Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Tradescantia: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.GlucuronidaseTwo-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Isopentenyladenosine: N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Eucommiaceae: A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
(1/1560) Characterization of two new channel protein genes in Arabidopsis.

Aquaporins, small channel proteins, found in a variety of organisms are members of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily and have been shown to facilitate water transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We isolated two Arabidopsis cDNAs, SIMIP and SITIP, that encode protein homologues of the MIP superfamily. SIMIP exhibits a high degree of sequence homology to PIP3 and MIP1, and thus may belong to the plasmamembrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily, whereas salt-stress inducible tonoplast intrinsic protein (SITIP) is highly homologous to VM23 and gamma-TIP, and therefore may belong to the TIP subfamily. Expression studies revealed that the two genes showed a different expression pattern. The SIMIP gene was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, for example, its highest transcript level is found in flowers, relatively low levels in siliques, and very low level in leaves and roots. In contrast, SITIP was expressed in nearly equal amounts in all the tissues we examined. Also, the expression of SIMIP and SITIP showed a temporal regulation pattern. For example, the highest expression level was at 1 week after germination. In addition, the transcript levels of SIMIP and SMTIP were increased upon NaCl and ABA treatments. The biological function of the 2 genes were investigated using two NaCl stress-sensitive yeast mutant strains. The mutant yeast cells expressing these 2 genes were more resistant to high NaCl conditions. The results suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in the osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt condition.  (+info)

(2/1560) An Arabidopsis GSK3/shaggy-like gene that complements yeast salt stress-sensitive mutants is induced by NaCl and abscisic acid.

GSK3/shaggy-like genes encode kinases that are involved in a variety of biological processes. By functional complementation of the yeast calcineurin mutant strain DHT22-1a with a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype, we isolated the Arabidopsis cDNA AtGSK1, which encodes a GSK3/shaggy-like protein kinase. AtGSK1 rescued the yeast calcineurin mutant cells from the effects of high NaCl. Also, the AtGSK1 gene turned on the transcription of the NaCl stress-inducible PMR2A gene in the calcineurin mutant cells under NaCl stress. To further define the role of AtGSK1 in the yeast cells we introduced a deletion mutation at the MCK1 gene, a yeast homolog of GSK3, and examined the phenotype of the mutant. The mck1 mutant exhibited a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype that was rescued by AtGSK1. Also, constitutive expression of MCK1 complemented the NaCl-sensitive phenotype of the calcineurin mutants. Therefore, these results suggest that Mck1p is involved in the NaCl stress signaling in yeast and that AtGSK1 may functionally replace Mck1p in the NaCl stress response in the calcineurin mutant. To investigate the biological function of AtGSK1 in Arabidopsis we examined the expression of AtGSK1. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the expression is differentially regulated in various tissues with a high level expression in flower tissues. In addition, the AtGSK1 expression was induced by NaCl and exogenously applied ABA but not by KCl. Taken together, these results suggest that AtGSK1 is involved in the osmotic stress response in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

(3/1560) A cluster of ABA-regulated genes on Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07.

Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07 encoding the abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (ABI4) locus has been sequenced completely. It contains a 95,713-bp insert and 24 predicted genes. Most putative genes were confirmed by gel-based RNA profiling and a cluster of ABA-regulated genes was identified. One of the 24 genes, designated PP2C5, encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C. The encoded protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme activity in vitro was confirmed.  (+info)

(4/1560) Flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 interacts with a rice cell surface component involved in abscisic acid signalling in protoplasts.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in many developmental and physiological processes, but as yet, no ABA receptor has been identified. Flow cytometry of rice protoplasts and immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes (PMs) have been used to demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 recognizes carbohydrate epitopes of cell surface glycoproteins. Using surface plasmon resonance technology specific binding of PMs to JIM19 was observed. Such interaction was antagonized significantly by ABA, but not by the biologically inactive ABA catabolite phaseic acid. These in vitro interactions were correlated with the biological activities of JIM19, ABA and phaseic acid on activation of the ABA-inducible Em promoter using two different transient reporter gene assays, beta-glucuronidase/luciferase and quantitative flow cytometry of Aequoria green fluorescent protein. Pre-treatment with JIM19 resulted in significant inhibition of ABA-inducible gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that JIM19 interacts with a functional PM complex involved in ABA signalling.  (+info)

(5/1560) Arabidopsis abi1-1 and abi2-1 phosphatase mutations reduce abscisic acid-induced cytoplasmic calcium rises in guard cells.

Elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2)+](cyt)) are an important component of early abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. To determine whether defined mutations in ABA signal transduction affect [Ca(2)+](cyt) signaling, the Ca(2)+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2 was loaded into the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis guard cells. Oscillations in [Ca(2)+](cyt) could be induced when the external calcium concentration was increased, showing viable Ca(2)+ homeostasis in these dye-loaded cells. ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations in wild-type stomata were either transient or sustained, with a mean increase of approximately 300 nM. Interestingly, ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) increases were significantly reduced but not abolished in guard cells of the ABA-insensitive protein phosphatase mutants abi1 and abi2. Plasma membrane slow anion currents were activated in wild-type, abi1, and abi2 guard cell protoplasts by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt), demonstrating that the impairment in ABA activation of anion currents in the abi1 and abi2 mutants was bypassed by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt). Furthermore, increases in external calcium alone (which elevate [Ca(2)+](cyt)) resulted in stomatal closing to the same extent in the abi1 and abi2 mutants as in the wild type. Conversely, stomatal opening assays indicated different interactions of abi1 and abi2, with Ca(2)+-dependent signal transduction pathways controlling stomatal closing versus stomatal opening. Together, [Ca(2)+](cyt) recordings, anion current activation, and stomatal closing assays demonstrate that the abi1 and abi2 mutations impair early ABA signaling events in guard cells upstream or close to ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations. These results further demonstrate that the mutations can be bypassed during anion channel activation and stomatal closing by experimental elevation of [Ca(2)+](cyt).  (+info)

(6/1560) ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C is a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling.

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of seed maturation and germination and mediates adaptive responses to environmental stress. In Arabidopsis, the ABI1 gene encodes a member of the 2C class of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP2C), and the abi1-1 mutation markedly reduces ABA responsiveness in both seeds and vegetative tissues. However, this mutation is dominant and has been the only mutant allele available for the ABI1 gene. Hence, it remained unclear whether ABI1 contributes to ABA signaling, and in case ABI1 does regulate ABA responsiveness, whether it is a positive or negative regulator of ABA action. In this study, we isolated seven novel alleles of the ABI1 gene as intragenic revertants of the abi1-1 mutant. In contrast to the ABA-resistant abi1-1 mutant, these revertants were more sensitive than the wild type to the inhibition of seed germination and seedling root growth by applied ABA. They also displayed increases in seed dormancy and drought adaptive responses that are indicative of a higher responsiveness to endogenous ABA. The revertant alleles were recessive to the wild-type ABI1 allele in enhancing ABA sensitivity, indicating that this ABA-supersensitive phenotype results from a loss of function in ABI1. The seven suppressor mutations are missense mutations in conserved regions of the PP2C domain of ABI1, and each of the corresponding revertant alleles encodes an ABI1 protein that lacked any detectable PP2C activity in an in vitro enzymatic assay. These results indicate that a loss of ABI1 PP2C activity leads to an enhanced responsiveness to ABA. Thus, the wild-type ABI1 phosphatase is a negative regulator of ABA responses.  (+info)

(7/1560) Sugar/osmoticum levels modulate differential abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase genes in Arabidopsis.

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism. Two Sus-encoding genes (Sus1 and Sus2) from Arabidopsis thaliana were found to be profoundly and differentially regulated in leaves exposed to environmental stresses (cold stress, drought or O(2) deficiency). Transcript levels of Sus1 increased on exposure to cold and drought, whereas Sus2 mRNA was induced specifically by O(2) deficiency. Both cold and drought exposures induced the accumulation of soluble sugars and caused a decrease in leaf osmotic potential, whereas O(2) deficiency was characterized by a nearly complete depletion in sugars. Feeding abscisic acid (ABA) to detached leaves or subjecting Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants to cold stress conditions had no effect on the expression profiles of Sus1 or Sus2, whereas feeding metabolizable sugars (sucrose or glucose) or non-metabolizable osmotica [poly(ethylene glycol), sorbitol or mannitol] mimicked the effects of osmotic stress on Sus1 expression in detached leaves. By using various sucrose/mannitol solutions, we demonstrated that Sus1 was up-regulated by a decrease in leaf osmotic potential rather than an increase in sucrose concentration itself. We suggest that Sus1 expression is regulated via an ABA-independent signal transduction pathway that is related to the perception of a decrease in leaf osmotic potential during stresses. In contrast, the expression of Sus2 was independent of sugar/osmoticum effects, suggesting the involvement of a signal transduction mechanism distinct from that regulating Sus1 expression. The differential stress-responsive regulation of Sus genes in leaves might represent part of a general cellular response to the allocation of carbohydrates during acclimation processes.  (+info)

(8/1560) A bZIP factor, TRAB1, interacts with VP1 and mediates abscisic acid-induced transcription.

The transcription factor VP1 regulates maturation and dormancy in plant seeds by activating genes responsive to the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Although activation involves ABA-responsive elements (ABREs), VP1 itself does not specifically bind ABREs. Instead, we have identified and cloned a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) factor, TRAB1, that interacts with both VP1 and ABREs. Transcription from a chimeric promoter with GAL4-binding sites was ABA-inducible if cells expressed a GAL4 DNA-binding domain::TRAB1 fusion protein. Results indicate that TRAB1 is a true trans-acting factor involved in ABA-regulated transcription and reveal a molecular mechanism for the VP1-dependent, ABA-inducible transcription that controls maturation and dormancy in plant embryos.  (+info)

*  Phaseic acid
... is a terpenoid catabolite of abscisic acid. Like abscisic acid, it is a plant hormone associated with ... The biosynthesis of phaseic acid Xanthoxin is converted enzymatically to abscisic acid Abscisic acid is oxidized to form ... abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the catabolism of abscisic acid". Plant Physiol. 134(4):1439-49. Kushiro T. (2004 ... producing abscisic acid. The 8' hydroxylation of abscisate, abscisic acid's conjugate base, produces 8'-hydroxyabscisate. 8'- ...
*  Abscisic acid
It is degraded by the enzyme (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase into phaseic acid. ABA was originally believed to be involved in ... Abscisic acid owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. In preparation for winter, ABA is produced in ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy, and can be ... May 2009). "Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins". Science Signaling. ...
*  abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase
Cutler AJ, Squires TM, Loewen MK, Balsevich JJ (1997). "Induction of (+)-abscisic acid 8' hydroxylase by (+)-abscisic acid in ... In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.93) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)- ... Krochko JE, Abrams GD, Loewen MK, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998). "(+)-Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 ...
*  Carotenoid
Finkelstein, Ruth (2013-11-01). "Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response". The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant ... al Acids and acid esters Torularhodin 3',4'-Didehydro-β,γ-caroten-16'-oic acid Torularhodin methyl ester Methyl 3',4'-didehydro ... carotenedioic acid Crocetinsemialdehyde 8'-Oxo-8,8'-diapo-8-carotenoic acid Crocin Digentiobiosyl 8,8'-diapo-8,8'- ... Plants are known to use two different pathways for IPP production: the cytosolic mevalonic acid pathway (MVA) and the plastidic ...
*  Apocarotenoid
Examples include the vitamin A retinoids retinal, retinoic acid, and retinol; and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Marasco, ...
*  Fluridone
As higher eukaryotes, such as humans, also rely on an abscisic acid pathway to create inflammation in normal physiological ... Fluridone's main action to disrupt photosynthesis in plants is by preventing the secretion of abscisic acid. ... Influence of abscisic acid and fluridone on the content of phytohormones and polyamines and the level of oxidative stress in ... "Abscisic acid transport in human erythrocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (21): 13042-13052. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
*  Strigolactone
Both, abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones have a common group of enzymes that carried out the synthesis of the two compounds ... Plant hormone DWARF27 Auxin Abscisic acid Arbuscular mycorrhiza Umehara, Mikihisa; Cao, Mengmeng; Akiyama, Kohki; Akatsu, ... "Does abscisic acid affect strigolactone biosynthesis?". New Phytologist. 187 (2): 343-354. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03291.x ...
*  Plant hormone
Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in out of ... Tsai F-Y.; Lin C.C.; Kao C.H. (January 1997). "A comparative study of the effects of abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate on ... The five major classes are: Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth regulators. It was ...
*  LANCL2
The natural ligand of LANCL2, abscisic acid (ABA), has been identified as a new endogenous mammalian hormone implicated in ... "Microgram amounts of abscisic acid in fruit extracts improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulinemia in rats and in humans". ... "Binding of abscisic acid to human LANCL2". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 415 (2): 390-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... "The plant hormone abscisic acid increases in human plasma after hyperglycemia and stimulates glucose consumption by adipocytes ...
*  9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase
Tan, B.C.; Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.; McCarty, D.R. (1997). "Genetic control of abscisic acid biosynthesis in maize". Proc ... Qin, X.; Zeevaart, J.A. (1999). "The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid ... a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis". Plant J. 30: 611-611. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01347.x. 9-cis- ... a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis". Plant J. 27 (4): 325-333. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.01096.x. ...
*  Chemoreceptor
These include auxin, abscisic acid, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene. Once bound, hormones can induce, inhibit, or maintain ...
*  Variation potential
They induce changes in gene expression; the production of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene; temporary decreases in ... transients for induction of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and PINII gene expression. Plant Cell Physiol 45:456-459. Hlava´cˇkova´ ...
*  Glossary of biology
abscisic acid A plant hormone with the formula C15H20O4. abscission The shedding of flowers, leaves and/or fruit following ... nucleic acid . nucleic acid sequence . nucleobase . nucleoid . nucleolus . nucleotide . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... acid precipitation Rain or any other form of precipitation containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas ... kinase . Krebs cycle Also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a series of chemical ...
*  Hormone
Plant hormones include abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Many hormones and their structural and ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include ... Eicosanoids - hormones derive from lipids such as arachidonic acid, lipoxins and prostaglandins. These hormones are produced by ...
*  Bet v I allergen
... the P.sativum abscisic acid-responsive proteins ABR17 and ABR18; and the stress-induced protein SAM22 from Glycine max (Soybean ...
*  Sean Cutler
In 2009 Cutler showed how abscisic acid, a naturally-produced plant stress hormone, helps plants survive by inhibiting their ... Cutler also discovered pyrabactin, a synthetic chemical that mimics abscisic acid. His research was named by Science magazine ...
*  Somatic embryogenesis
Abscisic acid has been reported to induce somatic embryogenesis in seedlings. After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin ... Gradual removal of auxin and cytokinin and introduction of abscisic acid (ABA) will allow an embryo to form. Using somatic ... as various polysaccharides, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins, low molecular weight compounds and polypeptides. Several ... Many culture systems induce and maintain somatic embryogenesis by continuous exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. ...
*  Acremonium strictum
This increased A. lancea abscisic acid level and root:shoot ratio. While A. strictum may alleviate the effects of a mild to ...
*  Stoma
When the roots begin to sense a water shortage in the soil, abscisic acid (ABA) is released. ABA binds to receptor proteins in ... Ruiz (1993). "Sensitivity of Stomata to Abscisic Acid (An Effect of the Mesophyll)". Plant Physiology. 102 (2): 497-502. doi: ... A group of mostly desert plants called "CAM" plants (Crassulacean acid metabolism, after the family Crassulaceae, which ...
*  Amycolatopsis alba
Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Man; Lu, Chun-Hua (22 February 2017). "Abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes and ansamycins from ...
*  Orthogonal ligand-protein pair
Abscisic acid is also currently too expensive to synthesize to be used as a spray to control drought response artificially on a ... The natural response by the plant using abscisic acid to bind PYR1 in drought conditions is not strong enough and is activated ... PYR1 normally binds to abscisic acid which together then bind and inactivate to PP2C as a drought stress response, which stops ... "Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors". Nature. 520 (7548): 545-548. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  Guard cell
A plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), is produced in response to drought. A major type of ABA receptor has been identified. ... Pei Z-M, Kuchitsu K, Ward JM, Schwarz M, & Schroeder JI (1997) Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion ... Blatt MR & Armstrong F (1993) K+ channels of stomatal guard cells: Abscisic-acid-evoked control of the outward-rectifier ... Schroeder JI, Kwak JM, & Allen GJ (2001) Guard cell abscisic acid signalling and engineering drought hardiness in plants. ...
*  Vomifoliol dehydrogenase
Hasegawa S, Poling SM, Maier VP, Bennett RD (1984). "Metabolism of abscisic-acid bacterial conversion to dehydrovomifoliol and ...
*  Epigenetics of plant growth and development
... abscisic acid, and gibberelin which maintain dormancy. Additionally, Histone Deacetylase A6 and A19 activity contributes to ... Both of these actions lead to increased abscisic acid (Nonogaki et al. 2014). Methylation by the methyltransferase KRYPTONITE ... Histone methylation can lead to either silencing or activation as determined by the amino acid marked. Meanwhile, histone ...
*  Wilting
... is an effect of the plant growth inhibiting hormone, abscisic acid. With Cucurbits, wilting can be caused by the Squash ...
*  Callose
It is produced in response to wounding, infection by pathogens, aluminium and abscisic acid. Deposits often appear on the sieve ...
Sensitivity of response to abscisic acid affects the power of self-thinning in Arabidopsis thaliana  Sensitivity of response to abscisic acid affects the power of self-thinning in Arabidopsis thaliana
Induction of dormancy during seed development by endogenous abscisic acid: Studies on abscisic acid deficient genotypes of ... Abscisic acid; Arabidopsis thaliana; Photosynthesis; Resource utilization; Self-thinning.. Abbreviation: ABA, abscisic acid; ... The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic ... Here, the effect of sensitivity to abscisic acid on the power of self-thinning was studied with two Arabidopsis mutants (abi1-1 ...
more infohttp://ejournal.sinica.edu.tw/bbas/content/2005/4/Bot464-09.html
Roles of abscisic acid, Roles of Abscisic Acid      Abscisic acid (ABA) is a particularly, Biology  Roles of abscisic acid, Roles of Abscisic Acid Abscisic acid (ABA) is a particularly, Biology
Roles of Abscisic Acid Abscisic acid (ABA) is a particularly interesting hormone with regard to the regulation of its own ... Roles of abscisic acid, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Roles of abscisic acid, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Roles of abscisic ... Roles of Abscisic Acid. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a particularly interesting hormone with regard to the regulation of its own ... acid Discussions Write discussion on Roles of abscisic acid. Your posts are moderated ...
more infohttp://www.expertsmind.com/questions/roles-of-abscisic-acid-30128390.aspx
CPIB  » Selective Inhibition of Clade A Phosphatases Type 2C by PYR/PYL/RCAR Abscisic Acid Receptors  CPIB » Selective Inhibition of Clade A Phosphatases Type 2C by PYR/PYL/RCAR Abscisic Acid Receptors
Selective Inhibition of Clade A Phosphatases Type 2C by PYR/PYL/RCAR Abscisic Acid Receptors. Clade A protein phosphatases type ... are negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling that are inhibited in an ABA-dependent manner by PYRABACTIN ...
more infohttps://www.cpib.ac.uk/publications/papers/selective-inhibition-of-clade-a-phosphatases-type-2c-by-pyrpylrcar-abscisic-acid-receptors/
Anti-ABA | abscisic acid (C1)  (for immunolocalization) antibodies  Anti-ABA | abscisic acid (C1) (for immunolocalization) antibodies
... antibodies to abscisic acid, abscisic acid antibody, ABA antibody, plant hormone antibodies, AS09 446Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ... AS09 422 , anti-ABA , abscisic acid (C1) (quantity 1mg). AS09 447 , anti-ABA , abscisic acid (C1) (quantity 5mg). collection of ... Home / Plant/Algal antibodies / Hormones / Abscisic acid / Anti-ABA , abscisic acid (C1) (for immunolocalization) antibodies ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in different physiological responses as stimulation of the closure of stomata ( ...
more infohttp://www.agrisera.com/en/artiklar/aba-abscisic-acid-c1-for-immunolocalization.html
Classification of Micronutrients, Multi-micro nutrients, Plant Growth Regulators and Fertilizers Classification of...  Classification of Micronutrients, Multi-micro nutrients, Plant Growth Regulators and Fertilizers Classification of...
gibberellins, abscisic acid. ethylene) and growth regulatory substances with similar biological effects. ... Zinc is involved in the synthesis of indole acetic acid, metabolism of gibberellic acid and synthesis of RNA . ... and abscisic acid, ethylene (both inhibitors). PGRs in the list are not exhaustive and more growth substances are being ... Regular boric acid sprays help in mitigating harmful effects of drought.. *Boron plays a role in pollen germination and pollen ...
more infohttp://www.cainindia.org/news/4_2016/classification_of_micronutrients_multimicro_nutrients_plant_growth_regulators_and_fertilizers.html
A forward genetic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies a RING-type ubiquitin ligase as a novel determinant of seed...  A forward genetic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies a RING-type ubiquitin ligase as a novel determinant of seed...
FUS3 and the abscisic acid-activated ABI3. In order to identify novel determinants of seed longevity we have screened an ...
more infohttps://riunet.upv.es/handle/10251/68687
Abscisic Acid-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Maize | SpringerLink  Abscisic Acid-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Maize | SpringerLink
Abscisic Acid Freezing Tolerance Tolerance Induction Cucumber Seedling Chilling Injury These keywords were added by machine and ... Chen HH, Li PH, Brenner ML (1983) Involvement of abscisic acid in potato cold acclimation. Plant Physiol 71: 362-365PubMed ... Wang CY (1991) Effect of abscisic acid on chilling injury of zucchini squash. J. Plant Growth Regulation 10: 101-105CrossRef ... Li P.H., Chen WP., Jian L., Xin Z. (1997) Abscisic Acid-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Maize. In: Li P.H., Chen T.H.H. (eds) ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-0277-1_19
Regulating abscisic acid | Science  Regulating abscisic acid | Science
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more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/278/5346/2027.10
abscisic acid Protocols and Video...  'abscisic acid' Protocols and Video...
... abscisic acid' include 'A Seed Coat Bedding Assay to Genetically Explore In Vitro How the Endosperm Controls Seed Germination ... Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/abscisic+acid
Abscisic acid - Wikipedia  Abscisic acid - Wikipedia
It is degraded by the enzyme (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase into phaseic acid. ABA was originally believed to be involved in ... Abscisic acid owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. In preparation for winter, ABA is produced in ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy, and can be ... May 2009). "Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins". Science Signaling. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abscisic_acid
Abscisic Acid (ABA)  Abscisic Acid (ABA)
... Unlike animals, plants cannot flee from potentially harmful conditions like *drought *freezing *exposure ... The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is the major player in mediating the adaptation of the plant to stress. ... this action that gave rise to the name abscisic acid. The dropping of leaves in the autumn is a vital response to the onset of ... ABA inhibits stem elongation probably by its inhibitory effect on gibberellic acid. ...
more infohttp://www.biology-pages.info/A/ABA.html
What is Abscisic Acid? - Definition from MaximumYield  What is Abscisic Acid? - Definition from MaximumYield
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an inhibitory hormone in plants that helps a plant adapt to stress. It also plays a key role in the.... ... Abscisic Acid (ABA) Definition - What does Abscisic Acid (ABA) mean? Abscisic acid (ABA) is an inhibitory hormone in plants ... MaximumYield explains Abscisic Acid (ABA). Abscisic acid works inside of a plant in several ways. It causes the plant's stomata ... its production of abscisic acid increases. When a drought occurs, abscisic acid also encourages the plant's roots to more ...
more infohttps://www.maximumyield.com/definition/836/abscisic-acid-aba
2-cis,4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98% | Sigma-Aldrich  2-cis,4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98% | Sigma-Aldrich
Abscisic acid; (2Z,4E)-5-(1-Hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid; ABA; Dormin; ... 2-cis,4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98% Synonym: (±)-Abscisic acid, (2Z,4E). -. 5-. (1-. Hydroxy-. 2,6,6-. trimethyl-. 4- ... 4-trans-Abscisic acid synthetic, 98%; CAS No.: 14375-45-2; Synonyms: (+/-)- ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/862169?lang=en®ion=US
Genetic Analysis of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction | Plant Physiology  Genetic Analysis of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction | Plant Physiology
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more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/114/3/751
abscisic acid 8-hydroxylase - Wikipedia  abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase - Wikipedia
Cutler AJ, Squires TM, Loewen MK, Balsevich JJ (1997). "Induction of (+)-abscisic acid 8' hydroxylase by (+)-abscisic acid in ... In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.93) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)- ... Krochko JE, Abrams GD, Loewen MK, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998). "(+)-Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(+)-abscisic_acid_8'-hydroxylase
Abscisic Acid (ABA) - Caisson Laboratories, Inc.  Abscisic Acid (ABA) - Caisson Laboratories, Inc.
Home / Plant Biology / Plant Growth Regulators / (+)-cis,trans-Abscisic Acid (ABA) / (+/-) Abscisic Acid (ABA) ...
more infohttp://www.caissonlabs.com/product-A036-100MG-
Plants  | Free Full-Text | Abscisic Acid: Hidden Architect of Root System Structure | HTML  Plants | Free Full-Text | Abscisic Acid: Hidden Architect of Root System Structure | HTML
The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the ... The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a novel protein mediating abscisic acid and sugar responses ... Abscisic acid signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: Decreased photoperiod sap flow from drying roots limits abscisic ... Tuteja, N. Abscisic acid and abiotic stress signaling. Plant Signal Behav 2007, 2, 135-138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/4/3/548/htm
Jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in shoots, coleoptiles, and roots of wheat seedlings | SpringerLink  Jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in shoots, coleoptiles, and roots of wheat seedlings | SpringerLink
... and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in wheat seedlings grown in water, a system which in the past has been used to test the ... The endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in wheat seedlings grown in water, a system ... Jasmonic acid and abscisic acid in shoots, coleoptiles, and roots of wheat seedlings. ... Buta JG, Spaulding DW (1991) Effect of paclobutrazol on abscisic acid levels in wheat seedlings. J Plant Growth Regul 10:59-61 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00210947
Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase  Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase
Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133033
  • Clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) are negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling that are inhibited in an ABA-dependent manner by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) intracellular receptors. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • These tissues were treated with the plant growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin analogue, or abscisic acid (ABA), and the cytosolic pH (pHcyt) and cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) changes were monitored by confocal scanning optical microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • Chiwocha SDS, Cutler AJ, Abrams SR, Ambrose SJ, Yang J, Ross ARS, Kermode AR (2005) The etr1-2 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affects the abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin metabolic pathways during maintenance of seed dormancy, moist-chilling and germination. (springer.com)
  • citation needed] Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) and other situations in which the plant may be under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the impetus to study the possibility of using abscisic acid (ABA) concentration of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Immunolocalization in poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild) with Abscisic acid polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB0080) at 1: 100 dilution, secondary antibody anti-rabbit IgG-alkaline phosphatase-conjugate (Sigma, USA) at 1: 100 dilution. (abnova.com)
  • Anderberg RJ, Walker-Simmons MK (1992) Isolation of a wheat cDNA clone for an abscisic acid-inducible transcript with homology to protein kinases. (springer.com)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • Although SA, JA, and ETH are the three hormones that are most closely linked to plant defense, another important component is the stress responsive hormone, abscisic acid (ABA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Abscisic acid is one of the five main types of plant hormones, with the others being cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxins. (maximumyield.com)
  • Bush DS, Biswas AK, Jones RL (1989) Gibberellic-acid-stimulated Ca 2+ accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum of barley aleurone: Ca 2+ transport and steady-state levels. (springer.com)
  • Flores A, Grau A, Laurich F, Dörffling K (1988) Effect of new terpenoid analogues of abscisic acid on chilling and freezing tolerance. (springer.com)