Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Bone Diseases, MetabolicAdipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Neutron Activation Analysis: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Activation Analysis: A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Elementary Particles: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Gymnastics: Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fluoride PoisoningWeight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Rest: Freedom from activity.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
(1/2834) Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

(2/2834) Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits.

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

(3/2834) Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft.  (+info)

(4/2834) Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-mo periods with and without physical training.

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of physical training on plasma leptin concentrations in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of 4-mo periods with and without physical training on leptin in obese children and to explore the determinants of leptin at baseline and in response to physical training. DESIGN: Participants were 34 obese 7-11-y-old children randomly assigned to engage in physical training during either the first or second 4 mo of the 8-mo study. RESULTS: Total body composition, visceral adiposity, and insulin were all positively correlated with leptin at baseline (P < or = 0.05); however, only fat mass was retained in the final stepwise regression (P = 0.0001, R2 = 0.57). Leptin decreased during the 4-mo periods of physical training and increased in the 4 mo after cessation of physical training (P < 0.001 for the time by group interaction). Decreases in leptin were greatest in children with higher pretraining leptin concentrations, those whose total mass increased least, and those whose insulin concentrations decreased most (P < or = 0.05); only pretraining leptin concentration (P = 0.009) and change in total mass (P = 0.0002) were retained in the final regression (R2 = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In obese children, leptin concentration decreased during 4 mo of physical training and increased during a subsequent 4-mo period without physical training, fat mass was highly correlated with baseline leptin, and greater reductions in leptin during 4 mo of physical training were seen in children with higher pretraining leptin and in those whose total mass increased least.  (+info)

(5/2834) Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat.

This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.  (+info)

(6/2834) Bone densitometry at a district general hospital: evaluation of service by doctors and patients.

OBJECTIVE: To assess doctors' and patients' views about a district general hospital bone densitometry service and to examine existing practice to influence future provision. DESIGN: Three postal surveys: (a) of doctors potentially using the service, (b) of patients undergoing a bone densitometry test during a six month period, and (c) of the referring doctors of the patients undergoing the test. SETTING: Bone densitometry service at South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough and two district health authorities: South Tees and Northallerton. SUBJECTS: All general practitioners (n=201) and hospital consultants in general medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics, radio therapy and oncology, haematology, and radiology (n=61); all patients undergoing an initial bone densitometry test (n=309) during a six month period; and their referring doctors. MAIN MEASURES: Service awareness and use, knowledge of clinical indications, test results, influence of test results on patient management, satisfaction with the service and its future provision. RESULTS: The overall response rates for the three surveys were 87%, 70%, and 61%. There was a high awareness of the service among doctors and patients; 219(84%) doctors were aware and 155 of them (71%) had used it, and patients often (40%) suggested the test to their doctor. The test was used for a range of reasons including screening although the general use was consistent with current guidelines. Two hundred (65%) bone densitometry measurements were normal, 71(23%) were low normal, and 38(12%) were low. Although doctors reported that management of patients had been influenced by the test results, the algorithm for decision making was unclear. Patients and doctors were satisfied with the service and most (n=146, 68%) doctors wanted referral guidelines for the service. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high awareness of, use of, and satisfaction with the service. Patients were being referred for a range of reasons and a few of these could not be justified, many tests were normal, and clinical decision making was not always influenced by the test result. It is concluded that bone densitometry services should be provided but only for patients whose management will be influenced by test results and subject to guidelines to ensure appropriate use of the technology.  (+info)

(7/2834) Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 2 distinct ethnic groups: Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women.

BACKGROUND: Although people from the Indian subcontinent have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), studies of such in Indian and Pakistani women living in the United States are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study accounted for variability in serum lipid (total cholesterol and triacylglycerol) and lipoprotein [LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and HDL cholesterol] concentrations in Indian and Pakistani compared with American premenopausal women in the United States. Body composition, regional fat distribution, dietary intake, and energy expenditure were compared between groups. DESIGN: The 2 groups were 47 Indian and Pakistani and 47 American women. Health was assessed via medical history, physical activity, body composition (via anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), dietary intake (via 7-d food records), and serum lipids. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol were greater (P <0.03), whereas HDL-cholesterol values were lower (P = 0.011) in Indians and Pakistanis than in Americans. Multiple regression analysis indicated that approximately 18% of the variance in total cholesterol (P = 0.0010) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0009) was accounted for by ethnicity, energy expenditure, and the ratio of the sum of central to the sum of peripheral skinfold thicknesses. Ethnicity, sum of central skinfold thicknesses, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intake accounted for approximately 43% of the variance in triacylglycerol concentration (P < 0.0001). Monounsaturated fat, percentage body fat, and alcohol intake accounted for approximately 26% of variance in HDL cholesterol. Ethnicity contributed approximately 22% of the 25% overall variance in lipoprotein(a). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that these Indian and Pakistani women are at higher CVD risk than their American counterparts, but that increasing their physical activity is likely to decrease overall and regional adiposity, thereby improving their serum lipid profiles.  (+info)

(8/2834) Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones, riboflavin, riboflavin cofactors, and organic acids were assessed in girls with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of malnutrition and low thyroid hormone concentrations on erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin metabolism and their relation with urinary organic acid excretion. DESIGN: Seventeen adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 14.8 +/- 2.2] and 17 age-matched, healthy girls (control subjects; BMI: 20.5 +/- 2.2) took part in the feeding study. Erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin as well as riboflavin cofactors (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) were assessed by HPLC, whereas urinary organic acids were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Anorectic patients who began a feeding program had higher erythrocyte riboflavin (3.5 +/- 2.2 compared with <0.1 nmol/mol hemoglobin; P < 0.001), lower plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide (57.8 +/- 18.5 compared with 78.5 +/- 54.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and higher urinary ethylmalonic acid (7.12 +/- 4.39 compared with 1.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) and isovalerylglycine (7.65 +/- 4.78 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.9 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.05) concentrations than did control subjects. Triiodothyronine concentrations were low and negatively correlated with plasma riboflavin concentrations (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Not all patients showed improvements in these biochemical indexes after 30 d of refeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low triiodothyronine concentrations observed in anorexia nervosa could alter the extent of riboflavin conversion into cofactors, thus leading to high erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, low plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, and high rates of ethylmalonic acid and isovalerylglycine excretion.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (E01)
... absorptiometry, photon MeSH E01.370.350.710.710 --- radioimmunodetection MeSH E01.370.350.710.715 --- radionuclide angiography ... absorptiometry, photon MeSH E01.370.384.730.710 --- radioimmunodetection MeSH E01.370.384.730.715 --- radionuclide angiography ... single-photon MeSH E01.370.350.350.810 --- tomography, x-ray computed MeSH E01.370.350.350.810.180 --- colonography, computed ... single-photon MeSH E01.370.350.750 --- spectroscopy, near-infrared MeSH E01.370.350.755 --- stroboscopy MeSH E01.370.350.760 ...
*  Bone density
Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) Single energy X-ray ... These tests include: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and Laser (DXL) Quantitative ... absorptiometry (SEXA) DXA is currently the most widely used, but quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been described as a more ...
*  Pencil-beam scanning
Also used in Monte Carlo method for photon transport. Another three sources are: Hybrid theory for photon transport in tissue ... "Dual X-ray absorptiometry: a comparison between fan beam and pencil beam scans". Br J Radiol. 66 (790): 902-6. PMID 8220974. ... Radiation treatment planning mean free path Monte Carlo method for photon transport Hybrid theory for photon transport in ... Photon pencil beam scans are defined as crossing of two beams to a fine point. Several charged particles devices used with ...
*  Isotopes of gadolinium
It is used as a gamma ray source for X-ray absorptiometry and fluorescence, for bone density gauges for osteoporosis screening ... In nuclear medicine, it serves to calibrate the equipment needed like single-photon emission computed tomography systems (SPECT ...
*  Medical physics
... including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Sometimes, imaging ... and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ICRU: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements ICRP: International ...
Dual-photon absorptiometry | definition of dual-photon absorptiometry by Medical dictionary  Dual-photon absorptiometry | definition of dual-photon absorptiometry by Medical dictionary
What is dual-photon absorptiometry? Meaning of dual-photon absorptiometry medical term. What does dual-photon absorptiometry ... Looking for online definition of dual-photon absorptiometry in the Medical Dictionary? dual-photon absorptiometry explanation ... Radiographic Absorptiometry (RA) Single-Photon Absorptiometry (SPA) Dual-Photon Absorptiometry (DPA) Ultrasound (US) ... dual-photon absorptiometry. Also found in: Encyclopedia. dual-photon absorptiometry. A technique used to measure bone density. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/dual-photon+absorptiometry
Absorptiometry, Photon | The Chopra Library  Absorptiometry, Photon | The Chopra Library
METHODS: Whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed in 173 HIV/HCV co-infected persons within 12 months of ... Hepatic steatosis associated with increased central body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and uncontrolled HIV in HIV/ ... DESIGN: Overall and regional body composition was assessed by dual-energy X ray absorptiometry in relation to plasma ... and underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluation of BMD and body composition. Of these, 132 ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/absorptiometry-photon
Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group  Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Absorptiometry, Photon. McComsey GA, Kitch D, Daar ES, et al. "Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive ...
more infohttps://actgnetwork.org/pubmed_publications?f%5Bauthor%5D=202&s=keyword&o=asc
Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group  Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Absorptiometry, Photon. Hulgan T, Tebas P, Canter JA, et al. "Hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms, mitochondrial haplogroups, ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry results from A5005s, a substudy of Adult Clinical Trials Group 384." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry results from A5005s, a substudy of Adult Clinical Trials Group 384." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. ... Dual X-ray absorptiometry results from A5005s, a substudy of Adult Clinical Trials Group 384." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. ...
more infohttps://actgnetwork.org/pubmed_publications?s=keyword&o=asc&f%5Bauthor%5D=1110
The Bilateral Deficit Phenomenon, Functional and Dynamometric Assessment in Postmenopausal Women - Full Text View -...  The Bilateral Deficit Phenomenon, Functional and Dynamometric Assessment in Postmenopausal Women - Full Text View -...
Absorptiometry, Photon. Additional relevant MeSH terms:. Layout table for MeSH terms. Muscle Weakness. Muscular Diseases. ... Assess bone mineral-free lean tissue mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [ Time Frame: Screening visit ]. *Assess the ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02434185
Bone Mineral Density  Bone Mineral Density
Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). This test uses a radioactive substance to measure bone density. It can measure bone density ... Using DXA to measure bone density is replacing older methods, such as dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). ... Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DXA). P-DXA is a type of DXA test. It measures the density of bones in the arms ... Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is the most accurate way to measure bone density. It uses two different X-ray ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/bone-mineral-density-test
The neutral cannabinoid CB₁ receptor antagonist AM4113 regulates body weight through changes in energy intake in the rat.  The neutral cannabinoid CB₁ receptor antagonist AM4113 regulates body weight through changes in energy intake in the rat.
Absorptiometry, Photon. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects*. Energy Metabolism / drug effects*. Male. Pyrazoles / ... Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure lean and fat mass. The AM4113 treated group had 29.3±11.4% lower ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/neutral-cannabinoid-CB1-receptor-antagonist/21056053.html
Adiposity is not altered in preterm infants fed with a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge.  Adiposity is not altered in preterm infants fed with a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge.
... determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, were examined in preterm infants fed with a nutrient enriched (A, n=56), a term ... Absorptiometry, Photon. Adiposity*. Age Factors. Birth Weight. Body Height. Breast Feeding*. Cephalometry. Double-Blind Method ... determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, were examined in preterm infants fed with a nutrient enriched (A, n=56), a term ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Adiposity-Not-Altered-In-Preterm/20216105.html
Physique, Fitness, and Performance: 2nd Edition (Hardback) - Routledge  Physique, Fitness, and Performance: 2nd Edition (Hardback) - Routledge
Infrared Interactance and photon Absorptiometry Air Displacement Plethysmography: Body Pod. Anthropometric Methods of Measure ...
more infohttps://www.routledge.com/Physique-Fitness-and-Performance/Battinelli/p/book/9780849391972
Search Results -   - 24 Results - Digital Library  Search Results - - 24 Results - Digital Library
Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content ... and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean ... were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively. ... using monochromatic photons from /sup 125/I) applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius) also reflects the loss of bone ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/search/?q5=%22Osteoporosis%22&t5=dc_subject&searchType=advanced
Ashir Ejaz - Fingerprint
     - Aalborg Universitets forskningsportal  Ashir Ejaz - Fingerprint - Aalborg Universitets forskningsportal
Baseret på Pure, Scopus og Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Vi bruger cookies til at hjælpe med at tilbyde og forbedre vores service og tilpasse indhold. Ved at fortsætte accepterer du vores brug af cookies. Log ind i Pure (Aalborg Universitet) ...
more infohttps://vbn.aau.dk/da/persons/123995/fingerprints/
Bone remodelling of the proximal femur after total hip arthroplasty with 2 different hip implant designs: 15 years follow-up of...  Bone remodelling of the proximal femur after total hip arthroplasty with 2 different hip implant designs: 15 years follow-up of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone remodelling of the proximal femur after total hip arthroplasty with 2 different hip implant designs. T2 - 15 years follow-up of the thrust plate prosthesis and the Bi-Metric stem. AU - Christiansen, Janus D.. AU - Laursen, Mogens B. AU - Ejaz, Ashir. AU - Nielsen, Poul T. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. KW - BMD. KW - Bone preserving prosthesis. KW - DXA. KW - THA. KW - thrust plate prosthesis. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052604130&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1177/1120700018755371. DO - 10.1177/1120700018755371. M3 - Journal article. VL - 28. SP - 606. EP - 612. JO - Hip International. JF - Hip International. SN - 1120-7000. IS - 6. ER - ...
more infohttps://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/bone-remodelling-of-the-proximal-femur-after-total-hip-arthroplas
Know your risk for osteoporosis | Health24  Know your risk for osteoporosis | Health24
Single photon absorptiometry (SPA): Measures bone in the wrist and forearm; this is useful but does not always provide accurate ... Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA): X-ray energy is passed through the spine, hip other part of the skeleton. It is ...
more infohttp://www.health24.com/Medical/Osteoporosis/About-osteoporosis/Know-your-risk-for-osteoporosis-20120721
PPT - JOINt DISeaSe & injury PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3910315  PPT - JOINt DISeaSe & injury PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3910315
b. Photon absorptiometry c. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA d. Quantitative computed tomography, QCT ... DXA ; Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry * low energy and high energy X-ray ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/neo/joint-disease-injury
Academic Programs Faculty -  Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of Medicine  Academic Programs Faculty - Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of Medicine
Bone Density; Osteoporosis; Sarcopenia; Absorptiometry, Photon; Molecular Probe Techniques Department: 336-716-4316 ...
more infohttp://www.wakehealth.edu/School/FacultySR.htm?st=L&li=L&ft=R
Screening to Prevent Osteoporotic Fractures: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task...  Screening to Prevent Osteoporotic Fractures: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task...
Absorptiometry, Photon. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects/* ...
more infohttps://pogoe.org/recap/articles/29946734
Relationship between bone mineral density changes with denosumab treatment and risk reduction for vertebral and nonvertebral...  Relationship between bone mineral density changes with denosumab treatment and risk reduction for vertebral and nonvertebral...
Absorptiometry, Photon; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; Bone Density; Bone ...
more infohttp://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/96947/
Bone Density - WellSpan Health Library  Bone Density - WellSpan Health Library
Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). This test uses a radioactive substance to measure bone density. It can measure bone density ... Using DXA to measure bone density is replacing older methods, such as dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). ... Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DXA). P-DXA is a type of DXA test. It measures the density of bones in the arms ... Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is the most accurate way to measure bone density. It uses two different X-ray ...
more infohttp://www.wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=hw3738
Bone Densitometers: Market Research Report  Bone Densitometers: Market Research Report
Single-Photon Absorptiometry (SPA). Advantages. Limitations. Dual-Photon Absorptiometry (DPA). 4. OSTEOPOROSIS: AN OVERVIEW. ... Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Central Skeleton Evaluation. Advantages. Limitations. Dual-Energy X-Ray Systems Vs. ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/medicine_pharmaceuticals_biotechnology/healthcare_equipment_services/bone_densitometers.html
Capitol Drugs Condition Center  Capitol Drugs Condition Center
Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA): Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) uses a radioactive substance to measure bone density. The ... dal photon absorptiometry, DEXA, diuretics, DPA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, eating disorders, estrogen, fracture, ... Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DEXA): Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (P-DEXA) is a type of DEXA ... Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): DEXA is the most accurate way to measure BMD. DEXA uses two different x-ray beams to ...
more infohttp://www.livingnaturally.com/promog/ConditionCenter.asp?ConditionID=8&StoreID=98623qasqbsr2l1c0g03n0et9vtj27c2