Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)AzetidinesCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.XylosePhotochemistryLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Glycylglycine: The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.PhlorhizinBody Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.TriglyceridesHepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Sprue, Tropical: A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.

Effect of a staphylococcin on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/3374)

Phage group 2 staphylococcal strain UT0002 contains a large 56S virulence plasmid with genes that code for both exfoliative toxin and a specific staphylococcin termed Bac R(1). Four penicillinase-producing strains and three penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were killed by Bac R(1). After 30 min of growth of the penicillin-resistant TR1 strain in 62.5 arbitrary units of Bac R(1) per ml, loss of viability was approximately 90%, and, after 5 h, an approximately 99.99% loss of viability was observed. Lysis did not accompany cell death, and 84% of the Bac R(1) added to the growth medium was adsorbed to the gonococcal cells. The extracellular supernatant fluid from a substrain of staphylococcal strain UT0002 cured of the plasmid for Bac R(1) production had no lethal effect on the gonococcal strains. Bac R(1) was also shown to have bactericidal activity against an L-form of N. meningitidis, indicating that the outer envelope of a neisserial cell is not needed for bacteriocin activity. Ten different normal human sera were unable to neutralize Bac R(1) activity. The bacteriocin lacks adsorption specificity. It binds to but does not kill Escherichia coli cells, indicating that the cell envelope of gram-negative organisms can provide protection against the staphylococcin.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (2/3374)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer. (3/3374)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

Absorption of solar radiation by an ellipsoid sensor simulated the human body. (4/3374)

Assessment of heat gain in man caused by solar radiation is one of the most important problems in research of the human heat balance outdoors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a new method for estimation of solar heat income. Absorption of short wave radiation (direct, diffuse and reflected) was measured with an ellipsoid sensor representing a simple, physical model of man. Measurements were performed in climatic chamber with the use of an iodide CSI solar lamp. The absorbed quantity of solar radiation varied as a result of sun altitude as well as of a colour and insulation of fabric covering the ellipsoid sensor. The new coefficients derived from our investigations for estimating doses of absorbed solar radiation should be applicable for a standing man. They correlate better with mean skin temperature observed on subjects outdoor than previous results obtained based on a cylinder as an analogue model of man. The ellipsoid sensor covered by a black fabric absorbed about 6 times more of solar radiation than when covered by a white textile.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (5/3374)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis. (6/3374)

Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0.5% cholic acid to C57L/J male mice, which because of lith genes have 100% gallstone prevalence rates. After 1 yr on the diets, we measured bile flow, biliary lipid secretion rates, hepatic cholesterol and bile salt synthesis, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. After hepatic conjugation with taurine, cholate replaced most tauro-beta-muricholate in bile. Dietary cholic acid plus cholesterol increased bile flow and biliary lipid secretion rates and reduced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity significantly mostly via deoxycholic acid, cholate's bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation product but did not downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis. Intestinal cholesterol absorption doubled, and biliary cholesterol crystallized as phase boundaries shifted. Feeding mice 1% cholesterol alone produced no lithogenic or homeostatic effects. We conclude that in mice cholic acid promotes biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and cholelithogenesis by enhancing intestinal absorption, hepatic bioavailability, and phase separation of cholesterol in bile.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic E. coli attenuates secretagogue-induced net intestinal ion transport but not Cl- secretion. (7/3374)

Enteric bacterial pathogens often increase intestinal Cl- secretion. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) does not stimulate active ion secretion. In fact, EPEC infection decreases net ion transport in response to classic secretagogues. This has been presumed to reflect diminished Cl- secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of EPEC infection on specific intestinal epithelial ion transport processes. T84 cell monolayers infected with EPEC were used for these studies. EPEC infection significantly decreased short-circuit current (Isc) in response to carbachol and forskolin, yet 125I efflux studies revealed no difference in Cl- channel activity. There was also no alteration in basolateral K+ channel or Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport activity. Furthermore, net 36Cl- flux was not decreased by EPEC. No alterations in either K+ or Na+ transport could be demonstrated. Instead, removal of basolateral bicarbonate from uninfected monolayers yielded an Isc response approximating that observed with EPEC infection, whereas bicarbonate removal from EPEC-infected monolayers further diminished Isc. These studies suggest that the reduction in stimulated Isc is not secondary to diminished Cl- secretion. Alternatively, bicarbonate-dependent transport processes appear to be perturbed.  (+info)

Paracellular glucose transport plays a minor role in the unanesthetized dog. (8/3374)

Traditionally, intestinal glucose absorption was thought to occur through active, carrier-mediated transport. However, proponents of paracellular transport have argued that previous experiments neglected effects of solvent drag coming from high local concentrations of glucose at the brush-border membrane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose absorption in the awake dog under conditions that would maximize any contribution of paracellular transport. Jejunal Thiry-Vella loops were constructed in six female mongrel dogs. After surgical recovery, isotonic buffers containing L-glucose as the probe for paracellular permeability were given over 2-h periods by constant infusion pump. At physiological concentrations of D-glucose (1-50 mM), the fractional absorption of L-glucose was only 4-7% of total glucose absorption. Infusion of supraphysiological concentrations (150 mM) of D-glucose, D-maltose, or D-mannitol yielded low-fractional absorptions of L-glucose (2-5%), so too did complex or nonabsorbable carbohydrates. In all experiments, there was significant fractional water absorption (5-19%), a prerequisite for solvent drag. Therefore, with even up to high concentrations of luminal carbohydrates in the presence of significant water absorption, the relative contribution of paracellular glucose absorption remained low.  (+info)

Atmospheric black carbon makes an important but poorly quantified contribution to the warming of the global atmosphere. Laboratory and modelling studies have shown that the addition of non-black-carbon materials to black-carbon particles may enhance the particles light absorption by 50 to 60% by refracting and reflecting light. Real-world experimental evidence for this lensing effect is scant and conflicting, showing that absorption enhancements can be less than 5% or as large as 140%. Here we present simultaneous quantifications of the composition and optical properties of individual atmospheric black-carbon particles. We show that particles with a mass ratio of non-black carbon to black carbon of less than 1.5, which is typical of fresh traffic sources, are best represented as having no absorption enhancement. In contrast, black-carbon particles with a ratio greater than 3, which is typical of biomass-burning emissions, are best described assuming optical lensing leading to an absorption ...
Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out to be successful in terms of the trueness. However, the reproducibility of the converted random incidence absorption coefficients has not been investigated. The present study mainly focuses on the reproducibility of the random incidence absorption coefficients that are converted from the Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 different chambers in a recent round-robin test, revealing that the ...
This paper studies impact energy absorption characteristics of FRTP deep drawn structures having three representative shapes, i.e., hemi-shere,...
Aims. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage tube waves are excited in magnetic flux tubes by p-mode forcing. These tube waves carry energy away from the p-mode cavity which results in a source of absorption. We wish to see the effect of an ensemble of randomly distributed thin magnetic flux tubes on the absorption of p-modes for the model plage region and also study the effect of the spacial weighting function on the theoretically calculated absorption coefficients. Methods. We calculate the absorption coefficients of p modes for a model plage, assumed to consist of an ensemble of many thin magnetic flux tubes with randomly distributed plasma properties. Each magnetic flux tube in the ensemble is modelled as axisymmetric, non-interacting, vertically oriented and untwisted. Results. We find that the magnitude and the form of the absorption coefficient is sensitive to the plasma-beta of the tubes which is consistent with previous work. Both the random distribution used to model the ensemble of flux ...
The absorption coefficient, α, in a variety of semiconductor materials at 300K as a function of the vacuum wavelength of light.. The above graph shows that even for those photons which have an energy above the band gap, the absorption coefficient is not constant, but still depends strongly on wavelength. The probability of absorbing a photon depends on the likelihood of having a photon and an electron interact in such a way as to move from one energy band to another. For photons which have an energy very close to that of the band gap, the absorption is relatively low since only those electrons directly at the valence band edge can interact with the photon to cause absorption. As the photon energy increases, not just the electrons already having energy close to that of the band gap can interact with the photon. Therefore, a larger number of electrons can interact with the photon and result in the photon being absorbed.. The absorption coefficient, α, is related to the extinction coefficient, k, ...
A ported connecting tube is interposed between the gas delivery hose of an anesthesia gas delivery machine and the outlet of an endotracheal tube. One end of a flexible conduit is inserted into the port in the connecting tube and the other end is connected to a breath alcohol meter thereby placing the sampling chamber of the meter in flow registration with the endotracheal tube. During operative hysteroscopy, a refrigerated solution containing, optimally 1% Ethanol is used to irrigate the surgery site, and the patients expired breath is periodically sampled to determine the presence and quantity of ethanol therein. The presence of ethanol indicates systemic absorption of the irrigation fluid by the patient, which absorption may cause undesirable operative and post operative complications in the patient.
While brown carbon (BrC) might play a substantially important role in radiative forcing, an estimation of its light absorption contribution with high-time resolution is still challenging. In this study, a multi-wavelength (370-950 nm) Aethalometer was applied to obtain the wavelength dependent light absorption coefficient (σabs) of aerosols both before and after being heated to 250°C. An improved absorption Ångström exponent (AAE)-based method was developed to evaluate the contribution of BrC to light absorption at a wavelength of 370 nm (σabs,BrC/σabs,370nm). The σabs,BC at 370 nm was determined from the field measured AAE values for the wavelengths from 880 to 950 nm with a one-hour resolution. The simultaneous measurements of heated aerosols help confirm the negligible influence of BrC on the σabs values across the range of 880-950 nm. Meanwhile, σabs,BrC/σabs,370nm was also estimated with previously reported methods by assuming that the AAE was equal to 1 (Method I) as well as a new
Methods and devices are provided for support of a body structure. The devices can be adjusted within the body of a patient in a minimally invasive or non-invasive manner such as by applying energy percutaneously or external to the patients body. The energy may include, for example, acoustic energy, radio frequency energy, light energy and magnetic energy. Thus, as the body structure changes size and/or shape, the size and/or shape of the annuloplasty rings can be adjusted to provide continued reinforcement. In certain embodiments, the devices include a body member including a shape memory material, and an energy absorption enhancement material configured to absorb energy in response to an activation energy. The energy absorption enhancement material is in thermal communication with said shape memory material. The body member has a first size of a dimension in a first configuration and a second size of the dimension in a second configuration, and is configured to be implanted in the first configuration
Absorption rate is average number of homes sold per month over a particular period of time. The months to sell is a reflection of the absorption rate, how long it will take to sell the current inventory at the said absorption rate. The Pending Ratio is the number of homes currently under contract compared to the number of homes available for sale . This is a very interesting way to look at the market, as of today: Average List Price $485,243 Days on the market 134 Median List Price $374,000 Days on the market 95 Price Range Active Listings Monthly Absorption Rate Pending Past week/Total Months to sell Current Inventory Pending Ratio Up to $199,999 24 8.6 5/26 2.8 108% 200,000-299,999 124 31.8 3/50 3.9 40% 300,000-399,999 95 17.2 1/11 5.5 11.8% 400,000-499,999 53 7.1 1/8 6.2 15.1% 500,000-599,999 37 4.3 0/3 8.6 8% 600,000-699,999 28 1.9 0/3 14.7 11% 700,000-799,999 22 .9 1/3 24.4 14% 800,000-899,999 9 .8 0/0 11.3 0% 900,000-999,999 4 .4 0/0 10.0 0% 1,000,000-1,999,999 23 .9 0/1 25.6 4% 2,000,000+ 5 .2 0
In order to fully understand stellar structure, it is necessary to know the opacity, as it influences the behavior of radiative transfer within the stellar interior. Opacity plays an important role in the onset of convection as well as driving stellar winds in cool stars. Opacity is the interaction of light with the surrounding medium, with major contributors being atoms, molecules and grains. Tables of average opacity values are highly dependent on the composition and if any changes are made, a whole new set of tables must be recalculated. Using molecular line lists, a computer program was written to calculate the bound-bound transition cross-section absorption coefficients for eight different molecular species, including C2, CH, CN , CO, C2H2, H2O, HCN , and T iO. Molecular line lists, like H2O, consist of hundreds of millions of lines of data that slow down the process of calculation. Since the frequency specific opacity is dependent on temperature, the molecular absorption coefficients must ...
Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the ...
In some previous papers it has been shown by the author and others that saturated compounds of most substances in the vapour state show continuous absorption. A typical example is SO3-vapour, which was recently studied by the author and which enabled him to make an accurate estimation of the heat of dissociation of oxygen. In the present work, the absorption spectrum of N2O was investigated with a view to determining the heat of dissociation of nitrogen. Leifson was the first to investigate the absorption spectrum of N2O gas and found that the gas shows no selective absorption in the Schumann region. He states that the absorption is in the form of two continuous bands, the first extending from λ 2000 to λ 1680 and the second from λ 1550 beyond the range of observation. Recently Wulf and Melvin showed that when N2O is illuminated with light of wave-length λ 2300, it is decomposed photochemically into NO and N; they also noticed that N2O possesses no band absorption. ...
Thank you, Coulomb. The new bateries are lead acid, not AGMs. The target voltages are taken from the 3-Step+ manual. I read the content at the link you provided. Thank you again. Is it corrct to assume that after the absorption time has expired based on the screw setting, the bateries will continue to charge below the gassing voltage and last longer? Thus on a long motoring leg, if I understood correctly, it would make sense to dial the absortion time DOWN? Assuming charging at anchor or on a 1-2 hour motoring leg, what would be a good target absorption time and how many turns of the screw starting from full-stop down (counterclockwise) would it take to get there ...
Optical absorption measurements at 300 K and 77K in the 2.5-12 micrometer range are presented for epitaxial PbTe films grown on BaF2 substrates. Effects due to carrier concentrations, growth conditions, and possible impurities are discussed. In high carrier concentration films p or 10 to the 18th powercc the absorption is free-carrier limited, while in low p material the absorption appears to be impurity limited. The impurity limited absorption, which shows wide variations between samples, correlates with the observation of Cl in the ion back-scattering spectra. The lowest observed 10 micrometer loss is 16cm. A threshold analysis on PbTe diode lasers made with annealed samples indicates the threshold gain is 10-20cm, about a factor of 10 below that obtained in similar laser in unannealed films.
Gastrointestinal motility is one of the most important factors that can influence drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present s
... for several semiconductor materials is presented. Lets consider monochromatic light of photons with energy of Eph=1.55eV that incidents a film with thickness d. If we ignore possible reflection losses at the rear and front interfaces of the film, what thickness d (in μm) is required to achieve a light absorption of 90 ...
Experimental Designs are used to study, quantify, identify or separate the components of different chemical substances. Experimental designs can be categorized as being classical or instrumental. Classical methods focus more on qualitative analysis, where the odor/color of a chemical compound may be considered, or whether any precipitate forms during a chemical reaction. On the other hand, instrumental methods focus more on quantitative analysis. By using complex instruments, variables such as light absorption or conductivity are considered. These analytical methods are conducted to complement the purely theoretical side of chemistry, in order to either prove a law or apply it. For example, measuring light absorption may be used in the application of Beer-Lamberts Law, which relates light absorption to concentration of a chemical substance. By finding out the light absorption through instrumental methods, the concentration of the substance can be indirectly determined through this law. Thus, ...
All CMI scheduled meetings are being held virtually. CMI faculty, staff and students should continue to check the Princeton University homepage for University-wide updates.. ...
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I am Petro Dobromylskyj, always known as Peter. Im a vet, trained at the RVC, London University. I was fortunate enough to intercalate a BSc degree in physiology in to my veterinary degree. I was even more fortunate to study under Patrick Wall at UCH, who set me on course to become a veterinary anaesthetist, mostly working on acute pain control. That led to the Certificate then Diploma in Veterinary Anaesthesia and enough publications to allow me to enter the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia as a de facto founding member. Anaesthesia teaches you a lot. Basic science is combined with the occasional need to act rapidly. Wrong decisions can reward you with catastrophe in seconds. Thinking is mandatory. I stumbled on to nutrition completely by accident. Once you have been taught to think, its hard to stop. I think about lots of things. These are some of them ...
There are several ways a company can allocate overhead costs to products produced or services provided. Two of these methods are absorption costing and variable costing. This assignment will allow you to explore the two methods of costing and compare/contrast the different uses of each costing system.. Using the module readings and the Argosy University online library resources, research absorption and variable costing. Use your research and/or your experiences as a working professional to complete this assignment.. Respond to the following:. Explain the differences between absorption costing and variable costing. Explain, with the help of an example, how a company could use a variable costing system, as well as an absorption costing system. You have the option of using the company you work for as an example. Explain which method is better for the company being discussed. Write your initial response in 300-500 words. Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion ...
Impaired calcium absorption can lead to osteoporosis. Calcium Absorber prevents demineralization and calcium deficiencies like brittle hair and nails, growing pains
Absorbable radiation or radiochemically sterilized medical devices, including sutures, whose breaking strength and absorption profile can be modulated by controlling the total dose received during sterilization are disclosed.
View Notes - Lecture22_Fungi from BIOL 180 at University of Washington. How does absorption occur? What limits the rate of absorption if nutrients are abundant? Problem: With increasing size, volume
The power to absorb life-force/energy and utilize it in some way. Combination of Power Absorption and Life-Force Manipulation. Variation of Absorption. Opposite to Death-Force Absorption. The user can absorb life-force/energy, vitality and health, while removing it from the source, into their...
The Calgary regional housing market remains balanced despite the easing in absorption rates.   Click on the link to read more....    
The absorption spectrum for plant chlorophyll shows that there is little absorption of green light. I understand that is why plants are green. But why dont plants absorb, use, these wavelengths? Isnt this a waste of a valuable resource? -- q ...
Automated Gas Absorption Unit Gas absorption is a process in which a gas mixture is contacted with a liquid (Solvent) for the purpose of
Absorption variable costing effect profits absoprtion marginal table concept admirable some arguments support. Absorption variable costing difference between and icon magnificent. Automotive Fuse Box
Absorption Soğutma Gurupları. FORM A.Ş. Tunç Korun. Dunham Bush firması yaklaşık 50 yıla yakın bir geçmişe sahip olup, özellikle büyük kapasiteli ve endüstriyel soğutma uygulamaları ile absorption soğutma gurupları konularında Amerikanın en büyük imalatçılarından biridir. Slideshow 6564657 by fuller-knight
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The capture of energy (light, ultraviolet, or infrared) by water, particles, or any other substance; a component of attenuation. Absorbed energy may be re-radiated as heat or fluorescence, or used for photosynthesis in plants. It is usually measured in terms of the absorption coefficient a, one of the two fundamental Inherent Optical Properties ...
The capture of energy (light, ultraviolet, or infrared) by water, particles, or any other substance; a component of attenuation. Absorbed energy may be re-radiated as heat or fluorescence, or used for photosynthesis in plants. It is usually measured in terms of the absorption coefficient a, one of the two fundamental Inherent Optical Properties ...
Depend on body weight, tolerance, and amount and time period of alcohol ingestion; full absorption may not occur until 6h after ingestion ...
I m on Androgel 10g/day. Application site is both upper legs each morning. I ve seen no definitive answer regarding how absorption may be affected by
The Prep Mat enhances workbench safety for technicians, nurses and pharmacists when handling or administering chemotherapy drugs. The Prep Mat is a highly-absorbent,three-layered preparation mat consisting of two layers of polyethylene with a central layer of air-laid paper. The upper layer allows even distribution of liquid, the middle layer gives excellent absorption properties and the bottom layer provides a solid defence against leakages ...
It is a purely external method of inducing concentration and reach jhāna absorption by unifying & condensing all undivided attention on a single homogenous, pure & uniform ...
We present the results of an experimental and theoretical study of the gain (or absorption) experienced by a weak probe beam propagating through a sodium vapor in the presence of an intense pump field that is nearly resonant with the 3s → 3p atomic transition. The probe-transmission spectrum includes three distinct features that result from the modification of the atomic-level structure by the ac-Stark effect. Two of these features can lead to amplification of the probe wave. We measured the dependence of the probe spectrum on the detuning of the pump beam from resonance and on the pressure of a helium buffer gas. The experimentally obtained spectra are in good agreement with the predictions of a theoretical model based on the solution of the density-matrix equations of motion for a two-level atom and including the effects of Doppler broadening. The maximum gain measured in these experiments occurs at one of the Rabi sidebands and leads to a 38-fold increase in the intensity of the probe wave. ...
Abstract. Atmospheric absorption in the O2 A-band (12 950-13 200 cm−1) offers a unique opportunity to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from space-borne measurements due to the large dynamic range of optical thickness in that spectral region. Absorptions in strong O2 lines are saturated; therefore, any radiance measured in these lines originates from scattering in the upper part of the atmosphere. Outside of O2 lines, or in weak lines, the atmospheric column absorption is small, and light penetrates to lower atmospheric layers, allowing for the quantification of aerosols and other scatterers near the surface.. While the principle of aerosol profile retrieval using O2 A-band absorption from space is well-known, a thorough quantification of the information content, i.e., the amount of vertical profile information that can be obtained, and the dependence of the information content on the spectral resolution of the measurements, has not been thoroughly conducted. Here, we use the linearized ...
There has been some discussion about the rates of absorption of oxygen and CO2, and about the rate of outgassing of the latter. To help me understand...
Absorption of radiation is collision-like interactions between the individual particulate or quantum components of a beam of radiation and the subatomic parts
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I saw a new diet recently that claims to slow the absorption of sugar (read carbohydrates) into our blood. It gave me pause, because I realized this is pret...
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Exton, PA (PRWEB) January 31, 2012 -- Absorption Systems announces the latest in a series of milestones in the continuing expansion of its AAALAC-accredited
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EXTON, Pa., Nov. 13, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Absorption Systems, a global leader in developing GLP and GMP-compliant in vitro cell-based as well as in vivo ani...
Absorption[edit]. From the U.S. National Institutes of Health: [In humans] "Approximately 70%-90% of vitamin C is absorbed at ... However, at doses above 1,000 mg/day, absorption falls to less than 50%."[5] It is transported through the intestine via both ... Only when plasma concentrations are 1.4 mg/dL or higher does re-absorption decline and the excess amounts pass freely into the ... non-haem iron absorption (ID 132, 147), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 135), and relief in case of irritation in the upper ...
... from one excited state to a higher energy excited state with the absorption of a photon is called excited state absorption (ESA ... The excited state absorption is usually an undesired effect, but it can be useful in upconversion pumping.[7] Excited state ... Excited state absorption[edit]. The excitation of a system (an atom or molecule) ... However, it is not easy to measure them compared to ground-state absorption and in some cases complete bleaching of the ground ...
By absorption[edit]. *Sumer by the Akkadian Empire. *Ancient Egypt by the Libyans, Nubians, Assyria, Babylonia, Persian rule, ... Incorporation/Absorption: Alternately, a society may be gradually incorporated into a more dynamic, more complex inter-regional ...
UV-Vis-IR absorption[edit]. In addition to light scattering, attenuation or signal loss can also occur due to selective ... The selective absorption of infrared (IR) light by a particular material occurs because the selected frequency of the light ... Their best attribute is that they lack the absorption band associated with the hydroxyl (OH) group (3,200-3,600 cm−1; i.e., ... Thus, multi-phonon absorption occurs when two or more phonons simultaneously interact to produce electric dipole moments with ...
Electromagnetic absorption[edit]. Main article: Electromagnetic absorption by water. Water is relatively transparent to visible ... Water's light blue colour is caused by weak absorption in the red part of the visible spectrum.[3][67] ... These observations were based upon X-ray absorption spectroscopy that probed the local environment of individual oxygen atoms.[ ... "Absorption spectrum (380-700nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements". Applied Optics. 36 (33): 8710-23. Bibcode ...
Absorption and excretion[edit]. Vitamin B6 is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum by passive diffusion. With the capacity for ... The absorption of pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate involves their dephosphorylation catalyzed by a membrane-bound ... absorption being so great, animals are able to absorb quantities much greater than necessary for physiological demands. ...
Absorption[edit]. The oral bioavailability of norethisterone is between 47 and 73%, with a mean oral bioavailability of 64%.[2] ... has been found to significantly improve the oral bioavailability of norethisterone by increasing intestinal absorption and ...
Absorption and metabolism[edit]. Absorption[edit]. CoQ10 is a crystalline powder insoluble in water. Absorption follows the ... Facilitating drug absorption by increasing its solubility in water is a common pharmaceutical strategy and also has been shown ... A successful approach was to use the emulsion system to facilitate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and to improve ... Bhagavan, Hemmi N.; Chopra, Raj K. (2006). "Coenzyme Q10: Absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics". Free ...
Absorption[edit]. Armodafinil is readily absorbed after oral administration. The absolute oral bioavailability was not ...
Atomic absorption photometry[edit]. Main article: Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Atomic absorption photometers are photometers ... Main article: Absorption spectroscopy. These are optical instruments for measurement of the absorption of light of a given ... From the light absorption, Beer's law makes it possible to calculate the concentration of the coloured substance in the ... The light is absorbed by the metal in the flame, and the absorption is used to determine the concentration of the metal in the ...
Absorption[edit]. Atorvastatin undergoes rapid absorption when taken orally, with an approximate time to maximum plasma ... Administration of atorvastatin with food produces a 25% reduction in Cmax (rate of absorption) and a 9% reduction in AUC ( ... extent of absorption), although food does not affect the plasma LDL-C-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin. Evening dose ... which pumps the medication back into the intestinal lumen during medication absorption.[32] ...
Dielectric absorption (soakage)[edit]. Main article: Dielectric absorption. Dielectric absorption occurs when a capacitor that ... Values of dielectric absorption for some often used capacitors Type of capacitor Dielectric Absorption ... so capacitors with low absorption are specified.[58] The voltage at the terminals generated by the dielectric absorption may in ... Low moisture absorption, therefore suitable for "naked" designs with no coating. High insulation resistance. Usable in high ...
Absorption[edit]. Absorption of topical permethrin is minimal. One in vivo study demonstrated 0.5% absorption in the first 48 ... Permethrin has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 ... van der Rhee, HJ; Farquhar, JA; Vermeulen, NP (1989). "Efficacy and transdermal absorption of permethrin in scabies patients". ...
12.4.1 Absorption of cults. *12.4.2 Imperial cult. *12.4.3 Jews and Roman religion ...
Absorption[edit]. The bioavailability of androstanolone differs considerably depending on its route of administration.[1][2] ...
Fat absorption[edit]. Nutrients in food are absorbed via intestinal vili (greatly enlargened in the picture) to blood and lymph ... The lymph capillaries are mainly responsible for the absorption of interstitial fluid from the tissues, while lymph vessels ...
Absorption[edit]. When theophylline is administered intravenously, bioavailability is 100%. [26] Distribution[edit]. ...
Absorption[edit]. Although the absorption in the human digestive system is mainly a function of the small intestine, some ... The parietal cells of the human stomach are responsible for producing intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption ... "Absorption of Amino acids and Peptides" (PDF). In D'Mello, J.P.F. Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition (2nd ed.). pp. 41-70. ... absorption of certain small molecules nevertheless does occur in the stomach through its lining. This includes: *Water, if the ...
Absorption of light. Absorption of light in different wavelengths by ocean [54] Color: Wavelength (nm). Depth at which 99 ...
Light absorption-driven transporters[edit]. *Bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins including rhodopsin (see also opsin) ...
Moisture vapor absorption and transmission Product Fabric weight (g/m²) Moisture Vapor Absorption g/m² 1 2 3 Average SD Merino ... 4.3 Absorption of volatiles It is now widely known that the chemical properties of wool allow it to absorb volatile compounds ... 2.3 Moisture vapor transmission and absorption[edit]. Circular specimens (three for each fabric) were prepared (75 mm diameter ... 3.3 Moisture vapor transmission and absorption[edit]. Both fabrics have almost the same moisture vapor transmission (MVT), ...
Absorption into Israeli society[edit]. Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "In a generation or two, millennia of ... "The "One Million Plan" and the Development of a Discourse about the Absorption of the Jews from Arab Countries", The ...
Peptide absorption in man". Gut. 15 (6): 494-501. doi:10.1136/gut.15.6.494. PMC 1413009. PMID 4604970.. ... The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and ... Absorption[edit]. Digested food is now able to pass into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine through either ... Absorption of the majority of nutrients takes place in the jejunum, with the following notable exceptions: *Iron is absorbed in ...
Absorption and distribution[edit]. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is available as a 2:1 fixed combination (such that a 1.5-g dose of ...
Absorption[edit]. Main articles: Absorption (acoustics) and Absorption (electromagnetic radiation). Absorption of waves means, ...
Reference is made to the role of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),. particularly furnace AAS, anodic stripping voltammetry ... Development and some applications of techniques for the determination of trace metals by furnace atomic absorption spectrometry ... Development and some applications of techniques for the determination of trace metals by furnace atomic absorption spectrometry ...
The iCE 3500 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer is the ideal solution for the analysis of major, minor and toxic elements in honey ... The Analysis of Trace Elements in Honey by Flame and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Application Note 43060. ... The iCE 3500 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer is the ideal solution for the analysis of major, minor and toxic elements in honey ...
Cholesterol absorption was lowest in hamsters fed SA (7.5%), whereas it was 72.9% in control hamsters. Cholesterol absorption ... Cholesterol absorption was lowest in hamsters fed SA (7.5%), whereas it was 72.9% in control hamsters. Cholesterol absorption ... Cholesterol absorption was lowest in hamsters fed SA (7.5%), whereas it was 72.9% in control hamsters. Cholesterol absorption ... Reduction in cholesterol absorption is enhanced by stearate-enriched plant sterol esters in hamsters. Journal of Nutrition. ...
1998). An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). ... An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). In: ... An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). Chemical ... An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). SR ...
  • Reference is made to the role of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), particularly furnace AAS, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as an alternative to the latter and important factors influencing precision and accuracy in trace analysis. (edu.au)
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