Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Diseases of plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Glucuronidase is an enzyme (specifically, a glycosidase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucuronic acid from various substrates, playing crucial roles in metabolic processes like detoxification and biotransformation within organisms.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are organic compounds consisting of a cyclohexane ring substituted with a carboxylic acid group, typically represented by the structural formula C6H11COOH.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)

Characterization of two new channel protein genes in Arabidopsis. (1/1560)

Aquaporins, small channel proteins, found in a variety of organisms are members of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily and have been shown to facilitate water transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We isolated two Arabidopsis cDNAs, SIMIP and SITIP, that encode protein homologues of the MIP superfamily. SIMIP exhibits a high degree of sequence homology to PIP3 and MIP1, and thus may belong to the plasmamembrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily, whereas salt-stress inducible tonoplast intrinsic protein (SITIP) is highly homologous to VM23 and gamma-TIP, and therefore may belong to the TIP subfamily. Expression studies revealed that the two genes showed a different expression pattern. The SIMIP gene was expressed in a tissue-specific manner, for example, its highest transcript level is found in flowers, relatively low levels in siliques, and very low level in leaves and roots. In contrast, SITIP was expressed in nearly equal amounts in all the tissues we examined. Also, the expression of SIMIP and SITIP showed a temporal regulation pattern. For example, the highest expression level was at 1 week after germination. In addition, the transcript levels of SIMIP and SMTIP were increased upon NaCl and ABA treatments. The biological function of the 2 genes were investigated using two NaCl stress-sensitive yeast mutant strains. The mutant yeast cells expressing these 2 genes were more resistant to high NaCl conditions. The results suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in the osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt condition.  (+info)

An Arabidopsis GSK3/shaggy-like gene that complements yeast salt stress-sensitive mutants is induced by NaCl and abscisic acid. (2/1560)

GSK3/shaggy-like genes encode kinases that are involved in a variety of biological processes. By functional complementation of the yeast calcineurin mutant strain DHT22-1a with a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype, we isolated the Arabidopsis cDNA AtGSK1, which encodes a GSK3/shaggy-like protein kinase. AtGSK1 rescued the yeast calcineurin mutant cells from the effects of high NaCl. Also, the AtGSK1 gene turned on the transcription of the NaCl stress-inducible PMR2A gene in the calcineurin mutant cells under NaCl stress. To further define the role of AtGSK1 in the yeast cells we introduced a deletion mutation at the MCK1 gene, a yeast homolog of GSK3, and examined the phenotype of the mutant. The mck1 mutant exhibited a NaCl stress-sensitive phenotype that was rescued by AtGSK1. Also, constitutive expression of MCK1 complemented the NaCl-sensitive phenotype of the calcineurin mutants. Therefore, these results suggest that Mck1p is involved in the NaCl stress signaling in yeast and that AtGSK1 may functionally replace Mck1p in the NaCl stress response in the calcineurin mutant. To investigate the biological function of AtGSK1 in Arabidopsis we examined the expression of AtGSK1. Northern-blot analysis revealed that the expression is differentially regulated in various tissues with a high level expression in flower tissues. In addition, the AtGSK1 expression was induced by NaCl and exogenously applied ABA but not by KCl. Taken together, these results suggest that AtGSK1 is involved in the osmotic stress response in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

A cluster of ABA-regulated genes on Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07. (3/1560)

Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T07M07 encoding the abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (ABI4) locus has been sequenced completely. It contains a 95,713-bp insert and 24 predicted genes. Most putative genes were confirmed by gel-based RNA profiling and a cluster of ABA-regulated genes was identified. One of the 24 genes, designated PP2C5, encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C. The encoded protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme activity in vitro was confirmed.  (+info)

Flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 interacts with a rice cell surface component involved in abscisic acid signalling in protoplasts. (4/1560)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in many developmental and physiological processes, but as yet, no ABA receptor has been identified. Flow cytometry of rice protoplasts and immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes (PMs) have been used to demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody JIM19 recognizes carbohydrate epitopes of cell surface glycoproteins. Using surface plasmon resonance technology specific binding of PMs to JIM19 was observed. Such interaction was antagonized significantly by ABA, but not by the biologically inactive ABA catabolite phaseic acid. These in vitro interactions were correlated with the biological activities of JIM19, ABA and phaseic acid on activation of the ABA-inducible Em promoter using two different transient reporter gene assays, beta-glucuronidase/luciferase and quantitative flow cytometry of Aequoria green fluorescent protein. Pre-treatment with JIM19 resulted in significant inhibition of ABA-inducible gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that JIM19 interacts with a functional PM complex involved in ABA signalling.  (+info)

Arabidopsis abi1-1 and abi2-1 phosphatase mutations reduce abscisic acid-induced cytoplasmic calcium rises in guard cells. (5/1560)

Elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2)+](cyt)) are an important component of early abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. To determine whether defined mutations in ABA signal transduction affect [Ca(2)+](cyt) signaling, the Ca(2)+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2 was loaded into the cytoplasm of Arabidopsis guard cells. Oscillations in [Ca(2)+](cyt) could be induced when the external calcium concentration was increased, showing viable Ca(2)+ homeostasis in these dye-loaded cells. ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations in wild-type stomata were either transient or sustained, with a mean increase of approximately 300 nM. Interestingly, ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) increases were significantly reduced but not abolished in guard cells of the ABA-insensitive protein phosphatase mutants abi1 and abi2. Plasma membrane slow anion currents were activated in wild-type, abi1, and abi2 guard cell protoplasts by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt), demonstrating that the impairment in ABA activation of anion currents in the abi1 and abi2 mutants was bypassed by increasing [Ca(2)+](cyt). Furthermore, increases in external calcium alone (which elevate [Ca(2)+](cyt)) resulted in stomatal closing to the same extent in the abi1 and abi2 mutants as in the wild type. Conversely, stomatal opening assays indicated different interactions of abi1 and abi2, with Ca(2)+-dependent signal transduction pathways controlling stomatal closing versus stomatal opening. Together, [Ca(2)+](cyt) recordings, anion current activation, and stomatal closing assays demonstrate that the abi1 and abi2 mutations impair early ABA signaling events in guard cells upstream or close to ABA-induced [Ca(2)+](cyt) elevations. These results further demonstrate that the mutations can be bypassed during anion channel activation and stomatal closing by experimental elevation of [Ca(2)+](cyt).  (+info)

ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C is a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling. (6/1560)

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of seed maturation and germination and mediates adaptive responses to environmental stress. In Arabidopsis, the ABI1 gene encodes a member of the 2C class of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP2C), and the abi1-1 mutation markedly reduces ABA responsiveness in both seeds and vegetative tissues. However, this mutation is dominant and has been the only mutant allele available for the ABI1 gene. Hence, it remained unclear whether ABI1 contributes to ABA signaling, and in case ABI1 does regulate ABA responsiveness, whether it is a positive or negative regulator of ABA action. In this study, we isolated seven novel alleles of the ABI1 gene as intragenic revertants of the abi1-1 mutant. In contrast to the ABA-resistant abi1-1 mutant, these revertants were more sensitive than the wild type to the inhibition of seed germination and seedling root growth by applied ABA. They also displayed increases in seed dormancy and drought adaptive responses that are indicative of a higher responsiveness to endogenous ABA. The revertant alleles were recessive to the wild-type ABI1 allele in enhancing ABA sensitivity, indicating that this ABA-supersensitive phenotype results from a loss of function in ABI1. The seven suppressor mutations are missense mutations in conserved regions of the PP2C domain of ABI1, and each of the corresponding revertant alleles encodes an ABI1 protein that lacked any detectable PP2C activity in an in vitro enzymatic assay. These results indicate that a loss of ABI1 PP2C activity leads to an enhanced responsiveness to ABA. Thus, the wild-type ABI1 phosphatase is a negative regulator of ABA responses.  (+info)

Sugar/osmoticum levels modulate differential abscisic acid-independent expression of two stress-responsive sucrose synthase genes in Arabidopsis. (7/1560)

Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism. Two Sus-encoding genes (Sus1 and Sus2) from Arabidopsis thaliana were found to be profoundly and differentially regulated in leaves exposed to environmental stresses (cold stress, drought or O(2) deficiency). Transcript levels of Sus1 increased on exposure to cold and drought, whereas Sus2 mRNA was induced specifically by O(2) deficiency. Both cold and drought exposures induced the accumulation of soluble sugars and caused a decrease in leaf osmotic potential, whereas O(2) deficiency was characterized by a nearly complete depletion in sugars. Feeding abscisic acid (ABA) to detached leaves or subjecting Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants to cold stress conditions had no effect on the expression profiles of Sus1 or Sus2, whereas feeding metabolizable sugars (sucrose or glucose) or non-metabolizable osmotica [poly(ethylene glycol), sorbitol or mannitol] mimicked the effects of osmotic stress on Sus1 expression in detached leaves. By using various sucrose/mannitol solutions, we demonstrated that Sus1 was up-regulated by a decrease in leaf osmotic potential rather than an increase in sucrose concentration itself. We suggest that Sus1 expression is regulated via an ABA-independent signal transduction pathway that is related to the perception of a decrease in leaf osmotic potential during stresses. In contrast, the expression of Sus2 was independent of sugar/osmoticum effects, suggesting the involvement of a signal transduction mechanism distinct from that regulating Sus1 expression. The differential stress-responsive regulation of Sus genes in leaves might represent part of a general cellular response to the allocation of carbohydrates during acclimation processes.  (+info)

A bZIP factor, TRAB1, interacts with VP1 and mediates abscisic acid-induced transcription. (8/1560)

The transcription factor VP1 regulates maturation and dormancy in plant seeds by activating genes responsive to the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Although activation involves ABA-responsive elements (ABREs), VP1 itself does not specifically bind ABREs. Instead, we have identified and cloned a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) factor, TRAB1, that interacts with both VP1 and ABREs. Transcription from a chimeric promoter with GAL4-binding sites was ABA-inducible if cells expressed a GAL4 DNA-binding domain::TRAB1 fusion protein. Results indicate that TRAB1 is a true trans-acting factor involved in ABA-regulated transcription and reveal a molecular mechanism for the VP1-dependent, ABA-inducible transcription that controls maturation and dormancy in plant embryos.  (+info)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including seed dormancy, bud dormancy, leaf senescence, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold temperatures. It is a sesquiterpene compound that is synthesized in plants primarily in response to environmental stimuli that trigger the onset of stress responses.

ABA functions by regulating gene expression, cell growth and development, and stomatal closure, which helps prevent water loss from plants under drought conditions. It also plays a role in the regulation of plant metabolism and the activation of defense mechanisms against pathogens and other environmental stressors. Overall, abscisic acid is an essential hormone that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions and optimize their growth and development.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Gibberellins (GAs) are a type of plant hormones that regulate various growth and developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination of seeds, leaf expansion, and flowering. They are a large family of diterpenoid compounds that are synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) in the plastids and then modified through a series of enzymatic reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm.

GAs exert their effects by binding to specific receptors, which activate downstream signaling pathways that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular responses. The biosynthesis and perception of GAs are tightly regulated, and disruptions in these processes can result in various developmental abnormalities and growth disorders in plants.

In addition to their role in plant growth and development, GAs have also been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as stress tolerance, nutrient uptake, and senescence. They have also attracted interest as potential targets for crop improvement, as modulating GA levels and sensitivity can enhance traits such as yield, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Ethylenes" is not a medical term or a medical condition. Ethylene is actually a colorless gas with a sweet and musky odor, which belongs to the class of hydrocarbons called alkenes. It is used widely in industry, including the production of polyethylene, antifreeze, and other chemicals.

However, if you meant something else or need information on a specific medical topic related to ethylene or its derivatives, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I would be happy to help.

Desiccation is a medical term that refers to the process of extreme dryness or the state of being dried up. It is the removal of water or moisture from an object or tissue, which can lead to its dehydration and preservation. In medicine, desiccation may be used as a therapeutic technique for treating certain conditions, such as drying out wet wounds or preventing infection in surgical instruments. However, desiccation can also have harmful effects on living tissues, leading to cell damage or death.

In a broader context, desiccation is also used to describe the process of drying up of an organ, tissue, or body part due to various reasons such as exposure to air, heat, or certain medical conditions that affect moisture regulation in the body. For example, diabetic patients may experience desiccation of their skin due to decreased moisture production and increased evaporation caused by high blood sugar levels. Similarly, people living in dry climates or using central heating systems may experience desiccation of their mucous membranes, leading to dryness of the eyes, nose, and throat.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Cytokinins are a type of plant growth hormone that play a crucial role in cell division, differentiation, and growth. They were first discovered in 1950s and named for their ability to promote cytokinesis, the process of cell division. Cytokinins belong to a class of compounds called adenine derivatives, which are structurally similar to nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Cytokinins are produced in the roots and shoots of plants and are transported throughout the plant via the vascular system. They have been shown to regulate various aspects of plant growth and development, including shoot initiation, leaf expansion, apical dominance, and senescence. Cytokinins also interact with other hormones such as auxins, gibberellins, and abscisic acid to modulate plant responses to environmental stresses.

Cytokinins have been used in horticulture and agriculture to enhance crop yields, improve plant quality, and delay senescence. They are also being studied for their potential role in human health, particularly in the context of cancer research.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

Physiological stress is a response of the body to a demand or threat that disrupts homeostasis and activates the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This results in the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and noradrenaline, which prepare the body for a "fight or flight" response. Increased heart rate, rapid breathing, heightened sensory perception, and increased alertness are some of the physiological changes that occur during this response. Chronic stress can have negative effects on various bodily functions, including the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.

'Plant dormancy' is not a term that has a direct medical definition, as it is related to the field of botany rather than medicine. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

Plant dormancy is a state of suspended growth and development in plants, typically in response to adverse environmental conditions such as cold temperatures, dryness, or short day length. During this period, the plant's metabolic activity slows down, and it becomes less responsive to external stimuli. Dormancy allows the plant to survive periods of environmental stress and conserve energy until more favorable conditions return.

Examples of plant dormancy include the seed coat preventing germination until it is broken down by environmental factors or the buds on deciduous trees not growing during winter months when temperatures are too low for growth. While this term may not have a direct medical application, understanding plant dormancy can be important in areas such as agriculture and horticulture.

Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins characterized by the presence of a basic region and a leucine zipper motif. The basic region, which is rich in basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, is responsible for DNA binding, while the leucine zipper motif mediates protein-protein interactions and dimerization.

BZIP transcription factors play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression regulation, cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. They bind to specific DNA sequences called AP-1 sites, which are often found in the promoter regions of target genes. BZIP transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing for combinatorial control of gene expression.

Examples of bZIP transcription factors include c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF (activating transcription factor), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Dysregulation of bZIP transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hordeum" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for barley in botany. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Epidermis" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a term used in botany to describe the outermost layer of cells in plant tissues. The epidermis serves as a protective barrier for the plant, regulating gas exchange and water loss through stomata, and producing cutin, a waxy substance that helps prevent water loss.

In summary, "Plant Epidermis" is a term related to plant biology and not medicine.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Aldehyde oxidase is an enzyme found in the liver and other organs that helps to metabolize (break down) various substances, including drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins. It does this by catalyzing the oxidation of aldehydes, which are organic compounds containing a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bond to an oxygen atom. Aldehyde oxidase is a member of the molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase family, which also includes xanthine oxidase and sulfite oxidase. These enzymes all contain a molybdenum cofactor that plays a critical role in their catalytic activity.

Aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme in the metabolism of many drugs, as it can convert them into more water-soluble compounds that can be easily excreted from the body. However, variations in the activity of this enzyme between individuals can lead to differences in drug metabolism and response. Some people may have higher or lower levels of aldehyde oxidase activity, which can affect how quickly they metabolize certain drugs and whether they experience adverse effects.

In addition to its role in drug metabolism, aldehyde oxidase has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, elevated levels of aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation have been linked to oxidative stress and inflammation, which can contribute to the progression of these conditions. Aldehyde oxidase may also play a role in the detoxification of environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which have been associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Overall, aldehyde oxidase is an important enzyme that plays a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other substances, as well as in the development of various diseases. Understanding its activity and regulation may help to develop new strategies for treating or preventing these conditions.

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

'Vicia faba' is the scientific name for the fava bean plant, which belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae). It is also known as broad bean or horse bean. The plant is widely cultivated as a vegetable crop, and its seeds, pods, and young leaves are all edible. Fava beans are rich in proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential component of many diets around the world. However, some people may have an adverse reaction to fava beans due to a genetic disorder called favism, which can cause hemolytic anemia.

A protoplast is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions, but rather it is a term commonly used in cell biology and botany. A protoplast refers to a plant or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed, leaving only the plasma membrane and the cytoplasmic contents, including organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, and other cellular structures.

Protoplasts can be created through enzymatic or mechanical means to isolate the intracellular components for various research purposes, such as studying membrane transport, gene transfer, or cell fusion. In some cases, protoplasts may be used in medical research, particularly in areas related to plant pathology and genetic engineering of plants for medical applications.

Salt tolerance, in a medical context, refers to the body's ability to maintain normal physiological functions despite high levels of salt (sodium chloride) in the system. While our kidneys usually regulate sodium levels, certain medical conditions such as some forms of kidney disease or heart failure can impair this process, leading to an accumulation of sodium in the body. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to better handle higher salt intakes, but generally, a high-salt diet is discouraged due to risks of hypertension and other health issues for most people.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters can be natural, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and wildfires, or they can be caused by human activities, such as technological accidents, intentional acts of violence, and complex emergencies.

The medical definition of a disaster focuses on the health impacts and consequences of the event, which can include injury, illness, disability, and death, as well as psychological distress and social disruption. The response to a disaster typically involves a coordinated effort by multiple agencies and organizations, including healthcare providers, emergency responders, public health officials, and government authorities, to address the immediate needs of affected individuals and communities and to restore basic services and infrastructure.

Disasters can have long-term effects on the health and well-being of individuals and populations, including increased vulnerability to future disasters, chronic illness and disability, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts are critical components of disaster management, with the goal of reducing the risks and impacts of disasters and improving the resilience of communities and societies to withstand and recover from them.

Phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes by removing phosphate groups from serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues on proteins. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates protein function, localization, and stability, and dephosphorylation by PPPs is essential for maintaining the balance of this regulation.

The PPP family includes several subfamilies, such as PP1, PP2A, PP2B (also known as calcineurin), PP4, PP5, and PP6. Each subfamily has distinct substrate specificities and regulatory mechanisms. For example, PP1 and PP2A are involved in the regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle progression, while PP2B is involved in immune response and calcium signaling.

Dysregulation of PPPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of PPPs is important for developing therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

Salinity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, salinity refers to the level of salt or sodium content in a substance, usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). In a medical context, salinity might be discussed in relation to things like the body's fluid balance or the composition of certain bodily fluids, such as sweat or tears.

It is worth noting that in some cases, high salinity levels can have negative effects on health. For example, consuming water with very high salt content can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be dangerous. Similarly, exposure to high-salinity environments (such as seawater) can cause skin irritation and other problems in some people. However, these are not direct medical definitions of salinity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

Pyridones are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyridone ring, which is a heterocyclic ring consisting of a six-membered ring with five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom, with one oxygen atom attached to the nitrogen atom by a double bond. Pyridones can be found in various natural sources, including plants and microorganisms, and they also have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks for drug design and synthesis. Some drugs that contain pyridone rings include antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, and antiviral agents.

"Rumex" is a genus of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. However, some species of Rumex are used in traditional medicine or as herbal remedies. For example:

* Rumex acetosa (common sorrel) has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
* Rumex crispus (yellow dock) has been used as a laxative and to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis.
* Rumex hydrolapathum (water dock) has been used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones.

It is important to note that the use of these plants as medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also have side effects and interact with other medications. Additionally, the scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness as treatments for specific conditions is generally limited.

Commelina is a genus of flowering plants in the family Commelinaceae, commonly known as dayflowers or spiderworts. They are native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Some species of Commelina have medicinal uses, although I couldn't find a specific medical definition for 'Commelina'.

For example, in traditional medicine, the leaves and roots of some Commelina species have been used to treat skin conditions, wounds, and inflammation. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants as medicines may not be backed by scientific evidence, and they can also have potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult a healthcare professional before using any plant or herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Kinetin is a type of plant growth hormone, specifically a cytokinin. It plays a crucial role in cell division and differentiation, as well as promoting growth and delaying senescence (aging) in plants. Kinetin has also been studied for its potential use in various medical applications, including wound healing, tissue culture, and skin care products. However, it is primarily known for its role in plant biology.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Xylem is a term used in the field of botany and plant anatomy, but I understand you're asking for a medical definition. In human anatomy, there isn't a direct structure equivalent to xylem. However, I can provide the general definition of xylem from its botanical context:

Xylem is one of the two types of vascular tissues in plants (the other being phloem). It is responsible for transporting water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to various parts of the plant, including stems, leaves, and flowers. Xylem consists of several types of cells, including vessels, tracheids, xylem fibers, and xylem parenchyma. The transportation in xylem occurs due to the cohesion-tension mechanism, where water is pulled up through the plant via transpiration pull.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lettuce" is not a medical term. It is a type of vegetable that belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is commonly used in salads and sandwiches due to its crisp leaves and mild flavor. If you have any questions about lettuce or its nutritional value, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Naphthaleneacetic acids (NAAs) are a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant hormone that promotes growth and development. Specifically, NAAs are derivatives of naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, with a carboxylic acid group attached to one of the carbon atoms in the ring structure.

NAAs are commonly used in horticulture and agriculture as plant growth regulators. They can stimulate rooting in cuttings, promote fruit set and growth, and inhibit vegetative growth. NAAs can also be used in plant tissue culture to regulate cell division and differentiation.

In medical terms, NAAs are not typically used as therapeutic agents. However, they have been studied for their potential use in cancer therapy due to their ability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Some research has suggested that NAAs may be able to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells, although more studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the safety and efficacy of NAAs as a cancer treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tradescantia" is not a medical term. It is a botanical name for a genus of flowering plants commonly known as "spiderworts." These plants are native to the Americas and have become popular ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive flowers and ease of cultivation.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help. Please provide me with the term you're looking for.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydroponics" is not a medical term. It is an agricultural technique and term. Hydroponics refers to the practice of growing plants in nutrient-rich water solutions, without soil. This method allows plants to obtain their necessary nutrients directly from the water, which is enriched with dissolved minerals. Common hydroponic systems include wick systems, deep water culture, nutrient film technique, ebb and flow system, aeroponics, and drip systems.

Cyclic amino acids are a type of modified amino acid where the side chain of the amino acid forms a ring structure. This is different from the typical structure of amino acids, which have a linear side chain. The formation of the ring can occur within the same amino acid molecule or between two amino acid molecules.

Cyclic amino acids play important roles in various biological processes. For example, some cyclic amino acids are involved in the structure and function of proteins, while others serve as signaling molecules or neurotransmitters. Some common examples of cyclic amino acids include proline, hydroxyproline, and sarcosine.

It is worth noting that not all modified amino acids with ring structures are considered cyclic amino acids. For example, some amino acids may have a sulfur atom in their side chain that forms a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, but this is not considered a cyclic structure because the ring is formed between two separate molecules rather than within a single molecule.

Zeatin is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant compound in the field of plant biology and agriculture. It is a type of cytokinin, which is a class of hormones that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Specifically, zeatin is involved in cell division, differentiation, and delaying senescence (aging) in plants.

In a broader biological context, understanding the functions of phytohormones like zeatin can have implications for agricultural practices and crop management, which may indirectly impact human health through improved food production and quality.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

"Triticum" is the genus name for a group of cereal grains that includes common wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and spelt (T. spelta). These grains are important sources of food for humans, providing carbohydrates, proteins, and various nutrients. They are used to make a variety of foods such as bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals. Triticum species are also known as "wheat" in layman's terms.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Vitis" is a genus name and it refers to a group of flowering plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. This genus includes over 70 species of grapes that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in North America and Asia. The most commonly cultivated species is "Vitis vinifera," which is the source of most of the world's table and wine grapes.

Therefore, a medical definition of 'Vitis' may not be directly applicable as it is more commonly used in botany and agriculture rather than medicine. However, some compounds derived from Vitis species have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as resveratrol found in the skin of red grapes, which has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Fragaria" is the genus name for plants in the family Rosaceae, which includes various species of strawberries. These plants are native to temperate regions of the world and are widely cultivated for their edible fruits. The term "Fragaria" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but certain compounds found in strawberries, such as flavonoids and vitamin C, have been studied for potential health benefits.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

'Fagus' is the genus name for beech trees in the family Fagaceae. It includes several species of deciduous trees that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, primarily in North America and Europe. The most common species is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and the American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

While 'Fagus' is a valid term in botany, it does not have a medical definition as it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Glucuronidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucuronic acid from various substrates, including molecules that have been conjugated with glucuronic acid as part of the detoxification process in the body. This enzyme plays a role in the breakdown and elimination of certain drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds, such as bilirubin. It is found in various tissues and organisms, including humans, bacteria, and insects. In clinical contexts, glucuronidase activity may be measured to assess liver function or to identify the presence of certain bacterial infections.

A two-hybrid system technique is a type of genetic screening method used in molecular biology to identify protein-protein interactions within an organism, most commonly baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Escherichia coli. The name "two-hybrid" refers to the fact that two separate proteins are being examined for their ability to interact with each other.

The technique is based on the modular nature of transcription factors, which typically consist of two distinct domains: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an activation domain (AD). In a two-hybrid system, one protein of interest is fused to the DBD, while the second protein of interest is fused to the AD. If the two proteins interact, the DBD and AD are brought in close proximity, allowing for transcriptional activation of a reporter gene that is linked to a specific promoter sequence recognized by the DBD.

The main components of a two-hybrid system include:

1. Bait protein (fused to the DNA-binding domain)
2. Prey protein (fused to the activation domain)
3. Reporter gene (transcribed upon interaction between bait and prey proteins)
4. Promoter sequence (recognized by the DBD when brought in proximity due to interaction)

The two-hybrid system technique has several advantages, including:

1. Ability to screen large libraries of potential interacting partners
2. High sensitivity for detecting weak or transient interactions
3. Applicability to various organisms and protein types
4. Potential for high-throughput analysis

However, there are also limitations to the technique, such as false positives (interactions that do not occur in vivo) and false negatives (lack of detection of true interactions). Additionally, the fusion proteins may not always fold or localize correctly, leading to potential artifacts. Despite these limitations, two-hybrid system techniques remain a valuable tool for studying protein-protein interactions and have contributed significantly to our understanding of various cellular processes.

Isopentenyladenosine (IPA) is a derivative of adenosine, which is a nucleoside consisting of adenine attached to ribose sugar via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. In Isopentenyladenosine, an isopentenyl group (a hydrocarbon chain with five carbon atoms) is added to the N6 position of the adenine base.

Isopentenyladenosine is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cytokinins, a class of plant hormones that play crucial roles in cell division and differentiation, shoot initiation, leaf expansion, apical dominance, root growth, and other developmental processes.

It's worth noting that Isopentenyladenosine is not typically used as a medical term or definition but rather in the context of biochemistry and plant physiology.

Heterocyclic steroids refer to a class of steroidal compounds that contain one or more heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur in their ring structure. These molecules are characterized by having at least one carbon atom in the ring replaced by a heteroatom, which can affect the chemical and physical properties of the compound compared to typical steroids.

Steroids are a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four fused rings, three of them six-membered (cyclohexane) and one five-membered (cyclopentane) ring. The heterocyclic steroids can have various biological activities, including hormonal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. They are used in the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs for treating several medical conditions, such as hormone replacement therapy, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Examples of heterocyclic steroids include cortisol (a natural glucocorticoid with a heterocyclic side chain), estradiol (a natural estrogen containing a phenolic A-ring), and various synthetic steroids like anabolic-androgenic steroids, which may contain heterocyclic structures to enhance their biological activity or pharmacokinetic properties.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are a type of organic compound that consists of a cyclohexane ring, which is a six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon, substituted with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). This group contains a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

The cyclohexane ring can be in various forms, including the chair, boat, or twist-boat conformations, depending on the orientation of its constituent atoms. The carboxylic acid group can ionize to form a carboxylate anion, which is negatively charged and has a deprotonated hydroxyl group.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids have various applications in industry and research, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some plants and microorganisms.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a molecule that functions as a second messenger in the body, playing a role in regulating various cellular processes. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) by the enzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

Cyclic ADPR works by binding to and activating ryanodine receptors, a type of calcium channel found in the endoplasmic reticulum, a cellular organelle involved in calcium storage and release. This leads to an increase in intracellular calcium levels, which can trigger various downstream signaling pathways and physiological responses.

Cyclic ADPR has been implicated in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of insulin secretion, immune cell function, and cardiovascular function. Dysregulation of cADPR signaling has been linked to several diseases, such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Ascorbate peroxidases (AHPX) are a group of enzymes that use ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a reducing cofactor to catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This reaction helps protect cells from oxidative damage caused by the accumulation of H2O2, a byproduct of various metabolic processes. Ascorbate peroxidases are primarily found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, where they play a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated during photosynthesis.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

Cupressaceae is a family of coniferous plants, also known as the cypress family. It includes a variety of genera such as *Cupressus* (cypress), *Juniperus* (juniper), *Thuja* (arborvitae or cedar), and *Chamaecyparis* (false cypress or Port Orford cedar). These plants are characterized by their small, scale-like leaves, and many produce cones that contain seeds. Some species in this family have economic importance as timber, ornamental plants, or for their essential oils.

A cotyledon is a seed leaf in plants, which is part of the embryo within the seed. Cotyledons are often referred to as "seed leaves" because they are the first leaves to emerge from the seed during germination and provide nutrients to the developing plant until it can produce its own food through photosynthesis.

In some plants, such as monocotyledons, there is only one cotyledon, while in other plants, such as dicotyledons, there are two cotyledons. The number of cotyledons is a characteristic that is used to classify different types of plants.

Cotyledons serve important functions during the early stages of plant growth, including providing energy and nutrients to the developing plant, protecting the embryo, and helping to anchor the seed in the soil. Once the plant has established its root system and begun to produce true leaves through photosynthesis, the cotyledons may wither or fall off, depending on the species.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex sugars, specifically those that contain a beta-glycosidic bond. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and plays a role in the digestion of some carbohydrates, such as cellulose and other plant-based materials.

In the human body, beta-glucosidase is produced by the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that help break down and recycle various biological molecules. Beta-glucosidase is involved in the breakdown of glycolipids and gangliosides, which are complex lipids that contain sugar molecules.

Deficiencies in beta-glucosidase activity can lead to certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease, in which there is an accumulation of glucocerebrosidase, a type of glycolipid, within the lysosomes. This can result in various symptoms, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, and bone pain.

Brassinosteroids are a class of steroid hormones found in plants that play crucial roles in various aspects of plant growth and development. They were first discovered in the 1970s and are named after Brassica napus, the rape seed plant from which they were initially isolated. These hormones are involved in regulating processes such as cell division, cell elongation, vascular differentiation, stress tolerance, and photomorphogenesis.

Brassinosteroids function by interacting with specific receptor proteins located on the plasma membrane of plant cells. This interaction triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses. Defects in brassinosteroid biosynthesis or signaling can result in dwarfism, reduced fertility, and other developmental abnormalities in plants.

Some well-known brassinosteroids include brassinolide, castasterone, and typhasterol. These hormones are present in trace amounts in plants but have significant effects on plant growth and development. Brassinosteroids also exhibit various stress tolerance-promoting activities, such as enhancing resistance to drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, and pathogen attacks.

In summary, brassinosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that play essential roles in regulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. They interact with specific receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, triggering intracellular signaling events leading to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

'Botrytis' is a genus of saprophytic fungi that are commonly known as "gray mold" or "noble rot." The term is used to describe various species within the Botrytis genus, but the most well-known and economically significant species is Botrytis cinerea.

Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that can infect and cause decay in a wide range of plant hosts, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. The fungus typically enters the host through wounds, dead tissue, or natural openings such as stomata. Once inside, it produces enzymes that break down plant cells, allowing it to feed on the decaying matter.

In some cases, Botrytis cinerea can cause significant economic losses in agricultural crops, particularly when conditions are conducive to its growth and spread, such as high humidity and cool temperatures. However, the fungus is also responsible for the production of some highly valued wines, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú, where it infects grapes and causes them to dehydrate and shrivel, concentrating their sugars and flavors. This process is known as "noble rot" and can result in complex, richly flavored wines with distinctive aromas and flavors.

GTP-binding protein (G protein) alpha subunits are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling pathways, particularly those involved in the transmission of signals across the plasma membrane in response to hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular signals. These proteins bind to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and undergo conformational changes upon activation, which enables them to interact with downstream effectors and modulate various cellular responses.

There are several classes of G protein alpha subunits, including Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11, and G12/13, each of which activates distinct signaling cascades upon activation. For instance, Gs alpha subunits activate adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased levels of cAMP and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), while Gi/o alpha subunits inhibit adenylyl cyclase and reduce cAMP levels. Gq/11 alpha subunits activate phospholipase C-beta (PLC-β), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), while G12/13 alpha subunits modulate cytoskeletal rearrangements through activation of Rho GTPases.

Mutations in G protein alpha subunits have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these proteins is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Eucommiaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes only one extant genus, Eucommia, which contains a single species, Eucommia ulmoides. This plant, also known as the "hardy rubber tree" or "gutta-percha tree," is native to China and is known for producing a latex sap that can be used to make rubber.

Eucommia ulmoides has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and recent research has suggested that it may have various medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-boosting effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the safety and efficacy of Eucommia ulmoides as a medical treatment.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

... is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) ... In 1963, abscisic acid was first identified and characterized as a plant hormone by Frederick T. Addicott and Larry A. Davis. ... Abscisic acid (ABA or abscisin II) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including seed and ... May 2009). "Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins". Science Signaling. ...
Cutler AJ, Squires TM, Loewen MK, Balsevich JJ (1997). "Induction of (+)-abscisic acid 8' hydroxylase by (+)-abscisic acid in ... In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)- ... Krochko JE, Abrams GD, Loewen MK, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ (1998). "(+)-Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 ...
"Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Barley Leaves After Treatment with Abscisic Acid and Jasmonic Acid", Current Research in ... OCLC 1234762992.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Finkelstein, Ruth (2013-11-01). "Abscisic Acid ... Abscisic acid (ABA) is the hormone which plants release in response to stress. It induces stomatal closure in plants, ... "Mechanisms of Abscisic Acid-Mediated Drought Stress Responses in Plants". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 23 (3): ...
They are able to signal the production of abscisic acid, which regulates plant growth, seed dormancy, embryo maturation and ... al Acids and acid esters Torularhodin 3',4'-Didehydro-β,γ-caroten-16'-oic acid Torularhodin methyl ester Methyl 3',4'-didehydro ... Finkelstein, Ruth (2013-11-01). "Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response". The Arabidopsis Book / American Society of Plant ... carotenedioic acid Crocetinsemialdehyde 8'-Oxo-8,8'-diapo-8-carotenoic acid Crocin Digentiobiosyl 8,8'-diapo-8,8'- ...
Interactions and convergence of abscisic acid-dependent and abscisic acid-independent pathways. Plant Cell 9: 1935-1949. "About ... Xiong, L.; Zhu, J. K. (2003). "Regulation of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis". Plant Physiology. 133 (1): 29-36. doi:10.1104/pp. ... Zhu's lab discovered several important components of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling pathways, and achieved for ... In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway. Nature 462:660-664. Zhu JK. 2009. Active DNA demethylation ...
... is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid. It is produced by the ... "Abscisic Aldehyde Is an Intermediate in the Enzymatic Conversion of Xanthoxin to Abscisic Acid in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Leaves ... "Abscisic aldehyde oxidase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana". The Plant Journal. 23 (4): 481-488. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x. ... followed by selective oxidation by abscisic aldehyde oxygenase. Ram K. Sindhu, David H. Griffin and Daniel C. Walton (1990). " ...
Examples include the vitamin A retinoids retinal, retinoic acid, and retinol; and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Marasco, ...
As higher eukaryotes, such as humans, also rely on an abscisic acid pathway to create inflammation in normal physiological ... Fluridone's main action to disrupt photosynthesis in plants is by preventing the secretion of abscisic acid. ... Influence of abscisic acid and fluridone on the content of phytohormones and polyamines and the level of oxidative stress in ... "Abscisic acid transport in human erythrocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (21): 13042-13052. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Both, abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones have a common group of enzymes that carried out the synthesis of the two compounds ... Plant hormone DWARF27 Auxin Abscisic acid Arbuscular mycorrhiza Umehara M, Cao M, Akiyama K, Akatsu T, Seto Y, Hanada A, et al ... July 2010). "Does abscisic acid affect strigolactone biosynthesis?" (PDF). The New Phytologist. 187 (2): 343-54. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Abscisic acid (also called ABA) is one of the most important plant growth inhibitors. It was discovered and researched under ... Once it was determined that the two compounds are the same, it was named abscisic acid. The name refers to the fact that it is ... Abscisic acid's effects are degraded within plant tissues during cold temperatures or by its removal by water washing in and ... In plant species from temperate parts of the world, abscisic acid plays a role in leaf and seed dormancy by inhibiting growth, ...
The natural ligand of LANCL2, abscisic acid (ABA), has been identified as a new endogenous mammalian hormone implicated in ... "Microgram amounts of abscisic acid in fruit extracts improve glucose tolerance and reduce insulinemia in rats and in humans". ... "Binding of abscisic acid to human LANCL2". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 415 (2): 390-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... "The plant hormone abscisic acid increases in human plasma after hyperglycemia and stimulates glucose consumption by adipocytes ...
Barrero JM, Rodríguez PL, Quesada V, Piqueras P, Ponce MR, Micol JL (October 2006). "Both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA ... Qin X, Zeevaart JA (December 1999). "The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid ... Qin X, Zeevaart JA (December 1999). "The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid cleavage reaction is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid ... Sharp RE, Wu Y, Voetberg GS, Saab IN, LeNoble ME (November 1994). "Confirmation that abscisic acid accumulation is required for ...
... gene product catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (23): 12908-13 ... In enzymology, an abscisic-aldehyde oxidase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction abscisic aldehyde ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is abscisic-aldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include abscisic ... "Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in a flacca tomato mutant with deficient abscisic acid and wilty phenotype". Plant ...
Examples include abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Most hormones initiate a cellular response by ... amino acid derivatives (e.g. epinephrine and auxin), protein or peptides (e.g. insulin and CLE peptides), and gases (e.g. ...
... is a terpenoid catabolite of abscisic acid. Like abscisic acid, it is a plant hormone associated with ... The biosynthesis of phaseic acid Xanthoxin is converted enzymatically to abscisic acid Abscisic acid is oxidized to form ... abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the catabolism of abscisic acid". Plant Physiol. 134(4):1439-49. Kushiro T. (2004 ... producing abscisic acid. The 8' hydroxylation of abscisate, abscisic acid's conjugate base, produces 8'-hydroxyabscisate. 8'- ...
These include auxin, abscisic acid, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene. Once bound, hormones can induce, inhibit, or maintain ...
Examples include phenylmercury acetate, abscisic acid (ABA), and aspirin. Film-forming antitranspirants form a colorless film ...
They induce changes in gene expression; the production of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene; temporary decreases in ... transients for induction of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and PINII gene expression. Plant Cell Physiol 45:456-459. Hlava´cˇkova´ ...
... the P.sativum abscisic acid-responsive proteins ABR17 and ABR18; and the stress-induced protein SAM22 from Glycine max (Soybean ...
And she claimed that abscisic acid could also neutralize hCG. Though some bacteria have been associated with cancer (for ... "abscisic acid"; immune enhancing vaccines (gamma globulin, BCG) and antibiotics. Livingston prescribed antibiotics after cross ... After studying scleroderma tissues with the darkfield microscope, she claimed to find an acid-fast organism that consistently ... In 1965, she reported isolation of a variably acid-fast mycobacterium in patients with myocardial vascular disease. During this ...
In 2009 Cutler showed how abscisic acid, a naturally-produced plant stress hormone, helps plants survive by inhibiting their ... Cutler also discovered pyrabactin, a synthetic chemical that mimics abscisic acid. His research was named by Science magazine ...
Abscisic acid has been reported to induce somatic embryogenesis in seedlings. After callus formation, culturing on a low auxin ... Gradual removal of auxin and cytokinin and introduction of abscisic acid (ABA) will allow an embryo to form. Using somatic ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Gibberellic acid (GA) has been used for development of ... as various polysaccharides, amino acids, growth regulators, vitamins, low molecular weight compounds and polypeptides. Several ...
This increased A. lancea abscisic acid level and root:shoot ratio. While A. strictum may alleviate the effects of a mild to ...
When the roots begin to sense a water shortage in the soil, abscisic acid (ABA) is released. ABA binds to receptor proteins in ... Ruiz (1993). "Sensitivity of Stomata to Abscisic Acid (An Effect of the Mesophyll)". Plant Physiology. 102 (2): 497-502. doi: ... believed to be most likely triggered by abscisic acid. It is expected for [CO2]atm to reach 500-1000 ppm by 2100. 96% of the ... A group of mostly desert plants called "C.A.M" plants (Crassulacean acid metabolism, after the family Crassulaceae, which ...
Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Man; Lu, Chun-Hua (22 February 2017). "Abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes and ansamycins from ...
Abscisic acid is also currently too expensive to synthesize to be used as a spray to control drought response artificially on a ... The natural response by the plant using abscisic acid to bind PYR1 in drought conditions is not strong enough and is activated ... PYR1 normally binds to abscisic acid which together then bind and inactivate to PP2C as a drought stress response, which stops ... "Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors". Nature. 520 (7548): 545-548. Bibcode: ...
March 2016). "A Stress-Activated Transposon in Arabidopsis Induces Transgenerational Abscisic Acid Insensitivity". Scientific ... In addition to naturally-occurring foreign nucleic acid stressors like TEs and viruses, artificially introduced DNA sequences, ...
A plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), is produced in response to drought. A major type of ABA receptor has been identified. The ... Pei Z-M, Kuchitsu K, Ward JM, Schwarz M, & Schroeder JI (1997) Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion ... Blatt MR & Armstrong F (1993) K+ channels of stomatal guard cells: Abscisic-acid-evoked control of the outward-rectifier ... Schroeder JI, Kwak JM, & Allen GJ (2001) Guard cell abscisic acid signaling and engineering drought hardiness in plants. Nature ...
Hasegawa S, Poling SM, Maier VP, Bennett RD (1984). "Metabolism of abscisic-acid bacterial conversion to dehydrovomifoliol and ...
... abscisic acid, and gibberelin which maintain dormancy. Additionally, Histone Deacetylase A6 and A19 activity contributes to ... Both of these actions lead to increased abscisic acid (Nonogaki et al. 2014). Methylation by the methyltransferase KRYPTONITE ... Histone methylation can lead to either silencing or activation as determined by the amino acid marked. Meanwhile, histone ...
Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) ... In 1963, abscisic acid was first identified and characterized as a plant hormone by Frederick T. Addicott and Larry A. Davis. ... Abscisic acid (ABA or abscisin II) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including seed and ... May 2009). "Abscisic acid inhibits type 2C protein phosphatases via the PYR/PYL family of START proteins". Science Signaling. ...
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in stresses that alter plant water status and may also regulate root ... The effects of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on lipid accumulation in two freshwater Chlorella strains. J. ... Reevaluation of abscisic acid-binding assays shows that G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 2 does not bind abscisic acid. Plant Physiol ... Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on HCO3 − uptake by C. reinhardtii under different light levels. A 1.0 L culture of C. ...
... trans-Abscisic Acid, 98% online from Chemical biology. Certified reference materials for highly accurate and reliable data ... Abscisic acid Product Categories. TRC, Chiral Molecules , Hormones, Bioactive small molecules, Phytochemical Reference ... 2Z,4E)-5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-3-methyl-penta-2,4-dienoic acid ...
CYP707A1 and CYP707A2, which encode abscisic acid 8-hydroxylases, are indispensable for proper control of seed dormancy and ...
Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody Manufactured by Gentaur. Gentaur is the biggest antibody manufacturer worldwide. ... ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur Gentaur ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur. (No reviews yet) Write a ... ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars ...
Abscisic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Affect the Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes in Kyoho ... Effects of Abscisic Acid Treatment on Berry Coloration and Expression of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes in Grape () ... Sun, L., Zhang, M., Ren, J., Qi, J., Zhang, G. and Leng, P. (2010) Reciprocity between Abscisic Acid and Ethylene at the Onset ... In order to enhance berry coloration of bright-red grape cultivars, the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment on the ...
Abscisic acid (ABA), an isoprenoid phytohormone, is a critical signaling mediator that regulates diverse biological processes ... Willmer, C.M.; Don, R.; Parker, W. Levels of Short-Chain Fatty-Acids and of Abscisic-Acid in Water-Stressed and Non-Stressed ... The Gibberellic Acid Signaling Repressor RGL2 Inhibits Arabidopsis Seed Germination by Stimulating Abscisic Acid Synthesis and ... Integration of Abscisic Acid Signaling with Other Signaling Pathways in Plant Stress Responses and Development by Manu Kumar ...
Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody Manufactured by Gentaur. Gentaur is the biggest antibody manufacturer worldwide. ... ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur Gentaur ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur. (No reviews yet) Write a ... ABA / Abscisic acid (C1) Antibody , Gentaur. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars ...
... a large amount of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced to help them resist drought stress. In recent years, ... Scientists reveal novel regulation mechanism of abscisic acid co-receptor ABI1 by E2-E3 complex UBC27-AIRP3. Oct 20, 2020 ... When plants are under drought stress, a large amount of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced to help them resist ... Researchers reveal plant E3 ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitinase pairs function on regulating abscisic acid perception. ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a series of significant physiology roles in higher plants including but not limited to promote bud ... Abscisic acid (ABA), Biosynthesis, Catabolism, Regulation, Fruit, Ripening. Cite This Article. FW, Y., Feng, X. (2015). ... Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a series of significant physiology roles in higher plants including but not limited to promote bud ... Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism and their regulation roles in fruit ripening. Yang FW, XQ Feng ...
AHC2020 Drought tolerance induced by a combination of abscisic acid and abscinazole in apple seedlings ... Drought tolerance induced by a combination of abscisic acid and abscinazole in apple seedlings. ... The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and abscinazole (Abz-E3M), an inhibitor of ABA 8-hydroxylase, on drought stress were ...
High Altitude Solar UV-B and Abscisic Acid Sprays Increase Grape Berry Antioxidant Capacity Federico J. Berli, Rodrigo Alonso, ... High Altitude Solar UV-B and Abscisic Acid Sprays Increase Grape Berry Antioxidant Capacity Federico J. Berli, Rodrigo Alonso, ... High Altitude Solar UV-B and Abscisic Acid Sprays Increase Grape Berry Antioxidant Capacity. Federico J. Berli, Rodrigo Alonso ... It has been proposed that ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation activates grapevines antioxidant defense system and abscisic acid (ABA ...
New approaches using mass spectrometry to investigate changes to cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in soil ... Phytohormones such as cytokinins, abscisic acid (ABA) and auxins play a vital role in plant development and regulatory ... 3 more authors) (2019) New approaches using mass spectrometry to investigate changes to cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA) ...
Stomatal conductance and xylem-sap abscisic acid (ABA) in adult oak trees during a gradually imposed drought. MB Triboulota, b ... Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and of the glucose ester of ABA (ABA-GE) were measured with an ELISA technique, after ...
... is the naturally occurring and more active form of abscisic acid.. Abscisic acid activates human granulocytes [3] and ... abscisic acid GtoPdb Ligand ID: 10362. Synonyms: (+/-)-(cis,trans)-abscisic acid , (+/-)-Abscisic acid , (RS)-Abscisic acid , ... Comment: We show the compound without specified stereochemistry to represent racemic abscisic acid. The (1S)- or (+)-enantiomer ... In cellular and animal models abscisic acid exerts anti-inflammatory [3-5] and antidiabetic [2,6] effects. ...
... exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and ja ... Pathogen exploitation of an abscisic acid- and jasmonate-inducible MAPK phosphatase and its interception by Arabidopsis ... Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid ...
Abscisic acid (ABA). 1. Which of the following hormone is a growth inhibitor ...
... abscisic acid 8hydroxylase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ()abscisate NADPH H O2 ... In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8-hydroxylase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
Abscisic acid CAS No.: 21293-29-8 Molecular Formula:C15H20O4 Molecular weight:264.32 Appearance:off-white crystalline powder ...
Abscisic acid controls calcium-dependent egress and development in Toxoplasma gondii Calcium signalling is important for ... A newly discovered calcium signalling pathway based on the plant hormone abscisic acid is now reported in Toxoplasma gondii. As ...
Sensitivity of Gramineacous Leaf Growth to Abscisic Acid: Its Potential Importance to Leaf Growth of Plants in Drying Soil.. ... A potential signal is the plant hormone abscisic acid, ABA. This thesis aimed to identity sources of variation in the ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促
... to study the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinolide (BR) on drought resistance of soybean. The results ...
Abscisic Acid/*pharmacology,br/,Arabidopsis/*drug effects/genetics/*physiology,br/,Carbohydrate Metabolism/*drug effects,br/, ... A Central Role of Abscisic Acid in Stress-Regulated Carbohydrate Metabolism ... The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, ... Kempa, S., Krasensky, J., Dal Santo, S., Kopka, J., & Jonak, C. (2008). A Central Role of Abscisic Acid in Stress-Regulated ...
abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway (GO:0009738) regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway is_a regulation ... regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway negative regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway (GO: ... GO:0009787 regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway * GO:0009788 negative regulation of abscisic acid-activated ... regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway. Ontology. biological_process. Synonyms. regulation of abscisic acid ...
The Effect of Abscisic acid on Growth, Photosynthetic rate and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Lemna Minor l. journal, January 1976 ... The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis journal, June 1995 * Smart, C. C.; Fleming, A. J.; ... Abscisic-acid-induced turion formation in Spirodela polyrrhiza L III. Specific changes in protein synthesis and translatable ... Improving biomass and starch accumulation of bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata) by abscisic acid application journal ...
Abscisic Acid (ABA) and the Regulation of Seedling Growth Under Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Does abscisic acid have a stress physiological role in maize plants growing in heavily compacted soil? J. Exper. Bot. 45:221- ... Xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and leaf ABA of Hopea odorata Roxb. and Mimusops elengi L. were measured under conditions of soil ... Abscisic acid is not the only stomatal inhibitor in the transpiration stream of wheat plants. Plant Physiol. 88:703-708. ...
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays multiple roles in plant survival and fitness. Significant quantities of ABA are ... Complete genome sequence of the abscisic acid-utilizing strain Novosphingobium sp. P6W  ...
The role of abscisic acid in plant-pathogen interactions. * Mauch-Mani, Brigitte Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory ... With few exceptions, abscisic acid has been considered a negative regulator of disease resistance. This negative effect appears ... to be due to the interference of abscisic acid with biotic stress signaling that is regulated by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid ... English The effect of the abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid on plant disease resistance is a neglected field of research. ...
  • CYP707A1 and CYP707A2, which encode abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases, are indispensable for proper control of seed dormancy and germination in Arabidopsis. (wikigenes.org)
  • NADP-Dependent Malic Enzyme 1 Participates in the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis thaliana . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phytohormones such as cytokinins, abscisic acid (ABA) and auxins play a vital role in plant development and regulatory processes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in stresses that alter plant water status and may also regulate root gravitropism and hydrotropism. (nature.com)
  • The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays multiple roles in plant survival and fitness. (kpfu.ru)
  • An Ancestral Role for CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 Proteins in Both Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. (cyverse.org)
  • However, we also show that PpCTR1L unexpectedly has dual functions and additionally modulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). (researcher-app.com)
  • Carotenoids are also precursors of bioactive metabolites called apocarotenoids, including vitamin A and the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones (SLs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Link to all annotated objects annotated to regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway. (cyverse.org)
  • Link to all direct and indirect annotations to regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway. (cyverse.org)
  • Synthesis and regulation of auxin and abscisic acid in maize. (nih.gov)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA or abscisin II) is a plant hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1963, abscisic acid was first identified and characterized as a plant hormone by Frederick T. Addicott and Larry A. Davis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When plants are under drought stress, a large amount of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced to help them resist drought stress. (phys.org)
  • A potential signal is the plant hormone abscisic acid, ABA. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. (mpg.de)
  • The plant hormone they used is called abscisic acid (ABA) and plays a key role in physiological processes such as seed maturation and seed dormancy. (chemistryviews.org)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that allows plants to respond to environmental stresses such as high salinity, drought and cold. (nih.gov)
  • It has been proposed that ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation activates grapevines antioxidant defense system and abscisic acid (ABA) acts downstream in the signaling pathway. (ajevonline.org)
  • The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and abscinazole (Abz-E3M), an inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, on drought stress were examined in apple seedlings. (actahort.org)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the physiological and biochemical mechanisms required to tolerate drought stress, which is considered as an important abiotic stress. (umn.edu)
  • Gibberellic acid acts as an antagonist to abscisic acid activity in this assay. (usda.gov)
  • Temporal-spatial interaction between reactive oxygen species and abscisic acid regulates rapid systemic acclimation in plants. (unr.edu)
  • We further demonstrate that SAA is stress specific and that a temporal-spatial interaction between ROS and abscisic acid regulates rapid SAA to heat stress in plants. (unr.edu)
  • Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) and other situations in which the plant may be under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of PAs in plant stress is to counteract the damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to prevent free radical damage or oxidative stress while also modulating ion channels to protect the morphology and integrity of cell membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plant nurseries use abscisic acid to keep plants dormant during shipping. (dummies.com)
  • In order to enhance berry coloration of bright-red grape cultivars, the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment on the quantity and composition of anthocyanins as well as the expression of genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis in the berry were examined. (scirp.org)
  • Abscisic acid is involved in phenolic compounds biosynthesis, mainly anthocyanins, in leaves of Aristotelia chilensis plants (Mol. (umn.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Abscisic acid is involved in phenolic compounds biosynthesis, mainly anthocyanins, in leaves of Aristotelia chilensis plants (Mol. (umn.edu)
  • Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and of the glucose ester of ABA (ABA-GE) were measured with an ELISA technique, after purification of the sap samples using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (afs-journal.org)
  • Les concentrations en acide abscissique (ABA) et en glucose-ester d'ABA (ABA-GE) ont été déterminées dans ces échantillons de sève à l'aide d'un dosage Elisa, après purification par HPLC. (afs-journal.org)
  • En l'absence de sécheresse, les concentrations moyennes en ABA étaient de l'ordre de 30 μmol m -3 , et de 45 μmol m -3 pour l'ABA-GE. (afs-journal.org)
  • seules les concentrations en ABA-GE ont fortement augmenté d'une année sur l'autre. (afs-journal.org)
  • This is a certified standard for the Phytodetek® Abscisic Acid ELISA. (immunomart.com)
  • CusabioPlant arachidonic Acid (AA) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send quotation to [email protected] Type: ELISA. (joplink.net)
  • Tardieu and Davies (1992 ) found that the abscisic acid (ABA) content of root tips increased when maize (Zea mays L.) was grown in compacted soil, while the application of 1μM ABA to unstressed seedlings promoted the growth of short, thick roots similar to those produced in response to mechanical impedance ( Hartung et al.1994 ). (isa-arbor.com)
  • CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H 2 O 2 , and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a series of significant physiology roles in higher plants including but not limited to promote bud and seed dormancy, accelerate foliage fall, induce stomatal closure, inhibit growth and enhance resistance. (techscience.com)
  • Sensitivity of Gramineacous Leaf Growth to Abscisic Acid: Its Potential Importance to Leaf Growth of Plants in Drying Soil. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Abscisin II is presently called abscisic acid (ABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes that are active are copied into a messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or transcript. (usda.gov)
  • Abscisic acid in combination with auxin is very effective in increasing transcript abundance of CesA genes as measured by quantitative, reverse transcription PCR. (usda.gov)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis demonstrated that there were several genes involved in the response to different phytohormones , including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), ethylene (ETH), gibberellins (GAs), and cytokinins (CTKs). (bvsalud.org)
  • The diagram below shows indoleacetic acid (IAA, illustrated with pink dots), a naturally occurring auxin, moving from the sunny to the shady side of a shoot tip. (umn.edu)
  • The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • This site about plant hormones presents a valuable summary of the action of the major plant hormones: auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. (ou.edu)
  • An international research team from Germany, Australia, and the USA has studied the evolution of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). (isaaa.org)
  • The phytohormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) is the major component of abiotic stress tolerance in plants and coordinates a complex regulatory network enabling plants to cope with the stress. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays multiple roles in plant survival and fitness. (kpfu.ru)
  • The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates drought stress responses by mediating stomatal closure, thereby reducing transpirational water loss. (ashs.org)
  • OsPIL15 is a key transcription factor regulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling by binding to the PBE-box motif of the OsABI5 promoter and regulates stomatal aperture. (plantae.org)
  • Phytochrome Interacting Factor Regulates Stomatal Aperture by Coordinating Red Light and Abscisic Acid. (plantae.org)
  • In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca 2+ -sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca 2+ -signaling. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. (edu.au)
  • BAK1 plays contrasting roles in regulating abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure and abscisic acid-inhibited primary root growth in Arabidopsis. (cdc.gov)
  • The five major groups of plant hormones - auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene, and abscisic - acid are distinguished by their chemical structures and the response they evoke within the plant (see Table 4.1). (umn.edu)
  • 14. Farnesylation mediates brassinosteroid biosynthesis to regulate abscisic acid responses. (nih.gov)
  • 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • The transition from dormancy to germination is a very important biological process, and extensive studies have demonstrated that phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) are major determinants. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that KNO 3 0.1% and 100 mg L −1 acetylsalicylic acid were the most effective treatments for improvement of seed germination properties in this species. (hindawi.com)
  • Soaking for 24 hours in 250-600 mg L −1 gibberellic acid, 5-20% potassium nitrate, or 10% hydrogen peroxide solution increased seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the roles of salicylate (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) have been well-characterized in Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected cereals, the roles of other phytohormones remain more ambiguous. (canada.ca)
  • abstract = "Abscisic acid (ABA) can exist as two enantiomers, with (+)-ABA as the naturally occur-fine form. (york.ac.uk)
  • The newly solved structure shows a three-dimensional representation of a critical plant hormone called abscisic acid, attached to its "target" protein called PYR1. (ucsd.edu)
  • We wanted to know if abscisic acid bound specifically to the PYR1 protein as a hormone receptor or whether it acted like a glue between PYR1 and partner proteins. (ucsd.edu)
  • Collaborating closely with Schroeder and his lab, Getzoff and her group decided to try to figure out exactly how PYR1 was involved in drought resistance by looking at PYR1 and abscisic acid molecules on the micro-and nano-scales. (ucsd.edu)
  • Abiotic stress effects on grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.): Focus on abscisic acid-mediated consequences on secondary metabolism and berry quality. (infowine.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of oral abscisic acid (ABA) on glucose metabolism in subjects with defined prediabetes. (adventhealthresearchinstitute.com)
  • Comprehensive profiling of endogenous hormones demonstrated altered cytokinin, gibberellic acid (GA), and JA metabolism in a FHB-resistant cultivar, whereas challenge by Fusarium graminearum increased abscisic acid (ABA), JA, and SA in both FHB-susceptible and -resistant cultivars. (canada.ca)
  • Three clones, selected for their variation in salt tolerance, were examined regarding their growth and physiological responses on exposure to salt (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) in vitro. (edu.au)
  • He identified how a hormone called abscisic acid triggers crucial mechanisms for reducing water loss in plants during extended periods of dry weather. (nih.gov)
  • Simultaneous mutations in four of these related genes led to a greatly impaired abscisic acid response and reduced drought resistance. (ucsd.edu)
  • An LTR retrotransposon, Boty-aba , and a solo LTR were identified by in silico genomic sequence analysis, and both were detected within the abscisic acid gene cluster in B. cinerea B05.10, but not in B. cinerea SAS56. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • We discovered that the rice PIF family transcription factor OsPIL15 interacts with the NIGT1/HRS1/HHO family transcription factor OsHHO3 and promotes transcription of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 ( OsABI5 ). (plantae.org)
  • Now overproducing strains of Botrytis cinerea are used for biotechnological production of abscisic acid. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • We investigated the effect of soil texture on grapevine response to water stress, leaf abscisic acid concentration and berry quality, in two adjacent vineyards located in the renewed Cannubi hill of Barolo (Langhe area, CN, North-West Italy). (infowine.com)
  • The impressive divergence in structure of the abscisic acid gene clusters putatively gives new clues to investigate the divergence in the abscisic acid production yields of different B. cinerea strains. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • In the normally watered plants the abscisic acid is produced cytoplasm of the mesophyll cells . (lifeeasy.org)
  • When drought-tolerant plants detect dry conditions, they synthesize abscisic acid, which causes changes from root tips to leaves and flowers. (ucsd.edu)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Abscisic acid (14375-45-2). (nih.gov)
  • Abscisic acid is a natural growth inhibitor . (lifeeasy.org)
  • Treatments included pretreatment with KNO 3 (0.1 and 0.3 percent) for 48 hours, acetylsalicylic acid to the moisture in the petri dish (100, 200 and 100 mg L −1 ), prechilling (4 degrees centigrade for 10 days), hot water (70°C) for 5 min, ethereal sulfuric acid (60%) for 5 and 10 min, thiourea with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3%, and control treatment (irrigation with distilled water). (hindawi.com)
  • Safety Data Sheet for Absicic Acid is availabe upon requested. (biochemicals.cn)