tested before, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Aeromonas hydrophila, as well as E. coli. (aku.edu)
  • They also confirm the predominance of Rns genotype T4 strains in Acanthamoeba keratitis infections. (asm.org)
  • We showed that Acanthamoeba genotype T4 was highly associated with serotype HAdV-2, whereas Acanthamoeba genotype T3 was most often associated with adenovirus serotypes related to ocular diseases. (ajtmh.org)
  • Acanthamoeba genotype T4 from the UK and Iran and isolation of the T2 genotype from clinical isolates. (ajtmh.org)
  • A strain, KA/S2, isolated from Korean soil and morphologically assigned to Acanthamoeba castellanii , was characterized by isoenzyme analysis, and total proteins profile, and mitochondrial (Mt) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and compared with four reference strains assigned to the species (the authenitic Castellani, Neff, Ma, and Chang strains). (parasitol.kr)
  • Zymograms for isoenzymes of KA/S2 and reference strains of A. Castellanii separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing in pH gradient 3~10. (parasitol.kr)
  • Agarose gel electrophoretic fingerprints of mitochondrial DNA from KA/S2 and reference strains of A. Castellanii . (parasitol.kr)
  • Differentiation of Acanthamoeba strains from infected corneas and the environment by using restriction endonuclease digestion of whole-cell DNA. (parasitol.kr)
  • Interstrain polymorphisms of isoenzyme profiles and mitochondrial DNA fingerprints among seven strains assigned to Acanthamoeba polyphaga. (parasitol.kr)
  • Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. (parasitol.kr)
  • Predation rates were measured for two Acanthamoeba castellanii strains feeding on metal-tolerant and metal-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas putida and compared with cellular thermodynamic data. (bepress.com)
  • Sequence differences were sufficient to distinguish closely related strains and were used to examine links between strains obtained from corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, lens cases, lens case solutions, and home water-supply faucets of patients with Acanthamoeba . (asm.org)
  • The overall results demonstrate the potential of this Rns region for tracking Acanthamoeba keratitis strains in infections and for distinguishing single-strain and closely related multiple-strain infections even when other microorganisms might be present with the cultured specimens. (asm.org)
  • As part of an effort to track infections, we also sought to determine whether Acanthamoeba strains isolated in corneal scrapes also might be present on contact lenses and/or in lens cases. (asm.org)
  • We surveyed 236 potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains, isolated from water sources in the Canary Islands, for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • We found that HAdV-2 was the most frequently encountered serotype amongst the Acanthamoeba strains, and their identification was confirmed by a nested PCR specific for this serotype. (ajtmh.org)
  • As Acanthamoeba and bacteria thwart each other in their natural habitat, the overall aim of this study was to determine the anti-bacterial activities of Acanthamoeba and also the anti-Acanthamoebic properties of selected bacterial strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The information of the expressed genes during encystation in only the fresh strain will provide new clues to understanding the encystation mechanism of encysting protozoa including Acanthamoeba. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, to understand functional roles of a mannose-binding protein (MBP), Acanthamoeba castellanii was treated with methyl-alpha-D- mannopyranoside ( mannose ), and adhesion and cytotoxicity of the amoeba were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is known that mannose binding protein can mediate the adhesion of Acanthamoeba to the surface of cornea [ 5 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • Obligate intracellular bacterial parasites of Acanthamoebae related to Chlamydia spp. (atcc.org)
  • According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. (asm.org)
  • A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. (asm.org)
  • The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In this capacity, Acanthamoeba has been suggested as a vector in the transmission of bacterial pathogens to the susceptible hosts. (aku.edu)
  • Assays were performed to determine bacterial association with and invasion of A. castellanii. (aku.edu)
  • Additionally, bacterial survival intracellular of A. castellanii trophozoites as well as cysts was determined. (aku.edu)
  • All three bacterial isolates tested, associated, invaded, and survived inside A. castellanii trophozoites as well as A. castellanii cysts. (aku.edu)
  • In fact, in addition to their intrinsic pathogenicity, Acanthamoeba can potentially harbor various bacterial, viral, and eukaryotic species pathogenic for human and animals ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Novel bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. (ajtmh.org)
  • In its natural habitat, i.e., soil and water, Acanthamoeba feeds on different bacteria and plays an important role in the regulation of bacterial populations [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But, how Acanthamoeba survive the onslaught of overwhelming bacterial population remains incompletely understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that, in addition to bacteria, Acanthamoeba also possesses antibiotics to counter bacterial attack. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. (asm.org)
  • A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (asm.org)
  • A model of intracellular growth for Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii has been developed and provides a quantitative measure of survival and replication after entry. (asm.org)
  • nov., an obligate intracellular parasite of Acanthamoeba species. (atcc.org)
  • The reactive oxygen species level increased markedly after induction of oxidative stress by the treatment of Acanthamoeba T4 with H 2 O 2 . (springer.com)
  • In vitro amoebicidal activity of four Allium species on Acanthamoeba castellani and their cytotoxic potentials on corneal cells. (springer.com)
  • We compared the invasive ability of bacteria grown under standard laboratory conditions with that of bacteria grown in Acanthamoeba castellanii, one of the protozoan species that serves as a natural host for L. pneumophila in the environment. (asm.org)
  • Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (asm.org)
  • Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis was diagnosed by examination of stained corneal scrapings or tissues (67%) and/or tissue indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test (52%) using species-specific antisera. (cdc.gov)
  • The species of Acanthamoeba was not determined for six (25%) patients. (cdc.gov)
  • More than one species of Acanthamoeba was cultured from samples from four patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Among FLA, Acanthamoeba species are, to date, the most frequently encountered in human infections. (asm.org)
  • Acanthamoeba species are classified into three morphologic groups. (cdc.gov)
  • however, certain Acanthamoeba species are capable of producing proteases that lead to antibody degradation 16 . (cdc.gov)
  • this Acanthamoeba species is widespread throughout the environment. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 3 ] and species of Acanthamoeba and Sappinia . (medscape.com)
  • More typically, GAE results from hematogenous seeding of the CNS following primary inoculation of the lungs or skin by B mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba, or Sappinia species. (medscape.com)
  • Identification of a new Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene sequence type, corresponding to the species Acanthamoeba jacobsi Sawyer, Nerad and Visvesvara, 1992 (Lobosea: Acanthamoebidae). (ajtmh.org)
  • A. castellanii , A. polyphaga , A. culbertsoni , A. hatchetti , A. rhysodes , A. lugdunensis , A. quina and A. griffini 2-5 . (cdc.gov)
  • Phase contrast micrograph of an Acanthamoeba polyphaga cyst. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba interactions with Streptococcus and the evolution of pathogenic bacteria and in turn expedite discovery of novel therapeutic and/or preventative measures. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. (parasitol.kr)
  • In pathogenic strain of Acanthamoeba , extracellular serine proteases have been identified as virulence factors [ 11 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • Recently, proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by Acanthamoeba for non-pathogenic strain ATCC 30010 and clinically pathogenic isolates has been performed [ 13 ], revealing 44 secreted proteins, including 10 consensus secretory proteins and 34 strain specific secretory proteins. (parasitol.kr)
  • However, definite virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba have not been found yet. (parasitol.kr)
  • Differentially expressed proteins were identified, focusing on highly expressed proteins in pathogenic Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • The results showed that MBP should be clearly provided as the pathogenic target candidate, to further target-based therapy, but EMS mutation should not be associated with initial adhesion and phagocytosis of A. castellanii. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • These findings suggest that pathogenic free-living A. castellanii may have a cytopathic effect on human epithelial cells through ADP release, by a process that begins with a rise of cytosolic free-calcium concentration, and culminates in apoptosis. (uniss.it)
  • However, certain bacteria especially pathogenic bacteria have developed strategies to escape the killing mechanisms of Acanthamoeba and instead use the amoeba as a Trojan horse or reservoir for their own benefit [ 12 , 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acanthamoeba castellanii can cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis. (springeropen.com)
  • We therefore investigated the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae in Acanthamoeba castellanii by using cell culture, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. (asm.org)
  • Intracellular growth in Acanthamoeba castellanii affects monocyte entry mechanisms and enhances virulence of Legionella pneumophila. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The survival of Acanthamoeba was evaluated by MTT assay and the IC50 concentration was calculated. (springer.com)
  • Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • While the role of RD1 in mycobacterial survival in amoebae could not be observed, isocitrate lyase and a transcriptional regulator (ClgR) might play some part in survival of M. bovis in A. castellanii. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Yersinia pestis Resists Predation by Acanthamoeba castellanii and Exhibits Prolonged Intracellular Survival. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Screening of the in vitro amoebicidal activities of Pastinaca armenea (Fisch & C.A. Mey) and Inula oculus - christi (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. (springer.com)
  • In vitro amoebicidal activity of Origanum syriacum and Origanumla evigatum on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. (springer.com)
  • Unlike N. fowleri , Acanthamoeba has only two stages, cysts and trophozoites, in its life cycle. (wikidoc.org)
  • In two recent reports, TiO 2 nanoparticles have shown some potential against Acanthamoeba castellani triggered by external stimuli in both cases (Gomart et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, the A. castellanii genome encodes an unusually high number (at least 29) of mitochondrion-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, organellar RNA metabolism factors in other organisms. (canada.ca)
  • The mitochondrial DNA of the amoeboid protozoon, Acanthamoeba castellanii: complete sequence, gene content and genome organization. (parasitol.kr)
  • A. castellanii were treated with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside abbreviated Man, with and without the EMS pre-treatment, and their adhesion and cytotoxicity were analyzed, using a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) as the target cell. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • Amoebicidal effects were evaluated against Acanthamoeba castellanii , and cytotoxicity assays were performed using HaCaT cells. (bioone.org)
  • Pretreatment of amoebae with CA-AuNPs inhibited A. castellanii -mediated host cell cytotoxicity. (asm.org)
  • 3. Hryniewiecka, L. (1986) Malate oxidation in mitochondria of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. (edu.pl)
  • Different bacteria interact differently with FLA since Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonnei , and S. dysenteriae are able to grow inside A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • In this model, Acanthamoeba monolayers were incubated with bacteria in tissue culture plates under nutrient-limiting conditions. (asm.org)
  • A. hydrophila and E. aerogenes also joined the ranks of other bacteria that could benefit from A. castellanii. (aku.edu)
  • Regarding the virulence factors, an increase in SdhA expression was observed after these bacteria infected Acanthamoeba , with a higher increase in the macrophage cultures infected with L. feeleii . (frontiersin.org)
  • More studies are necessary to understand the aspects influenced in these bacteria by their interaction with Acanthamoeba and, thus, identify targets to be used in future therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • If Acanthamoeba are present, they will ingest the bacteria, leaving a clear patch on the plate around the area of the lens. (wikidoc.org)
  • These findings suggest that Acanthamoeba and Bacteria encounter each other in the environment routinely. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, low doses of rokitamycin and chlorpromazine, alone or in combination, blocked the cytopathic effect of A. castellanii against WKD cells derived from the human cornea. (asm.org)
  • Light and transmission electron microscopy observations are reported on the structure and in vitro cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba griffini trophozoites isolated from a clinical case. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the mutant strain was able to kill HL-60- and THP-1-derived macrophages, it could not replicate within a protozoan host, Acanthamoeba castellanii . (asm.org)
  • The chytrid fungus Spizellomyces punctatus and the amoeboid protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii share a similar tRNA editing mechanism. (umontreal.ca)
  • The editing pattern observed is very similar to the one described for A. castellanii , an amoeboid protozoan. (umontreal.ca)
  • A. castellanii can be found at high densities in various soil ecosystems. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Acanthamoeba organisms are ubiquitous in nature and can be found in bodies of water (e.g., lakes and oceans), soil, and air. (cdc.gov)
  • We present a combined proteomic and bioinformatic investigation of mitochondrial proteins from the amoeboid protist Acanthamoeba castellanii, the first such comprehensive investigation in a free-living member of the supergroup Amoebozoa. (canada.ca)
  • Predation rates by A. castellanii strain ATCC 30010 correlated with cell volume of the prey. (bepress.com)
  • The virulence potential of human pathogens: how Acinetobacter baumannii survives Acanthamoeba castellanii predation. (unamur.be)
  • Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include amoebic keratitis and encephalitis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • We report here the first comprehensive investigation of the mitochondrial proteome in a member (A. castellanii) of the eukaryotic supergroup Amoebozoa. (canada.ca)
  • Acanthamoebae have also been recovered from the nose and throat of humans with impaired respiratory function and from apparently healthy persons, suggesting that these organisms are commonly inhaled (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Gunderson JH, Sogin ML. Length variation in eukaryotic rRNAs: small subunit rRNAs from the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii and Euglena gracilis. (parasitol.kr)
  • Acanthamoeba is one of the most ubiquitous protists that has been isolated from diverse environments [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a well-known intractable corneal infectious disease in which the conventional antibiotics are ineffective. (arvojournals.org)
  • Acanthamoebae were isolated from the corneal scrapings/biopsies of 17 (71%) of the patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba likely invade the cornea through a physical opening, such as a minor abrasion, in the corneal epithelium. (cdc.gov)
  • Upon binding to mannose glycoproteins of the corneal epithelium, Acanthamoeba secretes proteins cytolytic to the epithelium as well as proteases that facilitate further penetration 11-15 . (cdc.gov)
  • Although faucet water used by patients to clean their lenses is a possible source of infections, specimens isolated from the faucets at two Acanthamoeba keratitis patients' homes differed from their corneal scrape or lens specimens. (asm.org)
  • In one of the AK cases examined in this study, the patient was a regular contact lens wearer and Acanthamoeba was isolated from corneal scrape specimens, a contact lens, and swabs taken at the home kitchen water faucet and bathroom basin drain where the lenses were routinely prepared. (asm.org)
  • In order to test this possibility, DNA typing was used to test the relatedness of acanthamoebae isolated from this patient's corneal scrape specimens, contact lenses, and kitchen and bathroom water supplies. (asm.org)
  • Other notable findings include duplicate proteins for all of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-which, along with the identification of a mitochondrial malate synthase-isocitrate lyase fusion protein, suggests the interesting possibility that the glyoxylate cycle operates in A. castellanii mitochondria. (canada.ca)
  • These data were used to reconstruct the metabolic pathways and protein complexes of A. castellanii mitochondria, and were integrated with data from other characterized mitochondrial proteomes to augment our understanding of mitochondrial proteome evolution. (canada.ca)
  • Effect of growth at low temperature on the alternative pathway respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria. (edu.pl)
  • Mitochondria of amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii in addition to the conventional cytochrome pathway possess, like plant mitochondria, a cyanide-resistant alternative quinol oxidase. (edu.pl)
  • 2. Edwards, S.W. & Lloyd, D. (1978) Properties of mitochondria isolated from cyanide- stimulted and -sensitive cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (edu.pl)
  • Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. (edu.pl)
  • Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [3H]Ro5-4864. (edu.pl)
  • We report 1033 A. castellanii mitochondrial protein sequences, 709 supported by mass spectrometry data (676 nucleus-encoded and 33 mitochondrion-encoded), including two previously unannotated mtDNA-encoded proteins, which we identify as highly divergent mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. (canada.ca)
  • Our results demonstrate the power of combining direct proteomic and bioinformatic approaches in the discovery of novel mitochondrial proteins, both nucleus-encoded and mitochondrion-encoded, and highlight the compositional complexity of the A. castellanii mitochondrial proteome, which rivals that of animals, fungi and plants. (canada.ca)
  • In this study, we evaluated changes in the expression profile of Acanthamoeba proteins triggered by the invasive process, using an approach involving two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE PAGE), followed by mass spectrometry identification (ESI-IT-TOF LC-MSn). (butantan.gov.br)
  • Analysis of the protein profile comparing long-term and re-isolated cultures indicated 62 significant spots, from which 27 proteins could be identified in the Acanthamoeba proteome database. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Total proteins of Acanthamoeba separated by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing in pH gradient 3-7. (parasitol.kr)
  • These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • The most abundant A . castellanii cyst wall proteins are three sets of lectins, which have carbohydrate-binding modules that are conserved (CBM49s of Luke), newly characterized (CAA of Jonah), or unique to Acanthamoebae (8-Cys of Leo). (scienceopen.com)
  • Complete genomic or cDNA sequences of SAMS proteins are available in GenBank, for E. coli (accession no. 1708999), A. castellanii (6016547), and P. infestans (23394401). (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with metronidazole which were further loaded with amphotericin B to produce enhanced antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii . (springeropen.com)
  • Although two GAE cases were successfully treated by chemotherapy with ketoconazole or fluconazole and sulfadiazine after surgical excision of the lesions ( 29 , 36 ), at present, no clinical trial of these treatments for Acanthamoeba systemic infections has yet been attempted. (asm.org)
  • Serine and cysteine proteolytic activities of Acanthamoeba could play important roles in infections [ 6 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • Currently, no single drug has been developed to effectively treat infections caused by Acanthamoeba . (springeropen.com)
  • Hence, the results obtained in this study have potential utility in drug development against infections caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii . (springeropen.com)
  • infections (excluding keratitis) are defined as the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantitative determination of chlamydial growth within A. castellanii revealed viable and infective C. pneumoniae in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) IFU/ml between days 7 and 14 postinfection. (asm.org)
  • As Acanthamoeba cysts are resilient and can disperse through the air, A. castellanii can act as a vector in providing shelter, facilitating growth and possibly genetic exchanges. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. (sunway.edu.my)
  • The metabolism of Legionella pneumophila strain Paris was elucidated during different time intervals of growth within its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii . (emergence-of-life.de)
  • 9. Edwards, S.W. & Lloyd, D. (1977) Changes in oxygen uptake rates, enzyme activities, cytochrome amounts and adenine nucleotide pool levels during growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii in batch culture. (edu.pl)
  • While blank silica nanoparticles had no inhibitory effect of A. castellanii viability, NO releasing silica nanoparticles showed dose dependent inhibition of A. castellanii viability. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although, the viability was significantly decreased with NO treatment, no cystic transformation of A. castellanii was observed under phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. (arvojournals.org)
  • The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. (nih.gov)
  • It was observed that both S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae were able to associate as well as invade and/or taken up by the phagocytic A. castellanii trophozoite. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • Acanthamoeba exists in two forms: an active, infective trophozoite and a dormant, environmentally hardy cyst. (cdc.gov)
  • A half century ago, investigators identified cellulose in the Acanthamoeba cyst wall, which has two layers and conical ostioles that connect them. (scienceopen.com)
  • In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. (sunway.edu.my)
  • These enzymes may be potential virulence factors of A. castellanii by acting both as antioxidants and antiinflammatory agents. (bioone.org)
  • Amoeba-grown L. pneumophila cells were found to be at least 100-fold more invasive for epithelial cells and 10-fold more invasive for macrophages and A. castellanii than were L. pneumophila cells grown on agar. (asm.org)
  • L. pneumophila grown in one of its environmental hosts, Acanthamoeba castellanii, is phenotypically different from L. pneumophila grown on standard laboratory medium (BCYE agar). (oregonstate.edu)
  • For this, the expression of protein effectors SdhA, LegK2, and SidK were evaluated in L. pneumophila and L. feeleii , before and after infecting Acanthamoeba . (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, an increase in the expression of LegK2 was observed after infecting Acanthamoeba , but it was more intense in the cultures infected with L. pneumophila . (frontiersin.org)
  • With regard to SidK, it was increased in L. feeleii after infecting Acanthamoeba , however the same effect was not observed for L. pneumophila . (frontiersin.org)
  • Di Gregorio C, Rivasi F, Mongiardo N, De Rienzo B, Wallace S, Visvesvara G (1992) Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Our analysis also revealed that a concerted modulation of several biochemical pathways is triggered when A. castellanii switches from a free-living style to a parasitic mode, including energetic metabolism, proteolytic activity, control of gene expression, protein degradation and methylation of DNA, which may be also involved in gain of virulence in an animal model of AK. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Effect of cysteine ( a-f ) or L-serine ( g-l ) on CS , GDH and SPAT gene expression in A. castellanii trophozoites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, the role of apoptosis and the role of iglC gene on the cell death of Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated. (uniri.hr)
  • The aim of this study is to examine the role of invasion plasmid of S. flexneri on the interaction with A. castellanii at two different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • However, E. aerogenes and E. coli exhibited significantly reduced association with and invasion of A. castellanii as compared with A. hydrophila (P (aku.edu)
  • Many cases have also been related to the resistance of A. castellanii cysts to contact lens cleaning solutions. (arvojournals.org)
  • These findings are important in the identification of potential targets that could be useful against parasite-specific respiration as well as to understand the basic biology of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. (sunway.edu.my)
  • The life cycle of Acanthamoeba can be considered in two stages. (asm.org)
  • A colorimetric assay based on sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining has been developed for anti-Acanthamoeba drug susceptibility testing and adapted to a 96-well microtiter plate format. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Our new assay offers an inexpensive and reliable method, which complements current assays by enhancing high-throughput anti-Acanthamoeba drug screening capabilities. (nottingham.ac.uk)