Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)AzetidinesCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.XylosePhotochemistryLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Glycylglycine: The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.PhlorhizinBody Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.TriglyceridesHepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Sprue, Tropical: A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
(1/3374) Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

(2/3374) Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans.

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

(3/3374) Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer.

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

(4/3374) Absorption of solar radiation by an ellipsoid sensor simulated the human body.

Assessment of heat gain in man caused by solar radiation is one of the most important problems in research of the human heat balance outdoors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a new method for estimation of solar heat income. Absorption of short wave radiation (direct, diffuse and reflected) was measured with an ellipsoid sensor representing a simple, physical model of man. Measurements were performed in climatic chamber with the use of an iodide CSI solar lamp. The absorbed quantity of solar radiation varied as a result of sun altitude as well as of a colour and insulation of fabric covering the ellipsoid sensor. The new coefficients derived from our investigations for estimating doses of absorbed solar radiation should be applicable for a standing man. They correlate better with mean skin temperature observed on subjects outdoor than previous results obtained based on a cylinder as an analogue model of man. The ellipsoid sensor covered by a black fabric absorbed about 6 times more of solar radiation than when covered by a white textile.  (+info)

(5/3374) Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum.

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

(6/3374) Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis.

Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0.5% cholic acid to C57L/J male mice, which because of lith genes have 100% gallstone prevalence rates. After 1 yr on the diets, we measured bile flow, biliary lipid secretion rates, hepatic cholesterol and bile salt synthesis, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. After hepatic conjugation with taurine, cholate replaced most tauro-beta-muricholate in bile. Dietary cholic acid plus cholesterol increased bile flow and biliary lipid secretion rates and reduced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity significantly mostly via deoxycholic acid, cholate's bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation product but did not downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis. Intestinal cholesterol absorption doubled, and biliary cholesterol crystallized as phase boundaries shifted. Feeding mice 1% cholesterol alone produced no lithogenic or homeostatic effects. We conclude that in mice cholic acid promotes biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and cholelithogenesis by enhancing intestinal absorption, hepatic bioavailability, and phase separation of cholesterol in bile.  (+info)

(7/3374) Enteropathogenic E. coli attenuates secretagogue-induced net intestinal ion transport but not Cl- secretion.

Enteric bacterial pathogens often increase intestinal Cl- secretion. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) does not stimulate active ion secretion. In fact, EPEC infection decreases net ion transport in response to classic secretagogues. This has been presumed to reflect diminished Cl- secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of EPEC infection on specific intestinal epithelial ion transport processes. T84 cell monolayers infected with EPEC were used for these studies. EPEC infection significantly decreased short-circuit current (Isc) in response to carbachol and forskolin, yet 125I efflux studies revealed no difference in Cl- channel activity. There was also no alteration in basolateral K+ channel or Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport activity. Furthermore, net 36Cl- flux was not decreased by EPEC. No alterations in either K+ or Na+ transport could be demonstrated. Instead, removal of basolateral bicarbonate from uninfected monolayers yielded an Isc response approximating that observed with EPEC infection, whereas bicarbonate removal from EPEC-infected monolayers further diminished Isc. These studies suggest that the reduction in stimulated Isc is not secondary to diminished Cl- secretion. Alternatively, bicarbonate-dependent transport processes appear to be perturbed.  (+info)

(8/3374) Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog.

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

*  Iron deficiency
Gropper, Sareen S; Smith, Jack L; Groff, James L (2009). "Enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption". In . Advanced Nutrition ... However, spinach and Swiss chard contain oxalates which bind iron, making it almost entirely unavailable for absorption.[ ... which enhances iron absorption. Following are two tables showing the richest foods in heme and non-heme iron. In both tables, ... Minerals and chemicals in one type of food may also inhibit absorption of iron from another type of food eaten at the same time ...
*  Glucose-galactose malabsorption
In some cases, individuals with one altered gene have reduced levels of glucose absorption capacity as measured in laboratory ... However, as many as 10 percent of the population may have a somewhat reduced capacity for glucose absorption without associated ...
*  Jejunum
The jejunum is involved in magnesium absorption[citation needed]. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as ... CRANE, RK (Oct 1960). "Intestinal absorption of sugars". Physiological Reviews. 40: 789-825. PMID 13696269. Guillaume, Jean; ... The lining of the jejunum is specialized for the absorption, by enterocytes, of small nutrient particles which have been ... has many large circular folds in its submucosa called plicae circulares which increase the surface area for nutrient absorption ...
*  Human iron metabolism
Absorption of iron from animal products, and some plant products, is in the form of heme iron, and is more efficient, allowing ... The absorption of dietary iron is a variable and dynamic process. The amount of iron absorbed compared to the amount ingested ... Absorption of dietary iron in iron salt form (as in most supplements) varies somewhat according to the body's need for iron, ... Iron absorption from diet is enhanced in the presence of vitamin C and diminished by excess calcium, zinc, or manganese.[ ...
*  Absorption (acoustics)
How well a room absorbs sound is quantified by the effective absorption area of the walls, also named total absorption area. ... This is calculated using its dimensions and the absorption coefficients of the walls. The total absorption is expressed in ... Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are ... Absorption coefficients can be measured using a reverberation room, which is the opposite of an anechoic chamber (see below). ...
*  Absorption (pharmacology)
The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration. Absorption is a ... Kaplan Pharmacology 2010, page6, Absorption Kaplan Pharmacology 2010, Video Lectues, Absorption chapter Avdeef, Alex (2003). ... Absorption and Drug Development. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience/J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-42365-3. Absorption of Drugs Pharmacy ... absorption is even more straightforward and there is less variability in absorption and bioavailability is often near 100%. It ...
*  Absorption spectroscopy
Solar absorption spectrum Visible Absorption Spectrum Simulation Plot Absorption Intensity for many molecules in HITRAN ... The intensity of the absorption varies as a function of frequency, and this variation is the absorption spectrum. Absorption ... X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) Total absorption spectroscopy (TAS) ... The absorption that occurs due to a transition between two states is referred to as an absorption line and a spectrum is ...
*  Ionospheric absorption
... (or ISAB) is the scientific name for absorption occurring as a result of the interaction between various ... Relative ionospheric absorption can be measured using a riometer. Radio horizon Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance Walker, J.K. ; ... Ionosphere absorption is of critical importance when radio networks, telecommunication systems or interlinked radio systems are ... Bhatnagar, V.P. Ionospheric absorption, typical ionization, conductivity, and possible synoptic heating parameters in the upper ...
*  Absorption band
This absorption process can move a particle, like an electron, from an occupied state to an empty or unoccupied state. It can ... In order for a substance to change its energy it must do so in a series of "steps" by the absorption of a photon. ... A wide variety of absorption band and line shapes exist, and the analysis of the band or line shape can be used to determine ... Materials with broad absorption bands are being applied in pigments, dyes and optical filters. Titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and ...
*  Absorption (psychology)
Absorption is most commonly measured by the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS). Several versions of this scale are available, the ... Absorption is unrelated to extraversion or neuroticism. One study found a positive correlation between absorption and need for ... Absorption has a strong relationship to self-transcendence in the Temperament and Character Inventory. Absorption can ... The original research on absorption was by American psychologist Auke Tellegen. The construct of absorption was developed in ...
*  Absorption refrigerator
An absorption refrigerator changes the gas back into a liquid using a method that needs only heat, and has no moving parts ... An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat ... Both absorption and compressor refrigerators use a refrigerant with a very low boiling point (less than −18 °C (0 °F)). In both ... Absorption refrigerators are often used for food storage in recreational vehicles. The principle can also be used to air- ...
*  Absorption hardening
... absorption hardening is the increase in average energy of neutrons in a population by preferential absorption of lower-energy ... This occurs because absorption cross-sections typically increase for lower neutron energies. Weston M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor ...
*  Absorption (logic)
The absorption rule may be expressed as a sequent: P → Q ⊢ P → ( P ∧ Q ) {\displaystyle P\to Q\vdash P\to (P\land Q)} where ... Absorption is a valid argument form and rule of inference of propositional logic. The rule states that if P {\displaystyle P} ... It is called the law of absorption because the term Q {\displaystyle Q} is "absorbed" by the term P {\displaystyle P} in the ...
*  Chappuis absorption
The Chappuis absorption bands occur at wavelengths between 400 and 650 nm. Within this range are two absorption maxima of ... Compared to the absorption of ultraviolet light by the ozone layer, known as the Hartley and Huggins absorptions, Chappuis ... Chappuis absorption is a continuum absorption in the wavelength range between 400 and 650 nm. It is caused by the ... Chappuis absorption refers to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by ozone, that is especially noticeable in the ozone ...
*  Absorption (economics)
As the absorption is equal to the sum of all domestically-produced goods consumed locally and all imports, it is equal to ... In economics, absorption is the total demand for all final marketed goods and services by all economic agents resident in an ... The term "absorption" is often used in real estate to assess demand for leasing space. Deardorff, Alan V. (2006). Terms of ...
*  Absorption (skin)
If skin exposure and absorption are deemed to indicate a risk various methods to reduce absorption can be undertaken. Labels of ... Absorption (chemistry) Absorption (pharmacokinetics) Dermal patch Epidermis (skin) Exposure assessment Exposure to toxins ... Dressler WE (1999) Hair dye absorption. In: Bronaugh RL & Maibach HI eds. Percutaneous absorption: drugs-cosmetics-mechanisms- ... The dermal absorption of a dilute solution by partial leg or arm exposure has been modeled by Scharf. The EPA also has guidance ...
*  Absorption wavemeter
An absorption wavemeter is a simple electronic instrument used to measure the frequency of radio waves. It is an older method ... or absorption wavemeters, which are loosely coupled to the radio frequency source and absorb energy from it. The most simple ...
*  Absorption law
In algebra, the absorption law or absorption identity is an identity linking a pair of binary operations. Two binary operations ... including the absorption law. The same is true for intuitionistic logic. The absorption law does not hold in many other ... 2001) [1994], "Absorption laws", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers ... and ⁂, are said to be connected by the absorption law if: a ¤ (a ⁂ b) = a ⁂ (a ¤ b) = a. A set equipped with two commutative, ...
*  Saturable absorption
... is a property of materials where the absorption of light decreases with increasing light intensity. Most ... Then, for the continuous-wave operation, the absorption rate (or simply absorption) A {\displaystyle A} is determined by ... For pulsed operation, in the limiting case of short pulses, absorption can be expressed through the fluence ( 9 ) F = ∫ 0 t I ... Within the simple model of saturated absorption, the relaxation rate of excitations does not depend on the intensity. ...
*  Absorption edge
An absorption edge, absorption discontinuity or absorption limit is a sharp discontinuity in the absorption spectrum of a ...
*  Absorption (chemistry)
Absorption is a process that may be chemical (reactive) or physical (non-reactive). Chemical absorption or reactive absorption ... The process of gas or liquid which penetrate into the body of adsorbent is commonly known as absorption. If absorption is a ... In many processes important in technology, the chemical absorption is used in place of the physical process, e.g., absorption ... Sometimes it combines with physical absorption. This type of absorption depends upon the stoichiometry of the reaction and the ...
*  Mineral absorption
In plants and animals, mineral absorption, also called mineral uptake is the way in which minerals enter the cellular material ...
*  Absorption unit
... may refer to Gray (unit), SI unit of absorbed radiation dose Sabin (unit), unit of sound absorption A device ... which absorbs, such as a Dynamometer Absorption (disambiguation). ...
*  Total absorption spectroscopy
This makes total absorption spectroscopy the best method to measure beta feedings and provide accurate beta intensity (Iβ) ... Total absorption spectroscopy is a measurement technique that allows the measurement of the gamma radiation emitted in the ... 1997). "Coupling a total absorption spectrometer to the GSI on-line mass separator". Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B. 126: 411. On- ... It is implemented with a special type of detector, the "total absorption spectrometer" (TAS), made of a scintillator crystal ...
*  Two-photon absorption
... (TPA) is the absorption of two photons of identical or different frequencies in order to excite a ... Two-photon absorption is a second-order process, several orders of magnitude weaker than linear absorption at low light ... This may be better called three photon absorption. In the next paragraph resonant two photon absorption via separate one-photon ... and can dominate over linear absorption at high intensities. Two-photon absorption can lead to two-photon-excited fluorescence ...
Cutaneous absorption financial definition of cutaneous absorption  Cutaneous absorption financial definition of cutaneous absorption
What is cutaneous absorption? Meaning of cutaneous absorption as a finance term. What does cutaneous absorption mean in finance ... Definition of cutaneous absorption in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to cutaneous absorption: percutaneous absorption Absorption. 1. The total demand for all goods and services in an ... absorption. (redirected from cutaneous absorption). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ...
more infohttp://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cutaneous+absorption
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) | LSU CAMD  X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) | LSU CAMD
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a technique to analyze the elemental properties of ...
more infohttp://search.lsu.edu/camd/beamlines/xas/
Electronic structure of platinum complex/Zn-porphyrinato assembled macrosystems, related precursors and model molecules, as...  Electronic structure of platinum complex/Zn-porphyrinato assembled macrosystems, related precursors and model molecules, as...
... as probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS): theory and experiment. ... as probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS): theory and experiment ... arrays containing Zn-diethynylporphyrin coordinated to platinum tethers were studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine ... arrays containing Zn-diethynylporphyrin coordinated to platinum tethers were studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine ...
more infohttps://iris.uniroma3.it/handle/11590/143389
Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...  Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...
Recker RR: Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. N Engl J Med 1985, 313:70-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Heaney RP, Smith KT, Recker RR, Hinders SM: Meal effects on calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1989, 49:372-376.PubMedGoogle ... Chonan O, Takahashi R, Yasui H, Watanuki M: Effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole. J Nutr Sci ... Miret S, Simpson RJ, McKie AT: Physiology and molecular biology of dietary iron absorption. Annu Rev Nutr 2003, 23:283-301. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11894-010-0141-0
Absorption - Wikipedia  Absorption - Wikipedia
Absorption (acoustics), absorption of sound waves by a material. *Absorption refrigerator, a refrigerator that runs on surplus ... Absorption air conditioning, a type of solar air conditioning. *Dielectric absorption, the inability of a charged capacitor to ... Absorption costing, or total absorption costing, a method for appraising or valuing a firm's total inventory by including all ... Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorption of light or other electromagnetic radiation by a material ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption
Optical Absorption  Optical Absorption
... Internal Users. New users. It is not possible to use or book the spectrometers until you have completed a ...
more infohttps://warwick.ac.uk/research/rtp/spectroscopy/absorption/
Absorption | AIChE  Absorption | AIChE
The entrance of water into the soil or rocks by all natural process. The uptake of water or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism. More generally, the process by which substances in gaseous, liquid, or solid form dissolve or mix with other substances.
more infohttps://www.aiche.org/ifs/resources/glossary/isws-water-glossary/absorption
Light Absorption  Light Absorption
... Light passing through an optical system can be attenuated by absorption and by scattering. The exponential ... which upon integration from 0 to x gives the exponential law of absorption:. where the constant α is usually called the ... absorption coefficient. If the absorbing medium is a solution, the concentration c is included and the law becomes ... law of absorption is the basic working relationship, but specific terms such as absorbance, absorptivity, and transmittance are ...
more infohttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/absorb.html
absorption  absorption
The absorption spectrum for plant chlorophyll shows that there is little absorption of green light. I understand that is why ... absorption. Carolyn S. Ogren csogren at prairienet.org Sat May 28 11:27:44 EST 1994 *Previous message: Peter R. Rich's fax ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/photosyn/1994-May/000358.html
fluorine absorption dating - Wiktionary  fluorine absorption dating - Wiktionary
fluorine absorption dating (uncountable). *(archaeology) a technique used to date bones by measuring the amount of fluorine ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=fluorine_absorption_dating&oldid=41593392" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fluorine_absorption_dating
Distillation and Absorption | SpringerLink  Distillation and Absorption | SpringerLink
Field R.W. (1988) Distillation and Absorption. In: Chemical Engineering. Dimensions of Science. Palgrave, London. * DOI https ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-09840-8_6
Xylose Absorption Test  Xylose Absorption Test
The xylose absorption test determines how well someone absorbs xylose to distinguish between malabsorption disorders caused by ... Low levels of blood and urine xylose indicate poor absorption. A variety of conditions that affect digestion and absorption may ... The xylose absorption test is a procedure that involves fasting prior to testing and emptying the bladder at the beginning of ... The xylose absorption test may be ordered to help determine whether a person is absorbing carbohydrates normally and to ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/xylose-absorption-test
HubbleSite: Image - Starlight Absorption  HubbleSite: Image - Starlight Absorption
Starlight Yields Clues To Exoplanets' Atmospheres. Astronomers used Hubble to analyze light from the nearby star TRAPPIST-1 that passed through the atmospheres of four Earth-sized planets in the star's habitable zone. This zone is a region at a distance from the star where liquid water, the key to life as we know it, could exist on the planet's surfaces. The astronomers were looking for the signatures of certain gases, including hydrogen, in the atmospheres that were imprinted on the starlight.. The graphic at top shows a model spectrum containing the signatures of gases the astronomers would expect to see if the exoplanets' atmospheres were puffy and dominated by primordial hydrogen from the distant worlds' formation.. The Hubble Space Telescope observations, however, revealed that the planets do not have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. The flat spectrum shown in the illustration at bottom indicates that Hubble did not spot any traces of water or methane, which are abundant in hydrogen-rich ...
more infohttp://hubblesite.org/image/4113/category/51-extrasolar-planets
Sound - Sound absorption | Britannica.com  Sound - Sound absorption | Britannica.com
Sound absorption: In addition to the geometric decrease in intensity caused by the inverse square law, a small part of a sound ... Sound absorption. In addition to the geometric decrease in intensity caused by the inverse square law, a small part of a sound ... Absorption of undesirable sound, such as that from machines in factories, is critical to the health of workers, and noise ... In addition, because absorption increases with frequency, it becomes very difficult for ultrasonic waves to penetrate a dense ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/sound-physics/Sound-absorption
What is Drug Absorption?  What is Drug Absorption?
Drug absorption is a pharmacokinetic parameter that refers to the way a drug is absorbed from a pharmaceutical formulation into ... The main pharmacokinetic parameters for absorption include:. *Absorption rate constant: absorption rate / amount of drug ... Absorption Type: Pinocytosis. Pinocytosis involves absorption of fluid or particles following their encapsulation by a cell. ... Drug absorption is a pharmacokinetic parameter that refers to the way a drug is absorbed from a pharmaceutical formulation into ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Drug-Absorption.aspx
Which foods increase iron absorption?  Which foods increase iron absorption?
Here, look at how to get more iron in the diet and increase its absorption. We also cover recommend daily allowance, the ... How to increase iron absorption. Certain foods and drinks can affect iron absorption:. Tannins. Tea may inhibit absorption of ... To increase iron absorption, include foods that are high in vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, in the same meal as iron-rich foods. ... In this article, we look at the different types of iron, which foods are rich in iron, and how to increase absorption of iron. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322272.php?iacp
Absorption of Light - Universe Today  Absorption of Light - Universe Today
Wherever absorption occurs, heat energy is generated. As already noted, absorption depends upon the state of an objects ... If you'd like more info on light absorption, check out an article about Light Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission. Also, ... We have written many articles about the absorption of light for Universe Today. Here's an article about absorption spectra, and ... Absorption of Light. [/caption]. Those who can remember sitting through elementary science class might recall learning that ...
more infohttps://www.universetoday.com/87943/absorption-of-light/
Absorption Rate Factors - CSB/SJU  Absorption Rate Factors - CSB/SJU
Absorption Rate Factors. Weight. The weight of a person greatly affects the distribution of alcohol throughout the body. The ... Food slows down that absorption of alcohol.. Type of Drink. Diluting alcohol with water or juices reduces the volume of alcohol ... Home / Counseling & Health Promotion & CSB Health Services / Health Promotion / Alcohol Guide / Absorption Rate Factors ... Drinking straight alcohol or alcohol mixed with carbonated beverages speeds up absorption. ...
more infohttps://www.csbsju.edu/chp/health-promotion/alcohol-guide/absorption-rate-factors
dielectric absorption | Circuit Cellar  dielectric absorption | Circuit Cellar
Tag Archives: dielectric absorption. Experimenting with Dielectric Absorption. Posted on 2014/01/31. by Circuit Cellar Staff ... Posted in CC Blog , Tagged capacitor, chipKIT, Circuit Cellar, circuitry, dielectric absorption, Digilent, energy, February, ... Posted in CC Blog , Tagged Agilent, capacitor, dielectric absorption, digital, DSO-X, electronic experiments, multimeter, ... Dielectric absorption occurs when a capacitor that has been charged for a long time briefly retains a small amount of voltage ...
more infohttp://circuitcellar.com/tag/dielectric-absorption/
Smoking and insulin absorption. | The BMJ  Smoking and insulin absorption. | The BMJ
Smoking and insulin absorption. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 289 :697 ... Smoking and insulin absorption.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 289 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.289.6446.697-a (Published 15 ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/289/6446/697.2/rapid-responses
  • Also, here's an article about reflection and absorption of light . (universetoday.com)
  • Use a microcomputer interface to learn about reflection and absorption of light. (carleton.edu)
  • The complete activity in pdf format can be viewed at Reflection and Absorption of Light The cost of the interface, temperature probe, and light sensor are $220, $29, and $45 respectively. (carleton.edu)
  • The activity description at Reflection and Absorption of Light comes complete with two pages of Teacher Information. (carleton.edu)
  • Interest in this area has led to examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism and numerous cohort, case-control, and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. (springer.com)
  • A damaged liver doesn't produce the enzyme needed to convert vitamin D to its active form, and vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption. (livestrong.com)
  • However, studies with blocking antibodies, observations in rodents with disorders of iron metabolism, and studies in tissue culture cells suggest that the DCT-1 pathway is dominant in embryonic cells and is involved with cellular uptake of ferrous iron, whereas the mobilferrin-integrin pathway facilitates absorption of dietary inorganic ferric iron. (nih.gov)
  • The exponential law of absorption is the basic working relationship, but specific terms such as absorbance, absorptivity, and transmittance are widely used. (gsu.edu)
  • If office developers want to lessen their chances of building a failure, they must pay closer attention to future demand instead of space-absorption patterns, a widely known Florida real estate economist contends.Tom Powers, chief economist for Goodkin Research Corp. of Fort Lauderdale-by-the-Sea, said metropolitan Orlando, like most construction markets, is usually analyzed using space-absorption surveys. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Drug absorption is a pharmacokinetic parameter that refers to the way a drug is absorbed from a pharmaceutical formulation into the bloodstream. (news-medical.net)
  • Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consuming coffee and tea with a meal is shown to decrease the absorption of iron from the foods with which it is consumed. (ehow.co.uk)
  • According to Colorado State University, tea can decrease the absorption of iron by 60 per cent and coffee can decrease absorption by up to 50 per cent. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Professional abstract of Washington University study showing orlistat inhibits cholesterol absorption. (dmoztools.net)
  • Light passing through an optical system can be attenuated by absorption and by scattering. (gsu.edu)
  • The absorption spectrum for plant chlorophyll shows that there is little absorption of green light. (bio.net)
  • Subsequently, the light energy is not to be seen again, hence why absorption is differentiated from reflection and transmission. (universetoday.com)
  • We have written many articles about the absorption of light for Universe Today. (universetoday.com)
  • Students use a microcomputer connected to a light sensor and temperature probe to explore the reflection and absorption of radiation for different surfaces. (carleton.edu)
  • Use a temperature probe to measure the relative absorption of radiant energy for different surfaces. (carleton.edu)
  • Hence, whether or not a molecule is ionized will affect its absorption, since ionic molecules are charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)