Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Hartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseLatex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)BiguanidesMicrofilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
(1/132) Evidence that hsp90 is involved in the altered interactions of Acanthamoeba castellanii variants with bacteria.

There are many similarities between the interactions of environmental protozoa with pathogenic bacterial species and those observed in mammalian macrophages. Since single-celled protozoa predate mammalian hosts, it is likely that interactions in environmental biofilms have selected for many of the bacterial virulence mechanisms responsible for human disease. In order to better understand bacterial-phagocyte interactions, we developed a selection for Acanthamoeba castellanii variants that are more resistant to killing by bacterial pathogens. We identified four amoebal clones that display decreased phagocytosis of bacteria but no difference in uptake of latex beads compared to wild-type amoebae. These amoebal variants display differences in cellular morphology, partial resistance to killing by bacteria, more bactericidal activity, and higher frequencies of lysosome fusion with the bacterial vacuole. Three proteins are present at lower levels in these variants than in wild-type amoebae, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry allowed identification of two of them as actin and hsp90. We found that specific inhibitors of hsp90 produce a similar phenotypic effect in macrophages. These data suggest that hsp90 plays a role in phagocytic and, possibly, bactericidal pathways that affect interactions of phagocytic cells with bacteria.  (+info)

(2/132) The contribution of uncoupling protein and ATP synthase to state 3 respiration in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

Mitochondria of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii possess a free fatty acid-activated uncoupling protein (AcUCP) that mediates proton re-uptake driven by the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient. We show that AcUCP activity diverts energy from ATP synthesis during state 3 mitochondrial respiration in a fatty acid-dependent way. The efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increases when the state 3 respiratory rate decreases as the AcUCP contribution is constant at a given linoleic acid concentration while the ATP synthase contribution decreases with respiratory rate. Respiration sustained by this energy-dissipating process remains constant at a given linoleic acid concentration until more than 60% inhibition of state 3 respiration by n-butyl malonate is achieved. The present study supports the validity of the ADP/O method to determine the actual contributions of AcUCP (activated with various linoleic acid concentrations) and ATP synthase in state 3 respiration of A.castellanii mitochondria fully depleted of free fatty acid-activated and describes how the two contributions vary when the rate of succinate dehydrogenase is decreased by succinate uptake limitation.  (+info)

(3/132) Benzodiazepine binding to mitochondrial membranes of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. For that purpose we applied Ro5-4864, a well-known ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) present in mammalian mitochondria. The levels of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding, the dissociation constant (K(D)) and the number of [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites (B(max)) determined for fractions of the studied mitochondria indicate the presence of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the outer membrane of yeast and amoeba mitochondria as well as in yeast mitoplasts. Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [(3)H]Ro5-4864. Labeling of amoeba, yeast and rat liver mitochondria with [(3)H]Ro5-4864 revealed proteins identified as the voltage dependent anion selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in the inner membrane. Therefore, the specific MBR ligand binding is not confined only to mammalian mitochondria and is more widespread within the eukaryotic world. However, it can not be excluded that MBR ligand binding sites are exploited efficiently only by higher multicellular eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the MBR ligand binding sites in mitochondria of lower eukaryotes can be applied as useful models in studies on mammalian MBR.  (+info)

(4/132) The amoebae plate test implicates a paralogue of lpxB in the interaction of Legionella pneumophila with Acanthamoeba castellanii.

Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial parasite of freshwater amoebae which also grows in alveolar macrophages and thus causes the potentially fatal pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular growth within amoebae and macrophages is mechanistically similar and requires the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system. This paper reports the development of an assay, the amoebae plate test (APT), to analyse growth of L. pneumophila wild-type and icm/dot mutant strains spotted on agar plates in the presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii. In the APT, wild-type L. pneumophila formed robust colonies even at high dilutions, icmT, -R, -P or dotB mutants failed to grow, and icmS or -G mutants were partially growth defective. The icmS or icmG mutant strains were used to screen an L. pneumophila chromosomal library for genes that suppress the growth defect in the presence of the amoebae. An icmS suppressor plasmid was isolated that harboured the icmS and flanking icm genes, indicating that this plasmid complements the intracellular growth defect of the mutant. In contrast, different icmG suppressor plasmids rendered the icmG mutant more cytotoxic for A. castellanii without enhancing intracellular multiplication in amoebae or RAW264.7 macrophages. Deletion of individual genes in the suppressor plasmids inserts identified lcs (Legionella cytotoxic suppressor) -A, -B, -C and -D as being required for enhanced cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant strain. The corresponding proteins show sequence similarity to hydrolases, NlpD-related metalloproteases, lipid A disaccharide synthases and ABC transporters, respectively. Overexpression of LcsC, a putative paralogue of the lipid A disaccharide synthase LpxB, increased cytotoxicity of an icmG mutant but not that of other icm/dot or rpoS mutant strains against A. castellanii. Based on sequence comparison and chromosomal location, lcsB and lcsC probably encode enzymes involved in cell wall maintenance and peptidoglycan metabolism. The APT established here may prove useful to identify other bacterial factors relevant for interactions with amoeba hosts.  (+info)

(5/132) Development of colorimetric microtiter plate assay for assessment of antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba.

We have developed and optimized a 96-well microtiter plate assay, based on the reduction of alamarBlue, to assess the efficacies of much needed new antimicrobials against Acanthamoeba species. This assay has been optimized for determination of drug efficacy against two potentially pathogenic species, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and has been validated by comparison of their relative susceptibilities to chlorhexidine, a drug widely used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. The results demonstrate that the assay is comparable to a manual counting assay and that A. polyphaga is more resistant to chlorhexidine than A. castellanii. Thus, by use of the manual counting assay, 3.125 microM chlorohexidine was almost completely effective against A. castellanii, whereas this concentration was less than 20% effective against A. polyphaga. Similar results were obtained by the alamarBlue assay. The new assay was used to determine the relative susceptibilities of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga to the alkylphosphocholines (APCs) hexadecylphosphocholine (hexadecyl-PC; miltefosine) and octadecylphosphocholine (octadecyl-PC) as well as an alkylgycerolphosphocholine, edelfosine. Both APCs studied were equally effective against A. castellanii, but octadecyl-PC was less effective than hexadecyl-PC against A. polyphaga. Both APCs were more effective than edelfosine against both Acanthamoeba species. A. polyphaga was found to be significantly less susceptible to each of the phosphocholine analogues. The newly described assay offers a number of advantages over those described previously. It is less labor-intensive than previously described assays and is sensitive and rapid, and the results can be read in a nonsubjective manner. As it is based on a standard 96-well, microtiter plate, it is amenable to automation and high throughput.  (+info)

(6/132) Stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

A simple method for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii using plasmids which confer resistance to neomycin G418 is described. Expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is driven by the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter, and can be monitored by cell growth in the presence of neomycin G418 or by Western blot analysis. Transfected cells can be passaged in the same manner as control cells and can be induced to differentiate into cysts, in which form they maintain resistance to neomycin G418 for at least several weeks, although expression of neomycin phosphotransferase is repressed during encystment. Expression of EGFP or an HA-tagged EGFP-TBP fusion can be driven from the same plasmid, using an additional copy of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter or a deletion mutant. The TBP-EGFP fusion is localized to the nucleus, except in a small proportion of presumptive pre-mitotic cells. EGFP expression can also be driven by the cyst-specific CSP21 gene promoter, which is completely repressed in growing cells but strongly induced in differentiating cells. Transfected cells maintain their phenotype for several weeks, even in the absence of neomycin G418, suggesting that transfected genes are stably integrated within the genome. These results demonstrate the utility of the neomycin resistance based plasmids for stable transfection of Acanthamoeba, and may assist a number of investigations.  (+info)

(7/132) Structural implications of novel diversity in eucaryal RNase P RNA.

Previous eucaryotic RNase P RNA secondary structural models have been based on limited diversity, representing only two of the approximately 30 phylogenetic kingdoms of the domain Eucarya. To elucidate a more generally applicable structure, we used biochemical, bioinformatic, and molecular approaches to obtain RNase P RNA sequences from diverse organisms including representatives of six additional kingdoms of eucaryotes. Novel sequences were from acanthamoeba (Acathamoeba castellanii, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Filamoeba nolandi), animals (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster), alveolates (Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis), conosids (Dictyostelium discoideum, Physarum polycephalum), trichomonads (Trichomonas vaginalis), microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi), and diplomonads (Giardia intestinalis). An improved alignment of eucaryal RNase P RNA sequences was assembled and used for statistical and comparative structural analysis. The analysis identifies a conserved core structure of eucaryal RNase P RNA that has been maintained throughout evolution and indicates that covariation in size occurs between some structural elements of the RNA. Eucaryal RNase P RNA contains regions of highly variable length and structure reminiscent of expansion segments found in rRNA. The eucaryal RNA has been remodeled through evolution as a simplified version of the structure found in bacterial and archaeal RNase P RNAs.  (+info)

(8/132) Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Next, we observed that Acanthamoeba specifically activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Acanthamoeba-mediated brain endothelial cell death was abolished using LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. These results were further confirmed using brain microvascular endothelial cells expressing dominant negative forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.  (+info)

*  Acanthamoeba
... castellanii Poussard) A. triangularis (T4) A. tubiashi (T8) Acanthamoeba infection Acanthamoeba keratitis Balamuthia ... Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from contact lens keratitis Marciano-Cabral F, ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations. ...
*  Marseilleviridae
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
*  UTP-monosaccharide-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
*  Tryptophan synthase
"Gene Discovery in the Acanthamoeba castellanii Genome". Protist. 156 (2): 203-14. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2005.04.001. PMID ...
*  5S ribosomal RNA
Bullerwell, CE; Schnare, MN; Gray, MW (March 2003). "Discovery and characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial ...
*  RNA editing
Lonergan, K.M. & Gray, M.W. (1993). "Predicted editing of additional transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria". ... insertion via the interaction between the gRNA and mRNA is similar to the tRNA editing processes in the animal and Acanthamoeba ...
*  Andrew J. Roger
"Evidence for a Hydrogenosomal-Type Anaerobic ATP Generation Pathway in Acanthamoeba castellanii". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e69532. ...
*  Myosin
Pollard, Thomas D.; Korn, Edward D. (1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme ... Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global ...
*  Virophage
It was discovered with its co-infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba castellanii mamavirus (ACMV). The virophage was named Sputnik ...
*  Myosin-heavy-chain kinase
"Purification and characterization of a myosin I heavy chain kinase from Acanthamoeba castellanii". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (16): ... Brzeska H, Lynch TJ, Martin B, Corigliano-Murphy A, Korn ED (1990). "Substrate specificity of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain ... mutating the regulatory phosphoserine and conserved threonine on the activity of the expressed catalytic domain of Acanthamoeba ...
*  PARP3
"Oscillations of redox states in synchronously dividing cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe". ...
*  Mamavirus
It was originally isolated from Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but subsequent work has involved Acanthamoeba castellanii. Mamavirus, ... June 2011). "Viruses with more than 1000 genes: Mamavirus, a new Acanthamoeba castellanii mimivirus strain, and reannotation of ... Sputnik cannot replicate in acanthamoeba cells without a simultaneous infection by mamavirus (or mimivirus) so it infects the ...
*  Virus
In similar manner, the sputnik virophage is dependent on mimivirus, which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii. These ...
*  Gene delivery
Genome analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii, an amoebozoan, revealed that a significant portion of the genome that is expressed ... 2013). "Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ... When analyzed, the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii shows genes with orthologs currently found in a diverse range of bacteria ...
*  Piers Nash
2013). "Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
*  Legionella pneumophila
... pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii, its natural host. L. pneumophila exhibits a biphasic lifecycle and defines ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
... such as Acanthamoeba castellanii. and Naegleria fowleri. The receptor antagonists of M1 receptors have shown to be exert anti- ... Baig AM, Ahmad HR (2016). "Evidence of a M1-muscarinic GPCR homolog in unicellular eukaryotes: featuring Acanthamoeba spp ...
*  List of MeSH codes (B01)
... acanthamoeba MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.075.080.150 --- acanthamoeba castellanii MeSH B01.500.841.750.656.475.100.200 ...
*  Arp2/3 complex
The Arp2/3 complex was named after it was identified in 1994 by affinity chromatography from Acanthamoeba castellanii, though ... "Purification of a cortical complex containing two unconventional actins from Acanthamoeba by affinity chromatography on ...
*  Megavirus
... was isolated by co-cultivation with a variety of Acanthamoeba laboratory strains (A. polyphaga, A. castellanii, A. ... "Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLoS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ... phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV). In colloquial speech, MGVC is more commonly referred to as ... a New Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Strain, and Reannotation of Mimivirus Genes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 3: 737-42. ...
By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish...  By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish...
By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish ... We demonstrate here that Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites constitutively release ADP in the medium. Cell-free supernatants ... Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish cells.. Infection ... These findings suggest that pathogenic free-living A. castellanii may have a cytopathic effect on human epithelial cells ...
more infohttp://eprints.uniss.it/7896/
Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria | Journal of Cell Science  Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria | Journal of Cell Science
Acanthamoeba castellanii; S2, SAMS2 of amoebae; PI, Phytophthora infestans; AP, Amoeba proteus. Complete genomic or cDNA ... 1708999), A. castellanii (6016547), and P. infestans (23394401). Amino acid sequences of amoeba SAMS1 (U91602) and X-bacteria ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/117/4/535.figures-only
Microbiology Society Journals | The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from...  Microbiology Society Journals | The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from...
In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, ... Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes ... of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba ... of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is ...
more infohttp://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.2008/003459-0
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page ATCC ® 50739™  Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page ATCC ® 50739™
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Douglas) Page (ATCC® 50739™) Strain Designations: C3 / Depositor: R Michel / Biosafety Level: 2 ... Enlarged Chlamydia-like organisms as spontaneous infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Parasitol. Res. 87: 248-251, 2001. ... Legionella-like slender rods multiplying within a strain of Acanthamoeba sp. isolated from drinking water. Parasitol. Res. 84: ... nov., an obligate intracellular parasite of Acanthamoeba species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 63-72, 2000. PubMed: ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Protozoa_Alphanumeric/50739.aspx?slp=1
Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) | SpringerLink  Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) | SpringerLink
Therefore, understanding of the effect of oxidative stress on vital characteristics of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) ... Effect of oxidative stress on vital indicators of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype). ... Impact of oxidative stress on Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial bioenergetics depends on cell growth stage. J Bioenerg ... Functional expression and characterization of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. J Parasitol ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-018-5992-6
Temperature Depended Role of Shigella flexneri Invasion Plasmid on the Interaction with Acanthamoeba castellanii  Temperature Depended Role of Shigella flexneri Invasion Plasmid on the Interaction with Acanthamoeba castellanii
... Amir Saeed, ... A. castellanii in the absence or presence of wild type, IpaB mutant, or plasmid-cured strain S. flexneri was cultured at C and ... castellanii. In contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces both necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii. The aim of this ... The outcome of the interaction was depended on the temperature since the growth of A. castellanii was inhibited at C, and A. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2012/917031/abs/
Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii | IOVS | ARVO Journals  Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Choul Yong Park, Bora Yim, JooHee Park, Martha Kim, Roy S Chuck; Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii. Invest. ... Effect of Nitric Oxide on Acanthamoeba castellanii You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Purpose : Acanthamoeba keratitis is a well-known intractable corneal infectious disease in which the conventional antibiotics ... Results : Sodium nitrite and sodium nitroprusside showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on A. castellanii viability. More ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2691478
Amoebicidal and Amoebistatic Effects of Artemisia argyi Methanolic Extracts on Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts ...  Amoebicidal and Amoebistatic Effects of Artemisia argyi Methanolic Extracts on Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts ...
Lethal effects of Helianthemum lippii (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts in vitro. Korean Journal Parasitology, 52(3), 243- ... In vitro amoebicidal activity of Origanum syriacum and Origanumla evigatum on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. ... In vitro amoebicidal activities of Teucrium polium and T. chamaedrys on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts. ... Artemisia argyi Phytotoxic activity Acanthamoeba castellanii Amoebicidal activity Cytotoxic potential Antioxidant activity ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs11686-018-00009-5
The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii | Journal of Bacteriology  The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii | Journal of Bacteriology
The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii Laura M. Hales, Howard A. Shuman ... 1992) A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infect. Immun. 60:296 ... 1994) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii enhances invasion. Infect. Immun. 62:3254-3261. ... 1999) Legionella pneumophila utilize the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. Infect. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/181/16/4879?ijkey=080827c24554e54e32173172de1c269b2686c1b1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases | IOVS | ARVO Journals  Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose : Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) cause acanthamoeba keratitis, which is a serious infection of the eye, and ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases Christine Selhuber-Unkel; Sören ... Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact lens storage cases You will receive an email ... Christine Selhuber-Unkel, Sören Björn Gutekunst; Microstructured materials for removing Acanthamoeba castellanii from contact ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2560113
A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. | Infection and Immunity  A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. | Infection and Immunity
A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. J F Moffat, L S Tompkins ... A model of intracellular growth for Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii has been developed and provides a ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... A quantitative model of intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/60/1/296?ijkey=9245a42ee1221491736edcbb61243b790d40d351&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. | Applied and Environmental...  Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. | Applied and Environmental...
Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.. B Neumeister, S Schöniger ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ... Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii. ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/63/4/1219?ijkey=908df181c6993a0d8fc204f0b424840f2212dccb&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii.  - Surrey Research Insight Open Access  Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Abbas, Rabiya. (2011) Genetic basis of survival of Mycobacterium bovis inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. Doctoral thesis, ... In the present study, free-living amoeba (A. castellanii) has been used to study the genetic factors required for the ... castellanii. It was found that although the mycobacteria were able to remain inside the amoebae vacuoles, they were unable to ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/843112/
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...  Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ... Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a ... 2013) Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase ...
more infohttp://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/28247/
The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella...  The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella...
The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ... The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella ...
more infohttps://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/11064/
Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. - van Opijnen Lab  Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. - van Opijnen Lab
Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. September 1, 2017. by Tim van ... Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.. Siddiqui R1, Yee Ong TY1, Jung ... As Acanthamoeba cysts are resilient and can disperse through the air, A. castellanii can act as a vector in providing shelter, ... Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist that is known to harbour microbial pathogens, provide shelter, and assist in their ...
more infohttp://www.vanopijnenlab.com/news/2017/9/1/acanthamoeba-castellanii-interactions-withstreptococcus-pneumoniaeand-streptococcus-pyogenes
Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...  Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...
... Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a ... Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling ...
more infohttp://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/PAR00010824
Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup...  Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup...
Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup Amoebozoa) rivals that of animals, fungi, and plants ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Compositional complexity of the mitochondrial proteome of a unicellular eukaryote (Acanthamoeba castellanii, supergroup ... Acanthamoeba castellanii; Amoebozoa; Fungi. Abstract. We present a combined proteomic and bioinformatic investigation of ...
more infohttps://nrc-publications.canada.ca/eng/view/object/?id=d47df9aa-60b7-4050-827e-0313554dc565
Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil  Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil
Photomicrographs of the cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. KA/S2 strain; B. Castellani strain; C. Neff strain; D. Ma strain ... Nucleotide sequences of Acanthamoeba castellanii 5S and 5.8S ribosomal ribonucleic acids: phylogenetic and comparative ... Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil ... Biochemical and molecular characterization of a strain KA/S2 of Acanthamoeba castellanii isolated from Korean soil. ...
more infohttp://parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?number=640
Comparison of Proteins Secreted into Extracellular Space of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic <i xmlns=>Acanthamoeba...  Comparison of Proteins Secreted into Extracellular Space of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic <i xmlns="">Acanthamoeba...
Acanthamoeba castellanii non-pathogenic (ACNP) strain (ATCC 30011) and Acanthamoeba castellanii pathogenic (ACP) strain (ATCC ... Keywords: Acanthamoeba castellanii; secretory product INTRODUCTION. Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen capable of ... To search for pathogenic factors of Acanthamoeba, ES proteins of A. castellanii non-pathogenic (ACNP) strain and A. castellanii ... Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff]. 154. 63.1. IN15. inosine uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase family protein [Acanthamoeba ...
more infohttp://parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?viewtype=pubreader&number=2265
  • At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. (sunway.edu.my)
  • According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. (asm.org)
  • A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. (asm.org)
  • The effect of bacterial prey species and their concentration on growth of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In this capacity, Acanthamoeba has been suggested as a vector in the transmission of bacterial pathogens to the susceptible hosts. (aku.edu)
  • Assays were performed to determine bacterial association with and invasion of A. castellanii. (aku.edu)
  • These data were used to reconstruct the metabolic pathways and protein complexes of A. castellanii mitochondria, and were integrated with data from other characterized mitochondrial proteomes to augment our understanding of mitochondrial proteome evolution. (canada.ca)
  • Di Gregorio C, Rivasi F, Mongiardo N, De Rienzo B, Wallace S, Visvesvara G (1992) Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • A strain, KA/S2, isolated from Korean soil and morphologically assigned to Acanthamoeba castellanii , was characterized by isoenzyme analysis, and total proteins profile, and mitochondrial (Mt) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and compared with four reference strains assigned to the species (the authenitic Castellani, Neff, Ma, and Chang strains). (parasitol.kr)
  • Agarose gel electrophoretic fingerprints of mitochondrial DNA from KA/S2 and reference strains of A. Castellanii . (parasitol.kr)
  • Differentiation of Acanthamoeba strains from infected corneas and the environment by using restriction endonuclease digestion of whole-cell DNA. (parasitol.kr)
  • Predation rates were measured for two Acanthamoeba castellanii strains feeding on metal-tolerant and metal-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas putida and compared with cellular thermodynamic data. (bepress.com)
  • The aim of this study is to examine the role of invasion plasmid of S. flexneri on the interaction with A. castellanii at two different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • However, E. aerogenes and E. coli exhibited significantly reduced association with and invasion of A. castellanii as compared with A. hydrophila (P (aku.edu)
  • We report here the first comprehensive investigation of the mitochondrial proteome in a member (A. castellanii) of the eukaryotic supergroup Amoebozoa. (canada.ca)
  • Gunderson JH, Sogin ML. Length variation in eukaryotic rRNAs: small subunit rRNAs from the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii and Euglena gracilis. (parasitol.kr)
  • We report 1033 A. castellanii mitochondrial protein sequences, 709 supported by mass spectrometry data (676 nucleus-encoded and 33 mitochondrion-encoded), including two previously unannotated mtDNA-encoded proteins, which we identify as highly divergent mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. (canada.ca)
  • Other notable findings include duplicate proteins for all of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-which, along with the identification of a mitochondrial malate synthase-isocitrate lyase fusion protein, suggests the interesting possibility that the glyoxylate cycle operates in A. castellanii mitochondria. (canada.ca)
  • In compositional and functional complexity, the mitochondrial proteome of A. castellanii rivals that of multicellular eukaryotes. (canada.ca)
  • Our results demonstrate the power of combining direct proteomic and bioinformatic approaches in the discovery of novel mitochondrial proteins, both nucleus-encoded and mitochondrion-encoded, and highlight the compositional complexity of the A. castellanii mitochondrial proteome, which rivals that of animals, fungi and plants. (canada.ca)
  • Interstrain mitochondrial DNA polymorphism detected in Acanthamoeba by restriction endonuclease analysis. (parasitol.kr)
  • Mitochondrial DNA fingerprinting of Acanthamoeba spp. (parasitol.kr)
  • In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. (sunway.edu.my)
  • In contrast, Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces both necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • While blank silica nanoparticles had no inhibitory effect of A. castellanii viability, NO releasing silica nanoparticles showed dose dependent inhibition of A. castellanii viability. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although, the viability was significantly decreased with NO treatment, no cystic transformation of A. castellanii was observed under phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. (arvojournals.org)
  • These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba . (parasitol.kr)
  • The reactive oxygen species level increased markedly after induction of oxidative stress by the treatment of Acanthamoeba T4 with H 2 O 2 . (springer.com)
  • Acanthamoeba T4 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (springer.com)
  • Different bacteria interact differently with FLA since Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonnei , and S. dysenteriae are able to grow inside A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • In this model, Acanthamoeba monolayers were incubated with bacteria in tissue culture plates under nutrient-limiting conditions. (asm.org)
  • A. hydrophila and E. aerogenes also joined the ranks of other bacteria that could benefit from A. castellanii. (aku.edu)
  • A. castellanii were treated with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside abbreviated Man, with and without the EMS pre-treatment, and their adhesion and cytotoxicity were analyzed, using a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) as the target cell. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • These findings are important in the identification of potential targets that could be useful against parasite-specific respiration as well as to understand the basic biology of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. (sunway.edu.my)