A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.
Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents, including metformin, which primarily reduce blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing insulin sensitivity, but not by stimulating insulin secretion, and they are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
An order of obligately intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that have the chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. This is a two-stage cycle that includes a metabolically inactive infectious form, and a vegetative form that replicates by binary fission. Members of Chlamydiales are disseminated by aerosol or by contact. There are at least six recognized families: CHLAMYDIACEAE, Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydia, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
A genus of straight or slightly curved gram-negative rods occurring singly or in pairs and isolated from sludge, mud, and river and pond water. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (1/587)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. (2/587)

The Arp2/3 complex, a stable assembly of two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) with five other subunits, caps the pointed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization with low efficiency. WASp and Scar are two similar proteins that bind the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, but their effect on the nucleation activity of the complex was not known. We report that full-length, recombinant human Scar protein, as well as N-terminally truncated Scar proteins, enhance nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. By themselves, these proteins either have no effect or inhibit actin polymerization. The actin monomer-binding W domain and the p21-binding A domain from the C terminus of Scar are both required to activate Arp2/3 complex. A proline-rich domain in the middle of Scar enhances the activity of the W and A domains. Preincubating Scar and Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments overcomes the initial lag in polymerization, suggesting that efficient nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex requires assembly on the side of a preexisting filament-a dendritic nucleation mechanism. The Arp2/3 complex with full-length Scar, Scar containing P, W, and A domains, or Scar containing W and A domains overcomes inhibition of nucleation by the actin monomer-binding protein profilin, giving active nucleation over a low background of spontaneous nucleation. These results show that Scar and, likely, related proteins, such as the Cdc42 targets WASp and N-WASp, are endogenous activators of actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

In vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy in acanthamoeba keratitis. (3/587)

The in vivo confocal microscopy technique provides us with a real-time, non-invasive way of examining the human cornea. The most important advantage of this type of microscopy is to reveal the etiologic agents in infectious keratitis such as Acanthamoeba keratitis. We present several representative cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, which were diagnosed in their early stages using in vivo confocal microscopy and managed based on that diagnosis. In our Acanthamoeba keratitis cases, highly-reflective round or ovoid organisms with a diameter of about 10-25 um were visualized distinctly against relatively-dark normal parenchymal structures, such as epithelial cells or keratocyte nuclei. Double-walled structures of Acanthamoeba cysts were clearly demonstrated in some cases. We can confirm that in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying the infecting organisms in Acanthamoeba keratitis.  (+info)

Serum antibodies to Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living amoeba recently demonstrated to cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. (4/587)

Free-living amoebae cause three well-defined disease entities: a rapidly fatal primary meningoencephalitis, a chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and a chronic amoebic keratitis. GAE occurs in immunocompromised persons. Recently, another type of free-living amoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, has been shown to cause GAE. The finding that this amoeba has caused infection in some healthy children has raised the possibility that humans may lack immunity to B. mandrillaris. Human serum was examined for the presence of surface antibodies specific for this amoeba by immunofluorescence. Sera from adults contained titers of 1/64-1/256 of anti-B. mandrillaris antibodies (IgM and IgG classes), which did not cross-react with other amoebae. Cord blood contained very low antibody levels, but levels similar to those in adults were seen in serum of 1- to 5-year-old children.  (+info)

Legionella pneumophila utilizes the same genes to multiply within Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. (5/587)

In previous reports we described a 22-kb Legionella pneumophila chromosomal locus containing 18 genes. Thirteen of these genes (icmT, -R, -Q, -P, -O, -M, -L, -K, -E, -C, -D, -J, and -B) were found to be completely required for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Three genes (icmS, -G, and -F) were found to be partially required, and two genes (lphA and tphA) were found to be dispensable for intracellular growth and killing of human macrophages. Here, we analyzed the requirement of these genes for intracellular growth in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii, a well-established important environmental host of L. pneumophila. We found that all the genes that are completely required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are also completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. However, the genes that are partially required for intracellular growth in human macrophages are completely required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. In addition, the lphA gene, which was shown to be dispensable for intracellular growth in human macrophages, is partially required for intracellular growth in A. castellanii. Our results indicate that L. pneumophila utilizes the same genes to grow intracellularly in both human macrophages and amoebae.  (+info)

Rho-family GTPases require the Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin polymerization in Acanthamoeba extracts. (6/587)

BACKGROUND: Actin filaments polymerize in vivo primarily from their fast-growing barbed ends. In cells and extracts, GTPgammaS and Rho-family GTPases, including Cdc42, stimulate barbed-end actin polymerization; however, the mechanism responsible for the initiation of polymerization is unknown. There are three formal possibilities for how free barbed ends may be generated in response to cellular signals: uncapping of existing filaments; severing of existing filaments; or de novo nucleation. The Arp2/3 complex localizes to regions of dynamic actin polymerization, including the leading edges of motile cells and motile actin patches in yeast, and in vitro it nucleates the formation of actin filaments with free barbed ends. Here, we investigated actin polymerization in soluble extracts of Acanthamoeba. RESULTS: Addition of actin filaments with free barbed ends to Acanthamoeba extracts is sufficient to induce polymerization of endogenous actin. Addition of activated Cdc42 or activation of Rho-family GTPases in these extracts by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTPgammaS stimulated barbed-end polymerization, whereas immunodepletion of Arp2 or sequestration of Arp2 using solution-binding antibodies blocked Rho-family GTPase-induced actin polymerization. CONCLUSIONS: For this system, we conclude that the accessibility of free barbed ends regulates actin polymerization, that Rho-family GTPases stimulate polymerization catalytically by de novo nucleation of free barbed ends and that the primary nucleation factor in this pathway is the Arp2/3 complex.  (+info)

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (7/587)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Legionella pneumophila contains a type II general secretion pathway required for growth in amoebae as well as for secretion of the Msp protease. (8/587)

We report the identification of a set of Legionella pneumophila genes that encode products with homology to proteins of the type II general secretion pathway of gram-negative bacteria. A strain containing a deletion-substitution mutation of two of these genes was unable to secrete the Msp protease. This strain was unable to multiply within the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii yet was able to kill HL-60-derived macrophages. Because Msp is not required for growth in amoebae, other proteins which are important for growth in amoebae are likely secreted by this pathway.  (+info)

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the cornea, which is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. It's caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is commonly found in water and soil.

The infection typically occurs in people who wear contact lenses, particularly those who do not clean and disinfect their lenses properly or who swim or shower while wearing their contacts. It can cause pain, redness, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and a feeling like there's something in your eye.

If left untreated, Acanthamoeba keratitis can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, loss of vision, or even blindness. Treatment typically involves the use of specialized antimicrobial drops and sometimes requires a corneal transplant in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper contact lens hygiene, avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contacts, and regularly replacing contact lens storage cases.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Contact lenses are thin, curved plastic or silicone hydrogel devices that are placed on the eye to correct vision, replace a missing or damaged cornea, or for cosmetic purposes. They rest on the surface of the eye, called the cornea, and conform to its shape. Contact lenses are designed to float on a thin layer of tears and move with each blink.

There are two main types of contact lenses: soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP). Soft contact lenses are made of flexible hydrophilic (water-absorbing) materials that allow oxygen to pass through the lens to the cornea. RGP lenses are made of harder, more oxygen-permeable materials.

Contact lenses can be used to correct various vision problems, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. They come in different shapes, sizes, and powers to suit individual needs and preferences. Proper care, handling, and regular check-ups with an eye care professional are essential for maintaining good eye health and preventing complications associated with contact lens wear.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Contact lens solutions are a type of disinfecting and cleaning solution specifically designed for use with contact lenses. They typically contain a combination of chemicals, such as preservatives, disinfectants, and surfactants, that work together to clean, disinfect, and store contact lenses safely and effectively.

There are several types of contact lens solutions available, including:

1. Multipurpose solution: This type of solution is the most commonly used and can be used for cleaning, rinsing, disinfecting, and storing soft contact lenses. It contains a combination of ingredients that perform all these functions in one step.
2. Hydrogen peroxide solution: This type of solution contains hydrogen peroxide as the main active ingredient, which is a powerful disinfectant. However, it requires a special case called a neutralizer to convert the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen before using the lenses.
3. Saline solution: This type of solution is used only for rinsing and storing contact lenses and does not contain any disinfecting or cleaning agents. It is often used in combination with other solutions for a complete contact lens care routine.
4. Daily cleaner: This type of solution is used to remove protein buildup and other deposits from the surface of contact lenses. It should be used in conjunction with a multipurpose or hydrogen peroxide solution as part of a daily cleaning routine.

It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using contact lens solutions to ensure that they are used safely and effectively. Failure to do so could result in eye irritation, infection, or other complications.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Naegleria is a genus of free-living excavate protists, commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It's also found in soil. The most notorious species within this genus is Naegleria fowleri, which is known to cause a rare but often fatal brain infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. This occurs when the amoeba enters the nose and migrates to the brain through the olfactory nerve. It's important to note that this type of infection is extremely rare, but can be deadly if not treated promptly and effectively.

Trophozoites are the feeding and motile stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa, including those that cause diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. They are typically larger than the cyst stage of these organisms and have a more irregular shape. Trophozoites move by means of pseudopods (false feet) and engulf food particles through a process called phagocytosis. In the case of pathogenic protozoa, this feeding stage is often when they cause damage to host tissues.

In the case of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, trophozoites can invade the intestinal wall and cause ulcers, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. In malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, trophozoites infect red blood cells and multiply within them, eventually causing their rupture and release of more parasites into the bloodstream, which can lead to severe complications like cerebral malaria or organ failure.

It's important to note that not all protozoa have a trophozoite stage in their life cycle, and some may refer to this feeding stage with different terminology depending on the specific species.

Mimiviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect amoebae. These viruses are characterized by their complex structure and large genome size, which can contain up to 1,200 genes. Mimiviridae viruses have a icosahedral capsid with a diameter of about 700 nanometers and a unique vertex where the viral DNA is packed. They also have a lipid membrane beneath the capsid.

Mimiviridae viruses are known to cause lysogenic infections, meaning that they can integrate their genome into the host's chromosome and replicate along with it. They can also cause lytic infections, leading to the death of the host cell and the release of new virus particles.

Mimiviridae viruses have been found in various environments, including water, soil, and dust. Some researchers have suggested that they may play a role in shaping microbial communities and influencing the evolution of their hosts. However, more research is needed to fully understand the ecological and evolutionary significance of these fascinating viruses.

Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The primary mechanism of action of biguanides is to decrease hepatic glucose production and increase insulin sensitivity, which leads to reduced fasting glucose levels and improved glycemic control.

The most commonly prescribed biguanide is metformin, which has been widely used for several decades due to its efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. Other biguanides include phenformin and buformin, but these are rarely used due to their association with a higher risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication.

In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, biguanides have also been shown to have potential benefits on cardiovascular health and weight management, making them a valuable treatment option for many individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, they should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or other underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Central nervous system (CNS) protozoal infections refer to diseases caused by protozoa that invade and infect the brain and spinal cord. These infections can lead to serious neurological symptoms and complications.

There are several types of protozoa that can cause CNS infections, including:

1. Toxoplasma gondii: This parasite is commonly found in cats and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected cat feces or consumption of undercooked meat. In people with weakened immune systems, T. gondii can cause severe CNS symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and coma.
2. Naegleria fowleri: Also known as the "brain-eating amoeba," N. fowleri is a free-living protozoan found in warm freshwater environments. When people swim or dive in infected water, the amoeba can enter the body through the nose and travel to the brain, causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rare but often fatal CNS infection.
3. Acanthamoeba: Like N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan found in freshwater and soil. It can cause a range of CNS infections, including granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), which typically affects people with weakened immune systems.
4. Trypanosoma brucei: This parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected tsetse flies and causes African sleeping sickness, a CNS infection that can lead to coma and death if left untreated.
5. Plasmodium falciparum: While not strictly a protozoan, P. falciparum is a parasite that causes malaria, a mosquito-borne disease that can cause severe CNS symptoms such as seizures, coma, and cerebral malaria.

Treatment for CNS protozoal infections depends on the specific type of infection and may include antiprotozoal medications, antibiotics, or supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals or insects, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate protective measures such as insect repellent or bed nets in areas where these infections are common.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are a type of contact lens that is designed to absorb and retain water. These lenses are made from materials that have an affinity for water, which helps them to remain moist and comfortable on the eye. The water content of hydrophilic contact lenses can vary, but typically ranges from 30-80% by weight.

Hydrophilic contact lenses are often used to correct refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. They can be made in a variety of materials, including soft hydrogel and silicone hydrogel.

One advantage of hydrophilic contact lenses is that they tend to be more comfortable to wear than other types of contacts, as they retain moisture and conform closely to the shape of the eye. However, they may also be more prone to deposits and buildup, which can lead to protein accumulation and discomfort over time. Proper care and cleaning are essential to maintain the health of the eyes when wearing hydrophilic contact lenses.

Profilins are a type of protein that play a role in the regulation of actin filaments, which are important components of the cytoskeleton in cells. They bind to both actin and to small G-proteins called profilin-binding proteins (PBPs), and help to control the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Profilins have been found to be involved in various cellular processes, including cell motility, cytokinesis, and intracellular transport. They also play a role in the immune response by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of histamine from mast cells. Mutations in profilin genes have been associated with certain diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Chlamydiales is an order of obligate intracellular bacteria that includes several families, including Chlamydiaceae, which contains the genus Chlamydia. This genus includes well-known pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis, which can cause a range of diseases in humans, including sexually transmitted infections and eye infections. Other families within Chlamydiales include Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae, and Waddliaceae, which contain bacteria that can cause respiratory and other infections in animals and humans.

Chlamydiales bacteria are characterized by their unique biphasic developmental cycle, which involves two distinct forms: the elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB is the infectious form of the bacterium, which can attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the EB differentiates into the RB, which replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole called an inclusion. After several rounds of replication, the RBs differentiate back into EBs, which are then released from the host cell to infect other cells.

Chlamydiales infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline, but accurate diagnosis is important to ensure appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including muscle contraction and intracellular transport. They consist of heavy chains, which contain the motor domain responsible for generating force and motion, and light chains, which regulate the activity of the myosin. Based on their structural and functional differences, myosins are classified into over 35 classes, with classes II, V, and VI being the most well-studied.

Class II myosins, also known as conventional myosins, are responsible for muscle contraction in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. They form filaments called thick filaments, which interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement during muscle contraction.

Class V myosins, also known as unconventional myosins, are involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have a long tail that can bind to various cargoes, such as vesicles, mitochondria, and nuclei, and a motor domain that moves along actin filaments to transport the cargoes to their destinations.

Class VI myosins are also unconventional myosins involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have two heads connected by a coiled-coil tail, which can bind to various cargoes. Class VI myosins move along actin filaments in a unique hand-over-hand motion, allowing them to transport their cargoes efficiently.

Overall, myosins are essential for many cellular functions and have been implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Hartmannella is a genus of free-living amoebae, which are single-celled organisms found in soil and water. These amoebae are known to be able to ingest bacteria and other small particles as part of their feeding process. While they are generally harmless to humans, some species of Hartmannella have been associated with certain types of human illnesses, such as Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious eye infection that can cause blindness if left untreated. However, it is important to note that Hartmannella itself is not typically considered a pathogenic genus and is mainly studied in the context of environmental and microbiological research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

"Legionella pneumophila" is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. It can also be found in man-made water systems like hot tubs, cooling towers, and decorative fountains. This bacterium is the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness resembling the flu. Infection typically occurs when people inhale tiny droplets of water containing the bacteria. It is not transmitted from person to person.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Benzamidines are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to an amidine functional group. They are commonly used as antimicrobial agents, particularly in the treatment of various gram-negative bacterial infections. Benzamidines work by inhibiting the enzyme bacterial dehydrogenases, which are essential for the bacteria's survival.

Some examples of benzamidine derivatives include:

* Tempanamine hydrochloride (Tembaglanil): used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
* Chlorhexidine: a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used as a disinfectant and preservative in various medical and dental applications.
* Prothiobenzamide: an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug used to treat gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

It is important to note that benzamidines have a narrow therapeutic index, which means that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Contractile proteins are a type of protein found in muscle cells that are responsible for the ability of the muscle to contract and generate force. The two main types of contractile proteins are actin and myosin, which are arranged in sarcomeres, the functional units of muscle fibers. When stimulated by a nerve impulse, actin and myosin filaments slide past each other, causing the muscle to shorten and generate force. This process is known as excitation-contraction coupling. Other proteins, such as tropomyosin and troponin, regulate the interaction between actin and myosin and control muscle contraction.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which is often caused by viral infections but can also be due to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. The infection or inflammation can cause various symptoms such as headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and altered consciousness, ranging from mild symptoms to severe cases that can lead to brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment may include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

A corneal ulcer is a medical condition that affects the eye, specifically the cornea. It is characterized by an open sore or lesion on the surface of the cornea, which can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or fungal infections, viruses, or injury to the eye.

The cornea is a transparent tissue that covers the front part of the eye and protects it from harmful particles, bacteria, and other foreign substances. When the cornea becomes damaged or infected, it can lead to the development of an ulcer. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a white spot on the surface of the eye.

Corneal ulcers require prompt medical attention to prevent further damage to the eye and potential loss of vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and measures to protect the eye while it heals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damage to the cornea.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methylophilus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the family Methylocorpaceae, which consists of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing methane using methanol as an intermediate. These types of bacteria are often found in environments such as soil, freshwater, and wastewater treatment systems. If you have any questions about biology or microbiology, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

... infection Balamuthia mandrillaris Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G (April 2003). "Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of ... citing public domain text from the CDC Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus, and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations (CS1: long volume value, ...
... is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions.: 422 : ... 1172 Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing Acanthamoeba keratitis. Balamuthia infection James, William D.; ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. Khan, Naveed Ahmed (2009). Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis. Horizon Scientific Press. p. 127. ...
"Acanthamoeba-General Information-Acanthamoeba keratitis". CDC. 2019-01-04. Neelam S, Niederkorn JY (June 2017). "Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front ... In fact, the first case of Acanthamoeba keratitis described was due to ocular trauma. Once on the contact lens, Acanthamoeba is ... "CDC - Acanthamoeba Infection - General Information - Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-02. Baig AM (2019 ...
They cultured Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a common endosymbiotic host of P. acanthamoebae, in a PYG medium and added 20 μl of P. ... Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier (2002). "Crescent bodies of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and its life cycle within Acanthamoeba ... acanthamoebae to the growth plates. A portion of the amoeba were left both drug-free and free of P. acanthamoebae as a control ... acanthamoebae. Because of this, it can be inferred that these two strains of P. acanthamoeba are resistant to these antibiotics ...
Acanthamoeba can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans. Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) ... "Acanthamoeba , Microworld". www.arcella.nl. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016. "Microscopy ... This finding suggests that the ''Acanthamoeba'' are capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual ... Orthologs of genes employed in meiosis of sexual eukaryotes have recently been identified in the Acanthamoeba genome. These ...
Acanthamoeba sp. Thecamoeba sp. Mayorella (Amoebozoa, Discosea) Class Discosea Cavalier-Smith 2004 stat. nov. Adl et al. 2018 ...
Acanthamoeba can also be the source of infections in the lungs, sinuses, skin, and eyes. "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". Retrieved 2009 ... Acanthamoeba spp. can be potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Typically, a person or animal with a normally ... Its most prominent member, Acanthamoeba, can be potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. It has been described as having a ... It gets its name from Acanthamoeba, its best-known member. However, it also includes other species, such as Comandonia ...
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris cysts and trophozoites are found in tissue.[citation needed] In Acanthamoeba ... Unlike N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have only two stages, cysts and trophozoites, in their life cycle. No ... In addition, Acanthamoeba spp. can cause granulomatous skin lesions and, more seriously, keratitis and corneal ulcers following ... Acanthamoeba spp. causes mostly subacute or chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), with a clinical picture of ...
Parachlamydia acanthamoebae) to counter giant viruses from Marseilleviridae and Mimiviridae. Acanthamoeba that are infected ... Acanthamoeba that are not infected by the symbiont or virus have the highest fitness with a doubling time that is twice as fast ... D. discoideum and other social amoeba differ from free living Acanthamoeba in that instead of encysting, they undergo a social ... Acanthamoeba hattchettii is one species affected by giant viruses, and some use a bacterial symbiont ( ...
Pollard TD, Korn ED (July 1973). "Acanthamoeba myosin. I. Isolation from Acanthamoeba castellanii of an enzyme similar to ... Following the discovery in 1973 of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global range of divergent ...
Acanthamoeba ("spiny amoeba"); Metriacanthosaurus ("moderately-spined lizard") aeto-: Pronunciation: /aɛto/. Origin: Ancient ...
"Acanthamoeba: Overview - eMedicine". Retrieved 2009-01-11. Gelman BB, Rauf SJ, Nader R, et al. (May 2001). "Amoebic ... Visvesvara GS; Moura H; Schuster FL (June 2007). "Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., ...
Heinz, E; Kolarov, I; Kästner, C; Toenshoff, ER; Wagner, M; Horn, M (June 2007). "An Acanthamoeba sp. containing two ... The sole genus, "Procabacter", was identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba. Horn, M; Fritsche, TR; Linner, T; ... related to the beta-Proteobacteria: proposal of 'Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae' gen. nov., sp. nov". International ... Gautom, RK; Harzenetter, MD; Wagner, M (March 2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. ...
Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). If they had cell walls, they also could be included in plant kingdom between bacteria or yeasts. ...
test (Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Discosea) Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri ( ...
Species include P. acanthamoeba. List of bacterial orders List of bacteria genera G. Greub (5 January 2009). "Parachlamydia ... acanthamoebae, an emerging agent of pneumonia". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 15 (1): 18-28. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ...
Entamoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris Endolimax The recently available Acanthamoeba genome sequence ... This finding suggests that Acanthamoeba is capable of some form of meiosis and may be able to undergo sexual reproduction. In ... test (Lobosa: Tubulinea) Acanthamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Thecamoeba sp. (Lobosa: Discosea) Entamoeba histolytica ... Acanthamoeba, Arcella, Difflugia etc.). The latter is made up of both amoeboid and flagellated cells, characteristically with ...
The protist pathogen Acanthamoeba spp. have shown evidence of the presence of ACh, which provides growth and proliferative ... Baig AM, Ahmad HR (June 2017). "Evidence of a M1-muscarinic GPCR homolog in unicellular eukaryotes: featuring Acanthamoeba spp ... Discovery of Acetylcholine and the Components of the Human Cholinergic System in a Primitive Unicellular Eukaryote Acanthamoeba ...
"Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, complete genome". NCBI. Claverie, Jean-Michel; et al. (2006). "Mimivirus and the emerging ... This genus contains a single identified species named Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). It also refers to a group of ... APMV was discovered accidentally in 1992 within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga, after which it is named, during research ...
Acanthamoeba infection James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
... eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. Chlorhexidine is very ... Alkharashi M, Lindsley K, Law HA, Sikder S (February 2015). "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". The Cochrane ...
PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis. It is sold as a swimming pool and spa ... "Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2 (2): CD0010792. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010792. ...
TUME1 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWC22 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. UWE1 Uncultured lineages include: Neochlamydia ... Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba hosting these strains were isolated from asymptomatic women in Germany and also in an outbreak of ... 2010 Isolated Endosymbionts include: Hall's coccus P9 UV-7 endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. ... turtle type 1 environmental Neochlamydia corvenA4 cvC15 cvC7 cvE5 Parachlamydia acanthamoebae has variable Gram staining ...
It is usually caused by Acanthamoeba. On May 25, 2007, the U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a health advisory due to ... Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia (2015). "An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis ... "The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic ... increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of Advanced Medical Optics Complete Moisture Plus Multi-Purpose ...
The name "Procabacteriales" was also proposed for an order of endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba, but since they cannot be grown in ... Horn M, Fritsche TR, Linner T, Gautom RK, Harzenetter MD, Wagner M (2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba ... related to the beta-Proteobacteria: proposal of " Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae" gen. nov., sp. nov". International ...
This eukaryotic encystation in Acanthamoeba spp., is known to involve a crosstalk between the trophozoite form of the cell and ... Recently, scientists from Aga Khan University Pakistan, have extended the studies of encystation in Acanthamoeba to induce ... Recently, model pathogenic eukaryotic cell encystation has been linked to cancer cell dormancy, Acanthamoeba spp. were studied ...
A second member is Acanthamoeba castellanii lausannevirus. Two additional viruses have been isolated but have yet to be named. ... The first member of this family recognized has been named Acanthamoeba polyphaga marseillevirus. ...
... may be useful in the prevention and control of Acanthamoeba infections, and in the treatment of primary amoebic ... "Antimicrobial effect of auranofin against Acanthamoeba spp". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 58 (5): 106425. doi ... meningoencephalitis, caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria fowleri, respectively. In a cell- ...
Rudick VL, Weisman RA (1974). "Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Purification, kinetic ...
Anderson I, Watkins R, Samuelson J, Spencer D, Majoros W, Grey M, Loftus B (August 2005). "Gene Discovery in the Acanthamoeba ...
What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent ... This infection is caused by a microscopic, free-living ameba (single-celled living organism) called Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba amebas are very common in nature and can be found in bodies of water (for example, lakes and oceans), soil, and ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ...
Acanthamoeba infection Balamuthia mandrillaris Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G (April 2003). "Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of ... citing public domain text from the CDC Acanthamoeba - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Video of Acanthamoeba from ... The giant viruses Mimivirus, Megavirus, and Pandoravirus infect Acanthamoeba. Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are unusual in ... Comprehensive resource on Amoeba Eye health and Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba pictures and illustrations (CS1: long volume value, ...
The free-living amoebae that cause human infections include Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia ... encoded search term (Acanthamoeba Infection) and Acanthamoeba Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Acanthamoeba can be found in soil, fresh and brackish water, cooling towers, and heating or air conditioning units. [5] Most ... Acanthamoeba Infection. Updated: Jul 06, 2021 * Author: Theresa M Fiorito, MD, MS, FAAP, CTH®; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran ...
The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis is significantly higher in some countries than others, with the United Kingdom having ... Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated With Tap Water Use During Contact Lens Cleaning. Manufacturer Guidelines Need to Change. ... Another common source of inadvertent exposure to Acanthamoeba spp among even compliant contact lens wearers is rinsing of the ... Patient compliance with proper hygiene techniques is critically important for reducing contact lens-related Acanthamoeba spp ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis has now been recognized worldwide, and there are clear associations of this infection with improper ... The epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis: where do we stand? Cornea. 1998 Jan;17(1):3-10. doi: 10.1097/00003226-199801000-00001. ... Conclusion: Acanthamoeba keratitis has now been recognized worldwide, and there are clear associations of this infection with ... Purpose: To review from a historical perspective the recent epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis and its association with the use ...
Acanthamoeba: biology and pathogenesis 2015, Caister Academic Press, Caister Academic Press Limited ... Acanthamoeba by Naveed Ahmed Khan, unknown edition, ... Acanthamoeba. biology and pathogenesis Second edition. by ... An edition of Acanthamoeba: biology and pathogenesis (2009) ... Acanthamoeba. biology and pathogenesis Second edition. by ... An edition of Acanthamoeba: biology and pathogenesis (2009) ...
Acanthamoeba - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags Acanthamoeba, contact lens, contact lens health week, contacts, eye infections, eyes, handwashing, microbial keratitis ...
... classified as the genus Acanthamoeba by Volkonsky. It was later found to be the etiologic agent of Acanthamoeba granulomatous ... Ecology of Acanthamoeba. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13(Suppl 5):S385-7. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:273-307.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Acanthamoeba [ǝˌ́́́́kæn.Өǝʹmi.bǝ]. From the Greek akantha (spike/thorn), which was added before amoeba (change) to describe ...
Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis with biocidal agents can improve the final outcome and help ... Keywords: acanthamoeba, keratitis, contact lenses, confocal microscopy. Introduction. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is one of the ... Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae, ubiquitous in the environment. Acanthamoeba is found in the air, soil, and fresh ... Assessment of real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Acanthamoeba and prognosis determinants of Acanthamoeba ...
The amoebicidal and amoebistatic action in vitro of 24 compounds was tested on two strains of Acanthamoeba, A. polyphaga and A ...
ABSTRACT Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal ... Acanthamoeba culture.. Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50494 was isolated from a human brain necropsy from a patient who died of ... Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype induces apoptosis in HBMEC. Acanthamoeba (105 amoebae/well) was ... Acanthamoeba-mediated HBMEC death is dependent on PI3K activation.. The finding described above that Acanthamoeba ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis. Introduction. Acanthamoeba spp are free-living cyst-forming protozoans, ubiquitous in air, soil, dust ... Risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis in contact lens users: a case-control study. BMJ 1995;310:1567-70.doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Acanthamoeba trophozoite and cyst adherence to four types of soft contact lens and removal by cleaning agents. Eye 1993;7(Pt 4 ... Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis and treatment update 2009. Am J Ophthalmol 2009;148:487-99.doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2009.06.009 ...
Backgroud To report the clinical and microbiological features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) related to contact lens in a ... Genotypic identification of Acanthamoeba sp. isolates associated with an outbreak of acanthamoeba keratitis. Cornea 2009;28:673 ... The culture of Acanthamoeba was required in any suspected infective keratitis. The culture-positive rate of Acanthamoeba had ... Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolates and clinical characteristics of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in China. J Med ...
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Acanthamoeba spp. answers are found in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... Spacek, Lisa A. "Acanthamoeba Spp." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/ ... TY - ELEC T1 - Acanthamoeba spp. ID - 545002 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2019/12/08/ BT - Johns Hopkins HIV Guide UR - ... Three groups (I, II, III) of Acanthamoeba spp. based on cyst morphology.[13] ...
"Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis." Am J Med, vol. 135, no. 1, Jan. 2022, pp. e20-21. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.08 ... Wolf, M. A., Thielman, N. M., & Kraft, B. D. (2022). Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis. Am J Med, 135(1), e20-e21. https ... Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis. Am J Med. 2022 Jan;135(1):e20-e21. ... Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis. Am J Med. 2022 Jan;135(1):e20-1. ...
IMPORTANCE The free-living Acanthamoeba can exist as a trophozoite or cyst and both stages can cause painful blinding keratitis ... Current efforts to identify new anti-Acanthamoeba compounds rely primarily upon assays that target the trophozoite stage of the ... We adapted and trained a machine learning, object detection neural network to recognize Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts in ... We adapted and trained a YOLOv3 machine learning, object detection neural network to recognize Acanthamoeba castellanii ...
Acanthamoeba Adult Amniotic Fluid Animals Chlamydiales DNA, Bacterial Female Fetal Diseases Fetus Gram-Negative Bacterial ... 2009). Evidence of Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. 15(1). Baud, David et al. "Evidence of Maternal- ... "Evidence of Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae" vol. 15, no. 1, 2009. Export RIS Citation Information. ... Title : Evidence of Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Personal Author(s) : Baud, David;Goy, Genevieve; ...
Access Acanthamoeba Keratitis case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
The amoebicidal activity of curcumin against Acanthamoeba triangularis was recently discovered. However, a physiological change ... which may result from its effect on mRNA expression of key Acanthamoeba ATG-related genes. However, further investigation into ... triangularis encystation and a physiological change of Acanthamoeba autophagy at the mRNA level. Methods: In this study, A. ... Curcumin effect on Acanthamoeba triangularis encystation under nutrient starvation Boonhok, R; Sangkanu, S; Phumjan, S; ...
Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba is one of the most common organisms in the environment. Although it rarely causes infection, when it ...
Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba is one of the most common organisms in the environment. Although it rarely causes infection, when it ...
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious infection of the eye that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness ... This infection is caused by a microscopic, free-living ameba (single-celled living organism) called Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba ... Acanthamoeba amebas are very common in nature and can be found in bodies of water (for example, lakes and oceans), soil, and ... Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. For people who ...
Advice of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Find out things that have helped others to improve. , Diseasemaps ...
Oral Miltefosine as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Acanthamoeba Keratitis. American journal of ophthalmology. 2021 Mar;223:75- ... Oral Miltefosine as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Acanthamoeba Keratitis. In: American journal of ophthalmology. 2021 ; Vol. ... Oral Miltefosine as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Praneetha Thulasi, Hajirah N. Saeed, Christopher J. ... N2 - Purpose: To report a case series of patients with treatment-resistant Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using oral miltefosine, ...
Acanthamoeba is a common infection that can affect people of all ages. Although it is usually mild, it can sometimes cause ... Acanthamoeba - Symptoms, causes, and management. Editor Acanthamoeba is a common infection that can affect people of all ages. ... What is acanthamoeba?. Acanthamoeba is a genus of single-celled, microscopic parasites found in water and soil worldwide. This ... Acanthamoeba is a type of amoeba that can cause severe infections in humans. Acanthamoeba infection can permanently damage the ...
Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. / Anderlini, P.; Przepiorka, D.; Luna, M. et al. In: Bone ... Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. P. Anderlini, D. Przepiorka, M. Luna, L. Langford, M. ... Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. In: Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1994 ; Vol. 14, No. 3. pp ... Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1994 Jan 1;14(3):459-461. ...
Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis could benefit from vigilant glaucoma monitoring, researchers suggest.. ... Ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma are frequent complications in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), according to findings ... Close more info about Ocular Hypertension, Glaucoma Frequent Complications of Acanthamoeba Keratitis ... Close more info about Ocular Hypertension, Glaucoma Frequent Complications of Acanthamoeba Keratitis ...
  • The amoebicidal and amoebistatic action in vitro of 24 compounds was tested on two strains of Acanthamoeba, A. polyphaga and A. castellanii, isolated from eye infections in this country. (bmj.com)
  • Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. (asm.org)
  • We adapted and trained a YOLOv3 machine learning, object detection neural network to recognize Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts in microscopy images to develop an automated cysticidal assay. (escholarship.org)
  • Search Acanthamoeba castellanii str. (ensembl.org)
  • Cysticidal activities of polyhexamethylene biguanide and chlorhexidine digluconate were evaluated in the Acanthamoeba castellanii strain and clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp obtained from two severe and recurrent cases of ulcerative keratitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite very high sequence similarity with the mtDNA of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff, in contrast to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Linc Ap-1, the determined DNA sequence revealed a complete absence of introns. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Diseases caused by Acanthamoeba include keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later found to be the etiologic agent of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. (asm.org)
  • Given the host susceptibility and correct environmental conditions, Acanthamoeba can cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a fatal central nervous system (CNS) infection that occurs in immunocompromised patients ( 7 - 10 , 11 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that hematogenous spread is a prerequisite in Acanthamoeba encephalitis ( 19 - 21 ), but it is not clear how circulating amoebae cross the blood-brain barrier and gain access to the CNS to produce disease. (asm.org)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis. (duke.edu)
  • Treatment of Acanthamoeba Encephalitis. (duke.edu)
  • Most cases of brain and spinal cord infection with Acanthamoeba (Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis) are fatal. (hamrodoctor.com)
  • Pathogenic Acanthamoeba can cause severe human diseases, such as blinding keratitis and granulomatous encephalitis. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a very rare, generally fatal subacute central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Acanthamoeba species in immunocompromised or debilitated hosts or by Balamuthia mandrillaris . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Optimal treatment of Acanthamoeba encephalitis is unclear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The isolation of Acanthamoeba cysts from swimming pool water is not unusual, as they resist chlorination. (medscape.com)
  • When the corneal scraping and culture were negative, the cases were identified if Acanthamoeba cysts were observed by in vivo confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany) together with a typical clinical sign. (researchsquare.com)
  • Traditional cysticidal assays for Acanthamoeba species revolve around treating cysts with compounds and manually observing the culture for evidence of excystation. (escholarship.org)
  • This suggested that the thick double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba were more resistant, thus remaining viable in the dry-hot areas of the platforms and in chlorinated water of the swimming pools whereas Naegleria cysts, that are fragile and susceptible to desiccation, preferred watery or moist areas for growth and proliferation. (um.edu.my)
  • Antimicrobial action of biguanides on the viability of Acanthamoeba cysts and assessment of cell toxicity. (bvsalud.org)
  • To assess dose - and concentration-dependent rates of biguanides on the viability of Acanthamoeba cysts isolated from severe ulcerative keratitis , and to correlate cysticidal activites with cytotoxic profiles in corneal and endothelial cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cytotoxicity assays of biguanides were conducted using primary cultures of endothelial cells alone or in coculture with Acanthamoeba cysts . (bvsalud.org)
  • A 75% of trophozoites and cysts from Acanthamoeba adhered to the surface were removed after treatment with both extracts at 4xMIC (P (ua.pt)
  • Trophozoites showed strong loss of acanthopodia and thorn-like projection pseudopodia, while cysts demonstrated retraction and folded appearance treated with both extracts when observed by SEM, which suggests the potential benefits of the medicinal plants A. muricata and C. trifoliatum as an option treatment against Acanthamoeba infections. (ua.pt)
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four different commercially available MPDS as well as to investigate the amoebicidal effects of four MPDS against Acanthamoeba T4 cysts isolated from contact lens paraphernalia. (uitm.edu.my)
  • A total of fourteen Acanthamoeba T4 cysts that confirmed with PCR assay were cultivated on 1.5% non-nutrient agar seeded with E. coli, harvested and adjusted in a final concentration of 2 x 10⁴ of cysts. (uitm.edu.my)
  • None of the solutions was effective towards Acanthamoeba T4 cysts within the MMRDT and extended time. (uitm.edu.my)
  • In conclusion, these findings revealed that none of the MPDS was effectively to kill cysts of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Hence, new concentration of active ingredients should be reviewed and new MPDS should be developed in order to effectively kill Acanthamoeba cysts. (uitm.edu.my)
  • The life cycle of Acanthamoeba , Balamuthia , and Sappinia involves only 2 stages: cysts and trophozoites (the infective form). (msdmanuals.com)
  • When present in the eye, Acanthamoeba strains can cause acanthamoebic keratitis, which may lead to corneal ulcers or even blindness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a sight-threatening infection with a favorable prognosis when diagnosed and treated early, though surgical intervention and/or corneal transplantation may occasionally be necessary. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis can develop sporadically among people who wear water-contaminated contact lenses or have had corneal trauma. (medscape.com)
  • IVCM was effective in detection of Acanthamoeba in cases with early presentation, while culture was more sensitive in late presentation with corneal melting. (dovepress.com)
  • Background/aims Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a chronic debilitating corneal infection principally affecting contact lens (CL) users. (bmj.com)
  • Cases were included in this study if the corneal scraping and/or culture were positive for Acanthamoeba . (researchsquare.com)
  • The diagnosis of acanthamoeba primarily involves two methods: Confocal microscopy and corneal scraping. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • A) Corneal melting and vascularization in a patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis can be very serious, potentially leading to vision loss or the need for a corneal transplant . (healthline.com)
  • In nature, Acanthamoeba species are generally free-living bacterivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthamoeba species are free-living amoebae, ubiquitous in the environment. (dovepress.com)
  • The genus Acanthamoeba consists of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. (asm.org)
  • Autopsy revealed Acanthamoeba species causing necrotizing meningoencephalitis, pneumonitis and adrenalitis in the first patient and causing necrotizing meningoencephalitis and dermatitis in the second patient. (psu.edu)
  • This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (um.edu.my)
  • Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. (um.edu.my)
  • While at 44 degrees C, only Acanthamoeba species could survive thus showing that our swimming pools are free from potentially pathogenic Naegleria species. (um.edu.my)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK†) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Acanthamoeba species and Balamuthia mandrillaris are present worldwide in water, soil, and dust. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae that are commonly recovered from soil, fresh water, and other habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Acanthamoeba has two stages in its life cycle, the metabolically active trophozoite stage and a dormant, stress-resistant cyst stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1930, it was reported by Castellani in yeast ( Cryptococcus pararoseus ) culture, and was later (1931) classified as the genus Acanthamoeba by Volkonsky. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba is a genus of single-celled, microscopic parasites found in water and soil worldwide. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebae that widely distributed in various ecological environments. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Polymerase chain reaction from cerebellar tissue was positive for Acanthamoeba T4 genotype. (unisi.it)
  • Acanthamoeba mauritaniensis genotype T4D: An environmental isolate displays pathogenic behavior. (ac.ir)
  • However, T4 was the most frequently genotype associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis which commonly occurs among contact lens users. (uitm.edu.my)
  • We have demonstrated that pathogenic Acanthamoeba exhibits more than 60% binding to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is a free-living pathogenic protozoan that is distributed in different environmental reservoirs, including lakes and soil. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Therefore, it is important to understand the pathogenic relationship between humans and Acanthamoeba. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Molecular identification of T4 and T5 genotypes in isolates from Acanthamoeba keratitis patients. (ac.ir)
  • By comparison of systemic analysis results for Acanthamoeba isolates, we identified a novel secreted protein of Acanthamoeba, an M28 aminopeptidase (M28AP), which targets of the human innate immune defense. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Acanthamoeba spp are free-living cyst-forming protozoans, ubiquitous in air, soil, dust and water, to which 50%-100% of us develop antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • IMPORTANCE The free-living Acanthamoeba can exist as a trophozoite or cyst and both stages can cause painful blinding keratitis. (escholarship.org)
  • Conclusion: Curcumin inhibits cyst formation in surviving trophozoites, which may result from its effect on mRNA expression of key Acanthamoeba ATG-related genes. (ua.pt)
  • Since access to propamidine isethionate (Brolene®) as a first-line treatment has been limited in recent years, in the current study, we examined the effects of pentamidine isethionate against trophozoite and cyst forms of Acanthamoeba . (ac.ir)
  • These results were confirmed by survival assays which appeared that the Acanthamoeba might transform from cyst to trophozoite stages. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Not washing hands regularly after coming into contact with soil or water sources where these parasites may live can increase one's chance of becoming infected with acanthamoeba, which is resistant to many disinfectants used at home, such as bleach solutions. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • What are the symptoms of infection or parasites (acanthamoeba keratitis) in your eye? (healthline.com)
  • Application of the omics sciences to the study of Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis will eventually cause severe pain and possible vision loss or blindness if untreated. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, we showed that Acanthamoeba produces severe HBMEC cytotoxicity by secreting extracellular proteases, as well as using contact-dependent mechanisms such as phagocytosis ( 12 ), which may play an important role in blood-brain barrier perturbations. (asm.org)
  • Despite its comparative rarity, and status as an orphan disease, Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is of concern because of its severe and prolonged morbidity in the young and economically active contact lens (CL) users who constitute 90% of affected patients in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a severe and vision-threatening infection of the cornea. (researchsquare.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is a type of amoeba that can cause severe infections in humans. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • and acanthamoeba eratitis, a severe eye infection. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoeba are among the most prevalent environmental protozoa and have been classified by 18s rDNA sequencing into at least 20 genotypes, designated T1-T20. (medscape.com)
  • To study the predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcome of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) at Tanta University's Ophthalmology Hospital in Tanta, Egypt. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis could benefit from vigilant glaucoma monitoring, researchers suggest. (optometryadvisor.com)
  • Regarding the side effects, MacLaughlan noted that "experience in the US with over 250 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis and over 200 patients with leishmaniasis has shown that the management of side effects is possible and the reward outweighs the risk of therapy. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with Acanthamoeba infections of the brain, CT with contrast and MRI may show single or multiple space-occupying lesions with ring enhancement, most commonly in the temporal and parietal lobes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This scanning electron microscopic image shows an Acanthamoeba polyphaga protozoa about to complete the process of cell division known as mitosis, thereby becoming 2 distinct organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Karlyshev, Andrey V. (2019) Remarkable features of mitochondrial DNA of 'Acanthamoeba polyphaga' Linc Ap-1, revealed by whole-genome sequencing. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of Acanthamoeba polyphaga Linc Ap-1 resulted in a draft assembly of the chromosomal DNA and a complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Although lens contamination is primarily bacterial, lens cases tend to be colonized with mixed populations of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, including Acanthamoeba. (medscape.com)
  • Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Correct and timely diagnosis, as well as improved treatment methods and an understanding of the parasite, are important factors in improving the outcome of infection by Acanthamoeba. (wikipedia.org)
  • To review from a historical perspective the recent epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis and its association with the use of contact lenses and to provide a summary of recent techniques that have allowed earlier diagnosis and treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba was detected by culture, smear, and in-vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 25 eyes (56.8%), while in 19 eyes (43.2%) the diagnosis was based solely on the clinical findings. (dovepress.com)
  • Understanding the series of steps involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and the host immune response against Acanthamoeba antigens is crucial for developing effective therapeutic strategies targeting the disease. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Acanthamoeba exist as a vegetative trophozoite, usually feeding on other microorganisms, whereas in the cornea, they probably feed on keratocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Current efforts to identify new anti- Acanthamoeba compounds rely primarily upon assays that target the trophozoite stage of the parasite. (escholarship.org)
  • This organism is now well-known as Acanthamoeba , an amphizoic, opportunistic, and nonopportunistic protozoan protist widely distributed in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • While these are the only reported cases of disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in marrow transplant recipients, a review of the literature suggests that this organism may be a new cause of opportunistic infections. (psu.edu)
  • Acanthamoeba amebas are very common in nature and can be found in bodies of water (for example, lakes and oceans), soil, and air. (cdc.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba can be found in soil, fresh and brackish water, cooling towers, and heating or air conditioning units. (medscape.com)
  • Acanthamoeba is found in the air, soil, and fresh or brackish waters. (dovepress.com)
  • Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis when it infects the transparent outer covering of the eye called the cornea. (cdc.gov)
  • 12-14 Acanthamoeba has been found in co-infections with fungi, viruses, chlamydia, and bacteria. (dovepress.com)
  • An increase and significant difference in the frequency of fungi (P = 0.000) and acanthamoeba was reserved for the pretreated group. (nih.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone can develop the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors reviewed available literature on Acanthamoeba keratitis from 1973 to the present, with emphasis on the history of the epidemic and its association with contact lenses, identification of risk factors, preventive measures, and current diagnostic techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Acanthamoeba can be found in water sources, and contact lenses exposed to contaminated water can increase the risk of infection. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • The amoebicidal activity of curcumin against Acanthamoeba triangularis was recently discovered. (ua.pt)
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of curcumin on the survival of A. triangularis under nutrient starvation and nutrient-rich condition, as well as to evaluate the A. triangularis encystation and a physiological change of Acanthamoeba autophagy at the mRNA level. (ua.pt)
  • Y This research was funded by Walailak University grant No. WU-IRG-63-073, The Royal Patronage of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn-Botanical Garden of Walailak Univer-sity, Nakhon Si Thammarat, under the project entitled: Medicinal Thai Native Plants against Acanthamoeba triangularis as a serious eye infection (WUBG 031-2565), Thailand. (ua.pt)
  • Annona muricata and Combretum trifoliatum were investigated against Acanthamoeba triangularis. (ua.pt)
  • The infection is usually diagnosed by an eye care provider based on symptoms, growth of the Acanthamoeba ameba from a scraping of the eye, and/or seeing the ameba by a process called confocal microscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Identification of functional regions on the tail of Acanthamoeba myosin-II using recombinant fusion proteins. (duke.edu)
  • If one consumes food or water contaminated with acanthamoeba, it can cause infection. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • As Acanthamoeba persists in warmer temperatures, the incidence increases during warmer months. (medscape.com)
  • We also estimated the annual incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis during 1985 through 1987 from available data. (nih.gov)
  • Another common source of inadvertent exposure to Acanthamoeba spp among even compliant contact lens wearers is rinsing of the storage case with tap water. (medscape.com)
  • Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. (asm.org)
  • Neelam, S & Niederkorn, JY 2017, ' Pathobiology and immunobiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis: Insights from animal models ', Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine , vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 261-268. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Acanthamoeba crosses the blood-brain barrier by means that are not yet understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe an unusual case of non-granulomatous Acanthamoeba cerebellitis in an immunocompetent adult male, with abrupt onset of neurological impairment, subtle hemorrhagic infarction at magnetic resonance imaging, and initial suspicion of cerebellar neoplasm. (unisi.it)
  • Acanthamoebae are a causative agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in immunocompetent individuals. (ac.ir)
  • Identification of Acanthamoeba sp. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [ 5 ] Most persons appear to have been exposed to this organism during their lifetime, as 50%-100% of healthy people have serum antibodies directed against Acanthamoeba , but whether this leads to protective immunity is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • We used a series of COOH-terminally deleted recombinant myosin molecules to map precisely the binding sites of 22 monoclonal antibodies along the tail of Acanthamoeba myosin-II. (duke.edu)
  • Purpose: To report a case series of patients with treatment-resistant Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using oral miltefosine, often as salvage therapy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • What are the treatment options for acanthamoeba? (knowledgebooth.net)
  • Anyone who suspects they might have an acanthamoeba must seek medical attention immediately so that appropriate treatment measures can be taken quickly before any lasting damage occurs. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • Plants with medicinal properties have been used in the treatment of several infectious diseases, including Acanthamoeba infections. (ua.pt)
  • In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue caused by advanced acanthamoeba. (knowledgebooth.net)
  • Currently, Acanthamoeba has been classified into 17 different genotypes (T1-T17), based on 18S rRNA nucleotide sequencing by molecular techniques. (uitm.edu.my)
  • Described as "Trojan horses" as they can harbor intracellular bacteria, referred to as endosymbionts, which benefit by increased survival or enhanced pathogenicity from interacting with Acanthamoeba . (hopkinsguides.com)