Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Tradescantia: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.GlucuronidaseTwo-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Isopentenyladenosine: N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Eucommiaceae: A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)

Characterization of two new channel protein genes in Arabidopsis. (1/1560)

Aquaporins, small channel proteins, found in a variety of organisms are members of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily and have been shown to facilitate water transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We isolated two Arabidopsis cDNAs, SIMIP and SITIP, that encode protein homologues of the MIP superfamily. SIMIP exhibits a high degree of sequence homology to PIP3 and MIP1, and thus may belong to the plasmamembrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily, whereas salt-stress inducible tonoplast intrinsic protein (SITIP) is highly homologous to VM23 and gamma-TIP, and therefore may belong to the TIP subfamily. Expression studies revealed that the two genes showed a different expression pattern. The SIMIP gene was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, for example, its highest transcript level is found in flowers, relatively low levels in siliques, and very low level in leaves and roots. In contrast, SITIP was expressed in nearly equal amounts in all the tissues we examined. Also, the expression of SIMIP and SITIP showed a temporal regulation pattern. For example, the highest expression level was at 1 week after germination. In addition, the transcript levels of SIMIP and SMTIP were increased upon NaCl and ABA treatments. The biological function of the 2 genes were investigated using two NaCl stress-sensitive yeast mutant strains. The mutant yeast cells expressing these 2 genes were more resistant to high NaCl conditions. The results suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in the osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt condition.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis GSK3/shaggy-like gene that complements yeast salt stress-sensitive mutants is induced by NaCl and abscisic acid. (2/1560)

GSK3/shaggy-like genes encode kinases that are involved in a variety of biological processes. By functional complementation of the yeast calcineurin mutant strain DHT22-1a with a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype, we isolated the Arabidopsis cDNA AtGSK1, which encodes a GSK3/shaggy-like protein kinase. AtGSK1 rescued the yeast calcineurin mutant cells from the effects of high NaCl. Also, the AtGSK1 gene turned on the transcription of the NaCl stress-inducible PMR2A gene in the calcineurin mutant cells under NaCl stress. To further define the role of AtGSK1 in the yeast cells we introduced a deletion mutation at the MCK1 gene, a yeast homolog of GSK3, and examined the phenotype of the mutant. The mck1 mutant exhibited a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype that was rescued by AtGSK1. Also, constitutive expression of MCK1 complemented the NaCl-sensitive phenotype of the calcineurin mutants. Therefore, these results suggest that Mck1p is involved in the NaCl stress signaling in yeast and that AtGSK1 may functionally replace Mck1p in the NaCl stress response in the calcineurin mutant. To investigate the biological function of AtGSK1 in Arabidopsis we examined the expression of AtGSK1. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the expression is differentially regulated in various tissues with a high level expression in flower tissues. In addition, the AtGSK1 expression was induced by NaCl and exogenously applied ABA but not by KCl. Taken together, these results suggest that AtGSK1 is involved in the osmotic stress response in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

A cluster of ABA-regulated genes on Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07. (3/1560)

Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07 encoding the abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (ABI4) locus has been sequenced completely. It contains a 95,713-bp insert and 24 predicted genes. Most putative genes were confirmed by gel-based RNA profiling and a cluster of ABA-regulated genes was identified. One of the 24 genes, designated PP2C5, encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C. The encoded protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme activity in vitro was confirmed.  (+info)

Flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 interacts with a rice cell surface component involved in abscisic acid signalling in protoplasts. (4/1560)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in many developmental and physiological processes, but as yet, no ABA receptor has been identified. Flow cytometry of rice protoplasts and immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes (PMs) have been used to demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 recognizes carbohydrate epitopes of cell surface glycoproteins. Using surface plasmon resonance technology specific binding of PMs to JIM19 was observed. Such interaction was antagonized significantly by ABA, but not by the biologically inactive ABA catabolite phaseic acid. These in vitro interactions were correlated with the biological activities of JIM19, ABA and phaseic acid on activation of the ABA-inducible Em promoter using two different transient reporter gene assays, beta-glucuronidase/luciferase and quantitative flow cytometry of Aequoria green fluorescent protein. Pre-treatment with JIM19 resulted in significant inhibition of ABA-inducible gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that JIM19 interacts with a functional PM complex involved in ABA signalling.  (+info)

Arabidopsis abi1-1 and abi2-1 phosphatase mutations reduce abscisic acid-induced cytoplasmic calcium rises in guard cells. (5/1560)

Elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2)+](cyt)) are an important component of early abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. To determine whether defined mutations in ABA signal transduction affect [Ca(2)+](cyt) signaling, the Ca(2)+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2 was loaded into the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis guard cells. Oscillations in [Ca(2)+](cyt) could be induced when the external calcium concentration was increased, showing viable Ca(2)+ homeostasis in these dye-loaded cells. ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations in wild-type stomata were either transient or sustained, with a mean increase of approximately 300 nM. Interestingly, ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) increases were significantly reduced but not abolished in guard cells of the ABA-insensitive protein phosphatase mutants abi1 and abi2. Plasma membrane slow anion currents were activated in wild-type, abi1, and abi2 guard cell protoplasts by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt), demonstrating that the impairment in ABA activation of anion currents in the abi1 and abi2 mutants was bypassed by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt). Furthermore, increases in external calcium alone (which elevate [Ca(2)+](cyt)) resulted in stomatal closing to the same extent in the abi1 and abi2 mutants as in the wild type. Conversely, stomatal opening assays indicated different interactions of abi1 and abi2, with Ca(2)+-dependent signal transduction pathways controlling stomatal closing versus stomatal opening. Together, [Ca(2)+](cyt) recordings, anion current activation, and stomatal closing assays demonstrate that the abi1 and abi2 mutations impair early ABA signaling events in guard cells upstream or close to ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations. These results further demonstrate that the mutations can be bypassed during anion channel activation and stomatal closing by experimental elevation of [Ca(2)+](cyt).  (+info)

ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C is a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling. (6/1560)

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of seed maturation and germination and mediates adaptive responses to environmental stress. In Arabidopsis, the ABI1 gene encodes a member of the 2C class of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP2C), and the abi1-1 mutation markedly reduces ABA responsiveness in both seeds and vegetative tissues. However, this mutation is dominant and has been the only mutant allele available for the ABI1 gene. Hence, it remained unclear whether ABI1 contributes to ABA signaling, and in case ABI1 does regulate ABA responsiveness, whether it is a positive or negative regulator of ABA action. In this study, we isolated seven novel alleles of the ABI1 gene as intragenic revertants of the abi1-1 mutant. In contrast to the ABA-resistant abi1-1 mutant, these revertants were more sensitive than the wild type to the inhibition of seed germination and seedling root growth by applied ABA. They also displayed increases in seed dormancy and drought adaptive responses that are indicative of a higher responsiveness to endogenous ABA. The revertant alleles were recessive to the wild-type ABI1 allele in enhancing ABA sensitivity, indicating that this ABA-supersensitive phenotype results from a loss of function in ABI1. The seven suppressor mutations are missense mutations in conserved regions of the PP2C domain of ABI1, and each of the corresponding revertant alleles encodes an ABI1 protein that lacked any detectable PP2C activity in an in vitro enzymatic assay. These results indicate that a loss of ABI1 PP2C activity leads to an enhanced responsiveness to ABA. Thus, the wild-type ABI1 phosphatase is a negative regulator of ABA responses.  (+info)

Sugar/osmoticum levels modulate differential abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase genes in Arabidopsis. (7/1560)

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism. Two Sus-encoding genes (Sus1 and Sus2) from Arabidopsis thaliana were found to be profoundly and differentially regulated in leaves exposed to environmental stresses (cold stress, drought or O(2) deficiency). Transcript levels of Sus1 increased on exposure to cold and drought, whereas Sus2 mRNA was induced specifically by O(2) deficiency. Both cold and drought exposures induced the accumulation of soluble sugars and caused a decrease in leaf osmotic potential, whereas O(2) deficiency was characterized by a nearly complete depletion in sugars. Feeding abscisic acid (ABA) to detached leaves or subjecting Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants to cold stress conditions had no effect on the expression profiles of Sus1 or Sus2, whereas feeding metabolizable sugars (sucrose or glucose) or non-metabolizable osmotica [poly(ethylene glycol), sorbitol or mannitol] mimicked the effects of osmotic stress on Sus1 expression in detached leaves. By using various sucrose/mannitol solutions, we demonstrated that Sus1 was up-regulated by a decrease in leaf osmotic potential rather than an increase in sucrose concentration itself. We suggest that Sus1 expression is regulated via an ABA-independent signal transduction pathway that is related to the perception of a decrease in leaf osmotic potential during stresses. In contrast, the expression of Sus2 was independent of sugar/osmoticum effects, suggesting the involvement of a signal transduction mechanism distinct from that regulating Sus1 expression. The differential stress-responsive regulation of Sus genes in leaves might represent part of a general cellular response to the allocation of carbohydrates during acclimation processes.  (+info)

A bZIP factor, TRAB1, interacts with VP1 and mediates abscisic acid-induced transcription. (8/1560)

The transcription factor VP1 regulates maturation and dormancy in plant seeds by activating genes responsive to the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Although activation involves ABA-responsive elements (ABREs), VP1 itself does not specifically bind ABREs. Instead, we have identified and cloned a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) factor, TRAB1, that interacts with both VP1 and ABREs. Transcription from a chimeric promoter with GAL4-binding sites was ABA-inducible if cells expressed a GAL4 DNA-binding domain::TRAB1 fusion protein. Results indicate that TRAB1 is a true trans-acting factor involved in ABA-regulated transcription and reveal a molecular mechanism for the VP1-dependent, ABA-inducible transcription that controls maturation and dormancy in plant embryos.  (+info)

Phaseic acid is a terpenoid catabolite of abscisic acid. Like abscisic acid, it is a plant hormone associated with photosynthesis arrest and abscission. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional plant hormone, playing roles in germination, seasonal growth patterns, and stress response. ABA levels are believed to be regulated in part by control of ABA catabolism, specifically by oxidation to form phaseic acid. Phaseic acid can therefore be thought of as a degradation product of ABA, although it may have other functions. The introduction of high phaseic acid concentrations have been found to impede stomatal closure and reduce photosynthesis in arabidopsis but this may be a result of product inhibition rather than recognition of phaseic acid by a receptor. Phaseic acid inhibits glutamate receptors in mouse brain. Phaseic acid is an isoprenoid, which means that it is derived from isoprene units. The activated terpene geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is combined with itself to produce the common ...
Leung, J., M. Bouvier-Durand, P.C. Morris, D. Guerrier, F. Chefdor, and J. Giraudat. 1994. Arabidopsis ABA-response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Science 264: 1448-1452.. Leung, J., S. Merlot, and J. Giraudat. 1997. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Plant Cell 9: 759-771.. Meyer, K., M.P. Leube, and E. Grill. 1994. A Protein Phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 264: 1452-1455.. Morris, E.C. 1999. Effect of localized placement of nutrients on root competition in self-thinning populations. Ann. Bot. 78: 353-364.. Niklas, K.J. 1994. Plant Allometry. Chicago: Chicago University Press, pp. 101-125.. Pei, Z.M., M. Ghassemian, C.M. Kwak, P.M. Court, and J.I. Schroeder. 1998. Role of farnesyktransferase in ABA regulation of guard cell anion channel and plant water loss. Science 282: 287-290.. Thomas, S.C. ...
Clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) are negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling that are inhibited in an ABA-dependent manner by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) intracellular receptors. We provide genetic evidence that a previously uncharacterized member of this PP2C family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), At5g59220, is a negative regulator of osmotic stress and ABA signaling and that this function was only apparent when double loss-of-function mutants with pp2ca-1/ahg3 were generated. At5g59220-green fluorescent protein and its close relative PP2CA-green fluorescent protein showed a predominant nuclear localization; however, hemagglutinin-tagged versions were also localized to cytosol and microsomal pellets. At5g59220 was selectively inhibited by some PYR/PYL ABA receptors, and close relatives of this PP2C, such as PP2CA/ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE GERMINATION3 (AHG3) and AHG1, showed a contrasting sensitivity to ...
Biology Assignment Help, Roles of abscisic acid, Roles of Abscisic Acid Abscisic acid (ABA) is a particularly interesting hormone with regard to the regulation of its own levels. Its levels rise and fall dramatically in several kinds of tissues in response to environmental and developmental ch
Abscisic acid is found in american cranberry. Abscisic acid is used to regulate ripening of fruit Abscisic acid (ABA) is an isoprenoid plant hormone, which is synthesized in the plastidal 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway; unlike the structurally related sesquiterpenes, which are formed from the mevalonic acid-derived precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), the C15 backbone of ABA is formed after cleavage of C40 carotenoids in MEP. Zeaxanthin is the first committed ABA precursor; a series of enzyme-catalyzed epoxidations and isomerizations, and final cleavage of the C40 carotenoid by a dioxygenation reaction yields the proximal ABA precursor, xanthoxin, which is then further oxidized to ABA. Abamine has been patented by the Japanese researchers Shigeo Yoshida and Tadao Asami, which are very reluctant to make this substance available in general, neither commercially nor for research purposes. Abscisic acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II and dormin, is a plant hormone. It functions ...
Abscisic acid ((S)​-​(+)​-​Abscisic acid) is a plant hormone which is as a growth inhibitor. Abscisic acid has been shown to regulate many aspects of plant growth and development including embryo maturation, seed dormancy, germination, cell division and elongation, floral induction, and responses to environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, pathogen attack and UV radiation. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
... , antibodies to abscisic acid, abscisic acid antibody, ABA antibody, plant hormone antibodies, AS09 446Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in different physiological responses a
Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates key processes in plants relative to seed germination, plant development and responses to important environmental stresses, such as drought, salinity and extreme temperatures. ABA perception is tightly controlled by the ubiquitin proteasome system. CRL4-CDDD E3 ubiquitin ligases target ABA receptors of the PYR/PYL/RCAR (pyrabactin resistance/pyrabactin resistance-like/regulatory components of ABA) family, triggering their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Therefore, CRL4-CDDD complexes function as repressors of ABA-mediated stress responses. On the contrary, ABA treatment attenuates receptor degradation although the precise molecular details of this mechanism have remained unknown. In this seminar, our most recent data on the regulatory process underlying ABA-mediated protection of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, by CRL4-CDDD E3 ubiquitin ligases inactivation, will be shown.. ...
Land plants are considered monophyletic, descending from a single successful colonization of land by an aquatic algal ancestor. The ability to survive dehydration to the point of desiccation is a key adaptive trait enabling terrestrialization. In extant land plants, desiccation tolerance depends on the action of the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) that acts through a receptor-signal transduction pathway comprising a PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1-like (PYL)-PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C (PP2C)-SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SnRK2) module. Early-diverging aeroterrestrial algae mount a dehydration response that is similar to that of land plants, but that does not depend on ABA: Although ABA synthesis is widespread among algal species, ABA-dependent responses are not detected, and algae lack an ABA-binding PYL homolog. This raises the key question of how ABA signaling arose in the earliest land plants. Here, we systematically characterized ABA receptor-like proteins from major land plant lineages, including a ...
Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in
As sessile organisms, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent the adverse environment. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key inducer of plant responses to abiotic stress. Much effort has been made to decipher the mechanism underlying ABA signal transduction, in which posttranscriptional regulation has been shown to be one of the most important modes of regulation (Chinnusamy et al., 2008). Mutants of several components of the microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis machinery, such as hyponastic leaves1, serrate, dicer-like1, hua enhancer1 (hen1), and cap-binding protein (cbp20 and cbp80), are hypersensitive to ABA (Lu and Fedoroff, 2000; Hugouvieux et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008). These mutants, except hen1, were shown to have lower miRNA levels but higher primary miRNA precursor (pri-miRNA) levels compared with wild-type plants (Laubinger et al., 2008). In cbp20 and cbp80 mutants, ABA induction of miR159 was delayed and the miR159 target transcripts, which ...
We have isolated a full-length PvNCED1 cDNA from water-stressed bean leaves. PvNCED1 encodes a protein that is targeted to chloroplasts, where it is associated with thylakoids (Fig. 4). Heterologous expression as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in E. coli and enzyme assays with the purified recombinant protein established that PvNCED1 catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoids (Fig. 5). In response to water stress, a close correlation was found between the abundance of PvNCED1 mRNA and protein, and increase in ABA levels in leaves and roots (Figs. 6 and 8). In leaves, there is an abundance of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoids (13), and the enzyme activities converting xanthoxin to ABA are constitutive (12, 29). Therefore, these results provide evidence in support of the long-standing hypothesis that drought-induced ABA biosynthesis is regulated by the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage step at the transcriptional level, assuming that the abundance of PvNCED1 mRNA after dehydration is ...
Define abscisic acid: a plant hormone C15H20O4 that is a sesquiterpene widespread in nature and that typically promotes leaf abscission and dormancy …
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against Abscisic acid. Abscisic acid conjugated with carrier proteins. (PAB0080) - Products - Abnova
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates a number of plant developmental processes and responses to stress. In planta, ABA has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through the action of plasma membrane-associated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidases. Although quantitative proteomics studies have been performed to identify ABA- or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent proteins, little is known about the ABA- and H2O2-dependent microsomal proteome changes. Here, we examined the effect of 50 µM of either H2O2 or ABA on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome using tandem mass spectrometry and identified 86 specifically H2O2-dependent, and 52 specifically ABA-dependent proteins that are differentially expressed. We observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle notably in response to H2O2. Of these, aconitase 3 responded to both H2O2 and ABA. Additionally, over 30 proteins linked to RNA biology responded
In higher plants, abscisic acid and xanthoxin are two potent growth regulators. Although similar properties in both substances have been demonstrated in several biological tests including biochemical interconversion of the substances, evidence is available that in the plant as a whole, xanthoxin has regulatory functions other than those of abscisic acid. Several environmental factors, such as water supply, photoperiod and low temperature, which affect growth and development also greatly change the level of abscisic acid in the plant; however, only small variations in the xanthoxin level have been observed in response to changes in the environmental conditions. On the other hand, a strong enhancement of the xanthoxin level can be induced when dark-grown seedlings are briefly illuminated; this treatment, however, has no influence on the abscisic acid level. This observation supports the hypothesis that light-induced inhibition of growth may be mediated by an increased formation of the growth ...
Possibility of improving physiological traits and minituber yield of potato cultivars (cvs. Agria and Fontane) was investigated by application of plant growth regulators (BAP, ABA and BAP+ABA) at tuber initiation stage. Regardless of the cultivars, Net photosynthesis rate (Np), actual quantum yield (Φ), stomatal conductance (gs) and Transpiration rate (Tr) of BAP-treated leaves were superior to those of the control. For Agria, the greatest Chlorophyll content (Chl) was observed in BAP-treated plants, while the highest Chl for Fontane was observed in ABA-treated plants. Increasing Np and Chl content were associated with higher Soluble Carbohydrate content (SC). BAP+ABA application increased SC of leaflets in both cultivars compared with the control. Tuber Yield per Plant (Y/P), Mean Tuber Weight (MTW), and Tuber Number (TN) were stimulated by foliar treatment of plants with PGRs compared with the untreated ones, but there were significant interactions between cultivar and hormone type. Positive
Possibility of improving physiological traits and minituber yield of potato cultivars (cvs. Agria and Fontane) was investigated by application of plant growth regulators (BAP, ABA and BAP+ABA) at tuber initiation stage. Regardless of the cultivars, Net photosynthesis rate (Np), actual quantum yield (Φ), stomatal conductance (gs) and Transpiration rate (Tr) of BAP-treated leaves were superior to those of the control. For Agria, the greatest Chlorophyll content (Chl) was observed in BAP-treated plants, while the highest Chl for Fontane was observed in ABA-treated plants. Increasing Np and Chl content were associated with higher Soluble Carbohydrate content (SC). BAP+ABA application increased SC of leaflets in both cultivars compared with the control. Tuber Yield per Plant (Y/P), Mean Tuber Weight (MTW), and Tuber Number (TN) were stimulated by foliar treatment of plants with PGRs compared with the untreated ones, but there were significant interactions between cultivar and hormone type. Positive
Water stress has been shown to cause root hairs to become short and bulbous. Because abscisic acid (ABA) mediates a variety of water-stress responses, we investigated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs to ABA. When wild-type root hairs were treated with ABA, they exhibited the water-stress response. The Arabidopsis mutants abi1 and abi2, which are insensitive to ABA at the seedling stage, did not display the root hair response. These data suggest that ABA may mediate the response of root hairs to water stress. The drought response of root hairs resulting in an inhibition of tip growth will provide an easy screen to select mutations that are insensitive to ABA and/or involved in tip growth.
Membrane vesicle traffic to and from the plasma membrane is essential for cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. In plants, constitutive traffic to and from the plasma membrane has been implicated in maintaining the population of integral plasma-membrane proteins and its adjustment to a variety of hormonal and environmental stimuli. However, direct evidence for evoked and selective traffic has been lacking. Here, we report that the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which controls ion transport and transpiration in plants under water stress, triggers the selective endocytosis of the KAT1 K+ channel protein in epidermal and guard cells. Endocytosis of the K+ channel from the plasma membrane initiates in concert with changes in K+ channel activities evoked by ABA and leads to sequestration of the K+ channel within an endosomal membrane pool that recycles back to the plasma membrane over a period of hours. Selective K+ channel endocytosis, sequestration, and recycling demonstrates a tight and dynamic ...
Molecular genetic studies on Arabidopsis sugar response mutants have revealed extensive evidence for cross-talk between sugar and phytohormone response pathways [11-13, 15-18, 51, 52]. For example, exogenous Glc has been proposed to slow the decrease in ABA concentrations that occurs during seed germination [53]. Glc has also been shown to help regulate expression of a number of genes involved in ABA metabolism in seedlings. Several ABA biosynthetic genes, including ABA1, AAO3 and ABA3 are upregulated by 110 mM and 330 mM Glc via a mechanism that requires that a certain endogenous ABA level is maintained [17]. Interestingly, these same genes are downregulated by 330 mM mannitol, via a mechanism that does not appear to require wild-type levels of endogenous ABA. These results suggest that regulation of these three genes by Glc is distinct from their regulation by osmotic stress. Similarly to ABA1, AAO3 and ABA3, the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA2 is also upregulated by 110 mM and 330 mM Glc via a ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed maturation, germination and various stress responses in plants. The roles of ABA in cellular growth and morphogenesis, however, remain to be explored. Here, we report that ABA induces the ectopic outgrowth of epidermal cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings of A. thaliana germinated and grown in the presence of ABA developed ectopic protrusions in the epidermal cells of hypocotyls, petioles and cotyledons. One protrusion was formed in the middle of each epidermal cell. In the hypocotyl epidermis, two types of cell files are arranged alternately into non-stoma cell files and stoma cell files, ectopic protrusions being restricted to the non-stoma cell files. This suggests the presence of a difference in the degree of sensitivity to ABA or in the capacity of cells to form protrusions between the two cell files. The ectopic outgrowth was suppressed in ABA insensitive mutants, whereas it was enhanced in ABA hypersensitive mutants. Interestingly, ABA-induced ...
The phytohormones GA and ABA are major, but not the only, regulators of seed germination, which is promoted by GA and inhibited by ABA. We employed ABA-repressed seed germination as the selection criterion to identify cDNA-overexpressing lines showing ABA insensitivity. Line A44 displayed clear estradiol-dependent ABA insensitivity, suggesting that regulated overexpression of the inserted ZFP3 cDNA is responsible for the observed phenotype (Fig. 1). The causal relationship between ZFP3 overexpression and the ABA-insensitive seed germination phenotype was verified using independent ZFP3-overexpressing lines, which led to the conclusion that the ZFP3 cDNA encoded C2H2 zinc finger protein and is a novel negative regulator of ABA responses. Enhanced expression of ZFP3 seems to phenocopy the effects of ABA-insensitive abi mutations during germination. The PP2C-type protein phosphatases ABI1 and ABI2 are part of the ABA receptor complex and negatively regulate ABA responses, while the transcription ...
Il 20/03/2017 ore 14.30 - 15.30. Sala Conferenze, Area della Ricerca NA1, Via P. Castellino, 111 80131 Napoli. Prof. Santina Bruzzone from the Department of Experimental Medicine, Università degli studi di Genova, will give a seminar on the role of abscisic acid (ABA), mainly known as a plant hormone, in the regulation of glycemia. She demonstrated that ABA is also a human hormone, regulating glycemia in humans through several mechanisms: i) by increasing insulin-independent muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake; ii) by stimulating insulin release; iii) by stimulating the release of the incretin Glucagon Like Peptide-1. We identified the ABA receptor (LANCL2), and we generated a LANCL2-KO mouse strain. Notably, ABA plasma levels increase in healthy, but not in diabetic, subjects undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test and oral ABA improves glycemic control in rodents and in healthy humans. More recently, her group has demonstrated that ABA induces the browning of murine adipocytes in vitro ...
The involvement of ABA in primed callose production at the site of pathogen penetration is one of the few examples of a positive function of this hormone in defense and may be the basis for the described β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance (Ton and Mauch-Mani, 2004; Mauch-Mani and Mauch, 2005; Ton et al., 2005). However, callose deposition at the site of P. cucumerina infection was similar in irx1-6 mutant and wild-type plants, which excludes priming for callose production as a mediator of irx-reduced susceptibility (data not shown). We now provide strong evidence for a direct involvement of ABA signaling in the control of Arabidopsis resistance to R. solanacearum. This ABA function was supported by different observations: (1) the ABA-insensitive mutants abi1-1 and abi2-1, and the ABA-deficient mutant aba1-6, were more susceptible to the bacterium than were wild-type plants (Figure 6); (2) the constitutive expression in the irx mutants of some ABA signaling regulators, including ABI1-1 and ...
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The carotenoid/viviparous maize (Zea mays L.) mutant vp12 is a single locus mutation that results in lemon-coloured endosperms, viviparous embryos and albino seedlings. This work presents the first molecular and biochemical analysis of vp12. Levels of ABA were measured during embryo development and also in isolated organs under water deficit stress. ABA levels were lower in developing embryos of mutants than in non-mutant siblings at all stages analysed. In addition, under water deficit, mutant organs accumulated less ABA than corresponding non-mutant sibling organs. Furthermore, immature mutant embryos accumulated transcripts for several ABA or water deficit-responsive genes, Em, glb1, glb2, rab17, and vp1. These results indicated that vp12 is deficient in ABA accumulation, but not in the ABA signal transduction pathway. Analysis of carotenoid extracts showed that mutant endosperms accumulated lower amounts of coloured precursors than non-mutant endosperms. The expression of key enzymes in the ...
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may imply that the ABA biosynthetic pathway in response to PPT appears to be the same as that established under stress conditions (Zeevaart and Creelman, 1988; Seo and Koshiba, 2002). In addition, the defect of ABA accumulation in TN1 seedlings may account for the PPT intolerance of the cultivar.. In previous work, we observed that PPT at a concentration of 50 M increased ABA content in detached rice leaves of TN1 (Tsai et al., 2002). In the present investigation, no accumulation of ABA was observed in leaves of TN1 seedlings treated with 10 M PPT (Figure 6). When detached rice leaves of TN1 were treated with 10 M PPT, no ABA accumulation was observed (data not shown). It appears that PPT concentration in leaves of TN1 seedlings treated with 10 M PPT is high enough to cause toxicity, but not to cause ABA accumulation. It has been shown that roots possess the ability to synthesize ABA (Davies and Zhang, 1991). Thus, the possibility that PPT is unable to trigger the ABA biosynthetic pathway in TN1 ...
There is now a substantial body of evidence that shoot growth and physiology of plants rooted in drying soil may be regulated by chemical signals moving from the root to the shoot in the xylem stream. Although some evidence suggests that soil drying can reduce the supply of promoters of leaf growth and stomatal opening, there is now compelling evidence for an enhanced flux of inhibitors in the xylem stream of droughted plants. Some of this inhibitory activity is still to be identified but at least in some plants the bulk of activity can be explained by the enhanced concentration of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). A series of field experiments has now shown that ABA, moving as a signal from the roots to the leaves in the transpiration stream, can provide a measure of the access that the plant has to water in the soil in the rooting zone. We show here how this signal may be a variation in the concentration of ABA arriving at the sites of action in the leaf. The response to such a signal ...
Lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 represents the first step in a pathway leading to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in immune cells by abscisic acid," said Raquel Hontecillas, assistant professor of immunology at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute and one of the lead investigators of the study. "We have also shown that abscisic acid affects the expression of several genes involved in inflammation, metabolism and cell signaling, which provides further clues for possible intervention points in the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases." The researchers hope to more closely pinpoint some of the new drug targets in the molecular network of the immune response as they continue to dissect the way that the naturally occurring drug abscisic acid reduces damage due to inflammation. In addition, the novel understanding on how abscisic acid works will be used to develop new classes of drugs that target the same alternative pathway of peroxisome ...
Root growth occurs with cell division at the root tip and cell expansion a short distance from the tip. Whereas leaf expansion of water stressed seedlings appears to be reduced, primary root growth increases under these conditions. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) increases in the tip. This is associated with an increase in osmotic pressure, and thus more water, into the newly formed root cells. Also increasing ABA is linked to an increase in the amino acid proline, perhaps delaying the finishing of cell walls. As a consequence, the cells near the root tip become longer than in roots not facing water deficient conditions. ABA also appears to interfere with production of ethylene in the cells, a compound associated with inhibiting cell growth ...
Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated ...
Environmental conditions, including light, temperature, water status, and soil salinity, all modify the redox state of plant cells (Allen et al., 1995). A number of studies have shown that oxidative stress is a common factor that affects plant growth and development under extreme environmental conditions (for review, see Mittler, 2002). Most recently, oxidative stress agent H2O2 has been shown to serve as a critical messenger molecule in many signal transduction pathways, including plant responses to pathogen, plant hormone abscisic acid, and abiotic stress factors (Wojtaszek, 1997; Pei et al., 2000; Bolwell et al., 2001; Mittler, 2002). At least one of the mechanisms underlying H2O2 function is the activation of calcium channels (Pei et al., 2000; Chico et al., 2002). Here, we report that plant Tyr phosphatases such as AtPTP1 (Xu et al., 1998) serve as targets for H2O2 and this may be associated with the regulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity in plants. Although Ser/Thr and Tyr
Whereas methods for using flow cytometry based on GFP expression in plants have been available for several years (Galbraith et al., 1995; Sheen et al., 1995), few applications have been reported. These examples include abscisic acid signal transduction in rice (Oryza sativa) (Desikan et al., 1999; Hagenbeek et al., 2000; Gampala et al., 2001; Hagenbeek and Rock, 2001), root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (Birnbaum et al., 2003), flow cytometry protocol development and mosaic observations in tobacco leaves (Bohanec et al., 2002; Bastar et al., 2004), and nuclear targeting in tobacco (Grebenok et al., 1997). Only the last four cases contained examples of flow cytometry analysis of stably transformed plants, and of these only the last three studies include attempts to quantify GFP expression. One of the true powers of flow cytometry is analysis of heterogeneity in a cell population because properties are measured on an individual cell basis rather than as a population average (Yanpaisan et ...
In‐gel protein kinase assays using myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrate have been used to demonstrate that abscisic acid (ABA) activates an MBP kinase (AMBP kinase) in epidermal peels prepared from leaves of the Argenteum mutant of pea, Pisum sativum L. AMBP kinase has the characteristics of a mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK): it utilizes MBP preferentially as an artificial substrate, it is rapidly and transiently activated, it is of the appropriate size (molecular weight c. 45 kDa), requires tyrosine phosphorylation for activity and is tyrosine phosphorylated upon activation. Reverse transcription‐PCR was used to generate a previously‐cloned MAPK from guard cells, epidermis and mesophyll and immunoblotting using an antibody raised against a mammalian MAPK detected MAPK‐related proteins, including one of 45 kDa, in epidermal peels, mesophyll and guard cells. Inhibition of AMBP kinase activation by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase, and thus MAPK activation, ...
The development of LRP can be induced or repressed in response to environmental conditions and thus provides a mechanism for the plant to cope with changing edaphic conditions (Malamy, 2005). A great number of environmental variables have been shown to influence LRP development. For example, osmotic stress (drought) inhibits the developmental progression of early stage LRP (Deak and Malamy, 2005), and activation of the meristem in emerged LRP is blocked by exogenous abscisic acid, a plant hormone involved in stress responses (De Smet et al., 2003). LRP development is also sensitive to the availability of nutrients, including growth-limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous (reviewed by Jones and Ljung, 2012; Lavenus et al., 2013; Péret et al., 2011). Although some environmental stimuli have a clear involvement in late stage LRP development, nitrogen and phosphorous can also act earlier in LRP development (Lima et al., 2010). It is unclear whether environmental stimuli can only ...
The plant guard cell S (Slow)-type anion channel, SLAC1 (based on activation kinetics of anion channel currents in response to voltage changes); functions in stomatal signalling, controls turgor pressure, and regulates the exchange of water and CO2 (Chen et al. 2010). Also called carbon dioxide insensitive (CDI3) and ozone sensitive (OZS1) (Kollist et al., 2011). Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate guard cell ion channels (Zhang, 2011). Evolutionary studies have been reported (Dreyer et al. 2012). The transmembrane region of guard cell SLAC1 channels detect CO2 signals via an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent pathway (Yamamoto et al. 2016). SLAC1 is activated by the protein kinase OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1), the Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs), the GHR1 (GUARD CELL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-RESISTANT 1) transmembrane receptor-like protein (TC# 1.A.87.2.8), or the PYL5 abscisic acid (ABA) receptor (Q9FLB1) (Wang et al. 2017 ...
3b). , 1996). The CE1 motif, at least in maize, has been shown to be a target of the ERF/AP2-type transcription factor ABI4 (Fig. 3b) (Niu & Bate, 2002). ZmABI4 is probably the ortholog of ABI4 in Arabidopsis, as the former complements the abi4 mutant. , 2002). Important motifs for its proper regulation by ABA and drought are recognized by the MYC helix-loop-helix (CACATG) and MYB (TGGTTAG) classes of transcription factors. , 2003; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki & Shinozaki, 2005). , 1997) have produced a wealth of mutants affected in ABA responses. Recent evidence showed that ABA suppresses the hydrolytic activity of the Hϩ-ATPase, most likely by decreasing the phosphorylation of this proton pump, which in turn would have lower affinity for the binding of 14-3-3 proteins (Zhang, X. , 2004). There is no firm idea concerning the types of kinases and protein phosphatases that ensure the correct balance of the Hϩ-ATPase activity. , 2004), which are expressed in guard cells, might also be interesting to ...
The plant immune system consists of multiple layers of responses targeting various phases of pathogen infection. Here, we provide evidence showing that two responses, one controlling stomatal closure and the other mediated by intracellular receptor proteins, can be regulated by the same proteins but in an antagonistic manner. The HEAT SHOCK COGNATE70 (HSC70), while previously known as a negative regulator of stomatal closure, is a positive regulator of immune responses mediated by the immune receptor protein SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) as well as basal defense responses. In contrast to HSC70, a calcium-binding protein, BONZAI1 (BON1), promotes abscisic acid- and pathogen-triggered stomatal closure in addition to and independent of its previously known negative role in SNC1 regulation. BON1 likely regulates stomatal closure through activating SUPPESSOR OF THE G2 ALLELE OF SKP1 VARIANT B and inhibiting HSC70. New functions of BON1 and HSC70 identified in this study thus reveal ...
... 2 family (SnRK2) are crucial in mediating different stress-adaptive responses. threonine due to systematic adjustments in the flanking amino acidity sequence. Our outcomes designate the ABA-responsive-element Binding Element 3 (ABF3), which settings area of the ABA-regulated transcriptome, as an authentic OST1 substrate. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation experiments indicate that ABF3 interacts with OST1 in the nuclei of living plant cells directly. which phospho-T451 is very important to stabilization of ABF3. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our results claim that OST1 phosphorylates ABF3 on T451 to make a 14-3-3 binding theme. Inside a wider physiological framework, we suggest that the future reactions to 507475-17-4 manufacture ABA that want sustained gene manifestation is, partly, mediated from the stabilization of ABFs powered by ABA-activated SnRK2s. Intro The vegetable hormone abscisic ...
A computational model captures the regulation of more than 40 identified network components involved in stomatal opening and generates novel hypotheses about their regulation.
Scientists have identified a synthetic chemical that has the potential to be used in a spray to protect crops that are facing drought conditions. The chemical is pyrabactin and it mimics abscisic acid (ABA), which is a plant stress hormone that helps crops survive stressful conditions such as drought. For years, scientists have contemplated spraying ABA directly onto crops to enhance their protection in times of stress. But ABA is a costly, complicated, and light-sensitive molecule that has not found use in agriculture. "We screened thousands of chemicals for one that mimics ABA," said the senior author of the study. "We found pyrabactin activates some of the ABA receptors in plants and is an excellent mimic of ABA. Moreover, unlike ABA, it is stable and easy to make. It therefore suggests a highly effective chemical strategy for improving plants ability to survive under low-water conditions, potentially benefiting farmers in drought-prone areas worldwide." The researchers also used the ...
Crosstalk, crosstalk- its a word that keeps coming up. Indeed, and perhaps not surprisingly, plant hormone signaling pathways all seem to affect each other to…
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... Laboratory of Plant Cell and Molecular Biology - INRA - FRANCE (http://www.inra.fr/Versailles/BIOCEL/) A postdoctoral position is available immediately to study abscisic acid biosynthesis and action. The research project is to characterize T-DNA and EMS mutants of Arabidopsis and isolate genes of the ABA biosynthesis pathway. Candidates should have a PhD degree and experience in plant genetics and molecular biology. Foreign citizenship (not french) is required. Send a curriculum vitae and statement of research experience to: Annie Marion-Poll Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire INRA 78026 Versailles cedex France Tel: 33 1 30 83 30 68 Fax: 33 1 30 83 30 99 E-mail: poll at versailles.inra.fr ...
In plant cells, the vacuole serves as an intracellular calcium store and buffer. Peiter et al. have identified the TPC1 gene as encoding the cation channel responsible for Ca2+-dependent Ca2+ release in response to micromolar concentrations of intracellular calcium. TPC stands for two-pore channel, and TPC1 has two fused Shaker-like segments, each with six transmembrane domains and two EF hands, which are domains associated with calcium binding. Expression of a TPC1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that TPC1 is localized to the vacuolar membrane. Electrophysiology experiments with vacuolar membrane patches showed that membranes from wild-type Arabidopsis or cells engineered to overexpress TPC1, but not those from a mutant plant that does not express TPC1, had a cationic current with a steep calcium dependence. The functional importance of TPC1 was demonstrated by the lack of responsiveness of seeds lacking the protein to the hormone abscisic acid ...
May play a role in signal transduction pathways that involve calcium as a second messenger. Functions as regulator of the calcium-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. Phosphorylates ABA-responsive transcription factors ABF1 and ABF4 in vitro.
Probably acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity).
Dc3 is a carrot lea-class gene belonging to a small gene family that encodes Dc3 and Dc3-like RNA sequences. We have examined the responsiveness to water deficit and abscisic acid (ABA) of the promoter/enhancer complex of Dc3 fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in vegetative cells of transgenic tobacco. In 56-d tobacco, GUS expression in leaves increased about 200-fold during a 3-d d ...
Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Kermode AR (December 2005). "Role of Abscisic Acid in Seed Dormancy". J Plant Growth Regul. 24 (4): 319-344. doi:10.1007/s00344 ... Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth regulators. It was discovered and researched under ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in out of ...
Finkelstein, Ruth (2013-11-01). "Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response". The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant ... al Acids and acid esters Torularhodin 3',4'-Didehydro-β,γ-caroten-16'-oic acid Torularhodin methyl ester Methyl 3',4'-didehydro ... carotenedioic acid Crocetinsemialdehyde 8'-Oxo-8,8'-diapo-8-carotenoic acid Crocin Digentiobiosyl 8,8'-diapo-8,8'- ... Plants are known to use two different pathways for IPP production: the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway (MVA) and the plastidic ...
Examples include the vitamin A retinoids retinal, retinoic acid, and retinol; and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Marasco, ...
As higher eukaryotes, such as humans, also rely on an abscisic acid pathway to create inflammation in normal physiological ... Fluridone's main action to disrupt photosynthesis in plants is by preventing the secretion of abscisic acid. ... Influence of abscisic acid and fluridone on the content of phytohormones and polyamines and the level of oxidative stress in ... "Abscisic acid transport in human erythrocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (21): 13042-13052. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Both, abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones have a common group of enzymes that carried out the synthesis of the two compounds ... Plant hormone DWARF27 Auxin Abscisic acid Arbuscular mycorrhiza Umehara, Mikihisa; Cao, Mengmeng; Akiyama, Kohki; Akatsu, ... "Does abscisic acid affect strigolactone biosynthesis?". New Phytologist. 187 (2): 343-354. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03291.x ...
Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in out of ... Tsai F-Y.; Lin C.C.; Kao C.H. (January 1997). "A comparative study of the effects of abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate on ... The five major classes are: Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth regulators. It was ...
The natural ligand of LANCL2, abscisic acid (ABA), has been identified as a new endogenous mammalian hormone implicated in ... "Microgram amounts of abscisic acid in fruit extracts improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulinemia in rats and in humans". ... "Binding of abscisic acid to human LANCL2". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 415 (2): 390-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... "The plant hormone abscisic acid increases in human plasma after hyperglycemia and stimulates glucose consumption by adipocytes ...
Tan, B.C.; Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.; McCarty, D.R. (1997). "Genetic control of abscisic acid biosynthesis in maize". Proc ... Qin, X.; Zeevaart, J.A. (1999). "The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid ... a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis". Plant J. 30: 611-611. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01347.x. 9-cis- ... a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis". Plant J. 27 (4): 325-333. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01096.x. ...
These include auxin, abscisic acid, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene. Once bound, hormones can induce, inhibit, or maintain ...
They induce changes in gene expression; the production of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene; temporary decreases in ... transients for induction of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and PINII gene expression. Plant Cell Physiol 45:456-459. Hlava´cˇkova´ ...
abscisic acid A plant hormone with the formula C15H20O4. abscission The shedding of flowers, leaves and/or fruit following ... nucleic acid . nucleic acid sequence . nucleobase . nucleoid . nucleolus . nucleotide . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... acid precipitation Rain or any other form of precipitation containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas ... kinase . Krebs cycle Also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a series of chemical ...
Plant hormones include abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Many hormones and their structural and ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include ... Eicosanoids - hormones derive from lipids such as arachidonic acid, lipoxins and prostaglandins. These hormones are produced by ...
... the P.sativum abscisic acid-responsive proteins ABR17 and ABR18; and the stress-induced protein SAM22 from Glycine max (Soybean ...
In 2009 Cutler showed how abscisic acid, a naturally-produced plant stress hormone, helps plants survive by inhibiting their ... Cutler also discovered pyrabactin, a synthetic chemical that mimics abscisic acid. His research was named by Science magazine ...
Abscisic acid has been reported to induce somatic embryogenesis in seedlings. After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin ... Gradual removal of auxin and cytokinin and introduction of abscisic acid (ABA) will allow an embryo to form. Using somatic ... as various polysaccharides, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins, low molecular weight compounds and polypeptides. Several ... Many culture systems induce and maintain somatic embryogenesis by continuous exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. ...
This increased A. lancea abscisic acid level and root:shoot ratio. While A. strictum may alleviate the effects of a mild to ...
When the roots begin to sense a water shortage in the soil, abscisic acid (ABA) is released. ABA binds to receptor proteins in ... Ruiz (1993). "Sensitivity of Stomata to Abscisic Acid (An Effect of the Mesophyll)". Plant Physiology. 102 (2): 497-502. doi: ... A group of mostly desert plants called "CAM" plants (Crassulacean acid metabolism, after the family Crassulaceae, which ...
Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Man; Lu, Chun-Hua (22 February 2017). "Abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes and ansamycins from ...
Abscisic acid is also currently too expensive to synthesize to be used as a spray to control drought response artificially on a ... The natural response by the plant using abscisic acid to bind PYR1 in drought conditions is not strong enough and is activated ... PYR1 normally binds to abscisic acid which together then bind and inactivate to PP2C as a drought stress response, which stops ... "Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors". Nature. 520 (7548): 545-548. doi:10.1038/ ...
A plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), is produced in response to drought. A major type of ABA receptor has been identified. ... Pei Z-M, Kuchitsu K, Ward JM, Schwarz M, & Schroeder JI (1997) Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion ... Blatt MR & Armstrong F (1993) K+ channels of stomatal guard cells: Abscisic-acid-evoked control of the outward-rectifier ... Schroeder JI, Kwak JM, & Allen GJ (2001) Guard cell abscisic acid signalling and engineering drought hardiness in plants. ...
Hasegawa S, Poling SM, Maier VP, Bennett RD (1984). "Metabolism of abscisic-acid bacterial conversion to dehydrovomifoliol and ...
... abscisic acid, and gibberelin which maintain dormancy. Additionally, Histone Deacetylase A6 and A19 activity contributes to ... Both of these actions lead to increased abscisic acid (Nonogaki et al. 2014). Methylation by the methyltransferase KRYPTONITE ... Histone methylation can lead to either silencing or activation as determined by the amino acid marked. Meanwhile, histone ...
... is an effect of the plant growth inhibiting hormone, abscisic acid. With Cucurbits, wilting can be caused by the Squash ...
Batge, S. L.; J. J. Ross; J. B. Reid (1999). "Abscisic acid levels in seeds of the gibberellin-deficient mutant lh-2 of pea ( ... ent-kaurenoic acid is converted to ent-7a-hydroxykaurenoic acid by ent-kaurene acid oxidase (KAO) - 7) ent-7a-hydroxykaurenoic ... Gilroy, S.; R. L. Jones (1994). "Perception of Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid at the External Face of the Plasma Membrane of ... I. Evidence that gibberellin/abscisic acid balance governs germination versus maturation pathways". Plant Physiology. 122 (4): ...
... is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid. Seo, M; Koshiba, T (2002). "Complex ...
Tsai F-Y.; Lin C.C.; Kao C.H. (January 1997). "A comparative study of the effects of abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate on ... அப்சிசிக் அமிலம் (Abscisic acid-ABA) பொதுவாக தாவர வளர்ச்சியை நிரோதிக்கும் ஒரு இரசாயனப் பதார்த்தமாகும். இப்பதார்த்தம் தாவர ... அப்சசிக் அசிட் (Abscisic acid - ABA), ஆக்சின்கள், ஜிப்ரலின்கள், சைற்றோகைனின், எதிலீன்கள், புளோரிஜென் போன்றவை குறிப்பிடத்தக்க ...
It is degraded by the enzyme (+)-abscisic acid 8-hydroxylase into phaseic acid. ABA was originally believed to be involved in ... Abscisic acid owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. In preparation for winter, ABA is produced in ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy, and can be ... May 2009). "Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins". Science Signaling. ...
Abscisic Acid Freezing Tolerance Tolerance Induction Cucumber Seedling Chilling Injury These keywords were added by machine and ... Chen HH, Li PH, Brenner ML (1983) Involvement of abscisic acid in potato cold acclimation. Plant Physiol 71: 362-365PubMed ... Wang CY (1991) Effect of abscisic acid on chilling injury of zucchini squash. J. Plant Growth Regulation 10: 101-105CrossRef ... Li P.H., Chen WP., Jian L., Xin Z. (1997) Abscisic Acid-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Maize. In: Li P.H., Chen T.H.H. (eds) ...
Cutler AJ, Squires TM, Loewen MK, Balsevich JJ (1997). "Induction of (+)-abscisic acid 8 hydroxylase by (+)-abscisic acid in ... In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.93) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)- ... Krochko JE, Abrams GD, Loewen MK, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998). "(+)-Abscisic acid 8-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 ...
A ligand-independent origin of abscisic acid perception. Yufei Sun, Ben Harpazi, Akila Wijerathna-Yapa, Ebe Merilo, Jan de ... A ligand-independent origin of abscisic acid perception. Yufei Sun, Ben Harpazi, Akila Wijerathna-Yapa, Ebe Merilo, Jan de ... A ligand-independent origin of abscisic acid perception. Yufei Sun, Ben Harpazi, View ORCID ProfileAkila Wijerathna-Yapa, Ebe ... Synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and proteins required for its downstream signaling are ancient and found in aquatic algae, but ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant growth and development, regulation of seed maturation, germination, and ... cis,trans-Abscisic acid Synonym: (R). -. 5-. (1-. Hydroxy-. 2,6,6-. trimethyl-. 4-. oxocyclohex-. 2-. en-. 1-. yl). -. 3- ... Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant growth and development, regulation of seed maturation, germination, and ...
The RNA-binding protein FCA is an abscisic acid receptor.. Razem FA1, El-Kereamy A, Abrams SR, Hill RD. ... The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various physiological processes in plants. The molecular mechanisms by which ... The RNA-binding protein FCA is an abscisic acid receptor. [Nature. 2008] ... Plant biology: abscisic acid in bloom. [Nature. 2006]. *FCA does not bind abscisic acid. [Nature. 2008] ...
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... and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in wheat seedlings grown in water, a system which in the past has been used to test the ... The endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in wheat seedlings grown in water, a system ... Jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in shoots, coleoptiles, and roots of wheat seedlings. ... Buta JG, Spaulding DW (1991) Effect of paclobutrazol on abscisic acid levels in wheat seedlings. J Plant Growth Regul 10:59-61 ...
Abscisic acid; (2Z,4E)-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid; ABA; Dormin; ... 2-cis,4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98% Synonym: (±)-Abscisic acid, (2Z,4E). -. 5-. (1-. Hydroxy-. 2,6,6-. trimethyl-. 4- ... 4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98%; CAS No.: 14375-45-2; Synonyms: (+/-)- ...
Effects of auxin and abscisic acid on cytosolic calcium and pH in plant cells. C A Gehring, H R Irving, and R W Parish ... Purification and Identification of a 42-Kilodalton Abscisic Acid-Specific-Binding Protein from Epidermis of Broad Bean Leaves ... Effects of auxin and abscisic acid on cytosolic calcium and pH in plant cells ... Convergence of Calcium Signaling Pathways of Pathogenic Elicitors and Abscisic Acid in Arabidopsis Guard Cells ...
Protein phosphatase activity of abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) protein from Arabidopsis thaliana.. Bertauche N1, Leung J, ... Mutations at the ABI1 (abscisic acid insensitive 1) locus of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana cause a reduction in sensitivity to ... and to the possible role of ABI1 in abscisic acid signalling. ... the plant hormone abscisic acid. The sequence of ABI1 predicts ... and this activity displayed Mg2+ or Mn2+ dependence and okadaic acid insensitivity typical of protein phosphatases 2C. ...
The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the ... The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a novel protein mediating abscisic acid and sugar responses ... Abscisic acid signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: Decreased photoperiod sap flow from drying roots limits abscisic ... Tuteja, N. Abscisic acid and abiotic stress signaling. Plant Signal Behav 2007, 2, 135-138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed ...
Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants ...
... abscisic acid include A Seed Coat Bedding Assay to Genetically Explore In Vitro How the Endosperm Controls Seed Germination ... Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and ...
Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which ... The Arabidopsis SUCROSE UNCOUPLED-6 gene is identical to ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE-4: Involvement of abscisic acid in sugar ... Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression. Tiago M. D. Cruz, Raquel F. Carvalho, Dale N. ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone playing a key role as an abiotic stress response modulator. Indeed, ABA is crucial ...
Receptor for abscisic acid (ABA) required for ABA-mediated responses such as stomatal closure and germination inhibition. ... Abscisic acid receptor PYL2Add BLAST. 190. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ... "Structural insights into the mechanism of abscisic acid signaling by PYL proteins.". Yin P., Fan H., Hao Q., Yuan X., Wu D., ... "Structural insights into the mechanism of abscisic acid signaling by PYL proteins.". Yin P., Fan H., Hao Q., Yuan X., Wu D., ...
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Abscisic acid (ABA) is a 15-C weak acid that was discovered more than 50 years ago as a growth-inhibiting phytohormone. ... Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Gibberellins (GAs). Phytohormones play a crucial role throughout plant life cycle, as they control ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a 15-C weak acid that was discovered more than 50 years ago as a growth-inhibiting phytohormone. ... Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Gibberellins (GAs). Phytohormones play a crucial role throughout plant life cycle, as they control ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants. Recently, ABA has been ... The Plant Hormone Abscisic Acid Is a Prosurvival Factor in Human and Murine Megakaryocytes J Biol Chem. 2017 Feb 24;292(8):3239 ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants. Recently, ABA has been ... Keywords: B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family; ERK; PKA; abscisic acid (ABA); calcium; cyclic ADP Ribose (cADPR); megakaryocyte; ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an inhibitory hormone in plants that helps a plant adapt to stress. It also plays a key role in the.... ... Abscisic Acid (ABA) Definition - What does Abscisic Acid (ABA) mean? Abscisic acid (ABA) is an inhibitory hormone in plants ... MaximumYield explains Abscisic Acid (ABA). Abscisic acid works inside of a plant in several ways. It causes the plants stomata ... its production of abscisic acid increases. When a drought occurs, abscisic acid also encourages the plants roots to more ...
Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid ... CYP707A1 and CYP707A2, which encode abscisic acid 8-hydroxylases, are indispensable for proper control of seed dormancy and ... CYP707A1 and CYP707A2, which encode abscisic acid 8-hydroxylases, are indispensable for proper control of seed dormancy and ...
Plant growth regulators are the critical media components in determining the developmental pathway of the plant cells. Products for sale include auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and other major growth regulators commonly used in plant cell culture.
A Retrospective on Abscisic Acid Signaling in the Guard Cell-The Circuitry of Ion Fluxes ... Understanding how plants respond to the hormone abscisic acid provides targets for designing crops resilient to drought. ... Understanding how plants respond to the hormone abscisic acid provides targets for designing crops resilient to drought. ... A Brand New START: Abscisic Acid Perception and Transduction in the Guard Cell ...
BICALHO, Elisa Monteze; SANTOS, Talita R. Silva dos and GARCIA, Queila Souza. Abscisic acid and the antioxidant system are ... quantification of abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase - CAT, ...
  • abstract = "Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally present in mammalian blood and circulating levels can be increased by oral supplementation. (elsevier.com)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant growth and development, regulation of seed maturation, germination, and adaptation to environmental stresses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The pMat 1 and pMat9 clones not only differ in size (51 nucleotides less in the coding region of pMat9 than in the coding region of pMat1), but the corresponding genes also differ in their expression patterns during normal and precocious maturation stages, and also by differential response to exogenous abscisic acid during germination. (illinois.edu)
  • Quantifying the sensitivity of barley seed germination to oxygen, abscisic acid, and gibberellin using a population-based threshold model. (diff.org)
  • FERONIA receptor kinase pathway suppresses abscisic acid sig. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report a cross-talk mechanism that enables a receptor-like kinase, FERONIA (FER), a positive regulator of auxin-promoted growth, to suppress the abscisic acid (ABA) response through activation of ABI2, a negative regulator of ABA signaling. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and proteins required for its downstream signaling are ancient and found in aquatic algae, but these primitive plants do not respond to ABA and lack ABA receptors. (pnas.org)
  • The emerging picture is of gibberellin perception at the plasma membrane whereas abscisic acid acts at both the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm - although gibberellin and abscisic acid receptors have yet to be identified. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent discovery of PYR/PYL/RCAR-type abscisic acid (ABA) receptors has become one of most significant advances in plant science in the past decade. (usda.gov)
  • These tissues were treated with the plant growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin analogue, or abscisic acid (ABA), and the cytosolic pH (pHcyt) and cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) changes were monitored by confocal scanning optical microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • Polyclonal antibodies with high specificity for C1-immobilised (+)-cis,trans-abscisic acid (ABA) were raised, characterised by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used for preparation of an inummoaffinity chromatography (IAQ gel. (cas.cz)
  • Bush DS, Biswas AK, Jones RL (1989) Gibberellic-acid-stimulated Ca 2+ accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum of barley aleurone: Ca 2+ transport and steady-state levels. (springer.com)
  • Creelman RA, Mason HS, Bensen RJ, Boyer JS (1990) Water deficit and abscisic acid cause differential inhibition of shoot versus root growth in soybean seedlings analysis of growth, sugar accumulation, and gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) production and amino acid metabolism modulation, in particular abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent proline accumulation, are stimulated in planta by most abiotic stresses. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 2016). Environmental Nitrate Stimulates Root Tip Abscisic Acid Accumulation via Release from Inactive Stores. (agrisera.com)
  • An abscisic acid-induced protein kinase, PKABA1, mediates abscisic acid-suppressed gene expression in barley aleurone layers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Background ABI5 (abscisic acid insensitive 5) is involved in ABA-regulated gene expression during seed development and subsequent vegetative stage and acts as the major mediator of ABA repression of growth. (agrisera.com)
  • Daie J, Campbell WF (1981) Response of tomato plants to stressful temperature increase in abscisic acid concentration. (springer.com)
  • These results are discussed in relation to the dominant phenotype of abil-l over the wild-type allele in plants, and to the possible role of ABI1 in abscisic acid signalling. (nih.gov)
  • When abscisic acid (ABA) was fed to isolated epidermis of Commelina communis L., stomata showed marked sensitivity to concentrations of ABA lower than those commonly found in the xylem sap of well-watered plants. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • 2 ) showed that ABA appears to negatively modulate the salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway in tomato plants during infection with B. cinerea . (asm.org)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) is deactivated by hydroxylation at C-8' followed by cyclization to phaseic acid in plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • You have already learnt that when Abscisic acid accumulates in guard cells during periods of water shortage, it causes stomates to close thus enabling the plants to recover water balance. (expertsmind.com)
  • In plants, brassinosteroids (BR) counter the suppressive effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on early seedling development. (omnilexica.com)
  • Abscisic acid , found in plants and mammals, can reduce sugar levels in the blood when taken at low doses, showing potential as a diabetes treatment. (omnilexica.com)
  • ABA is widespread in vascular plants, occurring in mosses, ferns, liverworts (where a similar compound, lunaric acid, plays a similar role), and all algal classes, including photosynthetic prokaryotes such as cyanobacteria. (medicinestuffs.com)
  • ABA, or abscisic acid, is a key player in a plants adaptation to the harmful elements. (conserveawater.com)
  • It is degraded by the enzyme (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase into phaseic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments with tetcyclacis, an inhibitor of phaseic acid formation, suggested that rapid metabolism of ABA in mesophyll can have a controlling influence on ABA concentration in both the mesophyll and the epidermis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the content of protein and a-amino nitrogen and on the activities of enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, alkaline inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase), and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) during petal senescence gives an insight into the regulation mechanisms operating in leafy and leafless systems. (brillonline.com)
  • This study describes two maturation (Mat) genes which share some structural similarities with a special group of genes, whose expression can be induced by water stress and also by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. (illinois.edu)
  • Abrams SR, Rose PA, Cutler AJ, Balsevich JJ, Lei B, Walker-Simmons MK (1997) 8[prime]-methylene Abscisic acid (an effective and persistent analog of Abscisic acid). (springer.com)
  • Second, recombinant proteins that contained the ABI1 C-terminal domain displayed in vitro phosphatase activity towards 32P-labelled casein, and this activity displayed Mg2+ or Mn2+ dependence and okadaic acid insensitivity typical of protein phosphatases 2C. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to the use of a therapeutically effective amount of abscisic acid (ABA) or its analogs to treat or prevent inflammation induced by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or respiratory inflammation. (vt.edu)
  • different lipases cleave at different positions on the lipid and release fatty acids that can be oxygenated and converted into other compounds, including JA, by various enzymes. (plantcell.org)
  • Essential oils are distinguished from those known as fixed oils, which are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids. (accessscience.com)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) are two critical endogenous factors that integrate signals from biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against Abscisic acid. (abnova.com)
  • Immunolocalization in poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild) with Abscisic acid polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB0080) at 1: 100 dilution, secondary antibody anti-rabbit IgG-alkaline phosphatase-conjugate (Sigma, USA) at 1: 100 dilution. (abnova.com)
  • Anderberg RJ, Walker-Simmons MK (1992) Isolation of a wheat cDNA clone for an abscisic acid-inducible transcript with homology to protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • A novel cDNA clone osr40c1 , encoding a abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive 40-kDa protein previously associated with salt tolerance (Moons et al. (springer.com)
  • The effects of added abscisic acid (ABA) on the stomatal behavior of Commelina communis L. were tested using three different systems. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Prior to the stress, when comparing V/4xRL to V/2xRL, V/4xRL leaves had lower stomatal conductance and greater abscisic acid (ABA) content. (cirad.fr)
  • Buta JG, Spaulding DW (1991) Effect of paclobutrazol on abscisic acid levels in wheat seedlings. (springer.com)
  • The encoded OSR40c1 protein was found to be hydrophilic, rich in histidine residues (6%) constituting putative metal-binding domains, and to consist of a duplicated domain of 151 amino acids (75% identical), that can form amphiphilic α-helical structures. (springer.com)
  • Phosphinothricin [PPT, 2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid, known as glufossinate] is a nonselective herbicide that is a potent inhibitor of GS (Leason et al. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Sensitivity of Stomata to Abscisic Acid (An Effect of the Mesophyll). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • citation needed] Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) and other situations in which the plant may be under stress. (wikipedia.org)