Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Mimiviridae: A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.BiguanidesDNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Chlamydiales: An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseHartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Methylophilus: A genus of straight or slightly curved gram-negative rods occurring singly or in pairs and isolated from sludge, mud, and river and pond water. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Menu PlanningPlasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.GermanyDNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Balamuthia mandrillaris: A species of free-living soil amoeba in the family Balamuthiidae, causing AMEBIASIS and a deadly form of ENCEPHALITIS in humans.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (1/587)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. (2/587)

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

In vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy in acanthamoeba keratitis. (3/587)

The in vivo confocal microscopy technique provides us with a real-time, non-invasive way of examining the human cornea. The most important advantage of this type of microscopy is to reveal the etiologic agents in infectious keratitis such as Acanthamoeba keratitis. We present several representative cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, which were diagnosed in their early stages using in vivo confocal microscopy and managed based on that diagnosis. In our Acanthamoeba keratitis cases, highly-reflective round or ovoid organisms with a diameter of about 10-25 um were visualized distinctly against relatively-dark normal parenchymal structures, such as epithelial cells or keratocyte nuclei. Double-walled structures of Acanthamoeba cysts were clearly demonstrated in some cases. We can confirm that in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying the infecting organisms in Acanthamoeba keratitis.  (+info)

Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. (4/587)

Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children.  (+info)

Legionella pneumophila utilizes the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. (5/587)

In previous reports we described a 22-kb Legionella pneumophila chromosomal locus containing 18 genes. Thirteen of these genes (icmT, -R, -Q, -P, -O, -M, -L, -K, -E, -C, -D, -J, and -B) were found to be completely required for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Three genes (icmS, -G, and -F) were found to be partially required, and two genes (lphA and tphA) were found to be dispensable for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Here, we analyzed the requirement of these genes for intracellular growth in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii, a well-established important environmental host of L. pneumophila. We found that all the genes that are completely required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are also completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. However, the genes that are partially required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. In addition, the lphA gene, which was shown to be dispensable for intracellular growth in human macrophages, is partially required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. Our results indicate that L. pneumophila utilizes the same genes to grow intracellularly in both human macrophages and amoebae.  (+info)

Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts. (6/587)

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (7/587)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Legionella pneumophila contains a type II general secretion pathway required for growth in amoebae as well as for secretion of the Msp protease. (8/587)

We report the identification of a set of Legionella pneumophila genes that encode products with homology to proteins of the type II general secretion pathway of gram-negative bacteria. A strain containing a deletion-substitution mutation of two of these genes was unable to secrete the Msp protease. This strain was unable to multiply within the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii yet was able to kill HL-60-derived macrophages. Because Msp is not required for growth in amoebae, other proteins which are important for growth in amoebae are likely secreted by this pathway.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates. AU - Iovieno, Alfonso. AU - Ledee, Dolena R.. AU - Miller, Darlene. AU - Alfonso, Eduardo C. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the presence of 4 clinically relevant bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and the possible contribution of endosymbionts to the pathogenesis of AK. Design: Experimental study. Participants: Acanthamoeba isolates (N = 37) recovered from the cornea and contact lens paraphernalia of 23 patients with culture-proven AK and 1 environmental isolate. Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Legionella, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Chlamydia using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and transmission electron microscopy. Corneal toxicity and ...
Purpose: To detect the genotypes of Acanthamoeba spp. isolates from patients of clinically suspected amoebic keratitis and proteomic characterisation of trophozoite and cyst stages. Methods: Corneal scrapings from clinically suspected amoebic keratitis(AK) patients (107) attending our tertiary care hospital during last 2 years were subjected to culture on 2% non- nutrient agar plates overlaid with E.coli. DNA isolation followed by PCR assay was performed for amplification of DF3 region (280bp) of 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba spp.. PCR products were sequenced and aligned using software CLUSTAL W. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions was performed with phylogenetic computer program MEGA4 using neighbour-joining method as well as UPGMA anakysis. The cultured trophozoites were encysted in laboratory conditions and the whole cell lysates of both the stages were subjected to SDS-PAGE and two dimensional gel electrophoresis.. Results: Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 18 of the 107 (16.82%)suspected ...
The recent study, Acanthamoeba Infection market forecasts the business performance of the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. The study considers the estimated period as the base duration and brings to light the important information associated with the market size, share and growth rate of the Acanthamoeba Infection market.. Apart from this, the research closely examines the market share occupied by some of the prominent market players in the Acanthamoeba Infection market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2026. Researchers behind the research unmask vital statistics on market segmentation including product types, application, sale and geography.. FREE SAMPLE COPY [Customized Copy + CAGR and Gross Market Value Included] @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/sample-enquiry-form/74658. This study relies on the evolution of the industry to derive the trends that are observed. A significant increase in the global market is visible, which promises the expansion of the market ...
The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is able to enter, survive and multiply within the free living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but the molecular mechanisms behind these events are still unclear. We have studied the uptake and intracellular trafficking of viable and heat killed bacterial cells of the C. jejuni strain 81-176 in A. polyphaga. We found that viable bacteria associated with a substantially higher proportion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites than heat killed bacteria. Furthermore, the kinetics of internalization, the total number of internalized bacteria as well as the intracellular localization of internalized C. jejuni were dramatically influenced by bacterial viability. Viable bacteria were internalized at a high rate already after 1 h of co-incubation and were observed in small vacuoles tightly surrounding the bacteria. In contrast, internalization of heat killed C. jejuni was low at early time points and did not peak until 96 h. These cells were gathered in large ...
Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its
Acanthamoeba spp. are microscopic organisms that can be found just about anywhere, from soil to water, to the air we breathe. They are the direct culprits of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) a relatively rare but sight-threatening disease which is actually caused by at least eight species of Acanthamoeba: A. castellanii, A. culbertsoni, A. polyphaga, A. hatchetti, A. rhysodes, A. lugdunesis, A. quina, and A. griffin. Ocular trauma and contaminated water are also associated with AK infections but it has been found that contact lens wearing accounts for , 80% of the cases. If found early the infection can be cured, but this gets progressively more difficult the longer it remains untreated. The difficulty lies with the life cycle of the Acanthamoeba species which consists of two stages: the trophozoite and the cyst ...
Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, a single-celled eukaryote commonly recovered from soil, fresh water and other habitats. Acanthamoeba has two evolutive forms, the metabolically active trophozoite and a dormant, stress resistant cyst. Trophozoites are small, usually 15 to 35 μm in length and amoeboid in shape. In nature, Acanthamoeba species are free-living bacterivores, but in certain situations they can cause infections (Acanthamebiasis) in humans and other animals. Acanthamoeba spp. are among the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. They are distributed worldwide, and have been isolated from soil, air, sewage, seawater, chlorinated swimming pools, domestic tap water, bottled water, dental treatment units, hospitals, air-conditioning units, and contact lens cases. Additionally, Acanthamoeba have been isolated from human skin, nasal cavities, throats, and intestines, as well as plants and other mammals. Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic ...
PURPOSE: To characterize better the ameba-host interactions that may be involved with the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, the role of calcium (Ca2+) on the binding of Acanthamoeba polyphaga to extracellular matrix proteins was examined in vitro. METHODS: The binding of a metabolically labeled A. polyphaga (CDC:0187:1) isolate from a case of human keratitis to collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin was assessed through a range of calcium concentrations in the external fluid. Binding to collagen IV was studied in detail, with and without other divalent cations and calcium channel modulators. RESULTS: Calcium increased binding in a dose-dependent manner, with significant effects at 0.1 to 1.0 microM and near-maximal effects at 1 to 100 microM, depending upon the matrix protein. Magnesium alone had no effect on ameba binding to collagen IV but suppressed the action of calcium. Strontium enhanced ameba binding, with maximal effect at 100 microM. The calcium channel antagonists nifedipine ...
Another name for Acanthamoeba Infection is Acanthamoeba Infection. The evaluation of an acanthamoeba infection begins with a history and physical examination ...
Acanthamoeba myosin-II forms filaments of two different sizes. Thin bipolar filaments 7 nm wide and 200 nm long consist of 16 myosin-II molecules. Thick bipolar filaments of variable width (14-19 nm) consist of 40 or more myosin-II molecules. Both have a central bare zone 90 nm long and myosin heads projecting laterally at the ends. The heads are arranged in rows spaced 15 nm apart. In the case of the thin myosin-II filaments there are two molecules per row. The thick filaments are formed rapidly and reversibly in the presence of 6-10 mM MgCl2 (or any of five other different divalent cations tested) by the lateral aggregation of thin myosin-II filaments. Acid pH also favors thick filament formation. Neither the myosin-II concentration (50-1,000 micrograms/ml) nor ATP has an effect on the morphology of the filaments. The polymerization mechanism was studied quantitatively by measuring the amount of polymer formed (Cp) under various conditions as a function of total myosin-II concentration (Ct). ...
Abstract: The free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in nature and are considered potentially pathogenic organisms. Occasionally they can trigger human infections such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. The investigation of differentiating characteristics between pathogenic strains and those not associated with infection may help to determine factors related to pathogenicity and the development of diagnostic tests. In this sense, the aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation; by means of physiological, morphological and immunochemical criteria; between clinical and environmental samples of Acanthamoeba. Trophozoites of four isolates were used: a clinical sample, obtained from a confirmed case of amoebic keratitis; an environmental sample, obtained from the dust of the residence of the same patient; and two reference samples A. poliphaga #2, obtained from an amoebic keratitis (ATCC 30641) and A. poliphaga #4, obtained from ...
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, Germany.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug target identification, validation, characterisation and exploitation for treatment of Acanthamoeba (species) infections. AU - Roberts, Craig W.. AU - Henriquez, Fiona L.. N1 - Special Issue - Biology and Pathogenecity of Free-Living Amoebae. Compiled after the XIIIth International Meeting on the Biology and Pathogenicity of Free-Living Amoebae, FLAM 2009, Tenerife, Spain. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - New more efficacious antimicrobials as required for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections as those currently available require arduous treatment regimes, are not always effective and are poorly active against the cystic stages. Herein, we review potential drug targets including tubulin, alternative oxidase, amino acid biosynthesis and myosin. In addition, we review the literature for current missing tools and resources for the identification, validation and development of new antimicrobials for this organism. Additional targets should come to light through a concerted ...
Acanthamoeba infection of the eye is it contagious? Contagiousness of Acanthamoeba infection of the eye including infectiousness, transmission, and contagion methods and vectors.
New tool for the simultaneous detection of ten different genotypes of Acanthamoeba available from the American Type Culture Collection. Background: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection and none of the current diagnosis tests are able to detect in one reaction low levels of the vast majority of strains associated with pathology. The goal of this work was to validate a new tool for the detection of the American Type Cell Collection referenced Acanthamoeba monitoring simultaneously DNA extraction yields and PCR inhibitors. Performances were assessed on corneal scrapings.. Methods: Primers were selected in a region bracketing a 41591 bp of the A. castellanii mitochondrion gene. DNA extraction and PCR inhibitors were monitored by adding an internal control (virus). Acanthamoeba were detected and quantified by the real time fast duplex TaqMan® PCR (f-d-real-t PCR) and negativity confirmed by SYBR Green real time PCR.. Results: The f-d-real-t PCR detects 0.1 cyst/µl or less of ...
1. Adl, S. M., Simpson, A. G. B., Farmer, M. A., Andersen, R. A. et al. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 2005, 52, p. 399-451. 2. Aichelburg, A. C., Walochnik, J., Assadian, O., Prosch, H. et al. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. infection with miltefosine. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2008, 14, p. 1743-1746. 3. Booton, G. C., Visvesvara, G. S., Byers, T. J., Kelly, D. J. et al. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2005, 43, p. 1689-693. 4. Cengiz, A. M., Harmis, N., Stapleton, F. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alters the survival of amoeba. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2000, 28, p. 191-193. 5. Chatton, E. Classe des Lobosa Leidy, 1879. Ordre des amoebiens nus ou Amoebaea. In Grassé, P. P. Traité de zoologie, anatomie, systématique, biologie. Tome I. Protozoaires. ...
There are three main genera of free living amoeba that infect humans - Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria that are are important causes of disease in humans and animals. The topic for todays podcast will be one of them- Acanthamoeba.. Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, free-living amoeba that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system.. Joining me to talk about Acanthamoeba is Parasitology teacher and author of Parasites: Tales of Humanitys Most Unwelcome Guests, Rosemary Drisdelle.. ...
This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using...
The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between the presence of limescale in water and direct culture for free-living amoebae, suggesting that scale provides a favourable microenvironment for amoebae. Acanthamoebae were also found in dust from around one washbasin. Nineteen of 50 CL cases, 12/122 CL care rinsing solutions, and 59/100 cold water taps yielded Gram negative bacteria which could be ingested by amoebae. It is concluded from this study that CLs should not be washed in first-drawn tank-fed cold water, especially if limescale is present, and that ...
Acanthamoebiasis is most often found in patients with immune deficiency, with infections facilitated by the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. The host immune response to Acanthamoeba spp. infection is poorly understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the course of Acanthamoeba spp. infection taking into account the hosts immunological status, including assessment of the hematological parameters, cytokine analysis, immunophenotypic changes in spleen populations, and histological spleen changes, which could help clarify some aspects of the immune response to acanthamoebiasis. In our experimental study, we used Acanthamoeba strain AM 22 isolated from the bronchoaspirate of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and atypical pneumonia symptoms. Acanthamoeba spp. affected the hematological parameters in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice and induced a change in spleen weight during infection. Moreover, analysis of anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (IL-17A and
Acanthamoeba hatchetti ATCC ® PRA-114™ Designation: 3ST Isolation: clinical specimen - human Vienna Austria Isolation date: 1997
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تعالى نفصصهم تاني … المرض الأول اسمه Acanthamoeba keratitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في قرنيه العين وده عامل كانه سدلك العدسة اللى بتصور بيها يعنى ممكن يسبب العمى.. المرض التاني Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: وده بيعمل التهاب في المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انه ممكن يقتل رئيس دولتك يعنى يموت المخ والحبل الشوكي وده معناه انهيار الدولة كلها يعنى يؤدي للموت. المرض التالت واسمه disseminated infection: وده ذي ما قولنا عامل ذي الغزو بينتشر في كل حتة وبيعمل التهابات في كل حتة.. You can say "This means that it is dangerous and can kill me and can attack me at any moment and you told me that this enemy lives everywhere… this is scary".. No, dont worry. It is rare to attack you because it is a weak ...
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
We have studied the kinetics of the gelation process that occurs upon warming cold extracts of Acanthamoeba using a low-shear falling ball assay. We find that the reaction has at least two steps, requires 0.5 mM ATP and 1.5 mM MgCl2, and is inhibited by micromolar Ca++. The optimum pH is 7.0 and temperature, 25 degrees-30 degrees C. The rate of the reaction is increased by cold preincubation with both MgCl2 and ATP. Nonhydrolyzable analogues of ATP will not substitute for ATP either in this "potentiation reaction" or in the gelation process. Either of two purified or any one of four partially purified Acanthamoeba proteins will cross-link purified actin to form a gel, but none can account for the dependence of the reaction in the crude extract on Mg-ATP or its regulation by Ca++. This suggests that the extract contains, in addition to actin-cross-linking proteins, factors dependent on Mg-ATP and Ca++ that regulate the gelation process. ...
Learn about Castellani Paint Colorless effects, symptoms, what is, Phenol Topical treatment, mechanism of action and formula. Important information I should know about Castellani Paint Colorless, Phenol Topical effects, symptoms and treatment.
A species of motile, unicellular eukaryotic amoebae within the family of Acanthamoebidae. A. quina is placed in morphological group II with a 18s rRNA gene sequence type of T4. Members of this group are characterized by the presence of wrinkled ectocysts and endocysts which could be stellate, polygonal, triangular, or oval. This species is a human pathogen and may cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis.
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THE NEWS: PhRMA names new president, CEO. For the full story, click here). PhRMAs new president and CEO, John Castellani, doesnt have the political background of Tauzin, former Democratic congressman from Louisiana, but he has something pretty close in the form of a nine-year career as leader of the Business Roundtable, an influential lobbying group of corporate chief executives from various industries.. And it appears PhRMA made a wise choice. Politico quoted an unnamed senior industry official as saying the lobby sought a "non-partisan, manager type" to head the group while pointing out his relationships with members of Congress in both major parties. David Brennan, head of the organizations search committee and president and CEO of AstraZeneca, pointed out Castellanis experience in coalition building and "strong reputation of working across the political divide.". ...
Hi, I am using QIAamp kit to extract DNA from Acanthamoeba culture. However, I just able to extract about 40ng/ul of concentration only when measured by NanoQuant. Is this concentration normal for Acanthamoeba ? This is because previously extraction from other sample can obtain high concentration up to 300ng/ul. Or is there any pre-treatment required to be done to the sample before using this Qiagen kit? I am sure there is no other step stated in Qiagen handbook, just that any other step that is specifically to acanthamoeba ...
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A Linwood man seriously injured in an arrest outside the Tropicana Atlantic City in 2013, requiring hundreds of stitches to repair bites by a police dog, has settled an excessive force lawsuit against Atlantic City for $3 million, his attorney confirmed Sunday.. ...
In 1980, Tim Rowbotham, a microbiologist at the University of Bradford, made an extraordinary discovery about a tiny single-celled protozoa called Acanthamoeba. These organisms are ubiquitous, turning up almost anywhere there is liquid water. Since the 1950s they have been known to cause a number of rare diseases, mainly in humans with impaired immune systems.…
... +++++ Para ilmuwan menyatakan bahwa jenis parasit Acanthamoeba yang terdapat pada debu, air l
Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages: 184-192, C. Castellani, A. Angelini, O. J. de Boer, C. M. van der Loos, M. Fedrigo, A. C. Frigo, L. B. Meijer-Jorna, X. Li, H. J. P. Ploegmakers, F. Tona, G. Feltrin, G. Gerosa, M. Valente, G. Thiene and A. C. van der Wal. Version of Record online : 4 DEC 2013, DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12517 ...
Martins work is focused on the creation of tools and pipelines for the processing of human data at the Sanger Institute and elsewhere. His PhD research project is centred on exploring genomic variation within Africa with a special interest in the HLA.
Define Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus synonyms, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus pronunciation, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus translation, English dictionary definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es Any of a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses that are the largest of all known viruses. n a very large virus containing DNA
During January 2010, a husband and wife returned from Laos to France with probable parasitic disease. Increased antibodies against an Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus virophage indicated seroconversion. While in Laos, they had eaten raw fish, a potential source of the virophage. This virophage, associated with giant viruses suspected to cause pneumonia, could be an emerging pathogen.
We present eight cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. In each case; the Acanthamoeba organisms were visualized in the epithelium and anterior stroma using tandem scanning confocal microscopy. The organisms were highly reflective, ovoid, and were 10-25 microns in diameter. The Acanthamoeba organisms in the human corneas were identical in size and shape to Acanthamoeba organisms on an agar plate visualized with the same confocal microscope. Confocal microscopy is a useful method for identifying Acanthamoeba organisms in vivo within the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma.
In the present study, three artificial tear brands were selected according to the preservative agents (detergent or oxidative) or the lack of them to study their possible amoebicidal activity against trophozoites, as this is the initial state of the infection.. To study the viability of Acanthamoeba trophozoites after incubation with these tears, two different methods were used. The more traditional one, Trypan Blue stain, allows the differentiation of amoebae with the altered cell membrane and thus, identification of the non-viable ones. The second method used CTC stain to measure mitochondrial activity to determine the viability of the amoebae. This stain was developed for bacterial viability and then, adapted for Acanthamoeba in fluorometry by Kobayashi et al. [23]. In the present study, CTC stain for Acanthamoeba viability was used with flow cytometry for the first time.. One of the artificial tears tested using these two methods was Optava Fusion™. It contains Purite®, which is a soft ...
Acanthamoeba Keratitis is a devastating eye infection which in developed countries most commonly occurs in contact lens wearers. Consultant Ophthalmologist Deepa Anijeet will summarise key concepts such as risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis. It will also highlight key areas of research that offer hope for sufferers.
Acanthamoeba are tiny amoeba like parasites found in water sources such as tap water, well water, hot tubs and soil or sewage systems. Eye infections can occur when contact is made with these parasites and is usually due to the improper care of contact lenses or unhygienic conditions.. Recent outbreaks of acanthamoeba infections have been noted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention throughout the U.S. The use of contact lens solutions that were contaminated during the manufacturing process led to an outbreak in 2007.. The good news is that with proper contact lens care, most cases can be avoided and that contact lens solutions undergo rigorous testing to ensure a sterile products reaches market.. ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a serious, debilitating, and intensely painful infection of the cornea caused by parasites of the genus Acanthamoeba. At present,...
Acanthamoeba is a pathogen frequently infecting brain, eyes, skin and lung of human and animal. Seven Acanthamoeba local isolates from various sources, two Acanthamoeba type strains and one strain of Hartmannella vermiformis were characterized for their genetic variability using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using four different 10-mer oligonucleotides primers. Electrophoresis of the amplification products generated DNA bands ranging from approximately 0.25 to 7.50 kbp in size. A genetic relatedness among the isolates was examined using Dice similarity coefficient as the genetic distance measured between the strains of Acanthamoeba and H. vermiformis. Three distinct clusters could be separated at genetic distance of approximately 0.330. © 2006 Asian Network for Scientific Information. ...
|p|A 36-year-old woman returning from holiday in Portugal presented with bilateral ocular pain and acute visual loss. Eye examination revealed an inflammation in the anterior segment associated with corneal keratitis. During her trip, she wore contact lenses and rinsed the storage case using tap water. Corneal scrapings, contact lenses and cleaning solution from the case were inoculated onto agar plates supplemented with heat-inactivated bacteria. Bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis was diagnosed, as microscopic examination of cultures from the last two samples revealed typical, spherical double-walled cystic structures (Fig. 1).|/p|
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of gastrointestinal diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. This zoonotic pathogen has a complex epidemiology due to its presence in many different host organisms. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the role of amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba as an intermediate host and vector for survival and dissemination of C. jejuni. Earlier studies have shown that C. jejuni can enter, survive and replicate within Acanthamoebae spp. In this thesis, I have shown that C. jejuni actively invades Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Once inside, C. jejuni could survive within the amoebae by avoiding localization to degradative lysosomes. We also found that A. polyphaga could protect C. jejuni in acid environments with pH levels far below the range in which the bacterium normally survives. Furthermore, low pH triggered C. jejuni motility and invasion of A. polyphaga. In an applied study I found that A. polyphaga also could increase the survival of C. jejuni in ...
... may be limited to the epithelium in its early stages, resulting in epithelial dendrites and punctate epitheliopathy. Later stromal involvement classically results in a partial or complete paracentral ring infiltrate as seen in this photograph. The many amoeba visible on the confocal microscopy image confirmed the suspected etiology to this patients infiltrate.
Purpose. To report a case of medication-resistant acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) treated successfully by corneal crosslinking (CXL). Methods. A 26-year-old male with medication-resistant AK underwent a standard CXL procedure with local anesthesia, follo
A. castellanii is a ubiquitous organism, found in many ecosystems worldwide. It is able to survive in harsh environmental circumstances - even in some contact lens solutions - and this is not the first occurrence of A. castellanii appearing in the eye. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a neglected malady frequently associated with contact lens wear.. Acanthamoeba infection of the cornea causes severe inflammation, intense pain and impaired vision, which is blinding if left untreated. Infection begins when the parasite is at its active feeding trophozoite stage and sticks to the corneal tissue before penetrating the lower stromal layer. The resulting opacity leads to less sharp vision and eventually blindness.. Acanthamoeba infections (not just in the eye) are being detected by clinicians with increasing frequency, especially as opportunistic infections in patients whose immune system is already compromised. This at-risk population is expanding as a result of increasing use of immune-suppressing ...
Mimivirus. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) particles. APMV is commonly known as the mimivirus. This virus consists of outer hairs, or fibrils (spikes), and a protein capsid (dark grey) enclosing a core (black) of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the virus genetic material. APMVs classification as a pathogen is tentative, but it is now thought that it may cause viral pneumonia. Magnification: x9,300 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C001/4438
Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) ... This finding suggests that the ''Acanthamoeba'' are capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual ... "Acanthamoeba , Microworld". www.arcella.nl. Retrieved 2016-08-21. "Microscopy of Entamoeba histolytica". msu.edu. Retrieved ... Orthologs of genes employed in meiosis of sexual eukaryotes have recently been identified in the Acanthamoeba genome. These ...
Acanthamoeba sp. Thecamoeba sp. Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E. -Y.; Oates, Brian (2004-05-18). "Molecular phylogeny of ...
Acanthamoeba spp. have been found in soil; fresh, brackish, and sea water; sewage; swimming pools; contact lens equipment; ... Unlike N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have only two stages, cysts and trophozoites, in their life cycle. No ... In Acanthamoeba infections, the diagnosis can be made from microscopic examination of stained smears of biopsy specimens (brain ... In addition, Acanthamoeba spp. can cause granulomatous skin lesions and, more seriously, keratitis and corneal ulcers following ...
Pollard, Thomas D.; Korn, Edward D. (1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme ... Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis: is water exposure a true risk factor? CLAO. 23(1): 55-56, 1997. First article published on CLAO's ... Chynn, E. W.; Talamo, J. H.; Seligman, M. S. (January 1997). "Acanthamoeba keratitis: is water exposure a true risk factor?". ... Acanthamoeba keratitis: contact lens and non-contact lens characteristics. Ophthalmology. 102: 1369-1373, 1995. Chynn EW, ... Chynn, E. W.; Lopez, M. A.; Pavan-Langston, D.; Talamo, J. H. (September 1995). "Acanthamoeba keratitis. Contact lens and ...
"Acanthamoeba: Overview - eMedicine". Retrieved 2009-01-11. Gelman BB, Rauf SJ, Nader R, et al. (May 2001). "Amoebic ... Visvesvara GS; Moura H; Schuster FL (June 2007). "Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., ...
Heinz, E; Kolarov, I; Kästner, C; Toenshoff, ER; Wagner, M; Horn, M (June 2007). "An Acanthamoeba sp. containing two ... The sole genus, "Procabacter", was identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba. Horn, M; Fritsche, TR; Linner, T; ... related to the beta-Proteobacteria: proposal of 'Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae' gen. nov., sp. nov". International ... Gautom, RK; Harzenetter, MD; Wagner, M (March 2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. ...
Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). If they had cell walls, they also could be included in plant kingdom between bacteria or yeasts. ...
Acanthamoeba myosin II basal ATPase 83 μM[23] Rat myosin 1B basal ATPase ,150 μM[23] ...
test (Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Discosea) Smirnov, Alexey V. (2011). "A Revised Classification of ...
Acanthamoeba can also be the source of infections in the lungs, sinuses, skin, and eyes. "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". Retrieved 2009 ... states, Acanthamoeba "are known to be the opportunistic pathogens in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic ... Its most prominent member, Acanthamoeba, can be potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. It has been described as having a ... It gets its name from Acanthamoeba, its best known member. However, it also includes other species, such as Comandonia ...
Species include P. acanthamoeba. G. Greub (5 January 2009). "Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, an emerging agent of pneumonia". ...
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (eye infection) Acanthamoeba spp. eye, brain, skin culture ...
Entamoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris Endolimax The recently available Acanthamoeba genome sequence ... This finding suggests that Acanthamoeba is capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual reproduction. In ... test (Lobosa: Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Entamoeba histolytica ... doi:10.1007/1-4020-5202-2. Khan NA, Siddiqui R (2015). "Is there evidence of sexual reproduction (meiosis) in Acanthamoeba?". ...
... eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Chlorhexidine does not meet ... Alkharashi M, Lindsley K, Law HA, Sikder S (2015). "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst ...
PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Branded as Baquacil, it also has an ... "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2: CD0010792. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010792.pub2 ...
TUME1 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWC22 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWE1 Uncultured lineages include: Neochlamydia ... Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba hosting these strains were isolated from asymptomatic women in Germany and also in an outbreak of ... 2006 Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Everett et al. 1999 Neochlamydia hartmannellae Horn et al. 2001 (endocytobiont of Hartmannella ... A1Hsp) Isolated Endosymbionts include: Hall's coccus P9 UV-7 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. ...
Acanthamoeba (Unikonta, Amoebozoa) M4 (Mimivirus "bald" variant). 3 (Met, Cys, Arg). Yes. Yes. Resistant. Yes. Acanthamoeba ( ... Megavirus was isolated by co-cultivation with a variety of Acanthamoeba laboratory strains (A. polyphaga, A. castellanii, A. ... Acanthamoeba (Unikonta, Amoebozoa) Mimivirus. 4 (Tyr, Arg, Met, Cys). Yes. Yes. Yes. Yes. ... Acanthamoeba (Unikonta, Amoebozoa) Mamavirus. 4 (Tyr, Arg, Met, Cys). Yes. Yes. Yes. Yes. ...
It is usually caused by Acanthamoeba. On May 25, 2007, the CDC issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba ... Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia (2015). "An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis ... "The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic ...
The name "Procabacteriales" was also proposed for an order of endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba, but since they cannot be grown in ... Horn M, Fritsche TR, Linner T, Gautom RK, Harzenetter MD, Wagner M (2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba ... related to the beta-Proteobacteria: proposal of " Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae" gen. nov., sp. nov". International ...
This eukaryotic encystation in Acanthamoeba spp., is known to involve a crosstalk between the trophozoite form of the cell and ... Recently, scientists from Aga Khan University Pakistan, have extended the studies of encystation in Acanthamoeba to induce ... Recently, model pathogenic eukaryotic cell encystation has been linked to cancer cell dormancy, Acanthamoeba spp. were studied ...
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
Anderson I, Watkins R, Samuelson J, Spencer D, Majoros W, Grey M, Loftus B (August 2005). "Gene Discovery in the Acanthamoeba ...
Kusrini E, Hashim F, Azmi WN, Amin NM, Estuningtyas A (2016). "A novel antiamoebic agent against Acanthamoeba sp. - A causative ...
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus synonyms, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus pronunciation, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus ... translation, English dictionary definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es Any of a genus of double ... redirected from Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus). Also found in: Medical. mim·i·vi·rus. (mĭm′ĭ-vī′rəs). n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es ... Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM), a virus of free-living amebae, has reportedly caused human respiratory disease.. ...
Iovieno, A., Ledee, D. R., Miller, D., & Alfonso, E. C. (2010). Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba ... Iovieno, A, Ledee, DR, Miller, D & Alfonso, EC 2010, Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates, ... Participants: Acanthamoeba isolates (N = 37) recovered from the cornea and contact lens paraphernalia of 23 patients with ... Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera ...
Effect of growth at low temperature on the uncoupling protein activity and expression in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria ...
Breaking News Regarding Acanthamoeba Keratitis & Complete® MoisturePlus™. *June 21, 2009 - "FDA Reports Show Abbott Labs ... The CDC and the FDA are now investigating 138 confirmed cases of "Acanthamoeba Keratitis", another rare, painful eye infection ... contact lens solution has been linked to serious eye infections including the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis and ...
AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multipurpose Contact Lens solution has been linked to Acanthamoeba keratitis, an infection caused by ...
... different from that of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae strain Bn9 T, which excludes it from Simkaniaceae and Parachlamydiaceae ... 9 cases were associated with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae [Borel et al., 2006; 2007]. ...
Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is more effective at battling acanthamoeba keratitis (an eye infection that may lead to blindness) ...
Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is more effective at battling acanthamoeba keratitis (an eye infection that may lead to blindness) ...
Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is more effective at battling acanthamoeba keratitis (an eye infection that may lead to blindness) ...
Moreover, hydrogen peroxide is more effective at battling acanthamoeba keratitis (an eye infection that may lead to blindness) ...
"Acanthamoeba keratitis" eye infections and a lens solution made by Advanced Medical Optics Inc. This is the third case of a ...
... when it was implicated by the CDC in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis). The function of these multipurpose contact lens ...
Legionella pneumophila normally lives within common soil dwelling protozoa, such as Acanthamoeba, because this bacteria is ...
What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent ... This infection is caused by a microscopic, free-living ameba (single-celled living organism) called Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba amebas are very common in nature and can be found in bodies of water (for example, lakes and oceans), soil, and ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ...
Acanthamoeba disease (excluding keratitis)(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/acanthamoeba-disease-excluding-keratitis/) ... Acanthamoeba keratitis -. -. Balamuthia mandrillaris disease(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/balamuthia-mandrillaris- ... Free-living Amebae Infections , 2012 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/acanthamoeba-keratitis/case- ...
Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from contact lens keratitis Marciano-Cabral F, ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations. ... there are currently no good diagnoses or treatments for Acanthamoeba infection. Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in the past, when ...
Acanthamoeba infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions. ... Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing acanthamoebic keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis Balamuthia infection ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. Khan, Naveed Ahmed (2009). Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Horizon Scientific Press. p. 127. ISBN ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Acanthamoeba is a genus of opportunistic protozoan amebic species widely distributed in nature. Furthermore, it is part of a ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis represents a multifactorial process usually associated with the use of contact ... http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/acanthamoeba/gen_info/acanthamoeba.html. *Khan NA. Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Caister ... If Acanthamoeba enters the skin through a wound or the nostrils, the organism can travel through the bloodstream, spread to ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Acanthamoeba Culture. 2. Stainless Steel Flexible Ruler. 3. Stainless Steel Ruler. 4. HMS 760 Robot Stainer. 5. MS/DS 50/100 ...
The life cycle of Acanthamoeba spp. Under favourable conditions, Acanthamoeba remains in the trophozoite form and divides ... The classification of protists, based on ribosomal rRNA sequences (modified from Khan NA Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis ... A) Normal eye and (B) Infected eye exhibiting recurrent Acanthamoeba infection following corneal transplant with severe corneal ... The transmission electron micrograph of Acanthamoeba trophozoite. M is mitochondria; N is nucleus; V is vacuole and arrow ...
Acanthamoeba is an ameba that can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous encephalitis, and disseminated infection. The ... Acanthamoeba keratitis. The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other more common eye ... Acanthamoeba is found worldwide. Most commonly, Acanthamoeba is found in soil, dust, fresh water sources (such as lakes, rivers ... Acanthamoeba causes three main types of illness involving the eye (Acanthamoeba keratitis), the brain and spinal cord ( ...
Although tandem scanning confocal microscopy of Acanthamoeba has been described in previous reports, Acanthamoeba keratitis has ... one with culture-proven Acanthamoeba and the other with a suspected Acanthamoeba infection. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo ... Confocal microscopy findings of Acanthamoeba keratitis.. Pfister DR1, Cameron JD, Krachmer JH, Holland EJ. ... In vivo confocal micrographs showed the double-walled structure of the Acanthamoeba cyst and associated radial keratoneuritis ( ...
... may be limited to the epithelium in its early stages, resulting in epithelial dendrites and punctate ... Acanthamoeba keratitis Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare parasitic infection of the cornea that primarily occurs in contact lens ... See the related article for more information on Acanthamoeba keratitis. *Coming soon: The treatment of Acanthamoeba in ... Figure 5: 300x magnification of the corneal epithelium in a patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis. H&E stain demonstrates a ...
  • Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Legionella, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Chlamydia using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and transmission electron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • The Waddlia chondrophila 16S rDNA sequence is 15.8% different from that of Simkania negevensis strain Z T , while it is 12.8% different from that of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae strain Bn9 T , which excludes it from Simkaniaceae and Parachlamydiaceae families of the order Chlamydiales (Everett et al . (chlamydiae.com)
  • Acanthamoeba has two evolutive forms, the metabolically active trophozoite and a dormant, stress resistant cyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo confocal micrographs showed the double-walled structure of the Acanthamoeba cyst and associated radial keratoneuritis (perineuritis). (nih.gov)
  • H&E stain demonstrates a classic example of the double-walled cyst structure of Acanthamoeba . (uiowa.edu)
  • Phase contrast micrograph of an Acanthamoeba polyphaga cyst. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Only BLUE Vision/BLUE SEPT TM and AOSEPT® Plus/Clear Care TM exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against the cyst form of Acanthamoeba castellani. (arvojournals.org)
  • Oxysept 1step® showed mild activity against the cysts and easyvision one step+ and Opti-Free® Express® with Aldox® showed virtually no anti-acanthamoeba activity against the cyst form following 6 hours of exposure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Acanthamoeba has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage that exhibits vegetative growth and a dormant cyst stage with minimal metabolic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. (nih.gov)
  • The difficulty lies with the life cycle of the Acanthamoeba species which consists of two stages: the trophozoite and the cyst . (blogspot.com)
  • Scientists have tried to create vaccines to prevent AK by terminating the Acanthamoeba trophozoite or the cyst, but these have proved unsuccessful. (blogspot.com)
  • At a level of 0.00125%, PHMB had no significant CPEs on HCE cells, whereas 100 μM DCB and 10 μM isoxaben significantly inhibited the formation of the inner cyst wall of Acanthamoeba during encystation, and Acanthamoeba trophozoites failed to convert into mature cysts. (ovid.com)
  • We isolated acanthaporin from extracts of virulent Acanthamoeba culbertsoni by tracking its pore-forming activity, molecularly cloned the gene of its precursor and recombinantly expressed the mature protein in bacteria. (uu.nl)
  • Acanthamoeba Belonging to T3, T4, and T11: Genotypes Isolated from Air Conditioning Units in Santiago, Chile. (degruyter.com)
  • Molecular analysis revealed that 36.3%, 18.1% and 4.5% of Acanthamoeba specimens were identified as T3, T4 and T11 Acanthamoeba genotypes, respectively. (iwaponline.com)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes in recreational and domestic water sources from Jamaica, West Indies' and will not need an account to access the content. (iwaponline.com)
  • This is the first report of T3 and T10 genotypes in the Caribbean and the first report of these Acanthamoeba spp. (iwaponline.com)
  • Multipurpose contact lens solutions are largely ineffective against Acanthamoeba, whereas hydrogen peroxide-based solutions have good disinfection characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Hiti, J. Walochnik, C. Faschinger, E. M. Haller-Schober, and H. Aspöck, "One- and two-step hydrogen peroxide contact lens disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba: how effective are they? (hindawi.com)
  • Today, there remains no required, standardized test method for disinfection efficacy against microbes like Acanthamoeba in contact lens products. (news-medical.net)
  • The presence of a higher percentage of Acanthamoeba species in tap water, in particular T4, highlights the potential health hazards for immunocompromised individuals and emphasizes the urgent need for the implementation of effective filtration and disinfection measures. (degruyter.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is resistant to disinfection with chlorine, so it can survive in chlorinated tap water, spas and swimming pools. (wa.gov.au)
  • Leicester Research Archive: The disinfection efficacy of MeniCare soft multipurpose solution against Acanthamoeba and viruses using stand-alone biocidal and regimen testing. (le.ac.uk)
  • To assess the disinfection efficacy of MeniCare Soft contact lens multipurpose solution against Acanthamoeba and viruses in suspension and when inoculated on to contact lenses and subjected to rub-and-rinse or no-rub-and-rinse care regimes. (le.ac.uk)
  • Recent changes in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Guidelines) regarding the chemical makeup and strength of water disinfection products may have a direct correlation to the proliferation of Acanthamoeba in certain geographic areas. (preventblindness.org)
  • K. Khairnar, G. S. Tamber, F. Ralevski, and D. R. Pillai, "Comparison of molecular diagnostic methods for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. (hindawi.com)
  • only one of these described the detection of adenoviruses within acanthamoebae with molecular biological methods. (springer.com)
  • Acanthamoeba myosin-IA and myosin-IB are single-headed molecular motors that may play an important role in membrane-based motility. (rupress.org)
  • During the current funding period, we have characterized a major virulence protein of Acanthamoeba, the mannose-binding protein (MBP) that mediates the adhesion of parasites to host cells. (grantome.com)
  • We report on a case of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK)-related reactive ischemic posterior segment inflammation following intraocular surgery in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). (springermedizin.at)
  • Tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed on two patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis to provide images detailing characteristic findings of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • To identify a recent change in disease severity and visual outcomes of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) at Wills Eye Hospital (WEH). (ovid.com)
  • Acanthamoeba most often affects the posterior structures of the brain in individuals with underlying diseases such as diabetes, various malignancies, renal failure, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (news-medical.net)
  • A few cases reported the detection of acanthamoeba in the anterior chamber. (medworm.com)
  • Multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Acanthamoeba spp. (springer.com)