Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The assembly of the icosahedral shell or capsid from coat proteins can occur in the absence of RNA; however, capsid assembly is ... It encodes just four proteins: the maturation protein (A-protein), the lysis protein, the coat protein, and the replicase ... The structure of the coat protein is a five-stranded β-sheet with two α-helices and a hairpin. When the capsid is assembled, ... The lysis protein is known to bind to DnaJ via an important P330 residue. A LS dipeptide motif on the L protein is found ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ...
Viruses in this subfamily are distinguished by the absence of a turreted protein on the inner capsid to produce a smooth ... Like other members of the Reoviridae family, viruses of the Sedoreovirinae subfamily are made of naked, icosahedral capsids ...
... such as the rotavirus protein non-structural protein 4. Most viroporins are not essential, but their absence significantly ... as a viroporin in addition to other roles mediated through interactions with viral proteins such as major capsid protein VP1. ... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... The human papillomavirus 16 E5 protein, the least well-studied of the three known oncogenic HPV proteins, was reported in 2012 ...
In general, the genome encodes three structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, ... The genome mimics the cellular mRNA molecule in all aspects except for the absence of the poly-adenylated (poly-A) tail. This ... The virus encodes these activities in its non-structural proteins. The NS3 protein encodes a RNA triphosphatase within its ... structure was later found in several Flavivirus genomes and is thought to direct translation of capsid proteins. It is located ...
Assembly of portal units is an initial step in constructing capsids of viral progeny. Capsids assembled in the absence of ... HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes ... The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein arranged as a ring; the proteins contain a leucine zipper ... Multiple studies suggest an evolutionary relationship between Capsid Portal Protein and bacteriophage portal proteins. When a ...
VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ... Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... The capsid contains three proteins; VP1 is the primary component and forms a 360-unit outer capsid layer composed of 72 ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ...
In most studies, viral propagation is either reduced or abrogated in the absence of one or both proteins, but the apparent ... Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... Polyomavirus capsids are composed of three proteins; the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into ... April 2006). "The VP2/VP3 minor capsid protein of simian virus 40 promotes the in vitro assembly of the major capsid protein ...
The inside of the capsid contains scaffold proteins that guide the geometric construction of the capsid. In the absence of ... While viruses in Duplodnaviria make use of the HK97 fold for their major capsid proteins, the major capsid proteins of viruses ... The scaffold protein, which may be the delta domain of HK97 MCP, is removed from the inside of the capsid by the capsid ... Other shared proteins that involve the structure and assembly of capsids include a portal protein that the opening of the ...
The family Reoviridae is divided into two subfamilies based on the presence of a "turret" protein on the inner capsid. From ... denoting the absence of spikes or turrets from the core particles of these viruses, which have a relatively smooth morphology ... the L segment encodes for λ proteins, the M segment encodes for μ proteins and the S segment encodes for σ proteins). Viruses ... Segments range from about 0.2 to 3 kbp and each segment encodes 1-3 proteins (10-14 proteins in total). Proteins of viruses in ...
P1 encodes for a proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4) that make the capsid proteins. P2 and P3 proteins assist in infectivity of ... cap but instead encodes for a protein Vpg. The absence of the 5' cap is why the picornavirus genome depends on cap dependent ... ssRNA nonsegmented genome is encapsulated in an icosahedral protein structure made from four capsid proteins encoded by the ... Specifically, 2B, 2C, and 3A proteins interfere with host cell function and the 3D protein encodes as the RNA polymerase. 2A ...
... an outer proteinaceous capsid, an intermediate lipid membrane, and a central core containing DNA-protein complexes. Some of the ... The presence or absence of an envelope depends on whether they budded from the cell membrane (enveloped viruses) or were ...
... interacts with the viral proteins small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen as well as with the capsid protein ... have also been proposed as explanations for the presence or absence of agnoprotein in various human polyomaviruses. A gene ... A large number of protein-protein interactions have been reported between agnoprotein and other proteins of both viral and host ... The protein product of this gene has been detected in the capsids of mature virions, leading to its reclassification as VP4 to ...
... a structural protein and a collagen-like protein. ORF6 is very similar to the Sputnik major capsid protein, which has a double ... these were also observed at a comparable level in the virophage's absence. This is again unlike Sputnik, which reduces its ... The remaining two predicted products show limited similarity to other known proteins. Putative functions of the products ...
In MuV particles, the genome is encased by a helical capsid. The capsid is surrounded by a viral envelope that has spikes ... In the absence of vaccination against mumps there are between 100 and 1,000 cases per 100,000 people each year, i.e. 0.1% to ... Viral spike proteins fuse into the host cell's membrane, and new virions are formed at the sites beneath the spikes. MuV then ... In the absence of vaccination, infection normally occurs in childhood, most frequently at the ages of 5-9. Symptoms and ...
... the capsid protein reversibly binds to RNA forming a pre-capsid complex. This consists of RNA surrounded by enough capsid ... they found that the CCMV viral capsids are very robust, remaining intact even after treatment with RNase in the absence of ... It also is thought to be responsible for a low coat protein to viral RNA ratio. After virus entry, the protein capsid is ... CCMV is composed of an icosahedral protein capsid (T=3) that is 28 nm in diameter. This capsid is constructed by 180 identical ...
... the capsid protein reversibly binds to RNA forming a pre-capsid complex. This consists of RNA surrounded by enough capsid ... they found that the CCMV viral capsids are very robust, remaining intact even after treatment with RNase in the absence of ... CCMV is composed of an icosahedral protein capsid (T=3)[1] that is 28 nm in diameter. This capsid is constructed by 180 ... subgenomic RNA4 is also translated to produce viral capsid proteins. Using the newly synthesized copies of (+)ssRNA and capsid ...
Also in 1955, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified TMV RNA and its capsid (coat) protein can self- ... presence or absence of a lipid envelope). Viruses range in size from about 30 nm to about 450 nm, which means that most of them ... that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. Of ... In 2015 it was shown that proteins from an ERV are actively expressed in 3-day-old human embryos and appear to play a role in ...
They are "gag" encoding the structural internal virion proteins comprising "matrix" (MA), "capsid" (CA) and "nucleocapsid"(NC ... An important feature of JSRV infection is the absence of any specific immune response from the host. A likely explanation is ... The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the mature proteins by ... But JSRV is different in this aspect since its envelope glycoprotein ("env") by itself is an oncogene and this single protein ...
The second largest of those segments in turn codes for one of the outer capsid proteins, VP(2). By analogy with Bluetongue ... Due to the absence of an effective vaccine, vector control remains one of the primary methods of prevention. Control of the ... The smallest of those genome segments, segment-10, encodes the NS3 protein, which allows the release of the viral particles ... Equine encephalosis virus is an Orbivirus, and as such encodes 4 non-structural and 7 structural proteins derived from 10 ...
This protein is produced from ORF2 and is essential for the capsid-assembly process. The exact function of this protein in the ... type 2 capsids in the absence of inverted terminal repeats: a model for generation of rep-positive AAV particles". Journal of ... and the latter contains overlapping nucleotide sequences of capsid proteins: VP1, VP2 and VP3, which interact to form a capsid ... Girod A, Wobus CE, Zádori Z, Ried M, Leike K, Tijssen P, Kleinschmidt JA, Hallek M (May 2002). "The VP1 capsid protein of adeno ...
The amino acid sequence of the astrovirus capsid protein does not have similar homology to other known viral proteins, but the ... In the absence of vaccines, sanitation is the prevalent way to prevent Avastrovirus infections. Mamastroviruses often cause ... This unique structure was found to be similar to the protein projections found on the capsid of the hepatitis E virus. The ... The resulting subgenomic RNA contains ORF2 and encodes precursor capsid protein (VP90). VP90 is proteolytically cleaved during ...
The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Alba, R; Bosch, A; Chillon, M (2005). "Gutless ... Xiao, X; Li, J; Samulski, RJ (1998). "Production of high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in the absence of ... These plasmids contain either transgenic DNA or replication and capsid encoding DNA, plus helper DNA. Every cell that is ... Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ... and its absence can cause defects in viral capsid assembly. MTag is also required for viral persistence. However, MTag's best- ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ... The result of this genetic encoding is three proteins that share a common N-terminal sequence, forming a protein domain called ...
Based on structure, presence/absence of specific protein domains, and conserved protein sequence motifs, they can be subdivided ... Gag encodes a polyprotein with a capsid and a nucleocapsid domain. Gag proteins form virus-like particles in the cytoplasm ... Occasional ribosomal frameshifting allows the production of both proteins, while ensuring that much more Gag protein is ... at the C-terminus of their integrase protein. They are widespread in plants and fungi, probably retaining protein domains ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid. Protease ... The presence of this protein is crucial, as in the absence of Tas, LTR-mediated transcription cannot be detected. Foamy viruses ... Pol proteins are responsible for synthesis of viral DNA and integration into host DNA after infection. Env proteins are ... "bet - Protein Bet - Simian foamy virus (isolate chimpanzee) (SFVcpz) - bet gene & protein". Retrieved 2017-11- ...
However, it has become apparent that H protein is a multifunctional protein. This is the only viral capsid protein of ΦX174 to ... Phage ΦX174 has been used to try to establish the absence of undiscovered genetic information through a "proof by synthesis" ... it was determined that de novo H protein was required for optimal synthesis of other viral proteins. Mutations in H protein ... ΦX174 has also been modified to enable peptide display (phage display) from the viral capsid G protein. The ΦX174 genome was ...
Translation of mRNA containing VP proteins leads to the accumulation of capsid proteins in the nucleus that assemble into these ... In the absence of coinfection, AAV's genome is integrated into the host cell's genome until coinfection occurs. Infected cells ... which is the replication initiator protein, and the VP gene encodes the viral protein (VP) that the viral capsid is made of. ... so the structure of the capsid and capsid protein are useful indicators of phylogeny. Parvoviruses enter cells by endocytosis, ...
Fahey, Laura M.; Raff, Adam B.; Da Silva, Diane M.; Kast, W. Martin (2009-11-15). "A major role for the minor capsid protein of ... T cells are not tolerized by Langerhans cells presenting human papillomavirus antigens in the absence of costimulation". ... Langerin is a protein found in Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells. In the rare disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), ... escape mechanism seems to be conserved among different HPV genotypes enabling these viruses to remain undetected in the absence ...
The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained inside the protein inner envelope. The lipid outer ... Interestingly, the risk to a fetus while inside the womb is minimal, given the virtual absence of viral particles in human ... envelope is of host cell origin but contains viral transmembrane and surface proteins. The virion is spherical in shape with a ...
... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... But none is considered satisfactory.[58][59] Another proposal is the absence of a slave trade to Asia on the scale of that to ... The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by ... Monath, T. P. (1989). "The absence of yellow fever in Asia: hypotheses. A cause for concern?". Virus Inf Exch Newslett: 106-7. ...
... but also found in viral capsid proteins. Cell signaling[edit]. TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; ... negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. • cellular response to lipopolysaccharide. • ... protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... In India, for instance, chikungunya re-appeared following 32 years of absence of viral activity.[70] Outbreaks have occurred in ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ...
A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. An absence of transferrin results ... "Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ...
... proteins with central functions in meiosis are similar to key proteins in natural transformation in bacteria and DNA transfer ... These include a double stranded DNA genome, a linear chromosome with short telomeric repeats, a complex membrane bound capsid, ... Depending on the presence or absence of these phenomena, the existing ways of reproduction can be divided into asexual, ... These proteins could have been transferred to the cell membrane during viral reproduction, enabling cell-to-cell fusion between ...
In second mechanism PICI CpmAB redirect the phage capsid morphogenetic protein to make 95% of SaPI-sized capsid and phage DNA ... Broad-level results of spacer presence/absence showed significant diversity. However, this CRISPR added 3 spacers over 17 ... Multiple Cas1 proteins have been characterised and their structures resolved.[81][82][83] Cas1 proteins have diverse amino acid ... Most CRISPR-Cas systems have a Cas1 protein. The phylogeny of Cas1 proteins generally agrees with the classification system.[62 ...
Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural ... with a capsid diameter of 400 nm. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. The capsid appears hexagonal ... consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein ...
Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are ... Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g., one gene), in the study of "mutants" - organisms with a ... for example emptied viral capsids that can deliver gene therapy or drug molecules).[54] ... The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The primary structure of a protein simply ...
Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. Protein. ncRNAs Latency I. +. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. ... This "first complete atomic model [includes] the icosahedral capsid, the capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) and the ... In the absence of this initiation codon, EBNA-2/EBNA-3A/EBNA-3B/EBNA-3C/EBNA-1 will be expressed depending on which of these ... Protein/genes[edit]. Protein/gene/antigen Stage Description EBNA-1 latent+lytic EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin ( ...
A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.[23] ... Nucleic acid test must be carried out to detect the acute infection of HIV-1 or its absence.[115] ... The vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cellular protein that deaminates cytidine to uridine in the single- ... As the sole viral protein on the surface of the virus, the Envelope protein is a major target for HIV vaccine efforts.[26] Over ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E (2002). "Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4.[20][21] These individual viral proteins are:[3][22] ... Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is ...
In 1935, Wendell Stanley examined the tobacco mosaic virus and found it was mostly made of protein.[15] In 1939, Stanley and ... "The antagonistic microbe can never be cultivated in media in the absence of the dysentery bacillus. It does not attack heat- ... Burton E. Tropp (2007). Molecular Biology: Genes to Proteins. Burton E. Tropp. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett ... Stanley WM, Loring HS (1936). "The isolation of crystalline tobacco mosaic virus protein from diseased tomato plants". Science ...
The structure of foraminifera (mainly chalk) and viruses (protein, capsid), the wax crystals covering a lotus or nasturtium ... In the absence of toxicological information, WHO recommends implementing the highest level of controls to prevent workers from ... In the absence of appropriate engineering controls PPE should be used, especially respiratory protection, as part of a ...
The two outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, mediate attachment and penetration of BTV into the target cell. The virus makes ... "A possible overwintering mechanism for bluetongue virus in the absence of the insect vector". The Journal of General Virology. ... In addition to the seven structural proteins, three non-structural (NS) proteins, NS1, NS2, NS3 (and a related NS3A) are ... Roy P (2008). "Functional mapping of bluetongue virus proteins and their interactions with host proteins during virus ...
P9 capsid protein NC, also encoded by gag. 7000-11000 Da.. *The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some ... The primate lentiviruses are distinguished by the use of CD4 protein as a receptor and the absence of dUTPase.[4] Some groups ... Retroviruses carry specific proteins within their capsids, which typically associate with the RNA genome. These proteins are ... P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. ... Protein size 66000 Da.. *Integrase IN also encoded by the pol ...
... which are involved in the formation and structure of the capsid. These late proteins are transported back into the nucleus. The ... even in the absence of antibodies. This is also seen in the studies in which warm frogs nearly devoid of tumors are cooled down ... The early viral mRNA is translated into early proteins. These early proteins are transported into the nucleus, where they are ... The capsid itself has been measured to be approximately 90-110 nm in diameter and expresses T=16 icosahedral symmetry. The ...
The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and is analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence ... Assessment of IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (a rising titer) is indicated to confirm Epstein-Barr virus or ... "Hepatic splenosis mimicking HCC in a patient with hepatitis C liver cirrhosis and mildly raised alpha feto protein; the ...
The existence of this sequence signals that the protein is to be exported while the absence signals that the protein is to ... coli host encoded GroEL protein to assist in the correct folding and assembly of the major phage head capsid protein of the ... Mitochondrial matrix protein P1, P60 lymphocyte protein, HSPD1 Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a mitochondrial chaperonin that ... A similar protein structure exists in the chloroplast of certain plants. This protein presence provides evidence for the ...
Viruses consist of a genome and sometimes a few enzymes stored in a capsule made of protein (called a capsid), and sometimes ... This was a very time-consuming, hit-or-miss procedure, and in the absence of a good knowledge of how the target virus worked, ... or parts of proteins, that can be disabled. These "targets" should generally be as unlike any proteins or parts of proteins in ... molecules that direct the synthesis of viral proteins. Production of mRNA is initiated by proteins known as transcription ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and two ... In India, for instance, chikungunya re-appeared following 32 years of absence of viral activity. Outbreaks have occurred in ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... October 2010). "Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling". Journal ...
Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid-Organelle Association in the Absence of the Large Tegument Protein UL36p. Himanshu Kharkwal, Sara ... Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid-Organelle Association in the Absence of the Large Tegument Protein UL36p ... Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid-Organelle Association in the Absence of the Large Tegument Protein UL36p ... Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid-Organelle Association in the Absence of the Large Tegument Protein UL36p ...
Herpes simplex virus capsid-organelle association in the absence of the large tegument protein UL36p. Journal of Virology. 2015 ... Herpes simplex virus capsid-organelle association in the absence of the large tegument protein UL36p. / Kharkwal, Himanshu; ... Herpes simplex virus capsid-organelle association in the absence of the large tegument protein UL36p. ... title = "Herpes simplex virus capsid-organelle association in the absence of the large tegument protein UL36p", ...
Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid ... C) Stabilization of free VP proteins by MG-132 treatment does not enhance capsid assembly. Capsid were produced, blotted, and ... Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian ... Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian ...
Block of endosome escape in the absence of L2.To evaluate whether the presence of the PV L2 capsid protein is necessary for ... HPV16 particles composed of both L1 and L2 capsid proteins (panels A to C) or particles composed of only the L1 protein (panels ... This capsid protein is initially incorporated into capsids as a preprotein which requires cleavage by the 23-kDa cysteine ... The minor capsid protein L2 contributes to two steps in the human papillomavirus type 31 life cycle. J. Virol. 79:3938-3948. ...
Subunits are assembled into hexamers (and possibly other oligomers), which are independent of the presence or absence of CpmB ( ... portal protein; 44, minor capsid protein gp44; SP, scaffolding protein; CP, major capsid protein. First, the 80α-encoded ... the SaPI1-encoded proteins CpmA and CpmB re-direct the capsid assembly pathway to form small capsids (2). Finally, the SaPI1- ... and show that CpmB competes with the 80α scaffolding protein (SP) for a binding site on the capsid protein (CP), and works by ...
No patient had viremia in the absence of viruria. These were all essentially "samples of convenience" that had previously been ... Longitudinal Analysis of Levels of Immunoglobulins against BK Virus Capsid Proteins in Kidney Transplant Recipients. P. ... Longitudinal Analysis of Levels of Immunoglobulins against BK Virus Capsid Proteins in Kidney Transplant Recipients ... Longitudinal Analysis of Levels of Immunoglobulins against BK Virus Capsid Proteins in Kidney Transplant Recipients ...
2. Capsid is the protein coat that encloses the genetic material. 3. Capsomer is the protein subunit that makes up the capsid. ... The absence of a cellular and humoral immune response enables opportunistic organisms to cause extensive infection. Malaria is ... 3. Uncoating occurs when there is either the separation of the capsid from the genome or rearrangement of the capsid proteins ... 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an ...
Assembly of portal units is an initial step in constructing capsids of viral progeny. Capsids assembled in the absence of ... HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes ... The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein arranged as a ring; the proteins contain a leucine zipper ... Multiple studies suggest an evolutionary relationship between Capsid Portal Protein and bacteriophage portal proteins. When a ...
Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high ... Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in ... Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical ... Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical ...
Moreover, a precise molecular study of the capsid proteins shows that ONOOH and HClO preferentially targeted capsid protein ... Our data show that ONOOH and HClO cross-linked the capsid proteins and RNA genomes of Qβ and MS2 phages. Consistently, the ... or NO2 or whether it induced the loss of the protein region detected by mass spectrometry, together suggesting potential sites ... even though the phenotypes change as a function of the interaction with adjacent proteins/RNA. These data also indicate a ...
The presence or absence of an envelope around the capsid (a lipid layer derived from host cell membranes with embedded proteins ... The virus uses proteins in either its capsid or envelope to bind to a protein on the surface of the cell. Each virus can only ... The content of their protein capsids. The hosts they are able to infect.. ... inside a protective protein coat (called a "capsid").[1] Uniquely, viruses may contain single or double stranded nucleic acid. ...
... suggesting a complex transduction of binding effects across the capsid. ... Small molecule antivirals that drive assembly of HBV capsid protein can also bind to pre-assembled capsids causing them to ... The appearance of the 520 nm peak under these conditions was restricted to the capsid fraction as shown by the absence of a ... Are weak protein-protein interactions the general rule in capsid assembly? * A Zlotnick ...
Aims/hypothesis Immunohistochemical staining reveals that the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 is present at higher frequency in ... Some slides were processed in the absence of primary antibody or with isotype control antisera to confirm the specificity of ... Expression of the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 in the islet cells of patients with type 1 diabetes is associated with ... Richardson SJ, Willcox A, Bone AJ, Foulis AK, Morgan NG (2009) The prevalence of enteroviral capsid protein VP1 immunostaining ...
S9). One of the predominant proteins recognized was tentatively identified as the ATCV-1 major capsid protein. No reaction to ... absence of mental retardation, absence of HIV infection, absence of a serious medical disorder that would affect cognitive ... Sera obtained from mice exposed to C. heliozoae in the absence of ATCV-1 did not react with ATCV-1 proteins. ... the 41 viruses encode genes from 632 protein families, whereas any given virus only has 330-410 protein-encoding genes. Thus, ...
To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid- ... Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its ... capsids are also known to exist and can be obtained by co-expressing the capsid proteins in the absence of the portal protein25 ... The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in ...
One of these corresponded to a protomer, consisting of one copy each of the four capsid proteins. Absence of movement of this ... viral protein 1;. Pvr,. poliovirus receptor;. d1,. domain 1 of Pvr. Known loops and strands in capsid proteins are denoted by ... The poliovirus capsid is composed of 60 copies of 4 viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), arranged with icosahedral symmetry ... Also shown are the capsid proteins VP1 (blue), VP2 (yellow), VP3 (red), and VP4 (green). The tunnel beneath the sPvr-binding ...
Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with ...
VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. This process requires ... Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... The capsid contains three proteins; VP1 is the primary component and forms a 360-unit outer capsid layer composed of 72 ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ...
... and achieve long-term therapeutic protein expression in the absence of repeated administration of pharmacological agents. Next ... Total protein levels and capsid assessment. (A) Coomassie blue gel displaying protein-weight distribution of the two AAV-GFP ... and achieve long-term therapeutic protein expression in the absence of repeated administration of pharmacological agents. Next ... Protein blotting. We investigated the presence of the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. In brief, AAV samples were ...
AAV5 will need different testing compared to AAV8 to determine if the correct capsid proteins are present. Of course, absence ... Bulpin notes that identity testing checks whether the right gene is being manufactured and whether the right protein is being ... "The techniques used to assure absence of replication competence are different from the broad-spectrum sweep that you would ...
B) Time course of assembly of HIV capsid protein in the absence (•) and presence (▪) of 100 g/l Ficoll 70 (del Alamo, 2005). ... Molecular confinement influences protein structure and enhances thermal protein stability. Protein Sci. 10, 250-261. ... Kozer, N. and Schreiber, G. (2004). Effect of crowding on protein-protein association rates: fundamental differences between ... Effect of macromolecular crowding agents on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein assembly in vitro. J. Virol. 79 ...
Both hexons and pentons contain the major capsid protein, VP5; hexons also contain a small capsid protein, VP26; and triplexes ... but in the absence of an atomic description of HSV capsids, the molecular basis that drives capsid assembly has remained ... that contain the major capsid protein VP5 and the small capsid protein VP26, pentons made up of VP5, and triplexes composed of ... directionality of triplexes on the capsid shell and disulfide bond formation between capsid proteins contribute to HSV capsid ...
In the absence of furin cleavage both the L2 protein and the genome are retained within the endosomal compartment. This was the ... This allowed me to determine that the minor capsid protein, L2, mediates the delivery of the genome to a transcriptionally ... I also demonstrated that the L2 capsid protein is modified by the cellular protease, furin during endocytosis. This cleavage is ... Involvement of nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) in assembly of infectious HPV16 capsids. Day PM, Thompson CD, Pang YY, Lowy DR, ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in ... In the absence of prior oral infection, however, HSV-1 spreads easily to the genital area, usually through oral sex. Second, ...
AAV capsid proteins are ubiquitinated after endocytosis, and gene transfer can be significantly enhanced by proteasome or ... despite the absence of known adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) receptors or coreceptors at these sites. The dramatically lower ... These findings suggest that tissue-specific ubiquitination of viral capsid proteins interferes with rAAV-2 transduction and ...
This absence of metabolic and reproductive activity suggests that, unlike cells, the assembly of viruses could perhaps be ... side branches of the RNA molecules have specific affinity for the capsid proteins…On the other hand, self-assembly of viral ... Capsid proteins, or subunits, interact mainly through a combination of electrostatic repulsion, hydrophobic attraction and ... after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid." (Roos et al. 2010: ...
... outer capsid protein G6 from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. The parent bovine rotavirus strain Wistar Calf 3 (WC3) was ... absence of antifungal agents. ... G protein). These two proteins define the serotype of the virus ... The outermost layer contains two structural viral proteins (VP): VP4, the protease-cleaved protein (P protein) and VP7, the ... Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent ...
... outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent strains and the attachment protein (P7[5]) from the ... culture techniques in the absence of antifungal agents. The licensed vaccine is a ready-to-use 2 ml solution that contains ,2.0 ... the protease-cleaved protein (P protein) and VP7, the glycoprotein (G protein). These two proteins define the serotype of the ... rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein (G6) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. The parent bovine rotavirus ...
T-cell-mediated immune responses to AAV5 capsid proteins were not seen, nor were neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII. ... "The absence of factor VIII inhibitors during more than 1 year of follow-up underscores the safety of AAV5-hFVIII-SQ [ ...
... of wild-type and cyclophilin-binding defective human immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins in the presence and absence of ... We speculate that CypA and/or CypA-related proteins affect the fate of incoming HIV-1 capsid either directly or by modulating ... Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that binds to the capsid protein (CA) of human immunodeficiency virus type ... Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford assay. Extracts were normalized for cell numbers or protein ...
  • SaPI1 redirects the helper's assembly pathway to form small capsids that can only accommodate the smaller SaPI1 genome, but not a complete phage genome. (
  • 3. Uncoating occurs when there is either the separation of the capsid from the genome or rearrangement of the capsid proteins exposing the genome for transcription and replication. (
  • Given that HHV-6B has a genome size of 162 kb-much smaller than that of HCMV-the question arises whether its β-herpesvirus-specific tegument protein, pU11, binds capsids in the same way as HCMV's homologous protein pp150/pUL32 does. (
  • The VP1 protein, along with capsid components VP2 and VP3, is expressed from the "late region" of the circular viral genome. (
  • All of the capsid proteins are expressed from the late region of the viral genome, so named because expression occurs only late in the infection process. (
  • This allowed me to determine that the minor capsid protein, L2, mediates the delivery of the genome to a transcriptionally active nuclear domain, ND10. (
  • In the absence of furin cleavage both the L2 protein and the genome are retained within the endosomal compartment. (
  • Part of NIH-supported research and tool development led by Professor Philip Bourne SDSC/UCSD, the image shows the complete viral protein coat, attached to short pieces of the viral genome (14 bases out of 3,569 total). (
  • Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (
  • Within the virus particle, a single copy of the genome is enclosed within a roughly spherical protein shell (capsid) which is about 30 nm in diameter. (
  • The capsid serves to protect the genome while the virus is outside of cells and also allows it to bind and subsequently gain entry to cells through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors (eg, certain integrins). (
  • Each viral particle, or virion , consists of a single nucleic acid, RNA or DNA, encoding the viral genome surrounded by a protein coat, and is capable of replication only within the living cells of bacteria, animals or plants. (
  • The capsid provides protection for the viral genome against the environment and functions in receptor recognition, targeting the virus to a susceptible host and cell type. (
  • This genome displayed a typical GcV architecture, with a 2,264-nt circular DNA molecule carrying a capsid gene on 1 strand and 2 genes on the opposite strand, which coded for Rep1 (involved in replication initiation) and Rep2 (involved in replication termination), respectively. (
  • Using Southern blot analysis, we further demonstrated that the viral RNAs were predominantly packaged in CsCl purified mature capsids (containing viral genome) than empty/intermediate capsids. (
  • Adenovirus major core protein condenses DNA in clusters and bundles, modulating genome release and capsid internal pressure. (
  • Some viruses package dsDNA together with large amounts of positively charged proteins, thought to help condense the genome inside the capsid with no evidence. (
  • In addition, it has recently been shown that the major adenovirus condensing protein (polypeptide VII) is dispensable for genome encapsidation. (
  • These results indicate that protein VII condenses the adenovirus genome by combining direct clustering and promotion of bridging by other core proteins. (
  • This condensation modulates the virion internal pressure and DNA release from disrupted particles, which could be crucial to keep the genome protected inside the semi-disrupted capsid while traveling to the nuclear pore. (
  • Norwalk virus contains a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA genome of about 7.7 kb ( 3 ) that is incorporated within a shell consisting of multiple copies of a single protein of ∼56.6 kD ( 3 , 5 ). (
  • During the replication cycle of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) replicates and transcribes the viral genome from within the viral capsid. (
  • Co-expression of the hPBV RdRP and the capsid protein (CP) indicated that, under the conditions used, the RdRP could not be incorporated into the recombinant capsids in the absence of the viral genome. (
  • Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer-capsid protein VP2, the most variable BTV protein and the primary target for neutralising antibodies. (
  • As virus protein synthesis is an absolute requirement for paramyxovirus genome replication, our results indicate that these DI viruses do not require replication to activate the IFN-induction cascade. (
  • A smaller protein, VP4, is also present inside the virion and in contact with the genome. (
  • A small genome-linked virus protein (VPg), is covalently attached to the 5′ end of the genome. (
  • PRV virions contain a double-stranded DNA genome within a proteinaceous capsid surrounded by the tegument, a layer of viral and cellular proteins. (
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (
  • The major capsid protein VP1 encoded by genome segment S1 of Bombyx mori cypovirus 1 was expressed in a baculovirus system. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of genome segments 6 and 7 of Bombyx mori cypovirus 1, encoding the viral structural proteins V4 and V5, respectively. (
  • Nucleotide sequences of segments 1, 3 and 4 of the genome of Bombyx mori cypovirus 1 encoding putative capsid proteins VP1, VP3 and VP4, respectively. (
  • 1992 "Complexes of sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro. (
  • Interestingly, we found that gas solutions were able to trigger the self-assembly of CP of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) in the absence of the viral genome, most likely by acting as a negatively charged template. (
  • At the very least, all viruses contain two components: the capsid (a protein shell), and a genome, consisting of either DNA or RNA. (
  • The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of a single protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 nucleotide single stranded RNA genome which codes for the capsid and one other protein of unknown function. (
  • Its virions are 45 nm in diameter and have a 5-kb double-stranded, circular, supercoiled DNA, which is encased in a protein capsid ( 11 ). (
  • Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. (
  • Although CypA is incorporated into HIV-1 virions by virtue of CypA-Gag interactions that occur during virion assembly, in this study we show that the CypA-CA interaction that occurs following the entry of the viral capsid into target cells is the major determinant of CypA's effects on HIV-1 replication. (
  • Electron microscopy revealed that the absence of GODZ limited the maturation of virions at multiple steps, and affected the localization of virus and endoplasmic reticulum morphology. (
  • To help determine how pU(L)17 becomes incorporated into virions and its functions therein, we identified pU(L)17-interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation with pU(L)17-specific IgY at 16 h postinfection, followed by mass spectrometry. (
  • Viruses from these two families have many homologous genes and build their virions using structurally similar major capsid proteins. (
  • The substitution mutant was able to replicate in transfected 3T3 cells, and the newly replicated viral DNA associated with protein to form particles with the density of virions in CsCl equilibrium gradients. (
  • Differences in the subpopulations of the structural proteins of polyoma virions and capsids: biological functions of the multiple VP1 species. (
  • Virions contain three major structural (capsid) viral proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. (
  • The viral and host proteins contained within virions execute important functions during viral spread and pathogenesis, but a detailed understanding of the composition of PRV virions has been lacking. (
  • A Towbin immunoassay showed that the serum reacted specifically with the HCMV major capsid protein (MCP, 153 kDa), both in the nuclear fraction of infected cells and in virions. (
  • In this report we show that the minor capsid protein L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes but not for initial uptake and uncoating and that a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function. (
  • The PV particles are composed of 360 copies of the major capsid protein, L1, organized into pentameric capsomers ( 1 , 19 , 27 ), and a less well defined number of the minor capsid protein, L2 ( 2 , 34 , 46 ). (
  • The minor capsid protein, L2, does not contribute to the initial binding of papillomaviruses to the cell surface. (
  • JVirology: Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3 . (
  • Biochemical and ultrastructural analyses showed that the organelles in this buoyant fraction contain enveloped infectious HSV particles in their lumens and naked capsids docked to their cytoplasmic surfaces. (
  • As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus-like particles composed solely of the major capsid protein VP3, AAP's role in and relevance for assembly of genuine AAV capsids have remained largely unclear. (
  • Most enteric viruses are small particles (20-40 nm) composed of single-stranded RNA protected inside a capsid made of proteins. (
  • VP1 is capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles even in the absence of other viral components. (
  • The purified protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) when observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (
  • Circular replication initiation protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genomes are found in diverse group II virus families, which all possess a conserved Rep-encoding gene and a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid, except geminiviruses, which have twinned particles ( 1 ). (
  • Here, we study the morphology and mechanics of adenovirus particles with (Ad5-wt) and without (Ad5-VII-) protein VII. (
  • The core is slightly more ordered in the absence of VII and diffuses faster out of Ad5-VII- than Ad5-wt fractured particles. (
  • pU(L)17 is also associated with viral light particles that lack capsid proteins, suggesting its presence in the tegument of the HSV-1 virion. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are among the most easily-produced nanomaterials, since they result from the self-assembly of the capsid protein (CP). (
  • The capsid protein substitution mutants, having capsid protein genes of MPyV, for which receptors are present on a variety of cell types, showed also no cytopathic effect, despite an enhanced viral DNA replication and assembly of virus particles. (
  • Coexpression of capsid viral proteins in the baculovirus expression system leads to the production of nonreplicative rotavirus derived virus-like particles (VLP) [ 4 ]. (
  • Use of the baculovirus system to assemble polyomavirus capsid-like particles with different polyomavirus structural proteins: analysis of the recombinant assembled capsid-like particles. (
  • Myristylation of poliovirus capsid precursor P1 is required for assembly of subviral particles. (
  • This compound suppresses the production of key viral proteins, thereby compromising subsequent synthesis of full-length HIV-1 pre-mRNA and assembly of infectious particles. (
  • Viral particles are cotransported with KIF1A in axons of primary rat superior cervical ganglion neurons, and overexpression or disruption of KIF1A function, respectively, increases and reduces anterograde capsid transport. (
  • In the absence of any other capsid proteins, VP1 was found to assemble into single-shelled virus-like particles. (
  • 3. Capsomer is the protein subunit that makes up the capsid. (
  • The structure of the 33-kDa connector protein subunit consists of three long central α-helices bridging wide and narrow domains that are rich in β-sheets and extended polypeptides ( Fig. 1 A ) ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • C ) A ribbon representation of the structure of the rNV capsid protein (B subunit). (
  • Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel EV71 virus-like particle that lacks the VP4 capsid subunit protein. (
  • Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells ('capsids') strongly resist disassembly. (
  • In order to enhance the stability of the ELP-CCMV capsid in vivo, while maintaining its reversible disassembly behavior, the N-terminal ELP block can be modified via protein engineering. (
  • Putative autocleavage of reovirus mu1 protein in concert with outer-capsid disassembly and activation for membrane permeabilization. (
  • We have collaborations with many researchers around the country and outside USA on understanding biological processes such as protein folding, virus assembly and disassembly, pathogen-host interactions, signal transduction, transport across cytosol and membrane. (
  • Understanding the mechanics of the processes involved in the viral life cycle, and particularly the entry, disassembly, and new capsid assembly steps, at the molecular level will be the key to developing more effective treatments for viral diseases. (
  • 2016) Immunodominant T-Cell Epitopes in the VP1 Capsid Protein of Rhinovirus Species A and C. Journal of Virology, 90 (23). (
  • Structure, Immunogenicity, and Protective Mechanism of an Engineered Enterovirus 71-Like Particle Vaccine Mimicking 80S Empty Capsid. (
  • Results from structural and biochemical analyses revealed that VLP resembles the end product of the viral uncoating process, the 80S empty capsid. (
  • This particle, termed VLP, structurally mimics the 80S empty capsid, which is the end stage of EV71 uncoating. (
  • Of course, absence of replication-competent virus for the virus type used in the therapy is crucial. (
  • The techniques used to assure absence of replication competence are different from the broad-spectrum sweep that you would perform to be sure that no other viral contaminants are present. (
  • Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that binds to the capsid protein (CA) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and by doing so facilitates HIV-1 replication. (
  • H2AX phosphorylation has also been shown to be dispensable in other cases of DNA repair, such as in retroviral postintegration DNA rejoining or in replication protein A (RPA) focus formation after replication stress ( 16 , 33 ). (
  • Capsid assembly modulators (CAMs) are compounds that target core and misdirect capsid assembly, resulting in the suppression of HBV replication and virion production. (
  • Comparative cryo-EM analysis of the structures of the procapsids and mature capsids revealed the large structural rearrangements both within and between the protein subunits of the capsid that accompany maturation and create the conditions necessary for viral replication and infection. (
  • Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by disrupting the processing of the viral Gag capsid (CA) protein (p24) from the CA-spacer peptide 1 (SP1) protein precursor (p25) is disclosed. (
  • To understand the localization of GGNNV replication complexes, we generated polyclonal antisera against protein A, the GGNNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (
  • In addition, protein A fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was detected in the mitochondria in transfected cells and was demonstrated to be tightly associated with intracelfular membranes by biochemical fractionation analysis and membrane flotation assays, indicating that protein A alone was sufficient for mitochondrial localization in the absence of RNA replication, nonstructural protein B, or capsid proteins. (
  • This arrangement allows the C terminus of scaffolding protein within the complex to both recruit capsid subunits and mediate the incorporation of the single connector vertex. (
  • The 11-kDa scaffolding protein subunits form nanomolar affinity homodimers resembling arrows in solution. (
  • Subsequently, the 40S ribosomal subunits are predicted to scan the mRNA in a 5' to 3' direction until the first AUG codon is encountered as start site for protein synthesis. (
  • This highly ordered structure is held together through a combination of salt bridges between the positively charged protein and negatively charged RNA backbone, and a number of strong interactions between adjacent protein subunits. (
  • Because of the interlocking nature of the capsid subunits and the strength of the fully formed structure, the STMV capsid is sometimes referred to as "chainmail. (
  • The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6. (
  • In therapeutic applications in the clinical setting, gene therapy offers several advantages over traditional pharmacological based therapies, including the ability to directly manipulate disease mechanisms, selectively target disease-afflicted regions, and achieve long-term therapeutic protein expression in the absence of repeated administration of pharmacological agents. (
  • Bulpin notes that identity testing checks whether the right gene is being manufactured and whether the right protein is being expressed. (
  • AAV capsid proteins are ubiquitinated after endocytosis, and gene transfer can be significantly enhanced by proteasome or ubiquitin ligase inhibitors. (
  • These findings suggest that tissue-specific ubiquitination of viral capsid proteins interferes with rAAV-2 transduction and provides new approaches to circumvent this barrier for gene therapy of diseases such as cystic fibrosis. (
  • A fourth gene with no homologs in databases was predicted upstream of the capsid gene. (
  • The wild-type (wt) HAdV-5 and recombinant HAV5.EGFP containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene inserted in E1 region of HAdV-5 were propagated and titrated in 293 cells. (
  • 8. The vector according to claim 5 wherein said reporter gene is selected from the group consisting of the genes encoding β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein. (
  • The extreme antigenic diversity that results from the mutability of the gene that codes for this protein would prevent HIV from being identified and attacked by circulating antibodies or killer T lymphocytes. (
  • Here we report that the mammalian reovirus μ1 protein, encoded by the M2 gene, was sufficient to induce apoptosis in transfected cells. (
  • 2. Capsid is the protein coat that encloses the genetic material. (
  • 5. Assembly (maturation): Genetic material is assembled into a protein coat. (
  • One inside, the virus leaves behind its protein coat in the cell wall and prepares to be replicated. (
  • The viral coat is made up of a single protein repeated 60 times (ribbon), creating a sphere that holds only the viral genetic information (shown as spheres and cylinders) and a single protein related to maturation (not shown). (
  • The FMD viral structure includes genetic material surrounded by a coat of proteins called a capsid. (
  • A typical virus consists of a protective protein coat, known as a capsid . (
  • The scaffolding protein acts to both activate the coat protein for assembly and ensure proper form determination. (
  • Viroids resemble viruses, but consist of only small RNA molecules that do not have the protein coat found on viruses and that do not encode any proteins. (
  • The natural CCMV coat protein assembles spontaneously at pH 5.0 in the absence of its native RNA cargo, while it reversibly disassembles into dimers at pH 7.5. (
  • Via introduction of a stimulus-responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) block at the N-terminus of the viral coat protein, we have established capsid assembly under physiological conditions (pH 7.5). (
  • Another option for protein engineering of the ELP-CCMV coat protein is to introduce a specific functional handle on the exterior surface of the capsid. (
  • Considering the structural features of the GFLV capsid, it is composed of 60 copies of a single coat protein (504 amino acids, 56 kDa) without any envelope. (
  • The capsid or protein coat of the virus is expressed by plant cells and the research team then analyses the purified material from infiltrated leaves. (
  • Interactions among the major and minor coat proteins of polyomavirus. (
  • 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an envelope. (
  • How the RdRP molecules are packaged within the virion and how they function within the confines of an intact capsid are intriguing questions with answers that most likely vary across the different dsRNA virus families. (
  • Proteins account for approximately 70% of the virion mass. (
  • 2002 "The assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid requires virion-associated proteins 35 and 24 and posttranslational modification of nucleoprotein. (
  • The presence or absence of an envelope around the capsid (a lipid layer derived from host cell membranes with embedded proteins). (
  • Inserted into the lipid envelope there are usually viral encoded proteins know as spike projections - these are typically glycoproteins and are also involved in receptor recognition and viral tropism. (
  • We hypothesize that this unusual viral envelope structure results from the extreme curvature of the viral capsid, as 'horseshoe' lipid conformations favor such curvature and host membrane lipids that permit horseshoe conformations are selectively recruited into the viral envelope. (
  • Some viruses also include accessory proteins to aid in infection, or a lipid bilayer to further protect their contents from the environment. (
  • The connector binding region of the scaffolding protein lies upstream of the capsid binding region located at the C terminus. (
  • The dispensability of these genes, including one of the viral capsid protein genes, vp3 , was unexpected by the scientific team led by senior scientist Kenneth Stedman. (
  • I made a panel of monoclonal antibodies that recognize an open capsid conformation that occurs soon after cell binding. (
  • however, T-cell-mediated immune responses to AAV5 capsid proteins were not seen, nor were neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII. (
  • Interaction of antibodies against the surface of the virus capsid is considered to be the major mechanism for neutralizing FMDV infectivity. (
  • Thus vaccines to combat FMDV infection have been developed to generate antibodies against the capsid proteins. (
  • Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric protein induced specific antibodies against the "a" determinant. (
  • IgG antibodies to the capsid proteins of JCV and BKV were assessed using ELISAs. (
  • The immune system responses, that's, symptomatic infusion reactions and the forming of anti-TF2 antibodies which were observed following a administration of the next TF2 infusion had been unexpected, since TF2 is a humanised antibody build that absence an Fc moiety also. (
  • Amino acid sequences containing a mutation in the Gag p25 protein, with the mutation resulting in a decrease in the inhibition of processing of p25 to p24 by dimethylsuccinyl betulinic acid or dimethylsuccinyl betulin, polynucleotides encoding such mutated sequences and antibodies that selectively bind such mutated sequences are also included. (
  • UL36p (VP1/2) is the largest protein encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and resides in the innermost layer of the viral tegument, lying between the capsid and the envelope. (
  • 5. The envelope is the outer coating composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which is composed of viral-encoded glycoproteins and sometimes viralencoded matrix proteins. (
  • The virus uses proteins in either its capsid or envelope to bind to a protein on the surface of the cell. (
  • Its protein capsid and absence of an envelope make it relatively resistant to heat and solvents, features that likely contribute to its transmission. (
  • Viruses are classified into different orders and families by consideration of the type of nucleic acid present (RNA or DNA), whether the nucleic acid is single- or double-stranded, and the presence or absence of an envelope. (
  • Some viruses have a phospholipid envelope , derived from the infected host's cell membrane, that surrounds the protein capsid. (
  • Tsai and Oroszlan (19) have described proteolytic processing and novel glycosylation pathways for retroviral envelope proteins and characterized the env precursor polyprotein of avian reticuleondotheliosis virus (REV-A) as being modified by unusually large sialic acid-rich complex-type carbohydrate moieties (19). (
  • The envelope layer, which encloses the capsid and tegument, contains viral transmembrane proteins anchored in a phospholipid bilayer. (
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (
  • To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) obtained by cryoEM and sub-particle reconstruction. (
  • The VP1 C-terminus is disordered and forms interactions between neighboring pentamers in the assembled capsid. (
  • The C-terminus also contains a basic nuclear localization sequence, while the N-terminus - which is oriented toward the center of the assembled capsid - contains basic residues that facilitate non-sequence-specific interactions with DNA. (
  • We speculate that CypA and/or CypA-related proteins affect the fate of incoming HIV-1 capsid either directly or by modulating interactions with unidentified host cell factors. (
  • Together, our data demonstrate several differences between the two types of large T antigen in their interactions with cellular proteins. (
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (
  • The integrity and stability of biofilms depends on direct cell-cell and cell-surface interactions and on the extracellular matrix composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), a complex mixture of diverse exopolysaccharides, proteins (including cell appendages such as fimbriae, pili, and flagella), lipids, and extracellular DNA (eDNA) ( 3 ). (
  • Visualization of protein-RNA interactions in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. (
  • 1998 "Interactions of marburg virus nucleocapsid proteins. (
  • It reveals that the capsid proteins of STMV form a perfect icosahedron, with three tightly associated monomers per face, and strong interactions between adjacent faces through interlocking tails. (
  • Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells. (
  • The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. (
  • Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. (
  • Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. (
  • We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. (
  • IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. (
  • Second, the SaPI1-encoded proteins CpmA and CpmB re-direct the capsid assembly pathway to form small capsids (2). (
  • The portal is formed during initial capsid assembly and interacts with scaffolding proteins that construct the procapsid. (
  • Assembly of portal units is an initial step in constructing capsids of viral progeny. (
  • Further investigation during 2006 showed that assembly of capsid with portal depends on interaction of UL-6 with "scaffolding" protein UL-26.5, amino acids 143 through 151. (
  • UL-6 associates with a UL-15/UL-28 protein complex during capsid assembly. (
  • The UL-15/UL-28 is believed to bind with viral DNA and serve the same purpose as terminase by packing viral DNA into the capsid during capsid assembly. (
  • HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. (
  • Our results offer insights into HHV-6B capsid assembly and the roles of its tegument proteins, including not only the β-herpesvirus-specific pU11 and pU14, but also those conserved across all subfamilies of Herpesviridae . (
  • Involvement of nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) in assembly of infectious HPV16 capsids. (
  • Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. (
  • The molecular mechanism of scaffolding protein-mediated incorporation of one and only one DNA packaging motor/connector dodecamer at a unique vertex during lambdoid phage assembly has remained elusive because of the lack of structural information on how the connector and scaffolding proteins interact. (
  • Procapsid assembly requires the copolymerization of hundreds of copies each of the capsid and scaffolding proteins as well as a dodecamer of the portal or connector protein. (
  • In the absence of scaffolding protein, uncontrolled polymerization results in the assembly of aberrant structures. (
  • Mutational studies have indicated that scaffolding protein is involved either directly or indirectly in the incorporation of the connector vertex during procapsid assembly in a variety of phages ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Via the protein engineering toolbox, these variants can be produced and their assembly behavior and stability should then be evaluated and compared to the currently available variants. (
  • Capsid proteins of several different families of non-enveloped animal viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes undergo autocatalytic cleavage (autocleavage) as a maturation step in assembly. (
  • Our results show that expression of rotavirus capsid proteins in baculovirus led to the auto assembly of VLP that display similar properties to rotavirus. (
  • Assembly Properties of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 CA Protein. (
  • In vitro assembly properties of purified bacterially expressed capsid proteins of human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Assembly of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Precursor Gag Proteins. (
  • Our study gives a better understanding of EV71 capsid assembly and provides important information for the design and development of new-generation vaccines for EV71, and perhaps for other enteroviruses, as well. (
  • Our work provides the first evidence of picornaviral particle assembly in the complete absence of VP4 and identifies VLP as an improved EV71 vaccine candidate with desirable traits. (
  • During immature capsid assembly in cells, HIV-1 Gag co-opts a host RNA granule, forming a pathway of intracellular assembly intermediates containing host components, including two cellular facilitators of assembly, ABCE1 and DDX6. (
  • Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a non-primate lentivirus, also forms RNA-granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. (
  • Cell-free translation and assembly systems allow for HBV capsid assembly under cell-free conditions that also mimic the physiological salt and protein. (
  • Here the influence of nanobubble solutions on the self-assembly properties of viral capsid proteins (CP) was investigated. (
  • among the most critical questions is whether STMV assembly is primarily driven by the capsid or the viral RNA. (
  • The best-characterized SSV1 genes are its integrase and genes encoding its structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4). (
  • Essential genes were determined by the absence of bacterial infection, which a false negative may lead to incorrect conclusions. (
  • However, no published results have demonstrated the capacities of the proteins encoded by these genes to induce apoptosis, either independently or in combination, in the absence of reovirus infection. (
  • HPV-infected cells express some viral proteins encoded by genes called E6 and E7, and can inactivate human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer protein and the retinoblastoma-type pro-tein RBP involved in the regulation of proliferation and cell death. (
  • Conventional viruses are made up of nucleic acid encapsulated in protein (capsid), whereas viroids are uniquely characterized by the absence of a capsid. (
  • The "tumor antigen" (T antigen), a nonstructural protein expressed by the viruses, is responsible for cell transformation in animal models. (
  • The resistance phenotype was relatively stable upon passage of viruses in cell culture in the absence of drug. (
  • He has solved many cryo-EM structures including viruses, chaperonins, membrane proteins, ion channels, cytoskeleton protein complexes, protein-DNA complexes, DNA and RNA in collaboration with many scientists around the world. (
  • Use cryo-EM to determine atomic structures of channels, pumps, transporters, chaperonins, protein degradation machines, and viruses in different functional states in conjunction with biochemical and physiological characterizations. (
  • In another embodiment, viruses or recombinant proteins that contain mutations in the region of the Gag proteolytic cleavage site can be used in screening assays to identify compounds that target proteolytic processing. (
  • All four strains of HCMV tested showed this reactivity, but the counterpart proteins of simian CMV and herpes simplex virus type 1 did not, indicating that the determinant is not common to all herpes group viruses. (
  • They reproduce by utilizing the cell's machinery to replicate viral proteins and genomic material, generally damaging or killing the host cell in the process, and then the large number of newly generated viruses go on to infect other neighboring cells. (
  • Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. (
  • Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid proteins. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. (
  • Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. (
  • In the absence of prior oral infection, however, HSV-1 spreads easily to the genital area, usually through oral sex. (
  • The absence of GODZ affects primary and latent infection as well as reactivation in ocularly infected mice. (
  • In order to obtain empty/intermediate and mature capsids, VIDO R1 cells were infected with wt PAdV-3 or mutant Pav3-PL1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 plaque forming units (PFUs). (
  • However, efficient infection of cells in vitro was not achieved with this mutant virus, possibly due to the absence of virus-specific receptors on the cells. (
  • This has not been observed previously in the absence of a natural infection and is a new application for the transient expression system pioneered by Professor George Lomonossoff at the John Innes Centre. (
  • Mutations in VP0 and 2C Proteins of Duck Hepatitis A Virus Type 3 Attenuate Viral Infection and Virulence[J]. Vaccines,2019, 7:111, doi:10.3390/vaccines7030111. (
  • Since there is no viremia and no cell lysis upon viral shedding, the low availability of antigens and the absence of danger signals also contribute to keep HPV infection unknown to the host's immune system. (
  • In contrast, the absence of a myristyl moiety on VP2 did not substantially affect the early steps of virus infection. (
  • Previously, we have successfully tested the immunogenicity and protectiveness of a candidate EV71 vaccine, containing recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids that display an EV71 VP1 fragment (NPt-VP1 1-100 ) protein, in a mouse model of EV71 infection. (
  • Us9 and KIF1A interact early during infection with the aid of additional viral protein(s) but exhibit diminished binding at later stages, when capsids typically stall in axons. (
  • This cross-reactivity was observed in autopsy specimens from individuals infected with CMV, in the presence or absence of co-infection with HIV-1. (
  • Similarly, the 76 kDa major outer-capsid protein mu1 of mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses), which are non-enveloped and have double-stranded RNA genomes, undergoes putative autocleavage between residues 42 and 43, yielding N-terminal N-myristoylated fragment mu1N and C-terminal fragment mu1C. (
  • A putative microcompartment in Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is associated with an isochorismatase-family protein [1]. (
  • Immunohistochemical staining reveals that the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 is present at higher frequency in the insulin-containing islets of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes than in controls. (
  • The presence of enteroviral capsid protein 1 (VP1) and the expression of class I HLA were investigated by immunohistochemistry. (
  • The pU(L)17-VP13/14 interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in the presence and absence of intact capsids and by affinity copurification of pU(L)17 and VP13/14 from lysates of cells infected with a recombinant virus encoding His-tagged pU(L)17. (
  • The poliovirus capsid is composed of 60 copies of 4 viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), arranged with icosahedral symmetry ( 6 ). (
  • Viral proteins, in complexes termed "capsomers," form the surface of the icosahedron. (
  • The research demonstrated that maturation of procapsids - immature viral structures - can occur within plant cells to yield fully functional mature capsids. (
  • Our data show that ONOOH and HClO cross-linked the capsid proteins and RNA genomes of Qβ and MS2 phages. (
  • For this, nonreplicative VLP nanoparticles were constructed using a baculovirus expression system and used to deliver an exogenous biomolecule, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), into either MA104 cells or intestinal cells from healthy and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice. (
  • In this study, the baculovirus expression system was used for expression of the HuNoV capsid protein , VP1. (
  • CP , major capsid protein. (
  • Domain 1 penetrates the "canyon" that surrounds the 5-fold protrusion on the capsid surface, and its binding site involves all three major capsid proteins. (
  • VP1 is the major structural component of the polyomavirus icosahedral capsid, which has T=7 symmetry and a diameter of 40-45 nm. (
  • EMDB-4424: Adenovirus major core protein condenses DNA in clusters and bundl. (
  • The N-terminal portion of the VP1 protein was suggested to contain a major antigenic site [ 3 ]. (
  • And major capsid protein , ORF2, is designated as a viral protein 1 (VP1). (
  • The major obstacles are the poor recovery yields, the requirement for optimization of refolding conditions for each target protein and the possibility that the resolubilization procedures could affect the integrity of refolded proteins. (
  • b. mRNA codes for viral protein and enzymes necessary for nucleic acid synthesis. (
  • ii) the inner layer composed of trimers of VP6 protein, and (iii) the core which is mostly composed of a nucleic acid binding protein, VP2. (
  • We have determined the structures of the 80α and SaPI1 procapsids to near-atomic resolution by cryo-electron microscopy, and show that CpmB competes with the 80α scaffolding protein (SP) for a binding site on the capsid protein (CP), and works by altering the angle between capsomers. (
  • Refinements to the electron microscopy in 2007 allowed finding that the portal is a twelve (12)-unit polymer present at one of the twelve capsid vertices instead of the UL-19 pentamer found at non-portal vertices. (
  • Consistently, the capsids appeared intact by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) even when 99% of the phages were inactivated by oxidation. (
  • The first x-ray structure of a calicivirus capsid, which consists of 180 copies of a single protein, has been determined by phase extension from a low-resolution electron microscopy structure. (
  • However, the advent of technologies for the in vitro generation of infectious papillomavirus capsids has significantly increased our knowledge of many aspects of the papillomavirus life cycle (reviewed in reference 38 ). (
  • HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in retrograde cellular transport. (
  • Pubmed ID: 15527835 Phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP22 protein is regulated by cellular kinases and the UL13 viral kinase, but the sites at which these enzymes induce phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 are not known. (
  • The capsid protein encoded by U(L)17 of herpes simplex virus 1 interacts with tegument protein VP13/14. (
  • The U(L)17 protein (pU(L)17) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) likely associates with the surfaces of DNA-containing capsids in a heterodimer with pU(L)25. (
  • Analysis of these mutants suggests that the principal contact site of Pvr on the capsid is the floor of the canyon, above the hydrocarbon-binding pocket, and on the outer ("south") rim of the canyon. (
  • VP1 is the primary component and forms a 360-unit outer capsid layer composed of 72 pentamers. (
  • These studies have shown that caliciviruses exhibit a T = 3 icosahedral symmetry with 180 molecules of the capsid protein organized into 90 dimers ( Fig. 1 A). The capsid has a contiguous protein shell between 100 and 145 Å radius, with prominent protrusions at all the local and strict twofold axes that extend to an outer radius of ∼190 Å, leaving large depressions at the icosahedral five- and threefolds axes. (
  • These polyhedral organelles are usually 100-150 nm in cross section [1] and consist of proteinaceous outer shells, reminiscent of viral capsids, surrounding a core of enzymes[2]. (
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (
  • Fusions between green fluorescent protein and the L2 peptide integrated into cellular membranes like the wild type but not like C-terminal mutants of L2. (
  • Studies with fusions to green fluorescent protein (GFP) have shown that the Snf1 isoform containing Gal83 is the only isoform to show significant nuclear localization ( 22 , 50 ) following glucose limitation. (
  • Further quantitative analysis of viral protein, DNA, and RNA in CsCl purified mature and empty/intermediate capsids of recombinant HAdV-5 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein indicated that the traceable viral RNA detected in empty/intermediate capsids seems associated with the presence of traceable viral genomic DNA. (
  • It has been reported that heterologous proteins as green fluorescent protein (GFP) could genetically fused to VP2 and incorporated into VLP [ 4 ]. (
  • the proteins contain a leucine zipper sequence of amino acids which allow them to adhere to each other. (
  • Together, these data show that HClO and ONOOH consistently target oxidant-sensitive amino acids regardless of the structural organization of Qβ and MS2, even though the phenotypes change as a function of the interaction with adjacent proteins/RNA. (
  • The weak forces at work include attraction or repulsion between electrostatic charges, water solubility, and constituent amino acid structures in various parts of the capsid. (
  • Protein engineering will then be employed in order to introduce an amino acid with a specific handle, such as a cysteine. (
  • In addition to the conserved polymerase fold, the hPBV RdRP possesses a highly flexible 24 amino acid loop structure located near the C-terminus of the protein that is inserted into its active site. (
  • In vivo half-life of a protein is a function of its amino-terminal residue. (
  • Sivasamugham and colleagues (2006) developed and studied the first 100 amino acid residues of this N-terminal region of VP1 by fusing it to a carrier protein, a truncated nucleoprotein (NP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). (
  • Each genogroup present a specific highly-conserved motif of six amino acids (between amino acids 86 and 91) in the PCV-2 capsid protein. (
  • These results suggest that the amino acids between positions 86 and 91 of the capsid protein are determinant for the virulence of isolates. (
  • Using GFP as the reporter by systematically introducing deletions of these two regions in the constructs, we further confirmed that the N-terminal amino acids 215 to 255 of protein A function as a mitochondrial targeting signal. (
  • It is composed of 240 copies of the same protein, arranged in a pattern of pentagons and hexagons. (
  • In φ29, the connector vertex is specifically incorporated at one of the two 5-fold vertices lying on the long axis of a prolate procapsid composed of 235 copies of capsid protein and containing ∼180 copies of scaffolding protein ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • The anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukaemia sequence-1 (Mcl-1) was abundant in beta cells that were immunonegative for VP1 but Mcl-1 was depleted in cells containing VP1. (
  • This subdomain, located at the exterior of the capsid, has the largest sequence variation among Norwalk-like human caliciviruses and is likely to contain the determinants of strain specificity and cell binding. (
  • Here, we show that fusion proteins containing the coding sequence of Oct4 or Xlpou91 (the Xenopus homolog of Oct4 ) fused to activating regions, but not those fused to repressing regions, behave as Oct4 , suppressing differentiation and promoting maintenance of undifferentiated phenotypes in vivo and in vitro. (
  • The possibility that these proteinases could degraded cellular proteins is still not explored enough. (
  • The capsid shape varies from simple helical and icosahedra forms to more complex structures with tails. (
  • A substantial increase in the immune response is observed when relevant epitopes are placed on the surface of macromolecular carriers, like large proteins or highly ordered structures such as VLPs [ 14 ]. (
  • The observation that diverse microcompartment structures are composed of proteins with homologous sequences led to the identification of a protein domain in the shell of all polyhedral bacterial microcompartments. (
  • These proteins form a protective shield for the virus' genetic information: they also interact with the cells of the host during key events of the virus' life cycle. (
  • This led to the understanding of which different regions of the capsid interact with either cell surface receptors or the extracellular matrix. (
  • To determine Us9 function, we identified viral and host proteins that interact with Us9 and explored the role of KIF1A, a microtubule-dependent kinesin-3 motor involved in axonal sorting and transport. (
  • The small capsid protein VP26 can interact with the dynein light chains Tctex1 (DYNLT1) and rp3 (DYNLT3) and may recruit dynein to the capsid. (
  • V-073, a small-molecule capsid inhibitor originally developed for nonpolio enterovirus indications is considerably more potent against polioviruses. (
  • This will allow for site-specific modification of the capsid exterior with functional groups that enhance capsid stability or in vivo targeting. (
  • Pure, soluble and functional proteins are of high demand in modern biotechnology. (
  • We find that while capsid envelopment is clearly defective, a subpopulation of capsids nevertheless still associate with the cytoplasmic faces of these organelles. (
  • We have derived atomic models for a total of 59 conformers of the four capsid proteins and one tegument protein of HHV-6B. (
  • Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. (
  • Simian virus 40 Vp2/3 small structural proteins harbor their own nuclear transport signal. (
  • Levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA against BKV capsids were measured at five time points for 535 serial samples from 107 patients by using a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • When a virus infects a cell, it is necessary for the viral DNA to be released from the capsid. (
  • The Herpes virus DNA exits through the capsid portal. (
  • We now report, however, that differentiated human airway epithelia internalize rAAV type-2 virus efficiently from their apical surfaces, despite the absence of known adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) receptors or coreceptors at these sites. (
  • Cyclophilin A (CypA) is the most abundant member of a ubiquitous family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases and binds to the capsid (CA) domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and SIVcpz Gag proteins ( 26 ). (
  • Immunocytochemistry and IHC were used to study virus infectivity and the localization of varies HSV-1 virus proteins within the MEF cells and tissue sections. (
  • The reduced virus infectivity is due to the absence of HSV-1 UL20 binding to GODZ. (
  • The human parvovirus B19 is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral-shaped protein capsid. (
  • The absence of the nucleic acids of the real virus allows us to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals," said Grubman. (
  • An extensively studied example of such specific receptor-mediated recognition is the interaction between the CD4+ co-stimulatory T-cell receptor and CCR5 on human T lymphocytes and the gp120 and gp41 proteins, respectively, on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein serves multiple essential functions in the viral life cycle, and antiviral agents that target the core protein are being developed. (
  • Viral protein nanocages, such as that of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), are promising carriers for drug delivery applications or capsules for artificial organelle construction. (
  • The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors. (
  • We demonstrate here that DIs of paramyxoviruses, including parainfluenza virus 5, mumps virus and Sendai virus, can activate the IFN-induction cascade and the IFN-β promoter in the absence of virus protein synthesis. (
  • Identification of a DNA binding domain in simian virus 40 capsid proteins Vp2 and Vp3. (
  • The first method uses HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus recombinants that express one of three different fluorescent proteins. (
  • Previous studies showed that proteins from pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus, localize to mitochondria and affect mitochondrial function. (
  • Skern, T. 2017-05-18 00:00:00 Vaccinia virus relies on a series of proteolytic cleavage events involving two viral proteins, I7 and G1, to complete its life cycle. (
  • 2000 "Crystal structure of the matrix protein VP40 from ebola virus. (
  • 1985 "Descriptive analysis of ebola virus proteins. (
  • 1991 "Measles virus phosphoprotein retains the nucleocapsid protein in the cytoplasm. (
  • The capsid proteins are very important for different things, one of them is cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. (
  • With all this elements that compose a poliovirus we can newly synthesis plus-stranded RNA that represent mRNA for protein synthesis or to encapsidate the virus with the virus proteins. (
  • Herein, highly stable NDs encapsulated with Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid proteins (ND-CP) are prepared. (
  • the virus must then somehow disassemble its capsid to release its genetic material and any necessary helper proteins. (
  • Spatial segregation is widely believed to be a defining organizational feature of eukaryotic cells: proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules are contained within and often actively transported between the many membrane-bound, subcellular organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc. (
  • We hypothesized that this vector must be able to deliver in situ (in pathological tissues) therapeutics molecules as anti-inflammatory proteins or RNAi to interfere with the proinflammatory pathway of NF B, using the same mechanism used by Rotavirus to infect and deliver the RNA to intestinal cells. (
  • Protein Expression Laboratory, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States. (
  • and the localization and expression of tegument and capsid proteins within HSV-1 infected MEFs. (
  • Constitutive expression of the exogenous fusion proteins in the absence of Oct4 was selected on the basis of Puromycin resistance in the presence of Tc. (
  • Eschericia coli is a frequently used host, since it facilitates protein expression by its relative simplicity, its inexpensive and fast high density cultivation, the well known genetics and the large number of compatible molecular tools available. (
  • In spite of all these qualities, expression of recombinant proteins with E. coli as the host often results in insoluble and/or nonfunctional proteins. (
  • Here we review new approaches to overcome these obstacles by strategies that focus on either controlled expression of target protein in an unmodified form or by applying modifications using expressivity and solubility tags. (
  • Microorganisms like the enterobacterium Escherichia coli are outstanding factories for recombinant expression of proteins. (
  • The main purpose of recombinant protein expression is often to obtain a high degree of accumulation of soluble product in the bacterial cell. (
  • Overall they can be divided into procedures where protein is refolded from inclusion bodies [ 5 ] and procedures where the expression strategy is modified to obtain soluble expression. (
  • New shell proteins are produced and assemble within the cell. (
  • VP2 and VP3 assemble inside the capsid in contact with VP1, with a stoichiometry of one VP2 or VP3 molecule to each pentamer. (
  • Viral DNA is housed in protective nano-scale containers, called capsids, that self-assemble within the host cell. (
  • These resilient proteinaceous packets self-assemble in response to a variety of weak forces that, in concert, provide the capsid with a great deal of stability. (
  • SaPI1 encodes two proteins, CpmA and CpmB, that are responsible for this size redirection. (
  • Aggregation of recombinant proteins overexpressed in bacterial cells could therefore result either from accumulation of high concentrations of folding intermediates or from inefficient processing by molecular chaperones. (
  • Maximizing the production of recombinant proteins in a soluble form is therefore an attractive alternative to in vitro refolding procedures. (