Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Hygromycin B: Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Ribonuclease, Pancreatic: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 126.96.36.199.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.
This resistance is conferred by these plants' ability to produce oxalate. Furthermore, native grasses grown in conjunction with ... This acts as an herbicide to inhibit competition by a wide range of other plant species. This phytotoxic compound inhibits seed ... Louis, MO, USA Mauer, T., Russo, M.J., and Evans, M. (2001). Element stewardship abstract for Centaurea maculosa, spotted ... Tiffany L. Weir (2005). "Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin ...
Research on herbicides, includes formulations, herbicide resistance and the effects of herbicide residues in the environment. ... Animal Breeding Abstracts, Dairy Science Abstracts, Field Crop Abstracts, Forestry Abstracts, Horticultural Science Abstracts, ... Veterinary Bulletin and Weed Abstracts. Weed Abstracts, derived from CAB Abstracts, is an abstracts database focused on ... Nematological Abstracts, Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Series A: Human and Experimental, Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews ...
This biotype was determined to have cross resistance to other auxin-like herbicides, especially clopyralid. Resistance was ... "Element Stewarship Abstract for Centaurea solstitialis" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007 ... Most herbicides used for controlling Yellow Star-thistle are registered for range lands, right-of-way, and other non-crop areas ... Inheritance of resistance to clopyralid and picloram in yellow star-thistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) is controlled by a ...
The roots of C. maculosa exude (-)-catechin. This acts as an herbicide to inhibit competition by a wide range of other ... This resistance is conferred by these plants' ability to produce oxalate. Furthermore, native grasses grown in conjunction ... Mauer, T., Russo, M.J., and Evans, M. (2001). Element stewardship abstract for Centaurea maculosa, spotted knapweed Archived ... "Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea ...
The same study tested the extract as an herbicide on garden cress, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf ( ... which showed some resistance. Another experiment showed a water extract of the chemical was either lethal or highly ... "A tree grows in Virginia [abstract]" (PDF). Virginia Journal of Science. 46 (2): 105. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011 ... It involves the application of foliar or basal herbicides in order to kill existing trees, while either hand pulling or mowing ...
Increased durability, nutritional content, insect and virus resistance and herbicide tolerance are a few of the attributes bred ... Geophysical Research Abstracts. 7: 11082. Greene, Nathanael (December 2004). "How biofuels can help end America's energy ... Herbicide-resistant seed has a gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to herbicides, ... Herbicide-tolerant crops are used by farmers worldwide. With the increasing use of herbicide-tolerant crops, comes an increase ...
The effects of noisy urban environment may cause the loss of memory to elderly person (abstract published in 1st World Congress ... electrical generators, explosions, and people. Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as ... Electrical resistance heating. *Herbicide. *Open defecation. *Pesticide. *Phytoremediation. *Soil Guideline Values (SGVs) ...
Abstract. Soederbaum, P. (2008). Understanding Sustainability Economics. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-627-7. Hasna, A.M ... Chemical production includes everything from herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers to domestic chemicals and hazardous ... its resistance to environmental demands stiffens." They also note that, up until the event of total ecological collapse, ... Resource efficiency Sociocultural evolution Sustainability and systemic change resistance Sustainable Capitalism Sustainable ...
Chemical production includes everything from herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers to domestic chemicals and hazardous ... its resistance to environmental demands stiffens." They also note that, up until the event of total ecological collapse, ... Abstract. *^ Soederbaum, P. (2008). Understanding Sustainability Economics. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-627-7. ...
These same problems occur in agriculture with pesticide and herbicide resistance. It is possible that we are facing the end of ... At the end of 1859, Darwin's publication of his "abstract" as On the Origin of Species explained natural selection in detail ... Neve, Paul (October 2007). "Challenges for herbicide resistance evolution and management: 50 years after Harper". Weed Research ... In medicine, this contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance, as when one bacteria acquires resistance genes it can ...
It involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of ... Other predominant toxin-based models employ the insecticide rotenone, the herbicide paraquat and the fungicide maneb. Models ... abstract thinking, rule acquisition, inhibiting inappropriate actions, initiating appropriate actions, working memory, and ... Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction ...
In their centers of origin wild wheat plants are screened for resistance to rust, then their genetic information is studied and ... Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, many of which are petroleum ... http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1753-6405.12311/abstract. *The environmental food crisis A study done by the UN on ... However technologies are also developed to commercially produce food from energy such as natural gas and electrical energy with ...
Although in many cases local residents do not actually receive these benefits, the argument is used to decrease resistance in ... In Sweden, feminists prepare jam from berries sprayed with herbicides and offer a taste to members of parliament: they refuse. ... 2014-3. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2354382  Archived February 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Bullard, ... In these southern communities, black churches and other voluntary associations are used to organize resistance efforts, ...
Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction ... the herbicide paraquat and the fungicide maneb. Models based on toxins are most commonly used in primates. Transgenic ... abstract thinking, rule acquisition, inhibiting inappropriate actions, initiating appropriate actions, working memory, and ... It involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of ...
"Abstract Reward and Punishment Representations in the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 2001. ... Chronic exposure to some airborne toxins such as herbicides, pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel ... "Effect of Putative Pheromones on the Electrical Activity of the Human Vomeronasal Organ and Olfactory Epithelium."Science ... causing an electrical response that spreads through the receptor cells to the olfactory nerve fibers at the back of the nasal ...
Abstract No. 01-1-079; July 1976. Work was done while employed by Dept. of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. ... Electrical and semiconductor devices. *Medications (e.g. melarsoprol). *Herbicides. *Fungicides. *Animal dips ... Abstract No. 1; January 1975. Work was done while employed by Dept. of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. ...
"Abstract Reward and Punishment Representations in the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 2001. ... Olfactory neurons have cilia (tiny hairs) containing proteins that bind to odor molecules, causing an electrical response that ... Allomones include flower scents, natural herbicides, and natural toxic plant chemicals. The info for these processes comes from ... "Effect of Putative Pheromones on the Electrical Activity of the Human Vomeronasal Organ and Olfactory Epithelium."Science ...
Abstract. Predictions based on evolutionary theory suggest that the adaptive value of evolved herbicide resistance alleles may ... The findings of this review are discussed within the context of the plant defence trade-off theory and herbicide resistance ... 2009) Fitness costs associated with evolved herbicide resistance alleles in plants. New Phytologist, Vol.184 (No.4). pp. 751- ... There have been many studies quantifying the fitness costs associated with novel herbicide resistance alleles, reflecting the ...
Chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, causes mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5186 ... Abstract. Background. Environmental factors such as pesticides can cause phenotypic changes in various organisms, including ... Hepatotoxicity induced by the herbicide atrazine in the rat. J Appl Toxicol. 1987;7(6):373-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... The herbicide atrazine activates endocrine gene networks via non-steroidal NR5A nuclear receptors in fish and mammalian cells. ...
Abstract. Engineered glyphosate resistance is the most widely adopted genetically modified trait in agriculture, gaining ... When stacked with other herbicide resistance traits, for example, with the widely used GR traits, AAD-derived herbicide ... The plants were sprayed with the AOPP herbicide quizalofop to confirm herbicide resistance. Surviving plants were crossed with ... AAD-based herbicide-resistant traits will provide a tool to protect and sustain the value of current herbicides and herbicide- ...
Abstract. Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) has been slow to evolve and, to date, is ... Even though resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides has been slow to evolve, it may be expected to occur in weedy species with ... P. J. Tranel, C. W. Riggins, M. S. Bell, and A. G. Hager, "Herbicide resistances in Amaranthus tuberculatus: a call for new ... Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?. Chance ...
... and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and ... However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide ... Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA ... The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate- ...
The economics of managing herbicide resistance in weeds has focused on cost-effective responses by growers to the development ... where social costs associated with glyphosate resistance need to be considered when assessing optimal use of this herbicide ... Social costs associated with the loss of glyphosate efficacy include potential failure of herbicide-resistant crop systems, ... In this paper we argue that the increasing possibility of widespread glyphosate resistance presents a case ...
The high efficiency of all three herbicide resistance genes in producing transgenic cells demonstrated their suitability as ... suggesting that these two herbicides may prove effective in large-scale algal production facilities in suppressing growth of ... gene previously shown to produce an enzyme insensitive to PPO-inhibiting herbicides, when genetically engineered, generated ... Genes conferring resistance to the herbicides glyphosate, oxyfluorfen and norflurazon were developed and tested for use as ...
... for the possible presence of a foreign gene for herbicide resistance that would attribute the manifest herbicide resistance to ... A cotton plant is selected wherein the herbicide resistance is not attributable to genetic engineering. ... These seeds upon maturity are soaked in a liquid containing a herbicide (e.g., a glyphosate) for a period of time sufficient ... The seeds following such soaking are planted in a growing medium and produce at least one cotton plant that displays herbicide ...
Compositions comprising a coding sequence for a polypeptide that confers resistance or tolerance to glyphosate herbicides are ... In particular, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding glyphosate resistance proteins are provided. Additionally, amino acid ... Compositions and methods for conferring herbicide resistance to plants, plant cells, tissues and seeds are provided. ... Abstract. Compositions and methods for conferring herbicide resistance to plants, plant cells, tissues and seeds are provided. ...
Key message Arabidopsis GI negatively regulates chloroplast biogenesis and resistance to the herbicide butafenacil by enhanced ... Abstract. Key message. Arabidopsis GI negatively regulates chloroplast biogenesis and resistance to the herbicide butafenacil ... and is associated with agronomic traits such as insect/disease resistance, herbicide resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. ... These results suggest that GI negatively regulates chloroplast biogenesis and resistance to the herbicide butafenacil, ...
... and ACCase-Inhibiting Herbicides in Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Clearfield® Rice - Volume 28 Issue 1 - Muthukumar ... Modeling the Simultaneous Evolution of Resistance to ALS- ... Abstract. Herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass has become ... A unique insight was that failure to stop using a herbicide soon after resistance evolution can accelerate resistance to the ... de Prado, JL, Osuna, MD, de Prado, R (2004) Cross resistance to ACCase herbicide in Lolium rigidum . Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci ...
... such as herbicide resistance, weed control tools, chemistry, and genetics. ... Abstract. In Europe, 18 weedy grass species had been confirmed to have biotypes with resistance to herbicides. The most ... Insecticidal Resistance and Cross Resistance in Populations of Cydia pomonella... Laboratory Selection for Resistance to ... Herbicide resistant Echinochloa oryzoides and E. phyllopogon in California Oryza... Resistance Profile of Diclofop Resistant ...
... benzoate herbicides. Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and photosystem II inhibiting herbicides was confirmed in a ... Abstract. © 2015, The Author(s). Main Conclusion: This is a first report of an Ala-205-Phe substitution in acetolactate ... This is the first report of Ala-205-Phe mutation conferring wide spectrum resistance to ALS inhibiting herbicides. ... confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Brosnan, J.T., Vargas, J.J., Breeden, G.K., Grier, L., Aponte, ...
ABSTRACT. The frequent application of herbicides in agricultural areas may select resistant biotypes in weed populations, whose ... the resistance factor was obtained to all biotypes and all herbicides tested. The resistance factor (C50 resistant / C50 ... Weed resistance to herbicides is defined as a natural and inherited capacity of biotypes to survive and reproduce after the ... The majority of the resistance cases of hairy beggarticks to ALS-inhibiting herbicides occur in Bidens subalternans, not in B. ...
International Symposium on Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides. 1995, Cordoba, Spain Abstract 92.Google Scholar ... 4-D resistance genes. Some cultivars planted in 2018 will be resistance to five or more herbicides. Companies have patents on ... Horne D. EPAs response to resistance management and herbicide-tolerant crop issues. Weed Tech. 1992;6(3):657-61.CrossRefGoogle ... In the first half of the 1990s, another GE crop policy dialog unfolded, this one focused on preventing resistance to herbicides ...
... such as herbicide resistance, weed control tools, chemistry, and genetics. ... Read Abstract + The molecular basis of resistance to tribenuron-methyl, an acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide was ... Read Abstract + The introduction of herbicide-resistant crops and postemergence herbicides with a wide action spectrum shifted ... Read Abstract + The effect of herbicide rates on weed control and crop yield is the subject of countless and ongoing research ...
Abstract: Weed resistance to herbicides is not a new phenomenon. Resistance to the common herbicide 2,4-D was documented as far ... Abstract: Controlling herbicide resistance (HR) will require the integration of economics and social science with the ... However, resistance has hit the front page since the discovery of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide ... The existence of mobile herbicide resistance and/or herbicide tolerance traits adds complexity as genetic susceptibility to the ...
In most cases, selection is based on antibiotic or herbicide resistance. These marker genes are preferred because they tend to ... Technical Abstract: Selectable marker genes are widely used for the efficient transformation of crop plants. ... Transformation of the apple rootstock M.26 with the constructs pwiAtt35Sgus and pinMpNPR1 without the kanamycin resistance ... since there would be no involvement of antibiotic resistance genes or other marker genes with negative connotations. With this ...
GM crops are commercially modified for pest and or herbicide resistance. Transgenes such as BT may be expressed in pollen and ... Abstract. Genetically modified crops which have opened new avenues of species alteration has been accompanied by concerns of ... Daniell H, Datta R, Varma S, Gray S, Lee SB (1998) Containment of herbicide resistance through genetic engineering of the ... Lutz KA, Knapp JE, Maliga P (2001) Expression of bar in the plastid genome confers herbicide resistance. Plant Physiol 125:1585 ...
weed management: herbicide-resistant weeds. *environmental/agronomic/economic impact of plants with novel herbicide resistance ... Abstract). 2014. *Beckie, H.J. (2014). Management of HT crops: the Canadian experience., Herbicide tolerant crops in the EU: ... Beckie, H.J. (2009). Development of herbicide resistance and current status in western Canada., Pesticide Resistance Workshop ... Beckie, H.J. (2009). Herbicide Resistance in Weeds: Influence of Farm Practices., Prairie Soils and Crops, 2:3. ...
Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes are widely used as selectable markers to facilitate the ... Technical Abstract: Selectable marker genes are widely used for the efficient transformation of crop plants. In most cases, ... antibiotic or herbicide resistance marker genes are preferred, because they tend to be most efficient. Due mainly to consumer ... since there would be no involvement of antibiotic resistance genes or other marker genes with negative connotations. With this ...
Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. ... Abstract. Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. ...
Currently, the most common marker genes are those that confer antibiotic or herbicide resistance. The possibility that traits ... Abstract Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) inhibition was developed in the 1970s, and since then has been widely used in ... antibiotics and herbicides may increase development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains or contribute to weed resistance ... Due to their high binding specificity, asODNs may also find applications as plant-specific DNA herbicides. ...
... allelopathic species as an alternative weed control measure can help minimize the ecological threat posed by herbicide- ... Weeds are rapidly developing resistance to synthetic herbicides, and this can pose a threat to the ecosystem. Exploring ... Abstract Weeds are rapidly developing resistance to synthetic herbicides, and this can pose a threat to the ecosystem. ... allelopathic species as an alternative weed control measure can help minimize the ecological threat posed by herbicide- ...
The present study investigated a triple-stacked GM corn variety containing modifications for insect resistance (via cry1Ab and ... cry3Bb1 genes) and herbicide tolerance (via an EPSPS gene), which was fed to rats for six months. The study investigated the ... represents new opportunities for enhanced crop features such as improved insect resistance and herbicide tolerance. The ... ABSTRACT. Genetic modification (GM) represents new opportunities for enhanced crop features such as improved insect resistance ...
AtrazineTransgenicEnzymeAcetolactateCommercial herbicidesTraitsSociety of AmericaGenetically modifiedPopulationsRelated to herbicide resistance managementArabidopsisSynthaseAcetyl-CoA carboxyMechanismGeneticAntibiotic resistanceBroad-spectrumKanamycinNovel herbicide resistancePesticideInhibitConfer resistance2017MechanismsAvenaMutationAryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicidesHybridsProtoporphyrinogen IX oxidaseGlyphosate-basedAuxin herbicidesWild oatDevelopment of herbicidesAminoMaizeImazethapyrEfficacyMutationsGlufosinateWeed controlCross-resistanceInhibition
- Arabidopsis plants expressing AAD-12 were resistant to 2,4-D as well as triclopyr and fluroxypyr, and transgenic soybean plants expressing AAD-12 maintained field resistance to 2,4-D over five generations. (pnas.org)
- Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. (mdpi.com)
- The high efficiency of all three herbicide resistance genes in producing transgenic cells demonstrated their suitability as dominant selectable markers for genetic transformation of Chlamydomonas and, potentially, other eukaryotic algae. (unl.edu)
- For the commercialization of transgenic plants, use of a completely marker-free technology would be greatly preferable, since there would be no involvement of antibiotic resistance genes or other marker genes with negative connotations. (usda.gov)
- Comparison of Increased Expression of Wild-Type and Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase Genes in Transgenic Plants, and Indication of Postranscriptional Limitation on Enzyme Activity," Plant Physiol. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The transgenic tobacco plants metabolized the herbicide chlorotoluron through N-demethylation and m-methyl hydroxylation to exhibite herbicide resistance. (nii.ac.jp)
- Both cotton and maize have varieties that are either stand-alone GR varieties or varieties that combine GR and transgenic Bt ( Bacillus thuriengensis toxin) traits for insect resistance. (agbioforum.org)
- One similar Hellenas of this pesticide in OPTIMIZING able services is the knowledge that the transgenic cycle herbicide is here of 6th mating nor it is named into a target. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
- The enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 188.8.131.52) is one of the most important targets for herbicide development [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Rice plants are disclosed with two separate, but synergistic mechanisms for resistance to herbicides that normally inhibit a plant's acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The first of the two resistance mechanisms is a metabolic pathway that is not fully understood, but that does not itself involve a mutant AHAS enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The second resistance mechanism is a mutant AHAS enzyme, an enzyme that shows direct resistance to levels of herbicide that normally inhibit the enzyme, in both in vivo and in vitro assays. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Isolation and Characterization of Plant Genes Coding for Acetolactate Synthase, the Target Enzyme for Two Classes of Herbicides," Plant Physiol. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In plant and algal cells, inhibition of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) by the N-phenyl heterocyclic herbicide S-23142 causes massive protoporphyrin IX accumulation, resulting in membrane deterioration and cell lethality in the light. (ovid.com)
- Molecular and genetic analysis of the transformants localized the rs-3 mutation conferring S-23142 resistance to the Xho3.4 fragment, which was found to contain five putative exons encoding a protein with identity to the C-terminus of the Arabidopsis Protox enzyme. (ovid.com)
- CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that Pro197 substitution by Ala, Ser, Arg or Thr in corn poppy results in a less sensitive ALS enzyme to sulfonylurea herbicides than to other ALS-inhibiting herbicides. (weedscience.com)
- Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. (edu.sa)
- Glyphosate is an herbicide that inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPs) (EC 184.108.40.206). (scielo.br)
- Data suggest either that the herbicide does not equally reach the target-enzyme in a gcn2 background, or that a decreased flux in the shikimate pathway in a gcn2 plants minimize the impact of enzyme inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
- The acetolactate synthase (ALS)- and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides remain largely effective in Clearfield ® rice production, but strategies need to be developed to protect the long-term utility of these options. (cambridge.org)
- Los herbicidas inhibidores de acetolactate synthase (ALS) y de acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) continúan siendo efectivos en la producción de arroz Clearfield ® , pero se necesita desarrollar estrategias para proteger la utilidad de estas opciones en el largo plazo. (cambridge.org)
- Point mutation in acetolactate synthase confers sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicide resistance in spiny annual sow-thistle [ Sonchus asper (L.) Hill]. (cabi.org)
- A management program based on the combination of glyphosate with pre- and post-emergence acetolactate synthase (ALS) herbicides may be effective to control the weed. (weedscience.com)
- Whole-plant acetolactate synthase (ALS) assays confirmed ALS-inhibitor resistance in the Howard biotype. (usda.gov)
- Exploiting novel herbicidal modes of action is an important method to overcome the challenges faced by increasing resistance and regulatory pressure on existing commercial herbicides. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The researchers exposed the bacteria to three separate commercial herbicides , purchased at a local store: Kamba (active ingredient dicamba), 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and Roundup (glyphosate). (naturalnews.com)
- Chemical protective gloves for seven commercial herbicides. (cdc.gov)
- Some of these endophytes produce antiherbicide properties that can counteract the function of commercial herbicides. (asm.org)
- There are now multiple herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in GE corn, soybeans, and cotton, and in recent years, corn and cotton have been engineered to express multiple Bt toxins, usually in conjunction with one or two HR traits, via what is called a "stacked" variety of corn or cotton. (springer.com)
- Engineered glyphosate resistance is the most widely adopted genetically modified trait in agriculture, gaining widespread acceptance by providing a simple robust weed control system. (pnas.org)
- Genetically modified (GM) foods have had their DNA changed by genetic engineering to enhance resistance to pathogens and herbicides and/or to provide better nutritional value. (hkmj.org)
- This scientific opinion is an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified (GM) insect resistant and herbicide tolerant maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 for food and feed uses, import and processing. (europa.eu)
- Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). (pearltrees.com)
- Glyphosate resistance reduces kochia fitness: Comparison of segregating resistant and susceptible F2 populations. (gc.ca)
- Therefore, the cross-resistance pattern to other sulfonylurea and non-sulfonylurea ALS-inhibiting herbicides of the tribenuron resistant (R) and susceptible (S) corn poppy populations was studied by using whole-plant trials and in vitro ALS catalytic activity assays. (weedscience.com)
- Determine the mechanism of atrazine resistance in Nebraska waterhemp populations. (unl.edu)
- The lifecycle model assigned an important role to zero tillage in curbing P. minor populations when herbicide inputs are low. (gla.ac.uk)
- The populations were checked for their level of herbicide resistance by pot experiments and the investigated plants were genotyped for the Ser(264) to Gly mutation by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. (ugent.be)
- The allelic richness (estimated by 'band richness' and percentage of polymorphic loci) was lowest in the two populations with a complete set of herbicide-resistant plants and in one population with a mixture of herbicide-resistant and -susceptible plants, giving evidence for a historical bottleneck. (ugent.be)
- However, the loss in genetic variation was not that large, indicating that herbicide-resistant populations may maintain their adaptive capacity. (ugent.be)
- Knowledge about the origin and spread of herbicide-resistant weed populations may give opportunities to manage the resistance problem, with its associated ecological and economic consequences. (ugent.be)
- A workshop on Nov. 8, 2013, examined public policy implications related to herbicide resistance management. (farmfoundation.org)
- The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. (cambridge.org)
- Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Genes and Analysis of Herbicide Resistance," Theor. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Molecular Basis of Imidazolinone Herbicide Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana var Columbia," Plant Physiol. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This mutation sits within a highly conserved region previously identified in Arabidopsis studies as vital for auxin signaling and points to the importance of studies in model systems to predict resistance mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- Selection and evolution of Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-inhibitor resistance in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in a long-term alternative cropping systems study , 94(4), 727-731. (gc.ca)
- Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors was found in 18 fields, whereas resistance to photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors (isoproturon) was found in 12 fields. (plantprotection.pl)
- The mechanism of PPO-inhibitor resistance, a unique target-site amino acid deletion, was first elucidated in a biotype of A. tuberculatus from Illinois [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group B/2 resistant Corn Poppy from Greece indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site. (weedscience.com)
- The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database. (weedscience.com)
- If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database. (weedscience.com)
- Research Report: Prevalence and Mechanism of Atrazine Resistance in Wa" by Rodrigo Werle, Mithila Jugulam et al. (unl.edu)
- Evaluation of three herbicide resistance genes for use in genetic tra" by Andrew J. Bruggeman, Daniel Kuehler et al. (unl.edu)
- Genes conferring resistance to the herbicides glyphosate, oxyfluorfen and norflurazon were developed and tested for use as dominant selectable markers in genetic transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and as potential tools for the protection of commercial-scale algal production facilities against contamination by organisms sensitive to these broad-spectrum herbicides. (unl.edu)
- A cotton plant is selected wherein the herbicide resistance is not attributable to genetic engineering. (google.com)
- NaturalNews) Herbicides commonly used for both agriculture and home can induce antibiotic resistance in equally common disease-causing bacteria, according to a study conducted by researchers from Mexico and New Zealand and published in the journal mBio . (naturalnews.com)
- Every day you see in the news that there are concerns about the ever increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that can cause disease in people and our animals," researcher Jack Heinemann said in an interview with GMWatch . (naturalnews.com)
- The researchers found that, in many cases, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria increased dramatically, up to sixfold. (naturalnews.com)
- Given the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, this is a major hole in current safety testing protocols. (naturalnews.com)
- Additionally, the antibiotic resistance properties of bacteria typically change when they are exposed to antibiotics and another chemical (in this case, herbicides) at the same time. (naturalnews.com)
- Thus, the risk of herbicide-induced antibiotic resistance is greatest in agricultural settings, where both herbicides and antibiotics are in regular use. (naturalnews.com)
- Transposon vectors containing non-antibiotic resistance selection markers for cloning and stable chromosomal insertion of foreign genes in gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
- The cloning system described here will be particularly useful for the construction of hybrid bacteria that stably maintain inserted genes, perhaps in competitive situations (e.g., in open systems and natural environments), and that do not carry antibiotic resistance markers characteristic of most available cloning vectors (as is currently required of live bacterial vaccines). (asm.org)
- In most cases, slipping efficacy driven by resistance leads to a decision by pesticide manufacturers to phase out and replace a product that is not performing well, with a newly registered pesticide with equal or better efficacy. (springer.com)
- This entry was posted in Herbicides and tagged Bella Ciao , Europe , hand-weeding , Herbicides , Italian Rice Fields , Italy , Le mondine , rice , Rice Field Weeding , Riso Amaro by pesticide guy . (pesticideguy.org)
- We confirmed this result using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and showed that a single copy of the mutant allele is sufficient to confer resistance to sethoxydim. (nih.gov)
- The discovery of the SNP at codon 197 in AHAS1 of the resistant line was predicted to confer resistance to the SU class of AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. (oregonstate.edu)
- Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. (cambridge.org)
- Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. (cambridge.org)
- Weed management programs that consisted of ALS- and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides such as fenoxaprop and cyhalofop greatly reduced the risk of ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance (12% risk by year 30), but there was a considerable risk for ACCase resistance (evolving by year 14 with 13% risk by year 30) and multiple resistance (evolving by year 16 with 11% risk by year 30) to both of these mechanisms of action. (cambridge.org)
- The herbicide resistance of plants with both resistance mechanisms is substantially greater than one would expect from a simple combination of the two types of resistance. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Molecular Mechanisms of Herbicide Resistance' Reviews in Toxicology. (nii.ac.jp)
- Statewide responsibility for Weed Physiology and Molecular Biology involving research on seed dormancy, herbicide mechanisms of action, and mechanisms of herbicide resistance. (montana.edu)
- To conclude, our results suggest new molecular mechanisms used by D. insularis to increase glyphosate resistance. (geneticsmr.com)
- Herbicide resistance in wild oats ( Avena spp. (weedinfo.com.au)
- 2013. Characterization of multiple herbicide resistance in wild oat ( Avena fatua ) and its impacts on physiology, germinability, and seed production. (montana.edu)
- Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on multiple herbicide resistant wild oat ( Avena fatua ) in competition with wheat ( Triticum aestivum ). (montana.edu)
- The magnitude of the induced response may undermine antibiotic therapy and substantially increase the probability of spontaneous mutation to higher levels of resistance," the researchers wrote. (naturalnews.com)
- A 3.4 kb XhoI subfragment (Xho3.4) yields rare herbicide-resistant transformants, suggestive of homologous integration of a portion of the coding sequence containing the mutation. (ovid.com)
- These results constitute the first report on a target site mutation for a Brazilian herbicide resistant grass weed. (ufrgs.br)
- Hybrids were identified by progeny testing for a maize-specific herbicide resistance allele and a teosinte-specific allozyme allele. (calpoly.edu)
- Hybrids expressed resistances to 5MT in a semidominant fashion while A2C and glyphosate resistance was expressed as dominant, or semidominant, in a line specific manner. (illinois.edu)
- In case of accidental release of viable grains from maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 into the environment during transportation and processing, there are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment or survival of feral maize plants, except in the presence of glufosinate-ammonium- and/or glyphosate-based herbicides and/or under infestation of target pests. (europa.eu)
- In case of accidental release of viable maize MIR604 x GA21 grains into the environment during transportation and processing, there are no indications of increased likelihood of establishment or survival of feral maize plants, except in the presence of glyphosate-based herbicides. (europa.eu)
- We investigated the substrate preferences of bacterial aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase enzymes (AADs) that can effectively degrade 2,4-D and have found that some members of this class can act on other widely used herbicides in addition to their activity on 2,4-D. AAD-1 cleaves the aryloxyphenoxypropionate family of grass-active herbicides, and AAD-12 acts on pyridyloxyacetate auxin herbicides such as triclopyr and fluroxypyr. (pnas.org)
- We have further characterized the auxin responses of one previously reported dicamba-resistant biotype isolated from western Nebraska and found that it is additionally cross-resistant to other auxin herbicides, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and fluroxypyr. (pnas.org)
- Fusion of two cell lines with different amino acid analog or herbicide resistances allows selection of heterokaryons from unfused and homologous fusion products through the use of resistance complementation. (illinois.edu)
- In the hybrid lines the AEC uptake resistance was similar to that of the carrot parent as well as carrot-type levels of several free amino acids not characteristic of tobacco. (illinois.edu)
- Under an ALS inhibitor-only program consisting of three annual applications of imidazolinone herbicides (imazethapyr or imazamox) in continuous Clearfield rice, resistance was predicted within 4 yr with 80% risk by year 30. (cambridge.org)
- Bajo un programa de solamente inhibidores ALS consistiendo de tres aplicaciones anuales de herbicidas imidazolinone (imazethapyr o imazamox) en arroz Clearfield continuo, se predijo la aparición de resistencia después de 4 años con un 80% de riesgo en el año 30. (cambridge.org)
- Social costs associated with the loss of glyphosate efficacy include potential failure of herbicide-resistant crop systems, reduced use of conservation tillage techniques, and a potential greater reliance on herbicides with greater health and environmental risks. (repec.org)
- Results also demonstrated that diversifying management options is not just adequate, but diversity combined with timely herbicide applications aimed at achieving high efficacy levels possible is imperative. (cambridge.org)
- These practices include crop rotation, herbicide mode of action rotation, tank mixing of multiple herbicide modes of action, and incorporation of mechanical weed control with chemical and cultural methods. (pnas.org)
- Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) is known to be sensitive to many herbicides and, therefore, choices for using post-emergence herbicides for weed control are limited. (mdpi.com)
- The objective of this study was to determine the critical period of weed control in alfalfa by demonstrating how weed competition impacts alfalfa yield as well as the importance of proper herbicide application timing for optimum weed control. (wssa.net)
- It is concluded that crop diversification should have a central place in the development of an integrated weed control strategy to reduce reliance on herbicide for weed control. (gla.ac.uk)
- Herbicides were evaluated for weed control and crop response in conventional and notillage dry pea production. (ebscohost.com)
- there are different patterns of cross resistance to the diverse groups of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. (scielo.br)
- Papaver rhoeas with resistance to chlorsulfuron (G2) and cross-resistance to tribenuron methyl, triasulfuron and thifensulfuron methyl was found in Greece in 1998. (weedscience.com)
- The continued use of sulfonylurea herbicides led to cross-resistance to all ALS-inhibiting herbicides, making their use impossible in corn poppy resistance management programmes. (weedscience.com)
- Inhibition of PPO disrupts the synthesis of chlorophylls and hemes, which results in the damaging photodynamic effect characteristic of PPO inhibiting herbicides [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In contrast, only low doses of norflurazon and oxyfluorfen (~1.5 lM and ~0.1 lM, respectively) are required for inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that these two herbicides may prove effective in large-scale algal production facilities in suppressing growth of organisms sensitive to these herbicides. (unl.edu)