Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Mimiviridae: A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.BiguanidesDNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Chlamydiales: An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseHartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Methylophilus: A genus of straight or slightly curved gram-negative rods occurring singly or in pairs and isolated from sludge, mud, and river and pond water. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
(1/587) A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

(2/587) Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex.

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

(3/587) In vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy in acanthamoeba keratitis.

The in vivo confocal microscopy technique provides us with a real-time, non-invasive way of examining the human cornea. The most important advantage of this type of microscopy is to reveal the etiologic agents in infectious keratitis such as Acanthamoeba keratitis. We present several representative cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, which were diagnosed in their early stages using in vivo confocal microscopy and managed based on that diagnosis. In our Acanthamoeba keratitis cases, highly-reflective round or ovoid organisms with a diameter of about 10-25 um were visualized distinctly against relatively-dark normal parenchymal structures, such as epithelial cells or keratocyte nuclei. Double-walled structures of Acanthamoeba cysts were clearly demonstrated in some cases. We can confirm that in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying the infecting organisms in Acanthamoeba keratitis.  (+info)

(4/587) Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.

Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children.  (+info)

(5/587) Legionella pneumophila utilizes the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages.

In previous reports we described a 22-kb Legionella pneumophila chromosomal locus containing 18 genes. Thirteen of these genes (icmT, -R, -Q, -P, -O, -M, -L, -K, -E, -C, -D, -J, and -B) were found to be completely required for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Three genes (icmS, -G, and -F) were found to be partially required, and two genes (lphA and tphA) were found to be dispensable for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Here, we analyzed the requirement of these genes for intracellular growth in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii, a well-established important environmental host of L. pneumophila. We found that all the genes that are completely required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are also completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. However, the genes that are partially required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. In addition, the lphA gene, which was shown to be dispensable for intracellular growth in human macrophages, is partially required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. Our results indicate that L. pneumophila utilizes the same genes to grow intracellularly in both human macrophages and amoebae.  (+info)

(6/587) Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts.

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

(7/587) Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments.

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

(8/587) Legionella pneumophila contains a type II general secretion pathway required for growth in amoebae as well as for secretion of the Msp protease.

We report the identification of a set of Legionella pneumophila genes that encode products with homology to proteins of the type II general secretion pathway of gram-negative bacteria. A strain containing a deletion-substitution mutation of two of these genes was unable to secrete the Msp protease. This strain was unable to multiply within the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii yet was able to kill HL-60-derived macrophages. Because Msp is not required for growth in amoebae, other proteins which are important for growth in amoebae are likely secreted by this pathway.  (+info)

*  Fungal contamination of contact lenses
Gray, Trevor B; Ray T M Cursons; Jane F Sherwan; Paul R Rose (1995). "Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of ... In the study In Vitro Interactions of Fusarium and Acanthamoeba with Drying Residues of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions, ... "will kill Acanthamoeba contaminants" "Allow contact lens case to air dry between uses" If using hydrogen peroxide as a ... In the study Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases, "101 asymptomatic daily wear ...
*  Abbott Medical Optics
The solution has been linked to cases of an eye infection (keratitis) caused by an organism of the genus Acanthamoeba. The ... In May 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention linked AMO MoisturePlus eye solution to Acanthamoeba keratitis ...
*  Acanthamoebidae
Acanthamoeba can also be the source of infections in the lungs, sinuses, skin, and eyes. "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". Retrieved 2009 ... states, Acanthamoeba "are known to be the opportunistic pathogens in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic ... Its most prominent member, Acanthamoeba, can be potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. It has been described as having a ... It gets its name from Acanthamoeba, its best known member. However, it also includes other species, such as Comandonia ...
*  Giant virus
"Distinct DNA Exit and Packaging Portals in the Virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus". PLoS Biology. 6 (5): e114. doi:10.1371/ ... a New Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Strain, and Reannotation of Mimivirus Genes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 3: 737-42. ...
*  Acanthamoeba
... - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from contact lens keratitis Marciano-Cabral F, ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations. ... there are currently no good diagnoses or treatments for Acanthamoeba infection. Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in the past, when ...
*  Mamavirus
It was originally isolated from Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but subsequent work has involved Acanthamoeba castellanii. Mamavirus, ... Sputnik cannot replicate in acanthamoeba cells without a simultaneous infection by mamavirus (or mimivirus) so it infects the ... June 2011). "Viruses with more than 1000 genes: Mamavirus, a new Acanthamoeba castellanii mimivirus strain, and reannotation of ...
*  Polyhexanide
PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Branded as Baquacil, it also has an ... "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2: CD0010792. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010792.pub2 ...
*  Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses
The megaviridae virus can be found infecting acanthamoeba or other protozoan clades. Once the virus infects the host, the ...
*  Acanthamoeba infection
... is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions. ... Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing acanthamoebic keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis Balamuthia infection ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. Khan, Naveed Ahmed (2009). Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Horizon Scientific Press. p. 127. ISBN ...
*  Acanthamoeba keratitis
... - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Picture reference of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. ... "CDC - Acanthamoeba Infection - General Information - Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-02. Auran, JD; ... "Acanthamoeba-General Information-Acanthamoeba keratitis". CDC. "Free-living Amebic Infections". CDC. Pasricha, Gunisha; Savitri ... To detect Acanthamoeba on a contact lens in a laboratory, the contact lens is placed on a non-nutrient agar saline plate seeded ...
*  Parachlamydia acanthamoebae
They cultured Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a common endosymbiotic host of P. acanthamoebae, in a PYG medium and added 20 μl of P. ... Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier (2002). "Crescent bodies of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and its life cycle within Acanthamoeba ... acanthamoebae to the growth plates. A portion of the amoeba were left both drug-free and free of P. acanthamoebae as a control ... acanthamoebae. Because of this, it can be inferred that these two strains of P. acanthamoeba are resistant to these antibiotics ...
*  Amoeba
Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) ... This finding suggests that the ''Acanthamoeba'' are capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual ... "Acanthamoeba , Microworld". www.arcella.nl. Retrieved 2016-08-21. "Microscopy of Entamoeba histolytica". msu.edu. Retrieved ... Orthologs of genes employed in meiosis of sexual eukaryotes have recently been identified in the Acanthamoeba genome. These ...
*  Discosea
Acanthamoeba sp. Thecamoeba sp. Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E. -Y.; Oates, Brian (2004-05-18). "Molecular phylogeny of ...
*  Free-living Amoebozoa infection
Acanthamoeba spp. have been found in soil; fresh, brackish, and sea water; sewage; swimming pools; contact lens equipment; ... Unlike N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have only two stages, cysts and trophozoites, in their life cycle. No ... In Acanthamoeba infections, the diagnosis can be made from microscopic examination of stained smears of biopsy specimens (brain ... In addition, Acanthamoeba spp. can cause granulomatous skin lesions and, more seriously, keratitis and corneal ulcers following ...
*  Myosin
Pollard, Thomas D.; Korn, Edward D. (1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme ... Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global ...
*  Emil Chynn
Acanthamoeba keratitis: is water exposure a true risk factor? CLAO. 23(1): 55-56, 1997. First article published on CLAO's ... Chynn, E. W.; Talamo, J. H.; Seligman, M. S. (January 1997). "Acanthamoeba keratitis: is water exposure a true risk factor?". ... Acanthamoeba keratitis: contact lens and non-contact lens characteristics. Ophthalmology. 102: 1369-1373, 1995. Chynn EW, ... Chynn, E. W.; Lopez, M. A.; Pavan-Langston, D.; Talamo, J. H. (September 1995). "Acanthamoeba keratitis. Contact lens and ...
*  Sappinia diploidea
"Acanthamoeba: Overview - eMedicine". Retrieved 2009-01-11. Gelman BB, Rauf SJ, Nader R, et al. (May 2001). "Amoebic ... Visvesvara GS; Moura H; Schuster FL (June 2007). "Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., ...
*  Procabacteriaceae
Heinz, E; Kolarov, I; Kästner, C; Toenshoff, ER; Wagner, M; Horn, M (June 2007). "An Acanthamoeba sp. containing two ... The sole genus, "Procabacter", was identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba. Horn, M; Fritsche, TR; Linner, T; ... related to the beta-Proteobacteria: proposal of 'Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae' gen. nov., sp. nov". International ... Gautom, RK; Harzenetter, MD; Wagner, M (March 2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. ...
*  Apicomplexa
Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). If they had cell walls, they also could be included in plant kingdom between bacteria or yeasts. ...
*  Lobosa
test (Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Discosea) Smirnov, Alexey V. (2011). "A Revised Classification of ...
*  Parachlamydia
Species include P. acanthamoeba. G. Greub (5 January 2009). "Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, an emerging agent of pneumonia". ...
*  Amoebozoa
Entamoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris Endolimax The recently available Acanthamoeba genome sequence ... This finding suggests that Acanthamoeba is capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual reproduction. In ... test (Lobosa: Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Entamoeba histolytica ... doi:10.1007/1-4020-5202-2. Khan NA, Siddiqui R (2015). "Is there evidence of sexual reproduction (meiosis) in Acanthamoeba?". ...
*  Chlorhexidine
... eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Chlorhexidine does not meet ... Alkharashi M, Lindsley K, Law HA, Sikder S (2015). "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst ...
*  Parachlamydiaceae
TUME1 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWC22 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWE1 Uncultured lineages include: Neochlamydia ... Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba hosting these strains were isolated from asymptomatic women in Germany and also in an outbreak of ... 2006 Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Everett et al. 1999 Neochlamydia hartmannellae Horn et al. 2001 (endocytobiont of Hartmannella ... A1Hsp) Isolated Endosymbionts include: Hall's coccus P9 UV-7 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. ...
*  Keratitis
It is usually caused by Acanthamoeba. On May 25, 2007, the CDC issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba ... Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia (2015). "An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis ... "The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic ...
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus - definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus by The Free Dictionary  Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus - definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus by The Free Dictionary
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus synonyms, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus pronunciation, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus ... translation, English dictionary definition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus. n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es Any of a genus of double ... redirected from Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus). Also found in: Medical. mim·i·vi·rus. (mĭm′ĭ-vī′rəs). n. pl. mim·i·vi·rus·es ... Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM), a virus of free-living amebae, has reportedly caused human respiratory disease.. ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Acanthamoeba+polyphaga+mimivirus
Kerala Government Optometrists Association | Acanthamoeba Keratitis Who, why, where and what to do? | Industry Specialist  Kerala Government Optometrists' Association | Acanthamoeba Keratitis Who, why, where and what to do? | Industry Specialist
... diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis. It will also highlight key areas of research that offer hope for sufferers. ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis is a devastating eye infection which in developed countries most commonly occurs in contact lens wearers ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis Who, why, where and what to do?. Acanthamoeba Keratitis Who, why, where and what to do?. ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis is a devastating eye infection which in developed countries most commonly occurs in contact lens wearers ...
more infohttps://www.wcea.education/app/goak/elearning/optometrist/kerala-government-optometrists-association/176796/acanthamoeba-keratitis-who-why-where-and-what-to-do
By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish...  By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish...
By releasing ADP, Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish ... We demonstrate here that Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites constitutively release ADP in the medium. Cell-free supernatants ... Cytoskeleton, nucleotides, apoptosis, cytosolic free-calcium, Acanthamoeba. Subjects:. Area 06 - Scienze mediche , MED/07 ... Acanthamoeba castellanii causes an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration and apoptosis in wish cells.. Infection ...
more infohttp://eprints.uniss.it/7896/
Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria | Journal of Cell Science  Gene switching in Amoeba proteus caused by endosymbiotic bacteria | Journal of Cell Science
Acanthamoeba castellanii; S2, SAMS2 of amoebae; PI, Phytophthora infestans; AP, Amoeba proteus. Complete genomic or cDNA ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/117/4/535.figures-only
Microbial Keratitis Lawsuit | Microbial Keratitis & Complete MoisturePlus Recall Attorney, Lawyer, Law Firm  Microbial Keratitis Lawsuit | Microbial Keratitis & Complete MoisturePlus Recall Attorney, Lawyer, Law Firm
Breaking News Regarding Acanthamoeba Keratitis & Complete® MoisturePlus™. *June 21, 2009 - "FDA Reports Show Abbott Labs ... The CDC and the FDA are now investigating 138 confirmed cases of "Acanthamoeba Keratitis", another rare, painful eye infection ... contact lens solution has been linked to serious eye infections including the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis and ...
more infohttps://www.schmidtandclark.com/microbial-keratitis
Douglas County Issues Contact Lens Solution Warning | EmaxHealth  Douglas County Issues Contact Lens Solution Warning | EmaxHealth
AMO Complete MoisturePlus Multipurpose Contact Lens solution has been linked to Acanthamoeba keratitis, an infection caused by ...
more infohttps://www.emaxhealth.com/96/15354.html
Looking Good: Safe Use and Care of Contact Lenses  Looking Good: Safe Use and Care of Contact Lenses
An outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis occurred in 2007; this is another rare but serious eye infection caused by a parasite ... The contact lens solution that caused this outbreak was not tested against the Acanthamoebaorganism because it had not been ... microbiological preclinical tests be updated to better evaluate the activity of contact lens care products againstAcanthamoeba ...
more infohttp://www.pharmjobs.org/2010/12/looking-good-safe-use-and-care-of.html
All About Contact Lens Care Products  All About Contact Lens Care Products
... when it was implicated by the CDC in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis). The function of these multipurpose contact lens ...
more infohttp://1800myeyedoc.com/all-about-contact-lens-care-products1.html
Acanthamoeba Stain  Acanthamoeba Stain
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Acanthamoeba Culture. 2. Stainless Steel Flexible Ruler. 3. Stainless Steel Ruler. 4. HMS 760 Robot Stainer. 5. MS/DS 50/100 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Acanthamoeba-Stain-20892-1/
Types of Acanthamoeba Infection  Types of Acanthamoeba Infection
Acanthamoeba is a genus of opportunistic protozoan amebic species widely distributed in nature. Furthermore, it is part of a ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis represents a multifactorial process usually associated with the use of contact ... http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/acanthamoeba/gen_info/acanthamoeba.html. *Khan NA. Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Caister ... If Acanthamoeba enters the skin through a wound or the nostrils, the organism can travel through the bloodstream, spread to ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Types-of-Acanthamoeba-Infection.aspx
Acanthamoeba keratitis  Acanthamoeba keratitis
... may be limited to the epithelium in its early stages, resulting in epithelial dendrites and punctate ... Acanthamoeba keratitis Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare parasitic infection of the cornea that primarily occurs in contact lens ... See the related article for more information on Acanthamoeba keratitis. *Coming soon: 'The treatment of Acanthamoeba' in ... Figure 5: 300x magnification of the corneal epithelium in a patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis. H&E stain demonstrates a ...
more infohttp://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/atlas/pages/acanthamoeba/index.htm
Acanthamoeba Infection Treatment, Symptoms & Transmission  Acanthamoeba Infection Treatment, Symptoms & Transmission
Acanthamoeba is an ameba that can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous encephalitis, and disseminated infection. The ... Acanthamoeba keratitis. The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very similar to the symptoms of other more common eye ... Acanthamoeba is found worldwide. Most commonly, Acanthamoeba is found in soil, dust, fresh water sources (such as lakes, rivers ... Acanthamoeba causes three main types of illness involving the eye (Acanthamoeba keratitis), the brain and spinal cord ( ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/acanthamoeba/article.htm
Information for Medical Professionals | Acanthamoeba | Parasites | CDC  Information for Medical Professionals | Acanthamoeba | Parasites | CDC
Acanthamoeba Keratitis, Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE) for Health Care Providers. ... Allison Brown discusses Acanthamoeba keratitis. She shares four key messages about contact lens safety that eye care providers ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/parasites/acanthamoeba/health_professionals/index.html
Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review.  - PubMed - NCBI  Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review. - PubMed - NCBI
Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review.. Claerhout I1, Kestelyn P.. Author information. 1. Department of Ophthalmology, University ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is caused by protozoa and characterised by a protracted course. All patients presenting with a therapy- ... resistant keratitis, even non-contact lens wearers, should be examined for the presence of Acanthamoeba by means of specific ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10670164
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™  Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™
ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, ... Acanthamoeba sp. (ATCC® PRA-219™) Strain Designations: UWC1/UV-7 / Depositor: Stephan Schmitz-Esser / Biosafety Level: 2 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Protozoa_Alphanumeric/PRA-219.aspx
Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ATCC ® 50722™  Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ATCC ® 50722™
... which was isolated from the eye of a human male from Florida with Acanthamoeba keratitis, ATCC, 1992 ... Acanthamoeba sp. 26 ATCC ® 50722™ Designation: CDC:V045:Clone 1 Isolation: axenic clone derived from bacterized strain CDC:045 ... Acanthamoeba sp. 26 (ATCC® 50722™) Strain Designations: CDC:V045:Clone 1 / Depositor: TK Sawyer / Biosafety Level: 2 ... which was isolated from the eye of a human male from Florida with Acanthamoeba keratitis, ATCC, 1992 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Protozoa/Protozoa_Alphanumeric/50722.aspx
Acanthamoeba Keratitis Treatment - American Academy of Ophthalmology  Acanthamoeba Keratitis Treatment - American Academy of Ophthalmology
Unfortunately, treatment of well-established Acanthamoeba keratitis remains frustr ... Early treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis reduces long-term visual sequelae. ... Seal D. Treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2003;1:205-208.. 2.. Perez-Santonja JJ, Kilvington S ... Acanthamoeba usually gains access to the cornea secondary to contact lens associated epithelial compromise and has been shown ...
more infohttps://www.aao.org/current-insight/acanthamoeba-keratitis-treatment
Acanthamoeba Keratitis Treatment & Symptoms | CooperVision  Acanthamoeba Keratitis Treatment & Symptoms | CooperVision
Information about acanthamoeba keratitis, its treatment and symptoms can be found at CooperVision. Reduce your chances of being ... What are the symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis?. Symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis include the following:. *Sensitivity to ... What can I do to help reduce the chances of contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis?. A trauma to the cornea (the clear dome that ... Infection of Acanthamoeba keratitis could happen through cuts or other eye traumas; exposure to contaminated water; or poor ...
more infohttps://coopervision.com/eye-health-and-vision/acanthamoeba-keratitis
Acanthamoeba - The Full Wiki  Acanthamoeba - The Full Wiki
Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, one of the most common protozoa in soil, and also frequently found in fresh ... Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include amoebic keratitis and encephalitis.[1] The latter is caused by Acanthamoeba entering ... Endosymbiontes of Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba sp. contain diverse bacterial endosymbionts which are similar to human pathogens. ... Video of Acanthamoeba from contact lens keratitis. *Acanthamoeba spp. as Agents of Disease in Humans - Clinical Microbiology ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Acanthamoeba
Acanthamoeba Infection: Evaluation  Acanthamoeba Infection: Evaluation
The evaluation of an acanthamoeba infection begins with a history and physical examination ... ... Another name for Acanthamoeba Infection is Acanthamoeba Infection. ... Acanthamoeba Infection Evaluation. The evaluation of an acanthamoeba infection begins with a history and physical examination. ... Tests are necessary to make the diagnosis of an acanthamoeba infection.. Tests that may be used to evaluate an acanthamoeba ...
more infohttp://www.freemd.com/acanthamoeba-infection/evaluation.htm
  • H&E stain demonstrates a classic example of the double-walled cyst structure of Acanthamoeba . (uiowa.edu)
  • Acanthamoeba has two evolutive forms, the metabolically active trophozoite and a dormant, stress resistant cyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only BLUE Vision/BLUE SEPT TM and AOSEPT® Plus/Clear Care TM exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against the cyst form of Acanthamoeba castellani. (arvojournals.org)
  • Oxysept 1step® showed mild activity against the cysts and easyvision one step+ and Opti-Free® Express® with Aldox® showed virtually no anti-acanthamoeba activity against the cyst form following 6 hours of exposure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Acanthamoeba ludgunensis was also the causative agent of keratitisin a 39-year-old patient wearing contact lenses. (aaem.pl)
  • Di Gregorio C, Rivasi F, Mongiardo N, De Rienzo B, Wallace S, Visvesvara G (1992) Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (springer.com)
  • For an analysis of the genetic pattern of Acanthamoeba isolates, DNA sequencing of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (18S rRNA or Rns) was applied. (degruyter.com)
  • This investigation provides further evidence that the T4 genotype is the most prevalent in water samples and demonstrates that there is a need for taking more consideration to water sources in order to prevent complications associated with pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. (degruyter.com)
  • The emergence of Acanthamoeba keratitis as a serious pathogen in ophthalmology coincided with the expansion of soft contact lens use in the 1980s. (aao.org)
  • Assessment of real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Acanthamoeba and prognosis determinants of Acanthamoeba keratitis," Ophthalmology , vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1111-1119, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • L. Garduño-Vieyra, C. R. Gonzalez-Sanchez, and S. E. Hernandez-da Mota, "Case report ultraviolet-a light and riboflavin therapy for acanthamoeba keratitis: a case report," Ophthalmology , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 291-295, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Riboflavin and ultraviolet light a therapy as an adjuvant treatment for medically refractive Acanthamoeba keratitis: report of 3 cases," Ophthalmology , vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 324-331, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • K. Hiti, J. Walochnik, C. Faschinger, E. M. Haller-Schober, and H. Aspöck, "One- and two-step hydrogen peroxide contact lens disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba: how effective are they? (hindawi.com)
  • Disseminated infection caused by Acanthamoeba occurs more frequently in people with compromised immune systems or those who are chronically ill. (rxlist.com)
  • Acanthamoeba T4 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (springer.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in the past, when were managed by atropine given as an adjuvant therapy without anti-parasitic drugs added to the regime, had been reported to halt the vision loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Khairnar, G. S. Tamber, F. Ralevski, and D. R. Pillai, "Comparison of molecular diagnostic methods for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. (hindawi.com)
  • Acanthamoeba myosin-IA and myosin-IB are single-headed molecular motors that may play an important role in membrane-based motility. (rupress.org)
  • The process starts with the disintegration of the epithelial barrier and stromal invasion by Acanthamoeba , which induces a vigorous inflammatory response and subsequent stromal necrosis with potential blinding. (news-medical.net)
  • In the present study, cultures containing Acanthamoeba from water samples were obtained from our earlier survey. (degruyter.com)