Chronic absence from work or other duty.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Educational institutions.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
Regulations or conditions imposed on employees by management in order to correct or prevent behaviors which are counterproductive to the organization.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Productive or purposeful activities.
Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It is a state in the northeastern United States, known for its scenic beauty and the White Mountains. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or healthcare services in the state of New Hampshire, I would be happy to help with those!
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/883)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Resource utilization and work or school loss reported by patients with diabetes: experience in diabetes training programs. (2/883)

Diabetes exerts a major economic impact on healthcare in the United States both in terms of direct and indirect costs. Diabetes management and education programs designed to assist patients in achieving more optimal glycemic control represent a potential mechanism for reducing the morbidity and costs associated with diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c and patient hospitalizations and between HbA1c and days lost from work or school related to diabetes within the past year were evaluated. A cohort of 2359 patients with diabetes (188 type I, 2171 type II) referred to a comprehensive diabetes self-management training program was included in the analyses. Overall, 350 (14.8%) patients reported hospitalization, and 212 (9.0%) reported days lost from work or school. Patients with type I diabetes reported more hospitalizations (26.1% vs 13.9% and days lost (19.2% vs 8.1%) than type II patients. For the hospitalization outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that younger age, the number of co-morbidities, and the duration of diabetes exerted a greater influence on the reported numbers of hospitalization than glycemic control. For the days lost outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that there was a marginally significant association between patients with poor glycemic control and reported work or school loss related to diabetes (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2). These data suggest that interventions that improve glycemic control may decrease indirect costs related to diabetes.  (+info)

Socioeconomic status and morbidity in the last years of life. (3/883)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of socioeconomic status, as characterized by level of education, on morbidity and disability in the last years of life. METHODS: The analysis used data from the National Health Interview Survey (1986-1990), with mortality follow-up through December 1991. RESULTS: Among 10,932 decedents 50 years or older at baseline interview, educational attainment was inversely associated with long-term limitation of activity, number of chronic conditions, number of bed days, and days of short hospital stay during the year preceding the interview. CONCLUSIONS: Decedents with higher socioeconomic status experienced lower morbidity and disability and better quality of life even in their last years of life.  (+info)

Treatment costs and loss of work time to individuals with chronic lymphatic filariasis in rural communities in south India. (4/883)

This year-round case-control study investigated treatment costs and work time loss to people affected by chronic lymphatic filariasis in two rural communities in south India. About three-quarters of the patients sought treatment for filariasis at least once and 52% of them paid for treatment, incurring a mean annual expenditure of Rs. 72 (US $2.1; range Rs. 0-1360 (US $39.0)). Doctor's fees and medicines constituted 57% and 23% of treatment costs. The proportion of people seeking treatment was smaller and treatment costs constituted a higher proportion of household income in lower income groups. Most patients did not leave work, but spent only 4.36+/-3.41 h per day on economic activity compared to 5.25+/-3.52 h worked by controls; the mean difference of 0.89+/-4.20 h per day was highly significant (P<0.01). This loss of work time is perpetual, as chronic disease manifestations are mostly irreversible. An estimated 8% of potential male labour input is lost due to the disease. Regression analyses revealed that lymphatic filariasis has a significant effect on work time allotted to economic activity (P<0.05) but not on absenteeism from work (P>0.05). Female patients spent 0.31+/-1.42 h less on domestic activity compared to their matched controls (P<0.05). The results clearly show that the chronic form of lymphatic filariasis inflicts a considerable economic burden on affected individuals.  (+info)

Validation of an asthma symptom diary for interventional studies. (5/883)

OBJECTIVE: The Pediatric Asthma Diary was developed and validated to assess efficacy of interventions in children with asthma. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND SETTING: Diary validation was performed in a three week, prospective study of 106 children aged 6-14 years with asthma. Children were classified at baseline as either stable (requiring no additional asthma treatment) or new onset/worse (requiring either addition of or increase in anti-inflammatory treatment). RESULTS: A daytime symptom scale and "day without asthma" were defined from diary questions. Both measures demonstrated significant validity and responsiveness to anti-inflammatory treatment. The stable group experienced a higher percentage of days without asthma during week 1 compared with the new onset/worse group (39.6% v 11.6%, respectively). The new onset/worse patients experienced significant improvement in days without asthma (24.5%) compared with stable patients (6.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatric Asthma Diary daytime symptom scale and day without asthma are acceptable measures for use in asthma intervention studies of children aged 6-14 years.  (+info)

Changes at the high end of risk in cigarette smoking among US high school seniors, 1976-1995. (6/883)

OBJECTIVES: This study identified high school seniors at low, moderate and high risk for cigarette use to examine changes in the prevalence of daily smoking within risk groups from 1976 to 1995. METHODS: Data were taken from the Monitoring the Future Projects national surveys of high school seniors. Risk classification was based on grade point average, truancy, nights out per week, and religious commitment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate trends for all seniors and separately for White (n = 244,221), African American (n = 41,005), and Hispanic (n = 18,457) made and female subgroups. RESULTS: Risk group distribution (low = 45%, moderate = 30%, high = 25%) changed little over time. Between 1976 and 1990, greater absolute declines in smoking occurred among high-risk students (17 percentage points) than among low-risk students (6 percentage points). Particularly large declines occurred among high-risk African Americans and Hispanics. Smoking increased in all risk groups in the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Among high school seniors, a large part of the overall change in smoking occurred among high-risk youth. Policies and programs to reduce smoking among youth must have broad appeal, especially to those at the higher end of the risk spectrum.  (+info)

Measurement of fatigue in industries. (7/883)

Fatigue of workers is a complex phenomenon resulting from various factors in technically innovated modern industries, and it appears as a feeling of exhaustion, lowering of physiological functions, breakdown of autonomic nervous balance, and decrease in work efficiency. On the other hand industrial fatigue is caused by excessive workload, remarkable alteration in working posture and diurnal and nocturnal rhythms in daily life. Working modes in modern industries have changed from work with the whole body into that with the hands, arms, legs and/or eyes which are parts of the body, and from physical work to mental work. Visual display terminal (VDT) work is one of the most characteristic jobs in the various kinds of workplaces. A large number of fatigue tests have already been adopted, but it is still hard to draw a generalized conclusion as to the method of selecting the most appropriate test battery for a given work load. As apparatus for fatigue measurement of VDT work we have developed VRT (Visual Reaction Test) and the Portable Fatigue Meter. Furthermore, we have presented immune parameters of peripheral blood and splenic T cells for physical fatigue.  (+info)

Effects of mailed advice on stress reduction among employees in Japan: a randomized controlled trial. (8/883)

We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effects of mailed advice on reducing psychological distress, blood pressure, serum lipids, and sick leave of workers employed in a manufacturing plant in Japan. Those who indicated higher psychological distress (defined as having GHQ scores of three or greater) in the baseline questionnaire survey (n = 226) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Individualized letters were sent to the subjects of the intervention group, informing them of their stress levels and recommending an improvement in daily habits and other behaviors to reduce stress. Eighty-one and 77 subjects in the intervention and control groups, respectively, responded to the one-year follow-up survey. No significant intervention effect was observed for the GHQ scores, blood pressure, serum lipids, or sick leave (p > 0.05). The intervention effect was marginally significant for changes in regular breakfasts and daily alcohol consumption (p = 0.09). The intervention effect was marginally significant for the GHQ scores among those who initially did not eat breakfast regularly (p = 0.06). The study suggests that only sending mailed advice is not an effective measure for worksite stress reduction. Mailed advice which focuses on a particular subgroup (e.g., those who do not eat breakfast regularly) may be more effective.  (+info)

Absenteeism is a term used in the medical and occupational health fields to describe the habitual pattern of absence from work or school. It refers to an employee or student's repeated failure to show up for scheduled work or classes without a valid reason or excuse. Absenteeism can have various causes, including physical illness or injury, mental health issues, stress, burnout, disengagement, and poor job or school satisfaction. Chronic absenteeism can lead to negative consequences such as decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, and reduced academic performance.

In a medical context, efficiency generally refers to the ability to achieve a desired outcome with minimal waste of time, effort, or resources. It can be applied to various aspects of healthcare, including the delivery of clinical services, the use of medical treatments and interventions, and the operation of health systems and organizations. High levels of efficiency can help to improve patient outcomes, increase access to care, and reduce costs.

"Sick leave" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the context of employment and human resources. It refers to the time off from work that an employee is allowed to take due to illness or injury, for which they may still receive payment. The specific policies regarding sick leave, such as how much time is granted and whether it is paid or unpaid, can vary based on the employer's policies, labor laws, and collective bargaining agreements.

Employer health costs refer to the financial expenses incurred by employers for providing healthcare benefits to their employees. These costs can include premiums for group health insurance plans, payments towards self-insured health plans, and other out-of-pocket expenses related to employee healthcare. Employer health costs also encompass expenses related to workplace wellness programs, occupational health services, and any other initiatives aimed at improving the health and well-being of employees. These costs are a significant component of overall employee compensation packages and can have substantial impacts on both employer profitability and employee access to quality healthcare services.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "workplace" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "workplace" generally refers to a place where people work or carry out their jobs. It could be an office, a factory, a construction site, a retail store, or any other location where work-related activities take place.

If you're looking for a term related to health or medicine that describes a physical location, some examples might include "healthcare facility," "clinic," "hospital," "operating room," or "examination room." If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Namibia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Employee discipline is the process an employer uses to address and correct undesirable behavior or performance issues exhibited by an employee in the workplace. The goal of disciplinary action is to provide a clear understanding of what is expected of the employee, to address any existing problems, and to prevent future occurrences. Discipline may range from verbal warnings, written warnings, suspension, demotion, or termination, depending on the severity and frequency of the infraction. The specific disciplinary measures taken should be outlined in an organization's policies and procedures, and typically follow a progressive approach to ensure fairness and consistency.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

A "Health Facility Environment" is a term used to describe the physical surroundings, including buildings, rooms, equipment, and materials, in which healthcare is delivered. This encompasses everything from hospitals and clinics to long-term care facilities and doctors' offices. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of these environments are critical to ensuring patient safety, preventing infection, and promoting positive health outcomes.

The term "Health Facility Environment" may also refer to the specific environmental considerations within a healthcare setting, such as air quality, water supply, temperature, lighting, and noise control. These factors can significantly impact patients' comfort, well-being, and recovery and are therefore closely monitored and regulated in health facility settings.

In addition, the "Health Facility Environment" includes measures taken to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, such as hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection protocols, and waste management procedures. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding environmental safety and infection control to protect patients, staff, and visitors from harm.

Employee incentive plans are programs designed by organizations to motivate and reward employees for achieving specific goals or targets that align with the company's objectives. These plans can take various forms, such as:

1. Bonus plans: Cash payments made to employees based on their individual performance, team performance, or organizational results.
2. Profit-sharing plans: A portion of the company's profits is distributed among employees, often tied to their length of service or position within the organization.
3. Stock option plans: Employees are given the opportunity to purchase company stocks at a predetermined price, which may increase in value over time, providing them with a financial benefit.
4. Recognition programs: Non-monetary rewards, such as certificates, plaques, or public recognition, are given to employees who demonstrate exceptional performance or achieve significant milestones.
5. Training and development opportunities: Offering employees the chance to improve their skills and knowledge through courses, workshops, or conferences can serve as an incentive for high performers.
6. Flexible work arrangements: Allowing employees to have flexible schedules, remote work options, or other accommodations can be a valuable incentive for many workers.

The primary objective of employee incentive plans is to enhance employee engagement, motivation, and job satisfaction while promoting the achievement of organizational goals.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personnel Management" and "medical definition" are two separate concepts that don't typically intersect.

Personnel management is a function of management concerned with hiring, training, developing, compensating, and motivating employees, as well as maintaining appropriate records and ensuring legal compliance. It's a crucial aspect of human resource management in any organization, including healthcare institutions.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to the management of personnel in a healthcare setting, you might consider "Healthcare Human Resources Management" or "Clinical Workforce Management." These terms refer to the specific application of personnel management principles and practices within the context of healthcare organizations.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

In a medical or occupational health context, "work" is often used to refer to physical or mental activities that require energy expenditure and are performed as part of a job, daily routine, or exercise. However, there is also a specific medical concept called "work" that is used in the field of ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders.

In this context, work is defined as the product of force and distance, measured in joules (J) or newton-meters (Nm). It can be used to describe the amount of physical effort required to perform a specific task or activity, such as lifting an object or operating a machine.

For example, if a worker lifts a box that weighs 10 kilograms (kg) and raises it to a height of 0.5 meters (m), the work done can be calculated as follows:

Work = Force x Distance
Force = weight of the object (mass x gravity)
Distance = height raised

Force = 10 kg x 9.8 m/s^2 (acceleration due to gravity) = 98 N (newtons)
Work = 98 N x 0.5 m = 49 J or 49 Nm

This measurement of work can help assess the physical demands of a job and identify potential risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries, such as overexertion or repetitive strain.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "railroads" is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. It is most commonly associated with the transportation industry, referring to networks of railroad tracks and the companies that operate them. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help clarify that for you.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

An "Employee Performance Appraisal" is a systematic and periodic process in which an organization evaluates the job performance of its employees. The purpose of this process is to provide feedback to employees about their strengths and areas for improvement, as well as to set goals and development plans for their future growth and performance enhancement.

The appraisal typically involves a review of the employee's job responsibilities, objectives, and achievements during a specific period, along with an assessment of their skills, behaviors, and competencies. The evaluation may be based on various factors such as job knowledge, productivity, quality of work, communication skills, teamwork, leadership, and attendance.

The performance appraisal is usually conducted by the employee's supervisor or manager, but it can also involve self-evaluation, peer review, or 360-degree feedback from multiple sources. The results of the appraisal are used to inform decisions about promotions, salary increases, training and development opportunities, and corrective actions when necessary.

Overall, the employee performance appraisal is a critical tool for organizations to manage their workforce effectively, improve productivity, and promote a culture of continuous learning and development.

The branch of transportation concerned with flying aircraft, including the design, development, production, and operation of airplanes, helicopters, and other flying machines. In a medical context, aviation may refer to the study of the effects of flight on the human body, particularly in relation to pilot health and safety, or to the medical aspects of aviation, such as aeromedical evacuation and transportation of patients by air.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "job satisfaction" is not a medical term or concept. It falls under the domain of occupational or organizational psychology and refers to the degree to which employees like their jobs and are content with their role in the organization. High job satisfaction is generally associated with positive outcomes such as increased productivity, lower turnover rates, and better mental health. However, low job satisfaction can contribute to stress, burnout, and other negative health outcomes.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Facility design and construction in a medical context refers to the process of planning, designing, and building healthcare facilities such as hospitals, clinics, medical offices, and other healthcare-related structures. This encompasses all aspects of creating a functional and efficient healthcare environment, including architectural design, interior layout, engineering systems, equipment planning, and construction management. The goal is to create a safe, comfortable, and healing space that meets the needs of patients, staff, and visitors while also complying with relevant building codes, regulations, and standards.

In the context of healthcare, workload refers to the amount and complexity of tasks or responsibilities that a healthcare professional is expected to perform within a given period. This can include direct patient care activities such as physical assessments, treatments, and procedures, as well as indirect care activities like documentation, communication with other healthcare team members, and quality improvement initiatives.

Workload can be measured in various ways, including the number of patients assigned to a provider, the amount of time spent on direct patient care, or the complexity of the medical conditions being managed. High workloads can impact the quality of care provided, as well as healthcare professional burnout and job satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage workload effectively to ensure safe and high-quality patient care.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personnel turnover" is not a medical term. It is a business and human resources concept that refers to the measure of how often employees leave a company and are replaced. It is calculated by dividing the number of employees who left during a certain timeframe by the average number of employees during that same period, then multiplying the result by 100 to get a percentage.

In a medical setting, you might encounter terms like "staff turnover" or "employee turnover," which refer to the same concept but in the context of healthcare organizations and their workforce. High personnel/staff/employee turnover can impact patient care, team morale, and organizational efficiency.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Hampshire" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the 50 states in the United States of America, located in the New England region. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease that spreads easily from person to person across a large region, such as multiple continents or worldwide. It is declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the spread of a disease poses a significant threat to the global population due to its severity and transmissibility.

Pandemics typically occur when a new strain of virus emerges that has not been previously seen in humans, for which there is little or no pre-existing immunity. This makes it difficult to control the spread of the disease, as people do not have natural protection against it. Examples of pandemics include the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

During a pandemic, healthcare systems can become overwhelmed, and there may be significant social and economic disruption as governments take measures to slow the spread of the disease, such as travel restrictions, quarantines, and lockdowns. Effective vaccines and treatments are critical in controlling the spread of pandemics and reducing their impact on public health.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

'Hospital Nursing Staff' refers to the group of healthcare professionals who are licensed and trained to provide nursing care to patients in a hospital setting. They work under the direction of a nurse manager or director and collaborate with an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including physicians, therapists, social workers, and other support staff.

Hospital nursing staff can include registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or vocational nurses (LVNs), and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) such as nursing assistants, orderlies, and patient care technicians. Their responsibilities may vary depending on their role and the needs of the patients, but they typically include:

* Administering medications and treatments prescribed by physicians
* Monitoring patients' vital signs and overall condition
* Providing emotional support and education to patients and their families
* Assisting with activities of daily living such as bathing, dressing, and grooming
* Documenting patient care and progress in medical records
* Collaborating with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement individualized care plans.

Hospital nursing staff play a critical role in ensuring the safety, comfort, and well-being of hospitalized patients, and they are essential members of the healthcare team.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

Musculoskeletal diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These diseases can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and decreased function in the affected areas of the body. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and bone erosion.
3. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain, redness, and swelling.
4. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones that are more susceptible to fractures due to decreased bone density.
5. Fibromyalgia: A disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness in specific areas of the body.
6. Spinal disorders: Conditions affecting the spine, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which can cause back pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
7. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often caused by overuse, strain, or trauma.
8. Infections: Bone and joint infections (septic arthritis or osteomyelitis) can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
9. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in bones, muscles, or soft tissues can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the musculoskeletal system and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases varies depending on the specific condition but may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

In a medical context, "achievement" generally refers to the successful completion of a specific goal or task related to a person's health or medical treatment. This could include reaching certain milestones in rehabilitation or therapy, achieving certain laboratory test results, or meeting other health-related objectives. Achievements in healthcare are often celebrated as they represent progress and improvement in a patient's condition. However, it is important to note that the definition of achievement may vary depending on the individual's medical history, current health status, and treatment plan.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

... is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. Generally, absenteeism is unplanned ... While occasional school absenteeism may not be problematic, excessive absenteeism has shown to have a negative impact. Students ... Medical-based understanding of absenteeism finds support in research that links absenteeism for medical reasons with mental and ... This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers. Work forces often excuse absenteeism ...
... and Absenteeism". Vanity Fair. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2013. Ashley Lutz (January 3, 2013). "How Tory Burch Became A ...
Reduction in absenteeism. Accountability standards are difficult to meet for many students. Additional metal building for ...
Graham-Moore, Brian E. (1986). "Review of Absenteeism: New Approaches to Understanding, Measuring, and Managing Employee ... Ilgen, Daniel R. (1986). "Review of Absenteeism". Journal of Occupational Behavior. 7 (2): 161-163. ISSN 0142-2774. JSTOR ... Rankis, Olaf (1986). "Review of Absenteeism". Contemporary Sociology. 15 (5): 762. doi:10.2307/2071072. ISSN 0094-3061. JSTOR ... Absenteeism: New Approaches to Understanding, Measuring, and Managing Employee Absence (1984, editor) Designing Effective Work ...
"On Irish absenteeism" . Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. Dublin: Statistical and Social ...
Rattner, Bambi (1997). Anxiety-based school absenteeism. p. 22. Caruth, Cathy (1995). Trauma: Explorations in Memory. p. 81. ( ...
... high absenteeism among professors; no systematic process to review and update the curricula; shortage of laboratories and ...
Absenteeism was roughly 20%. It was read as a setback for Morales, particularly in light of the 2011 Bolivian protests. The ...
The intensity of negative affect experienced at work often leads to work withdrawal, absenteeism, vandalism, and early exit. ... Martocchio, J.; Jimeno, D.I. (Summer 2003). "Employee absenteeism as an affectiveevent". Human Resource Management Review. 13 ( ... and absenteeism. Mood may be moderated by organizational commitment which, in turn, may affect workers' decisions to stay or ... such as work withdrawal and absenteeism, as well as job satisfaction, but it does not seem to be the deciding factor on whether ...
Absenteeism is estimated to cost the average employer $660 annually per employee. Based on productivity costs, employees ... Absenteeism Body mass index Booster Breaks Physical exercise Presenteeism Public health Salutogenesis § Workplace Sedentary ... Workplace Tai Chi programs have also proven effective as a health intervention and means of reducing absenteeism, particularly ... The impact of workplace health promotion on absenteeism is substantial since productivity is impossible if an employee is ...
Sydney, Lady Morgan, publishes Absenteeism. 26 January - James Stephens, founding member of the Fenian Brotherhood movement ( ...
Music Director Fired for Absenteeism. Retrieved 2016-12-03. Alejo Perez Biography. Retrieved 2016-12-03. Carlos Miguel Prieto ...
"HARLEM HIGH SCHOOL - Chronic Absenteeism". 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2020. "Special Programs/Resources". ...
From the absenteeism tax. 15. From the University of Women. 16. From departmental high schools. 17. Of night teaching. 18. Of ...
"On Firing for Unexcused Absenteeism". Cyber USSR. Retrieved 2010-08-01. "On the Prohibition of Unauthorized Departure by ...
Mann, Kalman (1967). Sickness Absenteeism in a Medical Organization. Mann, Kalman (1965). "The Progress of Disabled Veterans: A ...
"Advocaat angry with Australian absenteeism - Football". The Times. 10 April 2001 - via NewsBank. Lynch, Michael (11 April 2001 ...
"Reducing absenteeism and early school leaving. [Social Impact]. INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from ... in schools with high absenteeism they have managed to reduce truancy and thus contribute to the improvement of academic success ...
... late arrivals and absenteeism of students; student progress; student subject selection and transition; student promotion; and ...
Sick leave Absenteeism Presenteeism Hesketh, I; Cooper, C (2014). "Leaveism at work". Occupational Medicine. 64 (3): 146-147. ... sought to identify a gap in current thinking around absenteeism and presenteeism; of which there is a plethora of academic ...
Females have higher preferences for absenteeism. On average, they are absent from work for health reasons more often than males ... Avdic, Daniel; Johansson, Per (2017). "Absenteeism, Gender and the Morbidity-Mortality Paradox". Journal of Applied ...
Chronic absenteeism, or truancy, is a problem for ACHS; in 2015, 21% of its students were deemed chronically absent. The school ... D'Amico, Diane (September 11, 2015). "Report reveals chronic absenteeism in local schools". Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved ...
However a severe shortage of trained teachers is a stark reality." In Tanzania, the rate of teacher absenteeism is 24%. This ... "Teacher Allocation and Absenteeism in East Africa". Twaweza. December 17, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2019. "Generation 2030, ...
Cooper C, Dewe P (December 2008). "Well-being--absenteeism, presenteeism, costs and challenges". Occup Med (Lond). 58 (8): 522- ... notably due to elevated levels of absenteeism, or absence from work because of illness, and presenteeism, or productivity lost ...
Staff shortages are made worse by absenteeism. On some days, as few as nine guards are on duty, leaving guards in only two of ...
Alcoholism, already at levels that alarmed officials, increased; absenteeism and declining worker discipline affected ...
A Washington Post editorial praised the effort she led in NYC schools to address truancy and chronic absenteeism as "an example ... Cornfeld was appointed Chair of Mayor Michael Bloomberg's Interagency Task Force on Truancy, Chronic Absenteeism & School ... Next, Education (2016-06-29). "EdNext Podcast: Politicians Taking On Chronic Absenteeism". Education Next. Retrieved 2022-03-06 ... Chronic Absenteeism & School Engagement. Cornfeld is also a former Federal Prosecutor, and served as Deputy Chief of the New ...
Decreased work or school performance as a result of stressful conditions; increased absenteeism in fear of harassment ...
Absenteeism is typically measured by time lost (number of days absent) measures and frequency (number of absence episodes) ... 1993). "To Be There or Not To Be There? Questions, Theories and Methods in Absenteeism Research." Pp. 259-328, in Research in ... The costs of bullying include losses in productivity, higher absenteeism, higher turnover rates, and legal fees when the ... Older employees seem to exhibit less aggression, tardiness, substance abuse, and voluntary absenteeism (although sickness ...
... can lead to three types of strains: behavioral (e.g., absenteeism), physical (e.g., headaches), and ... Stressful job conditions can also lead to poor work performance, counterproductive work behavior, higher absenteeism, and ... Occupational stress contributes to turnover and absenteeism. In today's workplaces every individual will experience work- ... Schouteten, R. (January 2017). "Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout". Occupational Medicine. 67 (1): ...
Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. Generally, absenteeism is unplanned ... While occasional school absenteeism may not be problematic, excessive absenteeism has shown to have a negative impact. Students ... Medical-based understanding of absenteeism finds support in research that links absenteeism for medical reasons with mental and ... This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers. Work forces often excuse absenteeism ...
Absenteeism among children in the early-elementary grades is highest in kindergarten and has a positive correlation with ... A National Portrait of Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Grades. Absenteeism among children in the early-elementary grades is ... Elementary Absenteeism. By Mary C. Breaden - October 30, 2007 1 min read ... Most striking was the contrast between the absenteeism of children from low-income families and their better-off peers, showing ...
Workplace absenteeism refers to time taken off work due to illness or other reasons, such as child care or transportation ... How We Calculate Absenteeism. NIOSH uses data on workplace absences from the Current Population Survey (CPS). ... Workplace absenteeism refers to time taken off work due to illness or other reasons, such as childcare or transportation issues ... These absenteeism data add to CDCs traditional flu surveillance, which is mainly based on disease reporting from doctors and ...
Chronic absenteeism, a primary cause of poor academic achievement, is defined as missing at least 10 percent of days in a ... Chronic absenteeism Chronic absenteeism, a primary cause of poor academic achievement, is defined as missing at least 10 ... School personnel are essential to eliminating chronic absenteeism. The first step in addressing chronic absenteeism is to ... 3 American Federation of Teachers, "Absenteeism Epidemic Hinders Academic Achievement" (2012), ...
Home → Assessment & Accountability → 7 Things to Know About Chronic Absenteeism → 7 Things to Know About Chronic Absenteeism ...
Pupils: Absenteeism. Department for Education written question - answered on 21 March 2023. ...
"Absenteeism In The Italian Public Sector: The Effects Of Changes In Sick Leave Compensation," Working Papers 200916, Università ... "Long-Term Absenteeism and Moral Hazard: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 888, DIW Berlin, ... "Reprint of: The pros and cons of sick pay schemes: Testing for contagious presenteeism and noncontagious absenteeism behavior ... "Long-Term Absenteeism and Moral Hazard: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 888, DIW Berlin, ...
CMS plans to enforce its absenteeism policy. Parents with students in violation of the NC attendance law could be referred for ... Student Absenteeism climbed to its worst numbers during the pandemic not only at CMS but nationally. ... State data shows last school year North Carolinas chronic absenteeism rate was 31% thats double what it was in 2018. This ... "Student attendance is critical and chronic absenteeism has increased," Miguel Cardona, the United States Secretary of Education ...
We found that all levels of 1-year change in fitness were significantly associated with absenteeism (P , .001) in both crude ... Nauer K, Mader M, Robinson G, Jacobs T. A better picture of poverty: what chronic absenteeism and risk load reveal about NYCs ... For example, it is possible that children who have higher absenteeism are more sedentary, particularly if they are ill or ... NYC programs unrelated to fitness promotion have shown a 15% reduction in chronic absenteeism in 100 high-need schools over 2 ...
Chronic absenteeism has spiked 57% between 2022 and 2019 and is showing no signs of slowing down. Helios Education Foundation ... Chronic absenteeism has spiked 57% between 2022 and 2019 and is showing no signs of slowing down. Helios Education Foundation ... Chronic absenteeism has spiked 57% between 2022 and 2019 and is showing no signs of slowing down. Helios Education Foundation ...
Graphic: Chronic absenteeism by Catalyst Chicago April 29, 2011. August 15, 2016. ...
Workplace absenteeism is a major concern for American companies. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, unplanned ... Reducing Absenteeism with Effective Time Management and Absence Tracking. Published : Tuesday, March 19, 2013. by Tony Rathbone ... The effects of absenteeism are multi-dimensional, and businesses cant afford NOT to invest in effective absence tracking and ... Workplace absenteeism is a major concern for American companies. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, unplanned ...
Hedy Chang is the founder of Attendance Works which promotes solutions for absenteeism and said a poor school climate can be to ...
Manager Support Combats Absenteeism Among Depressed Workers: Study , ...
The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: Testing for Contagious Presenteeism and Noncontagious Absenteeism Behavior Stefan ... "The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: Testing for Contagious Presenteeism and Noncontagious Absenteeism Behavior," Journal of ... The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: Testing for Contagious Presenteeism and Noncontagious Absenteeism Behavior, Stefan ... into contagious presenteeism and noncontagious absenteeism behavior and derives testable conditions. The last part illustrates ...
Miners handed severe punishment for absenteeism. Lee Sang Yong. Daily NK. 2019-01-21 ...
... absenteeism from school, and symptoms suspicious for endometriosis in adolescents. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, ... AbsenteeismAdolescentCross-Sectional StudiesDysmenorrheaDyspareuniaEndometriosisFemaleHumansPrevalenceSexual BehaviorSurveys ... Dysmenorrhea, Absenteeism From School, and Symptoms Suspicious for Endometriosis in Adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. ... "Dysmenorrhea, Absenteeism From School, and Symptoms Suspicious for Endometriosis in Adolescents." Journal of Pediatric and ...
Chronic Absenteeism Flyer (Coming October 2023) - This one-page flyer provides information on the Chronic Absenteeism Indicator ... has an hourly or daily attendance in calculating the chronic absenteeism rate? No. The chronic absenteeism indicator is ... Did the Chronic Absenteeism Indicators cut scores change for the 2023 Dashboard?. No. The cut scores did not change for the ... The Dashboard is not showing chronic absenteeism data for all of my high schools. Is this an error? No. Keep in mind that the ...
Faculty & Research Publications Clarifying the Link Between Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism: The Role of Guilt Proneness ... We discuss the implications of these findings for extant models of absenteeism and research on moral affectivity in the ... Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are ... We propose that the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism depends partly on guilt proneness. ...
Self-possessed, extremely articulate, and unfailingly positive even as they describe serious obstacles, Milton Dumbuya, Florence Kamaitha, and Lombola Lombola are... ...
It also increases absenteeism. The study found that workers stressed about their finances are absent from work 3.5 days per ... But financial stress can also create serious problems at work like absenteeism, problems that can turn around and compound the ... year, on average - nearly double the absenteeism of people who are not stressed. And when the worriers are at work, they are " ...
... rates of chronic absenteeism, according to a new national report. ... Chronic absenteeism is defined as missing 15 or more school ... In the report, schools were said to have a high rate of chronic absenteeism if 20 to 29 percent of students were gone for 15 ... The state Department of Education has acknowledged its struggle with chronic absenteeism and has set a goal to bring the rate ... North Dakota had the lowest rate, with about 10 percent of schools with high or extreme chronic absenteeism. Alaska had the ...
Is It Time For A Super Bowl Holiday? Monday Absenteeism Could Cost $3B. ...
Third annual statewide report on absenteeism. • Report on high school absenteeism in Newark. • Video from ACNJs most recent ... Building momentum for reducing chronic absenteeism. * Post author By Eloisa Hernandez-Ramos ... For years, ACNJ has been leading the charge to reduce chronic absenteeism in schools across New Jersey. Recently, a landmark ... Communities and schools across the state are looking at their absenteeism data and developing solutions. The result is that ...
Jacob discusses chronic absenteeism fueled by pandemic Feb 20, 2022 The Columbus Dispatch As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic ... Jacob weighs in on chronic absenteeism Feb 27, 2022 Chillicothe Gazette Across the country, schools are struggling with chronic ... Jacob in Brookings: Causes, consequences, and potential solutions for chronic absenteeism Jul 31, 2017 In a July 27 "Evidence ... schools across the nation are struggling with rising absenteeism rates. Brian Jacob, Walter H. Annenberg Professor of Education ...
How to Effectively Manage Tardiness and Absenteeism. Absenteeism and tardiness are recurring problems in most workplaces-even ... Dont settle for the bare minimum when it comes to tardiness and absenteeism. Use time and attendance software to create ... PTO, FMLA, sick days, vacation days, time off, absenteeism… Leave management is a major component of HR management and employee ...
CCH Survey Finds Unscheduled Absenteeism Up in U.S. Workplaces. Reasons Other Than Illness Keep Employees Off the Job Poor ... RIVERWOODS, ILL., October 26, 2006) With the rate of absenteeism on the rise, U.S. employers are losing ground when it comes to ... The CCH Unscheduled Absence Survey, conducted annually by CCH for the past 16 years, is the definitive survey on absenteeism in ... The survey found that employee morale can affect a company s absenteeism rate, with organizations with Good/Very Good morale ...
To access the absenteeism data, visit the government website here.. 337 schools had absence rates higher than 30 per cent last ...
  • This report also explains how a community schools approach can connect students to supports in an effort to reduce chronic absenteeism. (
  • In the end, the effort to reduce chronic absenteeism, especially amongst ethnic minorities, demands more than improvement plans and policy reform. (
  • For example, a culture that values collectivism and duty to one's group would tend have lower absenteeism than a culture that values individualism and freedom. (
  • As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, schools across the nation are struggling with rising absenteeism rates. (
  • In two years, we doubled it, because family, full-service community schools, have additional dollars to have family school liaisons, to engage parents more meaningfully, to make sure that some of those chronic absenteeism strategies are working. (
  • Generally, absenteeism is unplanned absences. (
  • High absenteeism in the workplace may be indicative of poor morale, but absences can also be caused by workplace hazards or sick building syndrome. (
  • Measurements such as the Bradford factor, a measurement tool to analyze absenteeism which believes short, unplanned absences effect the work group more than long term absences, do not distinguish between absence for genuine illness reasons and absence for non-illness related reasons. (
  • Chronic absenteeism, a primary cause of poor academic achievement, is defined as missing at least 10 percent of days in a school year for any reason, including excused and unexcused absences. (
  • Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are low (but not high) in guilt proneness because low guilt-prone people's behaviors are governed more by fulfilling their own egoistic desires than by fulfilling others' normative expectations. (
  • Traditional approaches to controlling absenteeism are discipline at progressive levels to punish excessive absences, and reward, in which various incentive systems are utilized to reward employees for outstanding attendance. (
  • The survey found that employee morale can affect a company s absenteeism rate, with organizations with Good/Very Good morale experiencing a 2.2 percent rate of unscheduled absences while those reporting Poor/Fair morale had a rate of 2.9 percent. (
  • 2016) says stress accounts for twelve percent of absenteeism in the workplace a year, which is a matter in which the company needs to stay in communication with the employee and work towards a solution. (
  • Workplace absenteeism refers to time taken off work due to illness or other reasons, such as childcare or transportation issues. (
  • This is known as health-related workplace absenteeism . (
  • We know that the amount of health-related workplace absenteeism is strongly related to the amount of flu-like illness occurring at about the same time. (
  • The amount of health-related workplace absenteeism is calculated as the percentage of full-time workers who worked less than 35 hours because they were ill, injured, or had another medical issue. (
  • Exploring national surveillance for health-related workplace absenteeism: Lessons learned from the 2009 influenza A pandemic. (
  • Workplace absenteeism is a major concern for American companies. (
  • We discuss the implications of these findings for extant models of absenteeism and research on moral affectivity in the workplace. (
  • The CCH Unscheduled Absence Survey , conducted annually by CCH for the past 16 years, is the definitive survey on absenteeism in the workplace, measuring the rate, cost and reasons associated with unscheduled absence in the U.S. (
  • It is essential for a head nurse to implement topical leadership tactics that stimulate staff motivation and, at the same time, prevent such dangerous phenomena as workplace violence and absenteeism. (
  • Workplace violence may also result in increased job stress, absenteeism, family turmoil, and worker turnover. (
  • Pandemic absenteeism Absence due to illness and disability has ballooned since the pandemic. (
  • Student Absenteeism climbed to its worst numbers during the pandemic not only at CMS but nationally. (
  • Addressing the wide-spread absenteeism in the aftermath of the pandemic requires districts, supported by states, schools and communities, to take the lead in an all-hands approach. (
  • Most striking was the contrast between the absenteeism of children from low-income families and their better-off peers, showing children from poor families to be four times more likely to fall into the chronic-absenteeism category, which was defined as being absent more than 18 days. (
  • Patterns of chronic absenteeism reflect common equity issues: Students who come from low-income families, students of color, students with disabilities and students involved in the juvenile justice system are more likely to be chronically absent. (
  • The raw count data varied widely for absenteeism (mean percent absent = 12.7%, SD = 9.3%) and fever/influenza cases (mean count = 0.20, SD = 0.26) by school, by day. (
  • I heard that students with 'in-school' suspensions are counted as absent in the chronic absenteeism rate. (
  • Will all my students be counted as absent for the purposes of the chronic absenteeism indicator because of this? (
  • The study found that workers stressed about their finances are absent from work 3.5 days per year, on average - nearly double the absenteeism of people who are not stressed. (
  • Recently, a landmark school attendance bill unanimously passed both houses of the New Jersey legislature requiring that schools keep track of chronically absent students and that schools with high absenteeism develop plans to improve attendance. (
  • For instance, in the Oakland Unified School District , the disproportionality of chronic absenteeism is even more glaring: 22 percent of African-American high school students were chronically absent compared to 9.6 percent of white students. (
  • In these cases, the employer can work to make this arrangement official so that it doesn't lead to an overall absent culture whereby an entire team starts emulating the absenteeism of a star performer. (
  • The most common form of absenteeism is moonlighting while being absent due to illness or conducting activities not compatible with the medical picture. (
  • Chronic absenteeism has spiked 57% between 2022 and 2019 and is showing no signs of slowing down. (
  • and to identify the underlying causes of absenteeism. (
  • Specifical data were: sex, function, certificate type (medical or dental), the working sector, according to the Large Groups (LG) of Brazilian Classification of Occupations - 2002, working periods, duration of absenteeism (lost days), the main causes of absenteeism (International Classification of Diseases ICD-10). (
  • Linear, sine and cosine terms for the school day were also included in these models to account for linear and nonlinear changes in absenteeism and counts of fever/influenza syndrome that were observed upon visual inspection of the data. (
  • Did the Chronic Absenteeism Indicator's cut scores change for the 2023 Dashboard? (
  • Knowing how to calculate absenteeism is a critical piece of the workforce engagement puzzle that can help companies boost attendance and maximize productivity. (
  • The model theoretically decomposes overall behavioral labor supply adjustments ('moral hazard') into contagious presenteeism and noncontagious absenteeism behavior and derives testable conditions. (
  • Presenteeism vs. Absenteeism: Which is Worse? (
  • While absenteeism can be challenging to manage , it is usually easier to spot than presenteeism , which makes it a considerable advantage for your company. (
  • Unlike absenteeism, presenteeism is often hard to spot. (
  • Presenteeism has the same problems as absenteeism. (
  • Both absenteeism and presenteeism can be costly for employers. (
  • One way to manage absenteeism and presenteeism is through performance reviews. (
  • This is someone whose job is managing absenteeism and presenteeism in your company. (
  • Absenteeism and presenteeism are two significant problems that can cost companies a lot of money. (
  • Absenteeism or presenteeism? (
  • o Explore and enter into partnerships to increase and improve coordinated supports and interventions to address and eliminate chronic absenteeism. (
  • Absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer. (
  • Work forces often excuse absenteeism caused by medical reasons if the employee provides supporting documentation from their medical practitioner. (
  • PTO, FMLA, sick days, vacation days, time off, absenteeism… Leave management is a major component of HR management and employee scheduling, but it shouldn't be an ongoing source of problems and conflict. (
  • Not sure that any company has completely conquered this issue of excessive absenteeism & it truly remains a major impediment to maximizing an organization's ability to properly service its customers, get the optimal financial results & increase overall employee satisfaction. (
  • Investigations into absenteeism will often lead to surveillance of the employee concerned, thus allowing for proof in case of suspected offense against absence policy. (
  • Upon establishing absenteeism our security consultants will interview the employee concerned and report on the findings of the investigation. (
  • Absenteeism is when an employee is not physically present at work. (
  • This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers. (
  • Each month, NIOSH updates charts showing the amount** of health-related absenteeism among full-time workers, using CPS data collected in the previous month. (
  • Sickness absenteeism among full-time workers in the US, August 2009. (
  • RIVERWOODS, ILL., October 26, 2006) With the rate of absenteeism on the rise, U.S. employers are losing ground when it comes to finding effective programs that keep healthy workers on the job, according to the 16th annual CCH Unscheduled Absence Survey by CCH, a leading provider of human resources and employment law information and services and a part of Wolters Kluwer Law & Business ( (
  • The reductions in absenteeism allow us to reduce costs and ensure that the City's workers can compete and provide the best possible service for the residents. (
  • Empower your HR team with the tools to engage workers and reduce absenteeism. (
  • Hedy Chang is the founder of Attendance Works which promotes solutions for absenteeism and said a poor school climate can be to blame. (
  • That's higher than the national median, according to the analysis from Attendance Works, and comes as the state Education Department has set a goal to address chronic absenteeism at schools statewide. (
  • The Attendance Works report ranked Hawaii in the middle of states for its rate of schools with high or extreme chronic absenteeism. (
  • In a July 27 "Evidence Speaks" column for the Brookings Institution, Brian Jacob and Kelly Lovett discuss "Chronic absenteeism: An old problem in search of new answers. (
  • Rates of chronic absenteeism are only so helpful. (
  • Future research should examine the potential for school-based fitness interventions to reduce absenteeism rates, particularly for youths who have fitness drop-offs in adolescence. (
  • The rates of dysmenorrhea and school absenteeism caused by dysmenorrhea are high. (
  • However, data on chronic absenteeism rates for all grades (K-12) are available on the DataQuest web page. (
  • HONOLULU (HawaiiNewsNow) - More than one-fourth of public schools in Hawaii have high or "extreme" rates of chronic absenteeism, according to a new national report . (
  • Schools had "extreme" rates of chronic absenteeism if 30 percent or more of students were out for 15 days or more. (
  • Over the last school year, rates of chronic absenteeism in Connecticut schools fell in every student subgroup and in the state overall, continuing a trend that started during the 2012-13 school year. (
  • Chronic absenteeism rates are at historic lows across the board for all subgroups of students as well. (
  • They present data on expected absenteeism rates and individual determinants of absenteeism, and provide recommendations for hospitals, emergency medical services organizations, public health organizations, and government agencies to minimize absenteeism. (
  • But a deeper look into the data (provided by U.S. Dept. of Ed.) reveals that students of certain ethnic groups are impacted by chronic absenteeism at much greater rates. (
  • 3% absenteeism rate for 5 consecutive years & all my units in San Antonio had the best rates in the entire organization. (
  • The authors interviewed managers and emergency planners at hospitals and public health agencies to determine factors associated with health worker absenteeism during a biological emergency. (
  • For example, a worker who is harshly criticized resulting in a loss of face may use absenteeism to retaliate. (
  • Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. (
  • Absenteeism is a habitual pattern correlated with emotional labor and personal reasoning, but there are resolutions to finding ways to alleviate the cause. (
  • Absenteeism is the habitual avoidance of work, duty or obligations without a good reason. (
  • These absenteeism data add to CDC's traditional flu surveillance, which is mainly based on disease reporting from doctors and laboratory testing. (
  • Often, people who are sick won't go to work, which is why absenteeism data can be a good resource for monitoring outbreaks. (
  • The epidemic threshold is calculated using baseline absenteeism data from the previous five years, averaged by month, and information about the likely variation of these baseline data. (
  • State data shows last school year North Carolina's chronic absenteeism rate was 31% that's double what it was in 2018. (
  • Inclusion of these covariates in the models to predict counts of absenteeism and fever/influenza helped to further reduce the variance in the data due to factors thought to be unrelated to ininfluenzaenza transmission. (
  • The Dashboard is not showing chronic absenteeism data for all of my high schools. (
  • Communities and schools across the state are looking at their absenteeism data and developing solutions. (
  • Further, since last fall, information on absenteeism is posted online as part of the City of Chicago data collection. (
  • Knowing how to get an exact absenteeism rate calculation can give companies the data they need to take action and re-engage their staff. (
  • In addition to chronic absenteeism predicting low academic success, it also predicts which students may eventually drop out of school. (
  • More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work. (
  • The line between psychological and medical causation is blurry, given that there are positive links between both work stress and depression, and absenteeism. (
  • Moreover, high levels of work social capital can reduce absenteeism. (
  • While a distinction can be made between types of work social capital (bounding, bridging, direct-leader-linking, and top-level-linking), relationships with the immediate leader and the top management (direct-leader-linking and top-level-linking WSC) are most important to reduce employees' absenteeism. (
  • To quantify in adolescents the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and other symptoms found to be suggestive of future diagnosis of endometriosis, in particular their impact on monthly absenteeism from school/work, activity impairment, and sexual life and to quantify the awareness of endometriosis in adolescents. (
  • Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and absenteeism from school/work during menses. (
  • A significant association was found between severe dysmenorrhea, absenteeism from school/work, and basic level of education. (
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and absenteeism from school/work during menses. (
  • But financial stress can also create serious problems at work like absenteeism, problems that can turn around and compound the financial problems. (
  • Absenteeism and tardiness are recurring problems in most workplaces-even in a remote work world. (
  • He called upon them to work with the commissioner and the Mayor to reduce absenteeism dramatically. (
  • Note: Absenteeism cost is the cost of work days lost. (
  • Employers may try to avoid this type of absenteeism by looking for evidence of personal resilience in the work history and life experience of candidates. (
  • It would be self-absorbed of an employer to imagine that absenteeism has everything to do with work. (
  • Kvas and Seljak propose to encourage reporting procedures when subordinates are willing to share the incidents of violence at work and absenteeism independently. (
  • Contact with employees to establish trust is one of the steps towards eliminating violence at work and absenteeism. (
  • note, in order to prevent violence at work and absenteeism, special testing protocols can be promoted to offer subordinates to report the incidents of operating disruption either anonymously or publicly. (
  • Absenteeism is a recurring issue of employees not showing up for work. (
  • Physically demanding work and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in registered nurses. (
  • In turn, ill health and chronic conditions can affect performance at work, increasing risk for injury, absenteeism, and reduced productivity. (
  • The 2006 CCH survey found that the rate of unscheduled absenteeism climbed to its highest level since 1999, costing some large employers an estimated $850,000 per year in direct payroll costs, and even more when lost productivity, morale and temporary labor costs are considered. (
  • In particular, organizations reporting Poor/Fair morale were more likely to experience unscheduled absenteeism due to Stress (15 percent) than organizations reporting morale as Good/Very Good (10 percent). (
  • Also, while 23 percent of organizations reporting Good/Very Good morale believe that unscheduled absenteeism is a serious problem for them, twice as many (46 percent) organizations reporting low morale find it to be a serious issue. (
  • As long as the student meets the eligible enrollment rule (enrolled for at least 31 instructional days), the student is included in the denominator of the chronic absenteeism calculation. (
  • Remark: Only the federal agents were considered (62895) and only absenteeism due to illness. (
  • The effects of absenteeism are multi-dimensional, and businesses can't afford NOT to invest in effective absence tracking and time management software . (
  • Cloud based absence tracking software solutions that enable employers to delineate between various reasons for time off requests in their policy configurations can provide information necessary to address and possibility resolve the reasons leading to high levels of absenteeism. (
  • According to the 2006 CCH Unscheduled Absence Survey , conducted for CCH by Harris Interactive®, the absenteeism rate was 2.5 percent in 2006 up from 2.3 percent last year, and the highest since 1999, when the rate was 2.7 percent. (
  • The guide, Reducing Chronic Absence in Connecticut's Schools: A Prevention and Intervention Guide for Schools and Districts , comes just as Connecticut's chronic absenteeism rate reaches a historic low. (
  • The federal initiative Every Student, Every Day produced a toolkit that outlines how schools can do more to prevent the long-term consequence of widespread chronic absenteeism, which is describes as "a population that is less educated, less healthy, underemployed, less financially stable, and more disenfranchised. (
  • When absenteeism is more widespread, it is often a symptom of an internal problem like a disengaged, dissatisfied workforce. (
  • Absenteeism is considered significantly higher than expected when the lower limit of the estimate's margin of error is higher than the epidemic threshold. (
  • It's also pointed out that chronic absenteeism is significantly higher in at-risk populations. (
  • A positive environment can help alleviate other issues, as well, including stress and the resulting illnesses, further reducing absenteeism. (
  • I studied the absenteeism patterns of all the different organizations for which I worked. (
  • Separate negative binomial regression models were fit to the daily count of school absenteeism and a daily count of fever/influenza syndrome cases for the period September 6th, 2005 to June 26th, 2009, by school district. (
  • Both models resulted in adjusted, predicted counts of all-cause absenteeism and fever/influenza syndrome by school district. (
  • The first step in addressing chronic absenteeism is to understand what it is and who it affects. (
  • Focus communities on addressing chronic absenteeism. (
  • Addressing absenteeism is part of ensuring the highest-quality learning environments for our students - and it's key to narrowing the achievement gap," Lt. Governor Nancy Wyman said. (
  • Are transitional kindergarten (TK) students included in the chronic absenteeism rate? (
  • Transitional kindergarten students are in their first year of a two-year Kindergarten program, and therefore are included in the enrollment counts for the K-8 chronic absenteeism rate. (
  • But the denominator for my district's Chronic Absenteeism Rate Indicator displays 1,150 students. (
  • The denominator is a much higher count for the chronic absenteeism rate. (
  • However, the denominator for the chronic absenteeism rate reflects the count of all students who were enrolled for at least 31 days at any time during the school year. (
  • Does it make a difference whether my Local Education Agency (LEA) has an hourly or daily attendance in calculating the chronic absenteeism rate? (
  • In the report, schools were said to have a high rate of chronic absenteeism if 20 to 29 percent of students were gone for 15 days or more. (
  • The complex with the lowest rate of chronic absenteeism was Aiea-Moanalua-Radford, with 9 percent. (
  • The state Department of Education has acknowledged its struggle with chronic absenteeism and has set a goal to bring the rate down to 9 percent statewide by 2020. (
  • North Dakota had the lowest rate, with about 10 percent of schools with high or extreme chronic absenteeism. (
  • It was no surprise whatsoever that Monday was, by far, the day with the highest absenteeism rate. (
  • But first, they need to know how to calculate the absenteeism rate for their staff. (
  • Let's say you have a staff of 50 and you want to calculate your absenteeism rate using a single month as the time period. (
  • But here's a little secret: if you use a frontline success system, like Beekeeper, you won't have to manually use an absenteeism rate calculator to run these numbers. (
  • Overall, companies are concerned about the impact of unscheduled absenteeism, with one-third reporting that it is a "serious problem," and nearly all employers (92 percent) stating that they think the problem may stay the same or worsen in the next two years. (
  • No. Keep in mind that the Chronic Absenteeism Indicator is a K-8 indicator. (
  • No. The chronic absenteeism indicator is calculated by using the count of expected instructional days and the count of days not attended. (
  • Where can I access more information about the Chronic Absenteeism Indicator? (
  • No. The chronic absenteeism indicator uses "Expected Attendance Days" for its denominator. (
  • Youth health-related fitness positively affects academic outcomes, although limited research has focused on the relationship between fitness and school absenteeism. (
  • Tackling chronic absenteeism is critical to improving outcomes for all of our students so that they receive an adequate education that prepares them to succeed in life," Governor Malloy said. (
  • Research shows that over one trillion dollars are lost annually due to productivity shortages as a result of medical-related absenteeism. (
  • These individuals may use their unusual productivity as leverage over the employer such they are forgiven for absenteeism. (
  • o Increase every student's access to support services to address absenteeism before any student misses so much school that it is nearly impossible to catch up. (
  • Two other articles found significant crude associations between student physical activity and absenteeism (4,17). (
  • Student attendance is critical and chronic absenteeism has increased," Miguel Cardona, the United States Secretary of Education said. (
  • In building support for this legislation and other efforts to support student attendance, ACNJ strengthened partnerships with diverse groups such as NJPTA, NJSACC, Jersey CAN, Paterson Education Fund, NJSSNA, the League of Women Voters, SPAC and NJASA, and most importantly schools and communities across the state that are tackling absenteeism. (
  • Student absenteeism is often conceptualized and quantied in a static, uniform manner, providing an incomplete understanding of this important phenomenon. (
  • Reasons for student absenteeism are complex and contextual but are generally a combination of individual, family, community and school factors, according to a 2010 report. (
  • These factors apply to the non-attendance of all students - Indigenous and non-Indigenous - and address the underlying causes of student absenteeism. (
  • A Better Picture of Poverty explores the connection between chronic absenteeism and the important social supports students need, especially in New York City. (
  • Although eliminating chronic absenteeism may take years, school personnel can take steps now to help students succeed. (
  • Are students in independent study included in the calculations for chronic absenteeism? (
  • HARTFORD, CT) - Governor Dannel P. Malloy and State Department of Education (SDE) Commissioner Dianna R. Wentzell today announced the release of a new state guide that provides a framework for local and regional school districts to develop a strategic plan and implement interventions that will lead to the reduction of chronic absenteeism among students in pre-K through Grade 12. (
  • Chronic absenteeism also affects students of all ethnicities. (
  • Regardless of the causes, there's no denying the impact that chronic absenteeism has on students. (
  • Engaging employees or students in projects that are rewarding to them may completely resolve absenteeism. (
  • Fitness improvements may both directly and indirectly reduce absenteeism, working potentially through pathways involving self-esteem, physical health, mental health, and cognitive processing (3,4). (
  • For years, ACNJ has been leading the charge to reduce chronic absenteeism in schools across New Jersey. (
  • Additionally there has been a 40 percent reduction in disciplinary cases related to absenteeism - from 253 to 152. (
  • This study examined associations among eight physical demands and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in 3727 working registered nurses (RNs). (
  • However absenteeism refers to a bigger issue going on. (
  • To identify the factors involved in absenteeism in a steel industry in the city of São Jose dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. (
  • Teacher chronic absenteeism is growing among school districts across the United States, and the impact thereof can negatively affect all stakeholders. (
  • Chronic absenteeism is defined as missing 15 or more school days in a year. (
  • This decrease in absenteeism has resulted in laborers working an additional 242 days this year, totaling 1,936 additional hours. (
  • The psychological model that discusses this is the "withdrawal model", which assumes that absenteeism represents individual withdrawal from dissatisfying working conditions. (
  • Medical-based understanding of absenteeism finds support in research that links absenteeism for medical reasons with mental and behavioral disorders, diseases of the digestive system, neoplasms, and diseases of the genitourinary system. (
  • Armed with this understanding, companies can most effectively assess both the hard and hidden costs of absenteeism and better identify what programs can be used to keep employees on the job. (
  • Mayor Rahm Emanuel and Streets and Sanitation Commissioner Thomas Byrne announced today that the Department of Streets and Sanitation (DSS) has seen a more than 15 percent decrease in absenteeism, as a result of some new measures being taken by the department to curb this issue. (
  • For the first four months of 2012, absenteeism is down 16.3 percent year over year for motor truck drivers, and 13.15 percent year over year for laborers. (
  • And absenteeism is a key metric that companies should regularly track, otherwise the problem will persist, or get even worse. (