A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Breaks in bones.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Diseases of BONES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Glucose in blood.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.
A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.
Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The physical measurements of a body.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Absence of menstruation.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Freedom from activity.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.

Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/2834)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits. (2/2834)

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (3/2834)

We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft.  (+info)

Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-mo periods with and without physical training. (4/2834)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of physical training on plasma leptin concentrations in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of 4-mo periods with and without physical training on leptin in obese children and to explore the determinants of leptin at baseline and in response to physical training. DESIGN: Participants were 34 obese 7-11-y-old children randomly assigned to engage in physical training during either the first or second 4 mo of the 8-mo study. RESULTS: Total body composition, visceral adiposity, and insulin were all positively correlated with leptin at baseline (P < or = 0.05); however, only fat mass was retained in the final stepwise regression (P = 0.0001, R2 = 0.57). Leptin decreased during the 4-mo periods of physical training and increased in the 4 mo after cessation of physical training (P < 0.001 for the time by group interaction). Decreases in leptin were greatest in children with higher pretraining leptin concentrations, those whose total mass increased least, and those whose insulin concentrations decreased most (P < or = 0.05); only pretraining leptin concentration (P = 0.009) and change in total mass (P = 0.0002) were retained in the final regression (R2 = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In obese children, leptin concentration decreased during 4 mo of physical training and increased during a subsequent 4-mo period without physical training, fat mass was highly correlated with baseline leptin, and greater reductions in leptin during 4 mo of physical training were seen in children with higher pretraining leptin and in those whose total mass increased least.  (+info)

Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat. (5/2834)

This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.  (+info)

Bone densitometry at a district general hospital: evaluation of service by doctors and patients. (6/2834)

OBJECTIVE: To assess doctors' and patients' views about a district general hospital bone densitometry service and to examine existing practice to influence future provision. DESIGN: Three postal surveys: (a) of doctors potentially using the service, (b) of patients undergoing a bone densitometry test during a six month period, and (c) of the referring doctors of the patients undergoing the test. SETTING: Bone densitometry service at South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough and two district health authorities: South Tees and Northallerton. SUBJECTS: All general practitioners (n=201) and hospital consultants in general medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics, radio therapy and oncology, haematology, and radiology (n=61); all patients undergoing an initial bone densitometry test (n=309) during a six month period; and their referring doctors. MAIN MEASURES: Service awareness and use, knowledge of clinical indications, test results, influence of test results on patient management, satisfaction with the service and its future provision. RESULTS: The overall response rates for the three surveys were 87%, 70%, and 61%. There was a high awareness of the service among doctors and patients; 219(84%) doctors were aware and 155 of them (71%) had used it, and patients often (40%) suggested the test to their doctor. The test was used for a range of reasons including screening although the general use was consistent with current guidelines. Two hundred (65%) bone densitometry measurements were normal, 71(23%) were low normal, and 38(12%) were low. Although doctors reported that management of patients had been influenced by the test results, the algorithm for decision making was unclear. Patients and doctors were satisfied with the service and most (n=146, 68%) doctors wanted referral guidelines for the service. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high awareness of, use of, and satisfaction with the service. Patients were being referred for a range of reasons and a few of these could not be justified, many tests were normal, and clinical decision making was not always influenced by the test result. It is concluded that bone densitometry services should be provided but only for patients whose management will be influenced by test results and subject to guidelines to ensure appropriate use of the technology.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 2 distinct ethnic groups: Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women. (7/2834)

BACKGROUND: Although people from the Indian subcontinent have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), studies of such in Indian and Pakistani women living in the United States are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study accounted for variability in serum lipid (total cholesterol and triacylglycerol) and lipoprotein [LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and HDL cholesterol] concentrations in Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women in the United States. Body composition, regional fat distribution, dietary intake, and energy expenditure were compared between groups. DESIGN: The 2 groups were 47 Indian and Pakistani and 47 American women. Health was assessed via medical history, physical activity, body composition (via anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), dietary intake (via 7-d food records), and serum lipids. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol were greater (P <0.03), whereas HDL-cholesterol values were lower (P = 0.011) in Indians and Pakistanis than in Americans. Multiple regression analysis indicated that approximately 18% of the variance in total cholesterol (P = 0.0010) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0009) was accounted for by ethnicity, energy expenditure, and the ratio of the sum of central to the sum of peripheral skinfold thicknesses. Ethnicity, sum of central skinfold thicknesses, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intake accounted for approximately 43% of the variance in triacylglycerol concentration (P < 0.0001). Monounsaturated fat, percentage body fat, and alcohol intake accounted for approximately 26% of variance in HDL cholesterol. Ethnicity contributed approximately 22% of the 25% overall variance in lipoprotein(a). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that these Indian and Pakistani women are at higher CVD risk than their American counterparts, but that increasing their physical activity is likely to decrease overall and regional adiposity, thereby improving their serum lipid profiles.  (+info)

Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. (8/2834)

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones, riboflavin, riboflavin cofactors, and organic acids were assessed in girls with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of malnutrition and low thyroid hormone concentrations on erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin metabolism and their relation with urinary organic acid excretion. DESIGN: Seventeen adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 14.8 +/- 2.2] and 17 age-matched, healthy girls (control subjects; BMI: 20.5 +/- 2.2) took part in the feeding study. Erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin as well as riboflavin cofactors (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) were assessed by HPLC, whereas urinary organic acids were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Anorectic patients who began a feeding program had higher erythrocyte riboflavin (3.5 +/- 2.2 compared with <0.1 nmol/mol hemoglobin; P < 0.001), lower plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide (57.8 +/- 18.5 compared with 78.5 +/- 54.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and higher urinary ethylmalonic acid (7.12 +/- 4.39 compared with 1.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) and isovalerylglycine (7.65 +/- 4.78 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.9 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.05) concentrations than did control subjects. Triiodothyronine concentrations were low and negatively correlated with plasma riboflavin concentrations (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Not all patients showed improvements in these biochemical indexes after 30 d of refeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low triiodothyronine concentrations observed in anorexia nervosa could alter the extent of riboflavin conversion into cofactors, thus leading to high erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, low plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, and high rates of ethylmalonic acid and isovalerylglycine excretion.  (+info)

The IAEA assists its Member States in their efforts to develop effective, evidence based interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms using nuclear techniques. This publication was developed as an integral part of the IAEAs efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in the application of a widely used nuclear technique in nutrition, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). It provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture. AU - Holmberg, Teresa. AU - Bech, Mickael. AU - Gram, Jeppe. AU - Hermann, Anne Pernille. AU - Rubin, Katrine Hass. AU - Brixen, Kim. PY - 2016/3. Y1 - 2016/3. N2 - Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in children. AU - Tsukahara, Hirokazu. AU - Sudo, M.. AU - Umezaki, M.. AU - Hiraoka, M.. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Ishii, Y.. AU - Haruki, S.. PY - 1992/12. Y1 - 1992/12. N2 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. In the normal children (n=32), BMD increased with age in all locations, with a nearly twofold increase from preschool age to adolescence. Most of the children with chronic diseases known to affect vone metabolism (e.g., steroid osteoporosis) (n=16) had low BMD in every region, indicating that these disease states probably affect multiple sites of the skeleton in children.. AB - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fat-free adipose tissue mass (FFAT) on association between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean soft tissue mass and skeletal muscle mass (TMM). Forty-one middle-aged and older women were recruited for this study. Percent body fat, total and appendicular fat mass (tFM and aFM, respectively), and total and appendicular lean soft tissue mass (tLM and aLM, respectively) were measured using a DXA. FFAT was calculated based on the methods of a previous study. TMM was estimated from the ultrasound-derived prediction equation. The subjects were separated into three groups based on DXA-determined percent fat: low (n=12, ,25 %), middle (n=15, ,= 25 and ,35 %), and high (n=14, ,= 35 %). DXA-derived aLM was greater in high than in middle or low, although ultrasound-estimated TMM was similar among the three groups. There was a strong correlation between aLM and TMM (r=0.905, p,0.001). The difference between aLM and TMM was correlated ...
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures body composition, tissue distribution, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD). Differences are possible due to software versions. This investigation examined body composition, tissue distribution, BMC, and BMD measurements using a D …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slight Abduction/Adduction Deviations in Femur Positioning for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry are Inconsequential. AU - Ozer, Byram H.. AU - Krueger, Diane. AU - Binkley, Neil. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Straight femur alignment during dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) acquisition is assumed to help ensure accurate bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Use of bilateral femur positioners may not result in straight femur alignment. To assess the effect of a bilateral femur positioner on DXA results, we compared a standard fixed-width bilateral femur positioner with an adjustable-width positioner that allowed for straight femur alignment. BMD values obtained from the adjustable-width bilateral femur positioner were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98-0.99) with those obtained using a fixed-width positioner. The mean bias in BMD between the fixed- and adjustable-width positioner was low (-0.001 to +0.006 g/cm2) at all proximal femur regions of interest. In this study, the use ...
The urinary creatinine excretion rate is a function of the muscle mass which, in normal subjects, is shown to be correlated with lean body mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has been shown to correlate well with other methods for the measurement of body composition. The purpose of the pre …
How is a DEXA scan performed?. DEXA scans are quick and painless. You may be able to remain dressed, but you have to remove clothes with metal in, such as hooks, or zips. You do not need to prepare anything, fast, or follow any special diet.. When the scan is performed, you lie on your back, but a DEXA scan is not like an MRI, where you must go into a tunnel-like device. The X-ray table is flat, and open, so you are unlikely to feel closed in or claustrophobic.. A large scanning machine is passed over the body, emitting a low-dose X-ray beam to measure bone density in your skeleton. The machine can scan various parts of your body, but the most common areas examined are the hip, spine, and wrist.. Scans take a very short amount of time, perhaps five minutes - depending on the part of the body being scanned. There is no need to wait in hospital and you can go home after the scan.. What do DEXA scan results mean?. Bone density has a healthy-level score - a number which varies on age, ethnicity, ...
Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk, and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Prediction equations exhibited adjusted R2 values ranging from .249 to .940, with more explained variance for LM and WM than BMC and FM, especially for the head and neck. Mean relative errors between predicted and actual tissue masses ranged from −11.07% (trunk FM) to 7.61% (neck FM). Actual and predicted tissue masses from all equations were significantly correlated (R2 = ...
The normal bone T- score is greater than -1. Osteopenia T-score is between -1 and -2.5. Osteoporosis T- score is less than -2.5. A T-score of less than -2.5 suggests osteoporosis and that your bones are extremely liable to fractures from the slightest injury. In fact in most women who have suffered from fractures following osteoporosis did not even report injuries; they sustained the fracture during some daily activity, which suggests the intensity of proneness to develop fractures with a T-score of less than -2.5. Use of DEXA scan in the Pediatric age group: It is not accurate to use T-scores to assess the Bone Mineral Density in children. Also the WHO classification of osteoporosis and osteopenia used in adults cannot be used in the case of children, but one can use the Z -scores to aid diagnosis. Children suffering from Rickets, Turners syndrome etc. can be subjected to the DEXA scan to calculate their Bone Mineral Density. However its use in pediatrics is still in its nascent stages. And ...
A DEXA scan is a special type of X-ray that measures bone mineral density (BMD). Its also known as a DXA, dual X-ray absorptiometry, a bone density scan or a bone densitometry scan
In an investigator-initiated randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group designed clinical trial, forty healthy, sedentary men with a body mass index (BMI) , 30 kg/m2, age-range 40-70 y were randomly assigned to 12 wk of NR (1000 mg twice daily) or placebo. We determined the effects of NR supplementation on insulin sensitivity by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and substrate metabolism by indirect calorimetry and labeled substrates of tritiated glucose and palmitate. Body composition and fat mass distribution were determined by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and MRI scans, and measurements of intrahepatic lipid content were obtained by MR spectroscopy.. ...
Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (−4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI −8·28, −0·97), BMC (−8·08 g; 95 % CI −12·45, −3·71) and BA (−7·03 cm2; 95 % CI −12·55, −1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 ...
The impact of osteoporosis on implant treatment is still a matter of debate in the scientific community, as it may possibly lead to higher failure rates. As long-term controlled trials are missing, the aim of this study was to verify the long-term outcome of implants placed in patients with systemic osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women in need of implants underwent bone mineral density measurements in hip and spine, using dual X-ray absorptiometry scans. Based on T-scores, they were divided into 2 groups: group O (osteoporosis group) with a T-score =-1. Implants were placed in a 2-stage manner and loaded 4 to 8 wk after abutment surgery. Six months after loading and thereafter yearly, clinical and radiographical parameters were assessed. In total, 148 implants were placed in 48 patients (mean age: 67 y [range, 59-83]). Sixty-three implants were placed in 20 patients (group O) and 85 implants in 28 patients (group C). After 5 y, 117 implants (38 in ...
DXA scanning is considered the gold standard for the purposes of identifying patients with low BMD, predominantly due to cost-effectiveness and accessibility. It documents small changes in bone mass and can also be used to examine both the spine and the extremities ...
A Dexa Scan is not recommended during pregnancy.. How the Dexa Scan is done. The scan is usually done on an outpatient basis. If the central devise is used, the patient lies on a padded table and the arm (detector) slowly passes over the body and sends information to a computer. The patient must hold very still and may be asked to hold their breath for a few seconds while the X-ray picture is being taken. The scan usually takes only 10-30 minutes. The peripheral test is simpler. The finger, hand, forearm or foot is placed in the small device and it gives the results in just a few minutes.. A trained radiologist reads and interprets the scan results as a T score or a Z score. T score shows the amount of bone you have compared with another person who is the same gender (man or woman) with peak bone mass. A score above 1 is considered normal. A Z score tells the amount of bone you have compared with other people in your age group and the same gender. ...
AKUH,N has recently acquired a new state-of-the-art machine for testing Bone Mineral Density (BMD). The Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machine represents the international gold standard for BMD estimation, and is the only one of its kind in the region. The DXA emits significantly less radiation than other machines and ensures a more accurate BMD estimation. It is not only a key tool in diagnosing, preventing and treating osteoporosis, but it can also be used to evaluate a patients response to therapy, enhancing the treatment process significantly. Due to increasing awareness of osteoporosis and the incredible accuracy of the new machine, the number of patients receiving BMD testing has increased by over 30% since the introduction of the DXA machine. Our sophisticated computed radiography services support all general x-ray procedures. We can also provide digital copies of your x-rays ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis as a bone density (or bone mass) at least 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (defined as the bone mass achieved by healthy adults aged 18-30 y).
A DEXA scan isnt the only way of measuring bone strength or fragility. Other risk factors need to be taken into consideration, such as family history and medication use, to determine whos at risk of developing bone fractures.. All of the risk factors need to be considered before a DEXA scan is recommended and before any treatment is started.. Some people need a DEXA scan to confirm that their risk of developing bone fractures is high enough to need treatment. For others, particularly elderly people over 75 years old, the risk of fracture may be so high that theres no need for them to have a DEXA scan before treatment is prescribed.. Interpreting the results of a DEXA scan can sometimes be difficult. For example, it may not be easy to interpret the results of a scan of the spine when someone has a degenerative condition, such as osteoarthritis of the spine (spondylosis). Sometimes, spinal abnormalities or a previous spinal fracture can give a false result.. A DEXA scan wont show whether low ...
Via cross calibration to the results of body composition (BC) measurement results to those of a reference device (the Discover A by Hologic) in terms of body fat percentage, lean mass percentage of total body mass and for different subregions (left and right arms, left and right sides, lumbar and thoracic spine, pelvis, left and right legs, head, android area, gynecoid area, visceral region ...
This type of scan measures bone density and strength. Its also known as a bone densitometry, DXA or DEXA scan. Read about procedure, cost and more.
Bone microarchitecture, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength are affected positively by impact activities such as running; however, there are discrepancies in the magnitude of these effects. These inconsistencies are mainly a result of varying training protocols, analysis techniques, and whether or not the skeletal sites measured are weight bearing. This studys purpose was to determine t ...
An enhanced form of x-ray technology used to measure bone loss, the DEXA scan provides a baseline for bone density and helps osteopenia & osteoporosis monitoring. Available at Cherry Hill, Haddonfield, Rt 73 Voorhees, Marlton, Sewell, Turnersville & West Deptford offices. Schedule bone density testing at SJRA today.
DXA provides the patients T-score, which is the BMD value compared with that of control subjects who are at their peak BMD.{ref5}{ref6}{ref7}{ref8} World Health Organization (WHO) criteria defi... more
We thank Tabibzadeh et al. for their comments. We agree that bisphosphonates are safe and the fear of adynamic bone disease should not be a reason to preclude its use in kidney transplant recipients. We believe that this is one of the main findings of our study.1 Our data confirmed that we should not have safety concerns with these drugs.. Moreover, besides not having safety issues, bisphosphonates should be used in kidney transplant patients, as suggested by our data. Findings of bone mineral gain on central skeleton assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry that have been shown by Segaud et al.,2 our group, and others, must be confronted with the bone loss at peripheral sites. Therefore, we agree that pretransplant bone evaluation should include either high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography or forearm dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.. As stated in the article and emphasized by Tabibzadeh et al., the design of our study precluded the inclusion of deceased-donor kidney ...
Schedule an appointment online with Houston Methodist Hospital - Imaging - Dexa Scan (Bone Density). Get insurance information, phone number, address, and more.
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the gold-standard for determining loss of BMD, and its use is appropriate to assess the risk for fragility fracture and low BMD in all adults with HIV.1 Major risk factors for fragility fracture include a history of fragility fracture, use of glucocorticoid treatment for ,3 months (or ≥5 mg of prednisone daily or equivalent), and the presence of risk factors for falls.13 People with HIV who have these risk factors should receive a baseline DEXA, which should be repeated every 1 to 2 years for advanced osteopenia (T-score, −2.00 to −2.49) and every 5 years for mild to moderate osteopenia (T-score, −1.01 to −1.99).13 Patients started on bisphosphonates should undergo repeat DEXA in 2 years. 13 Adult patients with HIV with no risk factors for fragility facture or osteoporosis should have their 10-year risk for fracture assessed using the FRAX. Patients with a FRAX score ≤10% can be reassessed in 2 to 3 years.13 A FRAX score ≥10% warrants ...
Forget holding your breath under water and toss those old calipers. The new standard for measuring body composition is the DEXA scan. Find out what it is and how to get one.
Hi, I have just been diagnosed with celiac disease although I have been suffering its symptoms for about 10 years. As I am only 32 years old does anyone know would a DEXA scan really be necessary in my case or would it only be necessary for older people ? Thanks
Bone densitometry, or DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), is an exam that detects early bone loss by measuring bone mineral density with a low-dose radiation. The spine and hip are the most common sites of measurement. South Seminole Hospital has registered technologists that perform these scans.. During the test, the patient will lie on a table comfortably on his or her back. Our technologist will enter the patients information in the computer which is used to compare the results to a normal reference group. There are no injections or oral preparations for the test and it usually lasts about 45 minutes.. The needs for DEXA vary somewhat depending on the physician and/or medical provider. Some reasons to receive a DXA include:. ...
If osteoporosis is a silent disease, how do doctors and patients diagnose it? Like diabetes early diagnosis of osteoporosis is critical as treatment can reduce fracture risk. Earlier it was difficult to diagnose osteoporosis. Doctors would get some idea of bone strength by looking at x-rays of the patient. However x-rays are a crude test as they show osteoporosis only in the advanced stages. By then it is too late! Measuring the blood calcium levels gives no indication of the strength of bones or the level of calcium in the bones. Nowadays technology has improved. A DEXA scan is currently the gold standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). DEXA scan checks the density in the lower back and hip which are the critical areas. DEXA scan is a computerised X-ray based test. Ultrasound of the wrist or heel can also be done. Ultrasound is popular as it is portable (used frequently in patient camps) and cheaper. But ultrasound is less accurate and the wrist and heel density may differ from the ...
Percentage of female patients aged 50 to 64 without select risk factors for osteoporotic fracture who received an order for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan during the measurement period.
A5260s is the optional, metabolic substudy of a phase III, prospective, randomized clinical trial (A5257). For complete details about the parent study A5257, please see ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00811954.. Some participants in study A5257 were asked to participate in substudy A5260s. Not all participants were asked since A5260s only took place at a subset of A5257 sites. Participants who agreed to participate in substudy A5260s were enrolled at the same time as their enrollment in A5257. No interventions were given as part of A5260s, but all A5260s participants underwent blood draws, self-administered questionnaire responses (related to physical activity and body image), ultrasound scans to measure the thickness of the carotid artery in the neck and brachial artery flow mediated dilation in the arm, and computerized topography (CT) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure bone mineral density and body fat.. The duration of A5260s study was between 2 and 3 years (96 and ...
Bisphosphonates have emerged as an important tool in the supportive care of women with early breast cancer. Whereas traditionally, these drugs have been part of the treatment of osseous metastasis, the key role of bisphosphonates in preserving bone health in patients with early breast cancer cannot be overemphasised. Currently the most established use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer patients is in women receiving hormonal blockade, mostly aromatase inhibitors (AI), with concomitant osteopenia. To that end, it is recommended that every woman undergo a Dual Energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan before commencement of an AI and annually during the treatment duration ...
A doctor who wrote in his notes naughty boy wants to get buff by April when prescribing steroids and stimulants to hundreds of body-builders has been struck off for 10 years.. Dr Anish Singh also ordered plasma infusions, iron infusions and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans for patients with no clinical justification, the WA State Administrative Tribunal has found.. The Perth doctor attempted to justify almost all of the prescriptions and tests for some 700 different patients, saying they were for conditions such as sarcopenic obesity, iron deficiency, osteoporosis or cancer cachexia.. But the tribunal found that objective evidence, including Dr Singhs clinical notes, painted a very different picture.. Dr Singhs notes included: Has a competitive streak, wants to be the best he can be; wants to bulk up; and serratus anterior needs to be defined, increase in biceps and triceps, hamstrings also need to be defined.. Many patients received large quantity prescriptions in a ...
Hologic has received FDA clearance to incorporate the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Whole Body Reference Data into its Discovery dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems.
Body mass index (BMI) has been used for nearly 200 years to measure percentage of body fat. But new research suggests BMI ratings may actually be underestimating the prevalence of the obesity epidemic.. The study by the Path Foundation compared percent body fat results from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) a full-body scan that measures muscle, bone mass and body fat and BMI measurements in 1,400 patients.. Results showed that 48 per cent of women and 25 per cent of men were classified as non-obese by BMI standards, but were obese by their percent of body fat. BMI measures your weight to height ratio, but ignores how fat is distributed in your body.. Another factor BMI does not account for is age. Women lose muscle and bone mass faster than men, and replace it with fat. In the study, 48 per cent of women ages 50-59 were misclassified as obese. Misclassification increased to 59 per cent for women aged 70 and over. Why is BMI still being used? Study investigators suggest DXA scans and ...
DEXA is relatively easy to perform and the amount of radiation exposure is low. A DEXA scanner is a machine that produces two X-ray beams, each with different energy levels. One beam is high energy while the other is low energy. The amount of X-rays that pass through the bone is measured for each beam. This will vary depending on the thickness of the bone. Based on the difference between the two beams, the bone density can be measured ...
At Hologic, enhancing early detection, improving diagnostic accuracy and delivering compassionate technologies continually drive the development of our imaging solutions. From Hologic 3D MAMMOGRAPHY™, proven to detect breast cancer at an earlier stage, to unprecedented advances in bone health, Hologic imaging solutions break through technological limitations to provide greater comfort - and to improve visibility into breast and bone health.
There is a loss of lean body mass (LBM) with increasing age. A low LBM has been associated with increased adverse effects from prescribed medications such as chemotherapy. Accurate assessment of LBM may allow for more accurate drug prescribing. The aims of this study were to develop new prediction equations (PEs) for LBM with anthropometric and biochemical variables from a development cohort and then validate the best performing PEs in validation cohorts. PEs were developed in a cohort of 188 healthy subjects and then validated in a convenience cohort of 52 healthy subjects. The best performing anthropometric PE was then compared to published anthropometric PEs in an older (age ≥ 50 years) cohort of 2287 people. Best subset regression analysis was used to derive PEs. Correlation, Bland-Altman and Sheiner & Beal methods were used to validate and compare the PEs against dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived LBM. The PE which included biochemistry variables performed only marginally better than the
Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of bone mineral density in beagle dogs: comparison with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as a gold standard ...
Reviews about AlgaeCal from real users who have shared verified video and written testimonials showing how they increased their bone density using AlgaeCal. Read real AlgaeCal reviews and DEXA results now!
Reviews about AlgaeCal from real users who have shared verified video and written testimonials showing how they increased their bone density using AlgaeCal. Read real AlgaeCal reviews and DEXA results now!
RECH, Cassiano Ricardo; PETROSKI, Edio Luiz; SILVA, Rosane Carla Rosendo da and SILVA, João Carlos Nunes da. Anthropometric indicators of fat mass excess among women. Rev Bras Med Esporte [online]. 2006, vol.12, n.3, pp.119-124. ISSN 1517-8692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922006000300002.. The aim of this study was to determine sensibility, specificity and level of association between two indicators of fat mass excess among women. Sixty-five women (aged 50-77 years) participated in the study. The mean values for the group were 70.3 ± 11 kg for body mass and 158.0 ± 5.5 cm for height. The body mass index (BMI) and the reciprocal of ponderal index (RPI) were registered. The percentage of body fat, estimated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (%BFDEXA), was used as the gold standard measure. Data analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, Pearsons linear correlation and the Kappa index. The mean scores for BMI, RPI and %BFDEXA were 28 ± 4.2 kg.m-2, 38 ± 1.9 cm.kg-1/3 and 38.1 ± ...
Properties of a medium of food or feed, such as the fat content of meat, are determined by the use of dual X-ray absorptiometry with dual energy levels. Substantially, the entire medium is scanned by X-ray beams, and the X-rays passing through the medium are detected for a plurality of areas (pixels) of the medium. For each area, values Alow and Ahigh, representing absorption in the area of the medium at low and high energy levels are calculated. A plurality of values being products of the type Alow n*Ahigh m are generated and used for predicting the properties of the medium in this area. Thereby the accuracy of the property determination is improved considerably.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the knee in spinal cord injury. T2 - Methodology and correlation with quantitative computed tomography. AU - McPherson, J. G.. AU - Edwards, W. B.. AU - Prasad, A.. AU - Troy, K. L.. AU - Griffith, James W. AU - Schnitzer, Thomas J. PY - 2014/11/13. Y1 - 2014/11/13. N2 - Study Design: Comparison of diagnostic tests; methodological validation. Objectives: Primary: to investigate the precision and reliability of a knee bone mineral density (BMD) assessment protocol that uses an existing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) forearm acquisition algorithm in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondary: to correlate DXA-based knee areal BMD with volumetric BMD assessments derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Setting: Academic medical center, Chicago, IL, USA. Methods: Participants: a convenience sample of 12 individuals with acute SCI recruited for an observational study of bone loss and 34 individuals with chronic SCI who ...
Bone Densitometers Market (Technology - Axial Bone Densitometry (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computed Tomography) and Peripheral Bone Densitometry (Single Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Peripheral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Radiographic Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography); End User - Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, and Specialty Clinics) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accuracy of Longitudinal Assessment of Visceral Adipose Tissue by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Children with Obesity. AU - Dias, Katrin A.. AU - Ramos, Joyce S.. AU - Wallen, Matthew P.. AU - Davies, Peter S.W.. AU - Cain, Peter A.. AU - Leong, Gary M.. AU - Ingul, Charlotte B.. AU - Coombes, Jeff S.. AU - Keating, Shelley E.. N1 - Copyright © 2019 Katrin A. Dias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.. PY - 2019/11/3. Y1 - 2019/11/3. N2 - Background. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Accurate quantification of VAT is available through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which incurs a significant financial and time burden. We aimed to assess the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived VAT (DXA-VAT) against a ...
OBJECTIVE : Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the rate of bone loss and potential predictors of increased bone loss in a cohort of patients with CLD. DESIGN : Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at follow-up by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS : Forty-three patients (31 female, 12 male) were available for a second measurement of BMD, with a median of 25 months (range 18-41) between the measurements. Mean annual bone loss at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, respectively, was 0.6 +/- 2.0% and 1.5 +/- 2.4% in females and 0.8 +/- 1.9% and 2.9 +/- 2.0% in males. The BMD Z score decreased significantly over time at the femoral neck (P = 0.005 and P = 0.02 for females and males, respectively). Bone loss was increased significantly at the lumbar spine in patients classified as Child-Pugh B + C compared with those classified ...
The health benefits currently associated with increased dairy intake may be attributable to the whey component of dairy proteins. The present study evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in comparison to casein and glucose (control) supplementation in overweight/obese individuals for 12 weeks. The subjects were randomised to whey protein, casein or glucose supplementation for 12 weeks according to a parallel design. Fasting blood samples and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were taken. Seventy men and women with a mean age of 48•4 (SEM 0•86) years and a mean BMI of 31•3 (SEM 0•8) kg/m2 completed the study. Subjects supplemented with whey protein had no significant change in body composition or serum glucose at 12 weeks compared with the control or casein group. Fasting TAG levels were significantly lowered in the whey group compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P=0•025) and 12 weeks (P=0•035). There ...
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No ...
Major changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children (32 girls and 2 boys) with central precocious and early puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonist (GnRH). Patients were studied at baseline and during treatment for 6 months (n = 34), 1 yr (n = 33), and 2 yr (n = 16). Lumbar spine and total body BMD and body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The variables were compared with age- and sex-matched reference values of the same population and expressed as SD score (SDS). Bone age was assessed. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), cross-linked telopeptide of collagen I (ICTP), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine, and calcium/ creatinine ratios were ...
Introduction:There is considerable amount of controversy about the long term effects of multiparity and duration of breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density after menopause. This study was conducted to determine whether multiple pregnancy and prolonged duration of breast-feeding are independent predictors of low bone mass in post-menopausal Kurdish women. Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated 991 post-menopausal women with mean age of 58.9 years screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). According to the parity (1-2, 3-4, 5-7, |7 children) and total duration of breast-feeding (1-24, 25-60, 61-96, |96 months) they were classified. Bone mineral density (BMD) results for femoral neck and lumbar spine were classified into three groups (normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis) according to the WHO criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the independent associations of low femur or spine BMD with parity and total duration of breast-feeding. Results: We
Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone mineral content (BMC) and area measurements and in part to the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. As a result, significant differences exist between Hologic, Lunar and Norland systems in the reported young normal standard deviation scores or T-scores. In a number of European countries, including Belgium, a T-score below −2.5 is one of the key criteria for reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments. This paper addresses the first attempt to implement a nationwide, uniform expression of BMD in patients, in order to harmonize drug reimbursement. To this end, measures were taken to implement a uniform expression of BMD in Belgian patients, by converting each manufacturers absolute BMD to standardized BMD (sBMD) values and by establishing a single national reference range.
HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density. We conducted a prospective study in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients randomized to receive two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), to evaluate early changes in body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic markers as differentially induced by antiretroviral therapies. We measured changes in markers of carbohydrate, of fat and bone metabolism, and, using dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). Complete data on changes between baseline and after 21 months treatment were available for 35 patients (16 in the PI group and 19 in the NNRTI group). A significant gain in BMI and in total and lower limb fat mass was recorded only in
Clinicians should also consider the cancer treatment as another potential baseline risk factor.. If patients meet any of the listed criteria, they should be offered bone mineral density testing with central/axial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, according to the guideline. In settings where such testing is not available or technically feasible, other bone mineral density testing (for example, quantitative ultrasound or calcaneal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) should be offered. This testing should be offered every 2 years (more frequently if deemed medically necessary).. Clinicians should encourage patients to consume a diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D. Further, if the intake of calcium (1,000 to 1,200 mg/d) and vitamin D (at least 800 to 1,000 IU/d) is not being consumed at those target levels, then supplements to reach those levels are recommended.. The guideline states that for patients with nonmetastatic cancer with osteoporosis (T-scores of 2.5 or less in the femoral neck, total ...
Bone Densitometry is a simple, painless, non-invasive test that takes about 15 minutes. A DEXA (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) scanner is used to provide information regarding your bone mineral density (BMD). By comparing your test results to a local database, healthcare providers can estimate bone strength and predict the risk for fractures ...
DNA sequences comprising nucleic acids encoding fusion proteins comprising an Fc portion of an antibody attached at the N-terminus of an OB protein moiety, vectors comprising such DNA sequences, host cells comprising such vectors or DNA sequences, and processes for preparing such fusion proteins, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising such fusion proteins, are described. The DNA sequences, vectors comprising such DNA sequences, host cells comprising such vectors or DNA sequences, and processes for preparing such fusion proteins, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising such fusion proteins are useful, for example, in providing therapeutically effective amounts of compositions useful for, for example, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing the dose of insulin required for the treatment of diabetes, controlling serum glucose levels, increasing lean tissue mass, increasing overall body strength, or regulating bone resorption, or effecting any combination of such, in subjects in need or desirous
Background & objectives: The main goal when treating malignancies with radiation is to deprive tumour cells of their reproductive potential. One approach is to induce tumour cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of carbon ions ( [12] C) to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HTB140 melanoma cells. Methods: In this in vitro study, human melanoma HTB140 cells were irradiated with the 62 MeV/n carbon ( [12] C) ion beam, having two different linear energy transfer (LET) values: 197 and 382 keV/μm. The dose range was 2 to 16 Gy. Cell viability was estimated by the sulforhodamine B assay seven days after irradiation. The cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated 48 h after irradiation using flow cytometry. At the same time point, protein and gene expression of apoptotic regulators were estimated using the Western blot and q-PCR methods, respectively. Results: Cell viability experiments indicated strong anti-tumour effects of [12] C ions. The analysis of cell cycle ...
A DEXA scan assesses your bone density and your risk of osteoporosis. It is the only diagnostic test for osteoporosis before a fracture occurs.
Objective: To examine the total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) bone loss in women and men above 50 years of age with self-reported chronic diseases. Methods: Using data from The Tromsø Study, men and women aged 50-74 years were included in this study. Disease status was identified based on self-reports. Bone mineral density (BMD) of TH and FN were measured using DXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry). The change in BMD was calculated as the difference between BMD in Tromsø 5 and Tromsø 6. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationship between the predictor variables (diseases) and the outcome (change in total hip and femoral neck BMD). Results: Out of 2310 participants, 860 were men and 1450 were women. Men had significantly more cases of heart disease ( ...
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Introduction: Weight loss is an important component of diabetes prevention and management because of the known effect of adiposity on insulin resistance. While both muscle (lean mass) and fat mass are known to serve important metabolic functions, most studies of obesity and diabetes use proxy measures for overall or abdominal obesity without accounting for the composition of that mass. The aim of this study was to examine the association of total and trunk lean body mass and fat mass with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - an indicator of glucose control in persons with diabetes and a risk marker in non-diabetic populations - in the general U.S. population.. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the NHANES collected in 1999-2006 in participants aged 18-69 years. Lean body mass and percent body fat were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); analyses were weighted and multiple imputation was applied to account for missing DXA data. Associations of body composition ...
I am a 60-year-old female with osteoporosis. I took Fosamax 70 mg once weekly for seven months until I could no longer endure the side effects. For the following month, I took no medication. Since January 21, 2008, I have been on 680 mg strontium citrate once daily. I intend to relate my progress. My first DEXA scan was done May 8, 2007. My T-score at the lumbar spine was -3.0 (-2.0 at L1, -2.7 at L2, -3.4 at L3 and -3.8 at L4). My T-score at the left hip was -2.2 (-2.8 at neck, -2.0 at troch, -1.9 at inter). My BMD results in g/cm2 were 0.712 at the spine (L1-L4), 0.53 at the left hip (neck), and 0.670 at the left hip (total). A followup scan is planned for July 6, 2009. For these results, see: http://strontiumforbones.blogspot.com/2009/07/improved-t-scores-after-treatment. ...
Results Activity levels were related to body composition outcomes; for example, lean mass index (lean mass/height2) was positively associated with time spent in moderate activity (r=0.40, p=0.02) and negatively with time spent in sedentary activity (r=−0.50, p=0.002). Per cent time spent in sedentary activity correlated negatively with whole body bone mineral density z-score (r=−0.44, p=0.01) and hip bone mineral content (r=−0.38, p=0.03).. ...
If you are at risk for osteoporosis or will be receiving treatment that increases your risk, your doctor may request bone mineral density testing before treatment begins to obtain a baseline value for later comparison. The test most often used is a low-dose X-ray technique known as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, commonly called densitometry or a DEXA scan. This test calculates bone density according to how much radiation the bone absorbs.. Osteoporosis is indicated by a bone density lower than the range expected in premenopausal women or other women similar to you in age and ethnicity. Testing is noninvasive, painless and takes about 20 to 30 minutes to complete. If you are at high risk for osteoporosis, your doctor may prescribe a medication approved for the prevention and/or treatment of osteoporosis (Table 1). In addition, changes in lifestyle habits can help keep your bones strong (Table 2).. Some complementary and herbal supplements are marketed as agents to help prevent and/or treat ...
According to a recent review in American Family Physician, 1 to 2 million American men have osteoporosis, 13 percent of white U.S. men older than age 50 will experience an osteoporotic fracture in their lifetimes, and men are twice as likely as women to die in the hospital following a hip fracture. However, unlike screening guidelines in women, there is no consensus on when to screen for osteoporosis in men. The American College of Physicians recommends an individualized osteoporosis risk assessment for men age 65 or older, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to measure bone density in men at increased risk. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for osteoporosis in men, although it observed that men most likely to benefit from screening would have 10-year risks of osteoporotic fracture equal to or greater than those of 65-year-old white women with no additional risk factors ...
The aim of the present study was to describe postpubertal changes in total and abdominal adiposity in young men and the relation to changes in physical activity (PA). The study included 107 white men with a mean age of 17.1 +/- 1.7 years at baseline. Total percentage body fat (%BF) and abdominal percentage body fat (abd%BF) were measured at baseline and after a mean time of 28, 68, and 92 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PA (h/week) was assessed at each visit by questionnaire. Over the study period, significant increases of 7.8 +/- 5.5%BF and 9.0 +/- 5.6 abd%BF were observed. Subjects who were active athletes throughout the study (n = 24), or nonathletes not changing their level of PA during follow-up (n = 27) increased 5.7 +/- 3.2 and 8.1 +/- 6.7%BF, respectively. Athletes who quit organized training during follow-up period (n = 56) increased by 8.7 +/- 4.9%BF. In the total cohort, the average annual gains in BMI, %BF, and abd%BF were 0.4 kg/m(2), 0.9%BF, and 1.1abd%BF (all ...
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Finni T, Saakslahti A, Laukkanen A, Pesola A, Sipila S. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:944-2458-11-944 ...
Background: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the drugs of choice for asthma. Corticosteroids can have many detrimental effects on bone mineralization and growth, despite of inhaled administration.. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the association between the long-term use of ICS in childhood and bone mineral density (BMD) in teenagers.. Methods: Ninety-one children hospitalized for wheezing at age ,24 months were prospectively followed until 12.2 (median) years of age. Data on ICS use were collected by interviewing the parents, supplemented by data from patient records. Cumulative doses, the duration of ICS use and systemic steroid doses were calculated. At the last check-up, BMD (BMDareal, g/cm2) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 89 children, and apparent volumetric BMDs (aBMDvol, g/cm3) were calculated for the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Weight, height and pubertal stage were recorded.. Results: The regular use of ICS at age ,6 years was associated with a lower ...
There is a growing body of research showing that diabetes is an independent risk factor for fracture. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), which predominates in older individuals and is increasing globally as a consequence of the obesity epidemic, is associated with normal or even increased dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived areal bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, the paradoxical increase in fracture risk has led to the hypothesis that there are diabetes-associated alterations in material and structural properties. An overly glycated collagen matrix, confounded by a low turnover state, in the setting of subtle cortical abnormalities, may lead to compromised biomechanical competence. In current clinical practice, because BMD is central to fracture prediction, a consequence of this paradox is a lack of suitable methods, including FRAX, to predict fracture risk in older adults with T2D. The option of adding diabetes to the FRAX algorithm is appealing but requires additional data from large population
Background: Osteoporosis is a prevalent condition that is often overlooked until a fragility fracture occurs. Screening for bone loss with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans is underutilized in the primary care setting. Direct communication with at-risk patients, offering self-referral for DXA screening, has been demonstrated to be the most effective intervention in increasing DXA screening rates. Purpose: The goal of this DNP project was to improve bone density screening rates in a primary care practice by inviting patients at greatest risk of osteoporosis to schedule a DXA without a provider order. Methods: After a review of the electronic medical record, letters and educational brochures were mailed to 261 eligible patients, including women age 50 and over and men age 70 and over, with instructions to schedule a DXA scan. Patients whose DXA results revealed osteoporosis or osteopenia with a high risk of fracture were invited for in-person educational counseling and medication management.
16. A computer-implemented method for analyzing a patients body part of interest to assess bone strength and/or risk of future fracture, said method comprising: obtaining a priori information regarding the body part of interest, said a priori information comprising a three-dimensional (3D) generic model of a comparable body part; performing X-ray absorptiometric scans of the patients body part of interest and collecting X-ray absorptiometry data from the X-ray absorptiometric scans, said data being derived using x-ray imaging detectors included in a computer-driven data acquisition system, said data representing a plurality of two-dimensional (2D) images of the patients body part, each of said 2D images of the patients body part being at a respective orientation of an imaging x-ray beam relative to the patients body part; constructing a three-dimensional model of the patients body part of interest, by utilizing the a priori information along with the X-ray absorptiometric data, said ...
DXA uses a technique called densitometry or X-ray absorptiometry; the machine passes an X-ray beam through an area of the bone. Ultrasound testing uses sound waves instead of X-rays. Radiation (or sound waves) are absorbed by the bone-- the denser the bone, the more it absorbs. The machines detectors translate absorption information into a measure of bone density. The dual in dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) refers to the use of two different X-ray beams, which enables the machine to distinguish between bone and the soft tissue (e.g., muscle, fat) covering it. Thats why DXA can measure density of the hip and spine bones, even though they lie deep inside the body. Tests that use just a single beam can only measure bones that are just under the skin, such as the bones in the hand, wrist, and heel. Bone density tests are the best way to determine if you have osteopenia or osteoporosis. But these tests cant tell you why youre losing bone or how fast its happening. Nor can they evaluate ...
The present study confirmed the hypothethetical association between a high Larsen score and low BMD in the femoral neck in a large sample of patients with RA with low to moderately active disease. Moreover, the well known associates of high age and low BMI were independent variables associated with low BMD at all measurement sites. With increasing age, BMD decreased more in women than in men im both the hip and the spine. The current results were confirmed in a large subgroup of corticosteroid naïve patients. This is interesting as these associations had not been studied previously in a large group of corticosteroid naive patients.7,17. Previous studies7,17 showed an inverse association between joint damage, expressed by the Larsen score, and BMD measured by DXA in patients with a disease duration of more than 10 years in relatively small patient groups. With the present study, we confirmed these findings in a large population that was heterogeneous for disease duration and joint damage. The ...
Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences.We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environmental components common to both sexes and to men and women separately and calculated the correlation between genetic components in men and women.After accounting for age, sex and inbreeding, heritability ranged from 0.39 for fat mass index to 0.84 for height. We found sex-specific genetic effects for fat percentage (fat%), lean mass, lean mass index (LMI) and fat distribution, but not for BMI and height. Genetic correlations between sexes were significantly different from 1 for fat%, lean mass, LMI, android fat, android:gynoid fat ratio and WHR,
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. METHODS: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environmental components common to both sexes and to men and women separately and calculated the correlation between genetic components in men and women. RESULTS: After accounting for age, sex and inbreeding, heritability ranged from 0.39 for fat mass index to 0.84 for height. We found sex-specific genetic effects for fat percentage (fat%), lean mass, lean mass index (LMI) and fat distribution, but not for BMI and height. Genetic correlations between sexes were significantly different from 1 for fat%, lean mass, LMI, android fat,
There are two items of equipment in the bone densitometry room; the table with the x-ray machine and the computer system. The table has a padded top for comfort. The bone densitometry scanner produces a narrow x-ray beam which cannot be seen or felt, that passes from the x-ray source in the table through the patient, to the detectors in the scanner arm above the patient. The operator, a trained BMD technologist, sits at the computer console during the scan. Each region scanned takes between 3 to 5 minutes to complete. There is no preparation required for Bone Density testing.. ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a persons weight and height. BMI is a fairly reliable indicator of body fatness for most people. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but research has shown that BMI correlates to direct measures of body fat, such as underwater weighing and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMI can be considered an alternative for direct measures of body fat. Additionally, BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight categories that may lead to health problems ...
Fortunately, there are preventive steps you can take. Thirty years ago, osteoporosis was generally considered a part of normal aging. But today researchers know a lot more about how to protect your bones throughout your life. For example, getting enough calcium, vitamin D (which aids calcium absorption) and exercise is very important. Eating fruits and vegetables is also beneficial to bones. On the other hand, eating poorly, smoking, drinking too much alcohol and not exercising can cause bone loss.. In addition, researchers now have a way to detect osteoporosis before a broken bone occurs. Its called a bone density test, and it measures your bone density in the hip and spine. Thats because fractures in these areas can cause more serious problems, including longer recovery time, greater pain and even disability. Using a Central Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machine, the test usually takes 15 minutes or less. It is non-invasive and painless. While it does expose you to radiation, you ...
The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a non-invasive method (referred to as Smart Photo-Tape) to calculate participant-specific upper arm, forearm, and hand segment inertial properties (SIPs) (e.g. mass, center of mass, and radii of gyration) and (2) use those Smart Photo-Tape properties in inverse dynamics (ID) analyses to calculate injury-related pitching arm kinetics. Five 20- to 23- year-old baseball pitchers were photographed holding a baseball and analyzed using the Smart Photo-Tape method to obtain 3-D inertial properties for their upper arm, forearm, and hand. The upper arm and forearm segments were modelled as stacked elliptic cylinders and the hand was modelled as an ellipsoid. One participant received a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and conducted a motion analysis study, pitching 10 fastballs. Scaled SIPs from cadaver studies and Smart Photo-Tape SIPs were compared using one sample t-tests. Pitching arm kinetic predictions were calculated and compared using scaled
Bone density testing can help detect osteoporosis risk. Schedule a DEXA bone density scan at Centrelake Imaging in Pomona, Ontario, or West Covina.
Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, FACC, FAHA, AGSF, FCCP, Divisions of Cardiology, Geriatrics, and Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); this article reviews several recent studies that have demonstrated the association. In one study, for every 1-unit reduction in femoral neck T score, a 0.23 minute decrease in treadmill exercise duration was found after values were adjusted for age and other patient characteristics (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.35, p,0.001). For every 1-unit reduction in femoral neck T score, there was a 22% increased risk of myocardial ischemia after values were adjusted for age and other patient characteristics (95% CI, 1.06-1.41, p = 0.004). Overall after adjustments, patients with a low BMD who were referred for exercise echocardiographic stress testing had a 43% greater risk of myocardial ischemia than did patients with normal ...
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The FDA has granted emergency use authorization for COVID-19-related diagnostic tests to Hologic (NSDQ:HOLX) and Laboratory Corporation of America (NYSE:LH).. Hologic described its new Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2 assay as a molecular diagnostic test that detects SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The automated Panther high-throughput system is widely used across the U.S., can provide results in less than three hours and process up to 1,150 coronavirus tests in a 24-hour period, according to the Marlborough, Mass.-based company.. Hologic also said it expects to provide its laboratory customers with tens of thousands of SARS-CoV-2 tests this month as it ramps up production capacity. Starting in April, Hologic expects to produce nearly 600,000 SARS-CoV-2 tests per month, representing a 12-fold increase in the companys prior manufacturing capacity for similar tests that run on the Panther Fusion system.. Panther Fusion can also simultaneously test for other common respiratory viruses, and ...
Normative data using single photon absorptiometry". Pediatric Radiology. 20 (6): 461-463. doi:10.1007/bf02075209. ISSN 0301- ...
Ionizing radiation photons or x-rays (IMRT) use pencil beam scanning to precisely target a tumor. Photon pencil beam scans are ... "Dual X-ray absorptiometry: a comparison between fan beam and pencil beam scans". Br J Radiol. 66 (790): 902-6. doi:10.1259/0007 ... Radiation treatment planning mean free path Monte Carlo method for photon transport Hybrid theory for photon transport in ...
... mainly using dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners. He was appointed as a ... dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound in clinical practice. Wahner, Heinz W., Fogelman, Ignac, 1948-, Wahner, Heinz W ...
It is used as a gamma ray source for X-ray absorptiometry and fluorescence, for bone density gauges for osteoporosis screening ... In nuclear medicine, it serves to calibrate the equipment needed like single-photon emission computed tomography systems (SPECT ...
... minimum effective dose for improving bone mass parameters evaluated by microdensitometry and/or single photon absorptiometry in ...
... absorptiometry, photon MeSH E05.196.712.224.375 - densitometry, x-ray MeSH E05.196.712.516 - luminescent measurements MeSH ...
... absorptiometry, photon MeSH E01.370.350.710.710 - radioimmunodetection MeSH E01.370.350.710.715 - radionuclide angiography MeSH ... absorptiometry, photon MeSH E01.370.384.730.710 - radioimmunodetection MeSH E01.370.384.730.715 - radionuclide angiography MeSH ... single-photon MeSH E01.370.350.350.810 - tomography, x-ray computed MeSH E01.370.350.350.810.180 - colonography, computed ... single-photon MeSH E01.370.350.825.805 - tomography, optical MeSH E01.370.350.825.805.500 - tomography, optical coherence MeSH ...
Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) Single energy X-ray ... These tests include: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) Trabecular bone score Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and Laser ( ... absorptiometry (SEXA) DXA is currently the most widely used, but quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been described as a more ...
Photon-counting mammography Photon-counting computed tomography Fredenberg, E. (2018). "Spectral and dual-energy X-ray imaging ... "Measurement of breast density with dual X-ray absorptiometry: Feasibility". Radiology. 223 (2): 554-557. doi:10.1148/radiol. ... Pileup will always be present in photon-counting detectors because of the Poisson distribution of incident photons, but ... As opposed to conventional detectors, which integrate all photon interactions over the exposure time, photon-counting detectors ...
Neer, R. M. (1992). "The utility of single-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry". Journal of Nuclear ... "Single X-ray absorptiometry: Performance characteristics and comparison with single photon absorptiometry". Osteoporosis ... Single photon absorptiometry is a measuring method for bone density invented by John R. Cameron and James A. Sorenson in 1963. ... Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) was developed in 1963 by Steichen et al. In 1976, it was an important tool for quantifying ...
One type of DXA scanner uses a cerium filter with a tube voltage of 80 kV, resulting in effective photon energies of about 40 ... Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, or DEXA) is a means of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) using spectral imaging. Two ... The combination of dual X-ray absorptiometry and laser uses the laser to measure the thickness of the region scanned, allowing ... Lewis MK, Blake GM, Fogelman I (January 1994). "Patient dose in dual x-ray absorptiometry". Osteoporos Int. 4 (1): 11-5. doi: ...
He is an expert in the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for quantitative bone and soft tissue imaging, and ... He was the first to develop scintillating vapor-deposited Na(Tl) thin films for photon counting imaging detectors grown with a ... Shepherd designs and develops dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry systems, mammography and 3D optical biomarkers used to evaluate ... "Determining body composition using fan beam dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry". Retrieved 2021-04-04. "Methods and apparatus for ...
... including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Sometimes, imaging ... and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ICRU: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements ICRP: International ...
Dual-photon absorptiometry: comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue measurements in vivo with established methods. Am J Clin ... Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry - Spine (P_DXXSPN). Data File: P_DXXSPN.xpt. First Published: September 2021. Last Revised: NA ... Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely accepted method of measuring bone density due in part to its speed, ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry quality control: comparison of visual examination and process-control charts. JBMR 1996; 11:626-37. ...
Forearm dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan result osteopenic Current Synonym true false ... Forearm dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan result osteopenic (finding). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Forearm ...
Lumbar spine dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan Z score Current Synonym true false ... Lumbar spine dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan Z score (finding). ... Lumbar spine dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan Z score (finding). ...
Factors affecting spine-femur discordance in the percentage of young adult mean on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the ... According to some studies, nuclear imaging modalities such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron ...
Dual-photon absorptiometry: comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue measurements in vivo with established methods. Am J Clin ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry quality control: comparison of visual examination and process-control charts. JBMR 1996; 11:626-37. ... Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry - Android/Gynoid Measurements (DXXAG_H). Data File: DXXAG_H.xpt. First Published: October 2021 ... Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely accepted method of measuring body composition, due in part to its ...
Other than single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), as discussed above, nuclear medicine is not ... single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), [12] and dual-energy ... What is the role of absorptiometry in the workup of osteoporosis?. What is the role of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) in ... Radiographic absorptiometry. Absorptiometry is a semiquantitative method of determining BMD. Radiographic absorptiometry is ...
A comprehensive analysis using fine-detail radiography, photon absorptiometry, and bone and joint scintigraphy. Radiology. 1975 ...
Other than single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), as discussed above, nuclear medicine is not ... single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), [12] and dual-energy ... What is the role of absorptiometry in the workup of osteoporosis?. What is the role of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) in ... Radiographic absorptiometry. Absorptiometry is a semiquantitative method of determining BMD. Radiographic absorptiometry is ...
Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). *Quantitative Computed Tomography. *Single-Photon Emission CT ... Precision error of fan-beam dual X-ray absorptiometry scans at the spine, hip, and forearm. J Clin Densitom. 2000 Winter. 3(4): ... BMD = bone mineral density; DXA = dual x-ray absorptiometry; SD = standard deviation; T-score = a measurement expressed in SD ... Correlations between trabecular bone score, measured using anteroposterior dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry acquisition, and 3- ...
Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry is a useful tool to demonstrate the skeletal involvement in primary hyperparathyroidism ... 3] Most modern sestamibi scans are performed with single-photon computed tomography (SPECT). This technique (see the image ... What is the role of dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry in the workup of primary hyperparathyroidism, and what protocol may ...
Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry is a useful tool to demonstrate the skeletal involvement in primary hyperparathyroidism ... 3] Most modern sestamibi scans are performed with single-photon computed tomography (SPECT). This technique (see the image ... What is the role of dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry in the workup of primary hyperparathyroidism, and what protocol may ...
Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry is a useful tool to demonstrate the skeletal involvement in primary hyperparathyroidism ... 3] Most modern sestamibi scans are performed with single-photon computed tomography (SPECT). This technique (see the image ... What is the role of dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry in the workup of primary hyperparathyroidism, and what protocol may ...
Dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan requested (situation). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Dual energy X-ray ... Dual energy X-ray photon absorptiometry scan requested Current Synonym true false ...
Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry is a useful tool to demonstrate the skeletal involvement in primary hyperparathyroidism ... 3] Most modern sestamibi scans are performed with single-photon computed tomography (SPECT). This technique (see the image ... What is the role of dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry in the workup of primary hyperparathyroidism, and what protocol may ...
Factors affecting spine-femur discordance in the percentage of young adult mean on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the ... According to some studies, nuclear imaging modalities such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron ...
A cross sectional study in 46 male patients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001. 121(1-2):75-8 ... Protocol for Using Dual Photon Absortiometry to Measure Bone Mineral Density of the Distal femur and Proximal Tibia (Master's ... Use of bone biochemical markers with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for early determination of bone loss in persons with ... Assessment of Bone Mineral Density at the Distal Femur and the Proximal Tibia by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in ...
Neer, R. M. (1992). "The utility of single-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry". Journal of Nuclear ... "Single X-ray absorptiometry: Performance characteristics and comparison with single photon absorptiometry". Osteoporosis ... Single photon absorptiometry is a measuring method for bone density invented by John R. Cameron and James A. Sorenson in 1963. ... Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) was developed in 1963 by Steichen et al. In 1976, it was an important tool for quantifying ...
Sestamibi scanning paired with single-photon emission computerized tomography * Bone densitometry, determined by dual energy x- ...
Other than single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), as discussed above, nuclear medicine is not ... single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), [12] and dual-energy ... What is the role of absorptiometry in the workup of osteoporosis?. What is the role of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) in ... Radiographic absorptiometry. Absorptiometry is a semiquantitative method of determining BMD. Radiographic absorptiometry is ...
Categories: Absorptiometry, Photon Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Absorptiometry, Photon * Analysis of Variance * Anthropometry * Blood Pressure / physiology * Body Composition * Body Mass ...
Absorptiometry, Photon * Alkaline Phosphatase / blood * Bone Density / drug effects* * Bone Remodeling / drug effects* ...
Absorptiometry, Photon. Iwaniec UT, Turner RT, Smith BJ, Stoecker BJ, Rust A, Zhang B, Vasu VT, Gohil K, Cross CE, Traber MG. ...
Changes in medial-to-lateral knee joint loading patterns assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry following supervised ...
Does peak bone mass correlate with peak bone strength? Cross-sectional normative dual energy X-ray absorptiometry data in 1052 ...
Dual-photon absorptiometry: comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue measurements in vivo with established methods. Am J Clin ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry quality control: comparison of visual examination and process-control charts. JBMR 1996; 11:626-37. ... Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry - Android/Gynoid Measurements (DXXAG_I). Data File: DXXAG_I.xpt. First Published: October 2021 ... Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely accepted method of measuring body composition, due in part to its ...
Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed ... Usefulness of bone mass measurements by photon absorptiometry. Cite CITE. Title : Usefulness of bone mass measurements by ... photon absorptiometry. Personal Author(s) : Hassager, C;Christiansen, C; Published Date : 1989 Sep-Oct;Sep-Oct 1989; Source : ...
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sitting position performed on the heel to determine the T-score, Z-score, BMD, and ... Keywords: Osteoporosis - epidemiology, Absorptiometry, Photon, Aged, 80 and over, Cross-Sectional Studies, Homes for the Aged, ... Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sitting position performed on the heel to determine the T-score, Z-score, BMD, and ...
... include single photon absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, single-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and peripheral ... single energy x-ray absorptiometry, peripheral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and peripheral quantitative computed ... Evaluation of decision rules for referring women for bone densitometry by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. JAMA 2001;286(1):57 ... Other technologies for measuring peripheral sites include quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), radiographic absorptiometry, ...
Investigation of the Relationship Between Susceptibility Loci for Hip Osteoarthritis and Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry-Derived Hip ... and diagnostic accuracy of kellgren-lawrence grading for osteoarthritis using radiographs and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ...
The most common and accurate way uses a procedure called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, also known as a DEXA scan. The scan ... At the same time, another scanning machine called a photon generator will pass beneath you. The images from the two machines ... Other names: bone mineral density test, BMD test, DEXA scan, DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ...
Measures of body density (hydrostatic weighing), bone mineral content (single photon absorptiometry), total body water ( ...
... and total 25-OH-D and used single and dual photon absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density. They found no association ...
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of wrist (procedure) {708656007 , SNOMED-CT } Single energy X-ray photon absorptiometry ( ... X-ray photon absorptiometry (procedure) {241685002 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Dual energy X-ray ... X-ray photon absorptiometry (procedure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. X-ray photon absorptiometry (procedure). ...
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They are qualified to interpret the entire range of diagnostic studies, including single-photon and positron-emitter ... Basic principles of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, MRI and spectroscopy, ultrasonography, digital autoradiography, and ... Single-photon planar imaging, SPECT, PET, attenuation and scatter corrections, and CT. ...
Filters: Keyword is Absorptiometry, Photon and Author is Katzenellenbogen, Benita S [Clear All Filters] ...
... dual X-ray absorptiometry of spine, femoral neck, and single photon absorptiometry of forearm) were performed at baseline and ...
There are three types of bone density tests: the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), dual photon absorptiometry (DPA), and the ... dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test. Be sure to request either the DXA bone marrow test, which is the most accurate of ...
Sestamibi scanning paired with single-photon emission computerized tomography * Bone densitometry, determined by dual energy x- ...
METHODS: We assessed femoral-neck BMD by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry and potential fall-related risk factors, which ...
Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed ... Single photon absorptiometry uses the transmission of 27.5 keV photons emitted from an iodine-125 source to assess bone density ... Dual energy photon absorptiometry uses a gadolinium-153 isotope source to emit photons of two different energies. The spine, ... Absorptiometry, Photon Bone And Bones Female Humans Osteoporosis Radionuclide Imaging Research Article Tomography, X-Ray ...
  • Single photon absorptiometry is a measuring method for bone density invented by John R. Cameron and James A. Sorenson in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) was developed in 1963 by Steichen et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single photon absorption method operates when a certain amount of gamma rays emitted by isotopes, pass through human tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1963, the single photon absorption Assay (SPA) invented by Cameron and Sorenson was the first quantitative analysis method applied to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic principle of single-photon bone mineral density measuring instrument is to calculate the attenuation degree of single-energy gamma photon beam through bone tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method is called gamma-ray absorption method, which is also called single-photon absorption method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single photon absorption is the earliest method to measure bone mineral density accurately. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thickness of soft tissue measured by single photon absorption method is the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next improvement in the field of bone mineral density is the single-photon absorption (SPA) method invented by Cameron and Sorenson in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • dual X-ray absorptiometry of spine, femoral neck, and single photon absorptiometry of forearm) were performed at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment. (ersjournals.com)
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) detects small changes in bone mass by comparing the patient's bone density to that of healthy adults (T score) and to age-matched adults (Z score). (medscape.com)
  • [ 12 ] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). (medscape.com)
  • The most common and accurate way uses a procedure called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, also known as a DEXA scan. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are three types of bone density tests: the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), dual photon absorptiometry (DPA), and the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test. (naturalcures.com)
  • Longitudinal serum bone Gla protein (BGP) determinations and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) examinations were also performed before and after parathyroidectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • DEXA stands for dual photon X-ray absorptiometry. (imagecarecenters.com)
  • Prior to surgery, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, body composition [by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan], body fat distribution [by computed tomography (CT) scan], and glucose tolerance were determined. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The best way to check your bone density is a test called Dual-Photon Absorptiometry or one called Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, called a DEXA scan. (napacachiropractor.com)
  • El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar, en jugadores de futbol profesional, el ángulo de fase (PhA) de miembros inferiores con los posibles patrones de mejora del componente magro en los mismos medido por DEXA. (bvsalud.org)
  • BMC (g/cm) can be obtained by synthesizing the measured bone gamma photon absorption energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-energy X-ray absorptiometry (SXA) may be used to measure bone density in the heel and forearm. (networkofcare.org)
  • Total and regional lean soft tissue, fat mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (elsevier.com)
  • The TBS and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Study Design: This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14-30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). (elsevier.com)
  • Background and objective: The application of different reference databases to calculate the T-score values of the bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques may result in variations in the number of subjects diagnosed with osteoporosis. (pucv.cl)
  • DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) is a scan that measures the bone of your spine, hip or your total body. (osteopenia3.com)
  • SXA (single Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) measures the density of bone in your wrist or the heel of one foot. (osteopenia3.com)
  • Primary outcomes were changes between baseline and nine months of bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and serum markers of bone resorption and formation. (yang-sheng.com)
  • METHODS: We assessed femoral-neck BMD by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry and potential fall-related risk factors, which included self-reported physical capacity, neuromuscular function, mobility, visual function, and use of medication in 7575 women, aged 75 years or older, with no history of hip fracture recruited at five centres in France. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Based on dual X-ray absorptiometry, the primary outcomes were the BMD data of the lumbar spine and proximal femoral neck. (elsevier.com)
  • Osteoporosis: Should I Have a Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Test? (networkofcare.org)
  • Iodine or Americium gamma photons are used as a light source to penetrate the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary intake was determined by 3-d records, and body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract Objective: To present an updated and evidence-based guideline for the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition in clinical practice. (bvsalud.org)
  • BMC and BMD are obtained by calculating the density of photon energy emitted and emitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure appendicular lean mass. (bmj.com)
  • Females exhibited higher QUS values than males during puberty, also similar to results for dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: We included participants age ≥20 years with BMD (total and subregions) measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry scans and complete information on covariates from NHANES. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Design and Methods: Physique arrangement ended up being calculated by two electricity X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (gabapathway.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: A modified formula for defining tissue phantom ratio of photon beams. (who.int)
  • Alam MJ, Rabbani KS, Zakaria GA, Hussain SM, Kiber A, Baig T. A modified formula for defining tissue phantom ratio of photon beams. (who.int)
  • Toward a model-based patient selection strategy for proton therapy: External validation of photon-derived normal tissue complication probability models in a head and neck proton therapy cohort. (ouhsc.edu)
  • The dose in water has been measured at a fixed source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and reference depth of 5 cm for 6 MV photon beam of Siemens Linear Accelerator Primus 11 in German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. (who.int)
  • The expensive and potentially dangerous radioactive sources used in SPA and DPA have been replaced by single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) since the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Users of the 2015-2016 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry android/gynoid data (DXXAG_I) are encouraged to read the documentation before accessing the data file. (cdc.gov)
  • Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DXA) machines are portable units that can be used in a doctor's office. (networkofcare.org)
  • All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. (duke.edu)
  • 3) dual energy x-ray absorptiometry dual photon absorptiometry and more recently, d e x a were the first techniques available to study variation in the b m c of the body (lohman, 1992). (enfes.de)
  • In another study correction for signal loss, spectral shift of photon energy spectra and calibration in equivalent media was done for rats injected with 131I-labelled 194 4 Mechanical Properties of the Body their active and passive properties. (allforexindicators.com)
  • La intervención se llevó a cabo en su totalidad en pretemporada, con un confinamiento en modalidad de aislamiento o burbuja total por prevención al contagio del COVID-19, dónde se monitorizaba en un alto porcentaje la vida del jugador, incluyendo factores como la alimentación, el entrenamiento y el descanso. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two-photon microscopy was applied to locate DCs inside stomach lamina propria involving rodents. (gabapathway.com)
  • dual X-ray absorptiometry of spine, femoral neck, and single photon absorptiometry of forearm) were performed at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment. (ersjournals.com)
  • We measured bone mineral content (BMC) with single photon absorptiometry in two groups of young patients with type I diabetes: the first group (prospective study) consists of 48 patients followed from onset to the third year of diabetes and the second group (cross-sectional study) consists of 66 long-term diabetics. (elsevier.com)
  • Single photon absorptiometry osteoporotic fracture is considerable. (eddoctor24h.com)
  • BMD was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and at the non-dominant forearm by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA). (osteoporosis-studies.com)
  • Measurement of the bone mineral content in the forearms (single photon absorptiometry), and the spine and total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) showed a significant decrease of five to seven percent in the placebo group during the two years of treatment, whereas it remained constant in all bone compartments in the estradiol group. (medstudio.com)
  • Furthermore, we compared the usefulness of various abdominal obesity indices measured using computed tomography (CT), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric parameters for detecting NAFLD. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and biomarkers of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in persons with chronic SCI. (umn.edu)
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry enables the assessment of bone mineral density as well as lean and adipose tissue mass [ 2 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • Prior to the initial diagnosis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to test the bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur, with the measured values being adopted as diagnosis and inclusion criteria. (scirp.org)
  • Femoral and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density was determined ex vivo using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We investigated the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck, and performed a hip structure analysis (HSA) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during a 48-week treatment with teriparatide (20 µg/day). (esmed.org)
  • Forty-three female patients with systemic sclerosis divided into subgroups based on the extent of skin involvement and the presence of calcinosis, and 50 sex and age-matched healthy controls were investigated for bone mineral density (BMD) on the basis of radial (dual photon absorptiometry, Osteograph, NIM), lumbar, and total body measurements (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar DPX, Lunar Corp.), and for parameters of calcium metabolism. (univr.it)
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been a widespread tool for the assessment of bone health since its introduction in 1987, particularly scans performed in the lumbar spine and hip regions 11 , 13 , 19 . (jove.com)
  • Dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DPA) machines contain an isotope, gadolinium-153, as the source of photons. (ce4rt.com)
  • The present study assessed agreement between two field methods, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and corrected arm muscle area (CAMA) for assessment of body composition against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the reference technique. (edu.au)
  • Secondary aims were to explore relationships between arm segment volumes, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements of extracellular fluid (ECF), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of tissue composition. (edu.au)
  • To describe the tempo of growth in regional bone size, bone mineral content (BMC), and vBMD, we measured bone length, periosteal and endocortical diameters, BMC, and vBMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 184 boys aged between 7 and 17 years. (austin.org.au)
  • Dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DPA) technology is now largely of academic interest. (ce4rt.com)
  • In contrast, dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) devices incorporate an X-Ray tube. (ce4rt.com)
  • Therefore, dual photon X-ray absorptiometry is actually a misnomer. (ce4rt.com)
  • Dual photon X-ray absorptiometry equipment consists of a collimated gadolinium source and scintillation detector assembly mounted in opposing geometry over a full-body table. (ce4rt.com)
  • If the patient has taken any contrast material or undergone any radioactive studies within 3-5 days, the dual photon X-ray absorptiometry test should be rescheduled. (ce4rt.com)
  • The dual photon X-ray absorptiometry device features automatic edge detection software, but the operator can manually override this to correct errors. (ce4rt.com)
  • To maintain the accuracy and precision of dual-photon absorptiometry machines, strict quality control must be performed. (ce4rt.com)
  • Like any imaging modality, dual photon X-ray absorptiometry has some advantages and some limitations. (ce4rt.com)
  • Moreover, the gadolinium source in dual photon X-ray absorptiometry machines decays over time. (ce4rt.com)
  • 40 years) male soldiers, compared to percent body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (nih.gov)
  • Users of the 2017-2018 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry android/gynoid data (DXXAG_J) are encouraged to read the documentation before accessing the data file. (cdc.gov)
  • We have shown that body mass index (BMI) misclassifies adiposity status in nearly one-third of individuals compared to the more accurate reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (mun.ca)
  • We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure FFM and BIA to measure whole-body impedance at 50 kHz (Z50) in 34 women and 21 men with PWS. (elsevier.com)
  • Volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual photon x-ray absorptiometry and water immersion. (bris.ac.uk)
  • 1) What is Dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA) test for? (essaysassignments.com)
  • Data on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning, use of steroids, bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as blood chemistries were collected. (weillcornell.org)
  • This paper provides a protocol for the anatomical orientation and analysis of skeletal remains for scanning via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (jove.com)
  • PET imaging is a high-technology product but still has certain limitations related to various factors such as the noncollinearity of 511-keV photons, positron range, and parallax error, which affect its sensitivity and spatial resolution in detecting small lesions ( 1 - 3 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • L'analyse par régression logistique a été utilisée pour établir la présence de différences significatives du point de vue statistique entre les six centres de transplantation en regard de la décision d'effectuer au moins un test de DMO à la suite d'une greffe rénale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replacement of the photon source costs thousands of dollars, adding to the cost of machine maintenance. (ce4rt.com)
  • PET imaging is based on detecting 2 simultaneously released 511-keV photons after a positron (emitted from the injected radiotracer in the body) moves in the tissue for a distance (positron range) until it reaches rest mass and then collides with a tissue electron, causing an annihilation reaction. (snmjournals.org)