A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ABRIN.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) purified from the Chinese medicinal herb tian-hua-fen which is obtained from the root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii. It has been used as an abortifacient and in the treatment of trophoblastic tumors. GLQ223 (Compound Q), a highly purified form of trichosanthin, has been proposed as antiviral treatment for AIDS.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (1/73)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

Restoration of lectin activity to an inactive abrin B chain by substitution and mutation of the 2 gamma subdomain. (2/73)

Abrin is a heterodimeric plant protein that occurs in several isoforms (abrin-a, abrin-b, abrin-c and abrin-d), whose B chains are believed to either have (abrin-a and abrin-d) or lack (abrin-b and abrin-c) the ability to bind galactose. The 5' signal sequence and toxin B chain (ATB)-coding region were excised from a preproabrin cDNA [K. A. Wood, J. M. Lord, E. J. Wawrzynczak, and M. Piatak (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 723-732], tentatively identified as abrin-c, which was predicted to lack lectin activity, and fused in-frame to generate pre-ATB cDNA. Transcripts, synthesized in vitro from pre-ATB cloned into the transcription vector pSP64T, were expressed after microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. The recombinant ATB was shown, using a qualitative sugar-binding assay, to be devoid of lectin activity. Lectin activity could not be restored to this nonbinding ATB by replacing the 2 gamma subdomain with the corresponding galactose-binding 2 gamma subdomain from ricin B chain, but it was restored by replacement with the active galactose-binding 2 gamma subdomain from a different abrin isoform (abrin-a). The putative galactose-binding pocket of the nonbinding ATB 2 gamma subdomain contained a His residue at the position occupied by a residue with an aromatic side chain (Tyr or Trp) in functional 2 gamma subdomains. Mutationally converting this His to either Tyr or Trp restored lectin activity to the nonbinding ATB, emphasizing the contribution of an aromatic side chain in a functional 2 gamma subdomain galactose-binding site for members of this lectin family.  (+info)

Primary structure of hemolytic lectin CEL-III from marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata and its cDNA: structural similarity to the B-chain from plant lectin, ricin. (3/73)

CEL-III, a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) specific lectin purified from a marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata has a strong hemolytic activity especially toward human and rabbit erythrocytes. We determined the primary structure of the CEL-III by examining the amino acid sequences of the protein and the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. The cDNA encoding CEL-III has 1823 nucleotides and an open reading frame of 1296 nucleotides. CEL-III is composed of 432 amino acid residues with a M(r) of 47 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark457 and has six internal tandem repeats, each with of 40-50 amino acids, comprising the N-terminal two-thirds of the molecule. Similar repeats are found in the B-chains of cytotoxic plant lectins, such as ricin and abrin, where six repetitive sequences extend throughout the molecules. A hydropathy plot predicts hydrophobic segments in the C-terminal region of CEL-III. These findings suggest that the N-terminal region of CEL-III plays an important role in binding to carbohydrate receptors on the target cell membranes, an event which triggers an intermolecular hydrophobic interaction of the C-terminal region, the result being oligomerization of CEL-III to lead to pore-formation in erythrocyte membrane.  (+info)

Primary structure and function analysis of the Abrus precatorius agglutinin A chain by site-directed mutagenesis. Pro(199) Of amphiphilic alpha-helix H impairs protein synthesis inhibitory activity. (4/73)

Abrus agglutinin (AAG), a low-toxicity protein from the plant Abrus precatorius, is less lethal than abrina (ABRa) in mice (LD(50) = 5 mg/kg versus 20 microg/kg of body weight). Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding full-length AAG showed an open reading frame with 1641 base pairs, corresponding to a 547-amino acid residue preproprotein containing a signal peptide and a linker region (two amino acid residues) between the AAG-A and AAG-B subunits. AAG had high homology to ABRa (77.8%). The 13 amino acid residues involved in catalytic function, which are highly conserved among abrins and ricins, were also conserved within AAG-A. The protein synthesis inhibitory activity of AAG-A (IC(50) = 3.5 nM) was weaker than that of ABRa-A (0.05 nM). Molecular modeling followed by site-directed mutagenesis showed that Pro(199) of AAG-A, located in amphiphilic helix H and corresponding to Asn(200) of ABRa-A, can induce bending of helix H. This bending would presumably affect the binding of AAG-A to its target sequence, GpApGpAp, in the tetraloop structure of the 28 S rRNA subunit and could be one of the major factors contributing to the relatively weak protein synthesis inhibitory activity and toxicity of AAG.  (+info)

Abrin triggers cell death by inactivating a thiol-specific antioxidant protein. (5/73)

Abrin A-chain (ABRA) inhibits protein synthesis by its N-glycosidase activity as well as induces apoptosis, but the molecular mechanism of ABRA-induced cell death has been obscure. Using an ABRA mutant that lacks N-glycosidase activity as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system, a 30-kDa antioxidant protein-1 (AOP-1) was found to be an ABRA(E164Q)-interacting protein. The interaction was further confirmed in vitro by a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. The colocalization of endogenous AOP-1 and exogenous ABR proteins in the cell was demonstrated by confocal immunofluorescence. We also demonstrated that ABRA attenuates AOP-1 antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner and the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in ABR-treated cells. Moreover, ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl delayed programmed cell death. This indicates that ROS are important mediators of ABR-induced apoptosis. When ectopically expressed, AOP-1 blocked the release of cytochrome c and prevented apoptosis in ABR-treated cells. These findings suggest that the binding of ABRA to AOP-1 promotes apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial antioxidant protein AOP-1, resulting in the increase of intracellular ROS and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, which activates caspase-9 and caspase-3.  (+info)

Ribosome inactivation by the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. Kinetics of the enzymic activity of the toxin A-chains. (6/73)

A sensitive test system for toxin-treated ribosomes was worked out by treating rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes with abrin A-chain, ricin A-chain or ricinus agglutinin A-chain, adding neutralizing amounts of specific antitoxins and testing for polyphenylalanine-synthesizing activity in a system where the concentration of elongation factors and ribosomes were varied. The strongest inhibition was obtained in the presence of low concentrations of elongation factor (EF-2). The activity of the ribosomes decreased with time of incubation with the toxin A-chains. Addition of anti-toxins stopped further inactivation. In systems containing untreated and toxin-treated ribosomes the ability to polymerize phenylalanine was proportional to the concentration of untreated ribosomes. There was a linear relationship between toxin A-chain concentration and the number of ribosomes inactivated per minute. The inactivation rate increased with temperature, and the estimated activation energy was 10.6 kcal (44.3 kJ). Linewaver-Burk plots of the data obtained by incubating various ribosome concentrations with toxins indicated a molecular activity of about 1500 ribosomes/minute for abrin and ricin A-chains and 100 ribosomes/minute for ricinus agglutinin A-chain. The apparent Michaelis constant was 0.1-0.2 muM for all three A-chains. The activity of the A-chains in the intact cell is discussed.  (+info)

Suppression of DTT-induced aggregation of abrin by alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins: a model aggregation assay for alpha-crystallin chaperone activity in vitro. (7/73)

The eye lens small heat shock proteins (sHSP), alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins, have been shown to function like molecular chaperones, both in vitro and in vivo. It is essential to assess the protective effect of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins under native conditions to extrapolate the results to in vivo conditions. Insulin and alpha-lactalbumin have widely been used to investigate the chaperone mechanism of alpha-crystallin under native conditions. Due to its smaller size, insulin B-chain may not represent the binding of putative physiological substrate proteins. As it stands, the aggregation of alpha-lactalbumin and binding of alpha-crystallin to it varies under different experimental conditions. Abrin, a ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, consists of a 30 kDa A-chain and a lectin-like B-chain of 33 kDa joined by a single disulfide bond. Reduction of the disulfide link between the two chains of abrin leads to the aggregation of the B-chain. In this study, we demonstrate that dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation of abrin B-chain could be monitored by light scattering similar to that of insulin. Moreso, this process could be suppressed by recombinant human alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in a concentration dependent manner, notably by binding to aggregation prone abrin B-chain. SDS-PAGE and HPLC gel filtration analysis indicate that there is a soluble complex formation between alpha-crystallin and abrin B-chain. Interestingly, in contrast to insulin, there is no significant difference between alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin in suppressing the aggregation of abrin B-chain at two different temperatures (25 and 37 degrees C). HSP26, an another small heat shock/alpha-crystallin family protein, was also able to prevent the DTT-induced aggregation of abrin. These results suggest that due to relatively larger size of its B-chain (33 kDa), compared to insulin B-chain (about 3 kDa), abrin may serve as a better model substrate for in vitro chaperone studies of alpha-crystallin and as well as other sHSP.  (+info)

Cloning, expression of the abrin-a A-chain in Escherichia coli and measurement of the biological activities in vitro. (8/73)

The coding sequence of abrin-a A-chain (ABRaA) gene was obtained by RT-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pET28b. The mature ABRaA has been highly expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli by 1 mmol/L IPTG induction, and the yield of the soluble recombinant protein was 4 mg/L of induced culture. The recombinant ABRaA was purified to be homogeneity. The biological activities of expressed ABRaA were demonstrated in vitro. It strongly inhibited the protein biosynthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysates, with an IC(50) of 0.08 nmol/L. It also depurinated 28 S rRNA through cleaving at the A4324 site in rat liver ribosomes by its N-glycosidase activity. These data suggested that the recombinant ABRaA could be used for the preparation of immunotoxins as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent.  (+info)

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By Maria Teresa B. Benas BANGUED, Abra, Feb. 13 (PIA) -- The Department of Health - Center for Health Development (DOH-CHD) has started delivering health equipment to the different hospitals in Abra including the newly constructed Abra Provincial Hospital (APH). Agnes Pizarro-Casia, team leader of the Abra Field Office, said the DOH program of equipping…
By Maria Teresa B. Benas BANGUED, Abra, Feb. 13 (PIA) -- The Department of Health - Center for Health Development (DOH-CHD) has started delivering health equipment to the different hospitals in Abra including the newly constructed Abra Provincial Hospital (APH). Agnes Pizarro-Casia, team leader of the Abra Field Office, said the DOH program of equipping…
By Dr. Mercola While whole foods are healthy, there are certain caveats to consider even here. Lectins (not to be confused with the phospholipid lecithin) are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in the plant kingdom. An estimated 30 percent of fresh foods contain lectins.1 Even dairy contains lectins. Grass fed butter is an exception. Grass…
Corn/Maize contains Lectins which are basically part protein, part carbohydrate.. Lectins are the main problem with corn - the term is used to describe proteins which are part carbohydrate and part protein. Not all lectins are bad but those from corn/maize, wheat, rye, soy and dairy products are toxin lectins.. So lets take a closer look at these toxic lectins in corn/maize, soy, wheat, rye and dairy products.. Toxic Lectins are resistant to stomach acid and digestive enzymes. In other words - they cannot be broken down into a form suitable for digestion.. They may stick to the wall of the digestive tract of your dog and damage its lining, and then may pass through the wall of the digestive tract into general circulation. Toxic accumulation and elimination resulting in skin rashes, itching and excess shedding in dogs.. Lectins can cause alterations in digestive function that may be related to many digestive problems like colitis in dogs, Crohns Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome plus leaky gut ...
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ABRA Software poskytuje podnikové informační (ERP) systémy, webové a mobilní aplikace a služby podporující podnikatelské aktivity.
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Location map, cross-section, and images of parasitized Abra segmentum valves. A-Location map of investigated Po coastal plain sector, Italy B-Cross section illustrating core samples. C-Photomicrographs of A. segmentum with trematode-induced pits.
The OverExpress strains contain genetic mutations phenotypically selected for conferring tolerance to toxic proteins. The strain C41(DE3) was derived from BL21(DE3). This strain has at least one uncharacterized mutation, which prevents cell death associated with expression of many recombinant toxic proteins. The strain C43(DE3) was derived from C41(DE3) by selecting for resistance to a different toxic protein and can express a different set of toxic proteins to C41(DE3). Figure 1 graphically illustrates the advantages of the OverExpress Competent Cells, compared to standard BL21(DE3) cells, in expressing toxic proteins ...
Attendance for this class is strongly recommended for new ABC license holders.Training is free of charge. Requests for interpreters may be made; however, they must be submitted by the RSVP date.. Training is held at:. ...
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Servido com amor! Mesmo que um biscoito de chocolate esteja na sua mente, os nossos cookies têm uma grande importância para uma grande experiência de compra. Ajudam-nos a mostrar-lhe propostas de interesse, guardam as suas definições para facilitar a navegação na nossa página e notificam-nos quando o website está lento ou instável. Ao clicar em aceitar, confirmará que concorda com o seu uso para guardar as suas preferências e para análise estatística e de marketing (Mostrar todos). Poderá ver e gerir mais detalhes aqui ...
Arrow Video USA está trazendo Colheita Maldita (Children of the Corn) de 1984 em Blu-ray no dia 19 de setembro. O filme, baseado na curta história de Stephen King, foi dirigido por Fritz Kiersch, e estrelou Linda Hamilton de O Exterminador do Futuro e Peter Horton. ...
Success in harnessing a mouses immune system to attack and remove the buildup of toxic proteins in the brain may have application in humans. Read more.
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A Masterball, two Pok mon that can be stored inside it, and a POG-like coin for each Pok mon with stars on it. You and your friend flip the POG-coin and the one with the most stars wins. The sets Ive seen are: Kakuna and Beedrill (DISCONTINUED!), Eevee and Flareon, Gengar and Meowth, Pikachu and Raichu, Sandshrew and Sandslash, Rattata and Raticate, Golem and Geodude, Growlithe and Arcanine, Pidgey and Pidgeot, Metapod and Butterfree, Mankey and Primeape, Psyduck and Golduck, Seel and Dewgong, Slowpoke and Slowbro, Horsea and Seadra, Poliwag and Poliwrath, Venonat and Venomoth, Machop and Machamp, Ekans and Arbok, Drowzee and Hypno, Kadabra and Alakazam, Marowak and Pidgeotto, Doduo and Dodrio, Ash and Squirtle, James and Koffing, Jessie and Ekans, and Abra and Kadabra. Some come with Badges. ...
Define Abrus precatorius. Abrus precatorius synonyms, Abrus precatorius pronunciation, Abrus precatorius translation, English dictionary definition of Abrus precatorius. or n , pl -ties 1. other names for Indian liquorice 2. the seed of the Indian liquorice n., pl. -ties. 1. the Indian licorice, Abrus precatorius, of the...
Gambar 2. Buah saga. Tumbuhan ini banyak tumbuh secara liar di hutan-hutan, ladang-ladang atau sengaja dipelihara di pekarangan. Tumbuh dengan baik pada daerah dataran rendah sampai ketinggian 1000 meter di atas permukaan laut.. 6. Penelitian mekanisme antikanker. Abrin and agglutinin-I from the seeds of Abrus precatorius are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The two toxins share a high degree of sequence similarity; however, agglutinin-I is weaker in its activity (Bagaria et al., 2006).. Abrus agglutinin (AAG), a hetero tetrameric gal beta (1-3) NAc gal specific lectin, is isolated from seeds of Abrus precatorius. In our previous studies we found that the protein could act as an immunomodulator and immunoadjuvant in native (NA) and heat denatured (HDA) conditions. An anticancer effect of the lectin is reported, but its mode of action is not clearly known (Gosh, 2007).. Daftar Pustaka. Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia, 1994. Ashima ...
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Botanical Name : Abrus precatorius Family: Fabaceae Genus: Abrus Species: A. precatorius Kingdom: Plantae Order: Fabales Synonyms : Abrus minor and A.
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EntrezGene ,tax_id=10090 ,GeneID=223513 ,Symbol=Abra ,LocusTag=- ,Synonyms=C130068O12Rik;;STARS ,dbXrefs=MGI:2444891;;Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000042895 ,chromosome=15 ,map_location=15 B3.1;;15 ,description=actin-binding Rho activating protein ,type_of_gene=protein-coding ,Symbol_from_nomenclature_authority=Abra ,Full_name_from_nomenclature_authority=actin-binding Rho activating protein ,Nomenclature_status=O ,Other_designations=actin-binding Rho-activating protein;;striated muscle activator of Rho-dependent signaling ,Modification_date=20111127 ,transcription_factor ...
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Ive always had an interest in clothes. Not the everyday sort, but pieces that would stand out. Be different. Things that would suggest the kind of person I am, or want to be.. Collecting wearable art has been a passion, and Ive amassed quite a stash over the years. Sometimes I surprise myself when I rediscover a dress, hat, or coat that I bought YEARS ago. Who knew that other people would enjoy my findings just like I do?!. I carry vintage and older designer fashions from the 30s to the 70s. Occasionally Ill find something new-ish that fits the bill, but my aim is old and great.. Theres always something new in my Shop, as I unearth my treasures. And you can always contact me if youre looking for something specific. Just leave a message at the Desk.. Come along for the ride, and find an item (as Goodwill says) thats Ready To Rewear! See you soon!. #gallery-2 { margin: auto; } #gallery-2 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 20%; } #gallery-2 img { ...
3º Depois de Instalado, abra o Tibia e abra o Tibia Auto, selecione seu Char ele vai informar um código e pedir outro, pegue o código que está ai no Tibia Auto e acesse www.tibiaauto.net/code.php lá você deve colar seu código e clicar em Get Code, ele vai te dar uma série de códigos, pegue o primeiro código que aparece e cole no Tibia Auto, agora é só dar OK e pronto! Se o código não funcionou, tente os outros ...
AbraPlata Resource Corp. (TSXV:ABRA) has defined a gold-rich zone in the lower part of the Oculto deposit in the southern area of the Diablillos property (Figure 1). The gold-rich zone (Figure 2), measuring approximately 300m by 50m, is centered around drill hole DDH-97-007A, which intersected 2.7 g/t Au over 108m from 197.2m down the hole. This interval includes 16.7 g/t Au and 39.2 g/t Ag over 10.6m from 210m to 220.6m. The company is going to continue to test this zone with further drilling. The newly identified targets indicates further potential to expand the resource base at Oculto which already includes 1.92 Moz AuEq. AbraPlata currently trades at a significant discount to peers at $5/oz (peers $29/oz). We continue to believe that the current valuation does not reflect the current value of the companys resources at the Diablillos project nor does it reflect the exploration upside of the property. We expect continued exploration drilling, along with the pending PEA in November to be ...
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GUSTIM. O PAULO METAL PRUDENTE DÁ DANDO UM TEMPO DESSE MODO SOMOS EU E VOCÊ OS HERÓIS DA RESISTÊNCIA KAKAKAKAK UM ABRAÇO E GRAÇAS AO AMIGO GANJACORE POR ARRUMAR O LINK. ResponderExcluir ...
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All contents Copyright 1999-2018 Genius Central and Vitamin Life. All rights reserved. This internet site is hosted by Genius Central, a Web site service provider to natural health stores nationwide. Genius Central and Vitamin Life have no means of independently evaluating the safety or functionality of the products offered by their suppliers and affiliates and thus can neither endorse nor recommend products. Information presented is of a general nature for educational and informational purposes only. Statements about products and health conditions have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Products and information presented herein are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. If you have any concerns about your own health, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professional. Your use of this site indicates your agreement to be bound by our Terms and Conditions ...
Hegde, Ramesh and Podder, Sunil K (1998) Evolution of tetrameric lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin from two variant groups of ricin toxin dimers. In: European Journal of Biochemistry, 254 (03). pp. 596-601. Hegde, Ramesh and Podder, Sunil K (1997) A- and B-Subunit Variant Distribution in the Holoprotein Variants of Protein Toxin Abrin: Variants of Abrins I and III Have Constant Toxic A Subunits and Variant Lectin B Subunits. In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 344 (1). pp. 75-84. Hegde, Ramesh (1992) Coated pits,endosome CURLing and intracellular receptor--ligand trafficking. In: Current Science (Bangalore), 62 (8). pp. 555-564. Hegde, Ramesh and Podder, Sunil K (1991) Studies on the variants of the protein toxins ricin and abrin. In: European Journal of Biochemistry, 204 (1). pp. 155-164. Hegde, Ramesh and Podder, SK and Maitia, TK (1991) Purification and characterization of three toxins and two agglutinins from Abrus precatorius seed by using lactamyl-Sepharose affinity ...
Abrin is a highly toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea (or jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius. It has a median toxic dose of 0.7 micrograms per kilogram of body mass when given to mice intravenously (approximately 31.4 times more toxic than ricin, being 22 micrograms per kilogram). The median toxic dose for humans ranges from 10 to 1000 micrograms per kilogram when ingested and is 3.3 micrograms per kilogram when inhaled. Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant. It is classed as a Select Agent under U.S. law. Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. Abrin in powdered form is yellowish-white. It is a stable substance and can withstand extreme environmental conditions. Though it is combustible, it does not polymerize easily and is not particularly volatile. Abrin is not known to have been weaponised. Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical regions that is occasionally ...
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Developing your Emotional Intelligence can have great benefits for your relationships and at work, explains Psychologist Abra Garfield.
To do this, we start with the basic Paw Paw program. This article includes specific recommendations for dosages and timing.. For those who wish to add more to the basic program, we have found those therapeutics listed in the Paw Paw Program Upgrade to be the most beneficial. These nutritional combinations are more effective than all the separate supplements that can be added, such as those I list at the beginning, or any other numerous options. These MAY all be good supplements, if they are quality products; however the additional ones I list in the above article and in my book are more specific to support the body to overcome disease with this program.. After E-Tea (the original Essiac formula) and Pau DArco recommended in the Paw Paw Upgrade, I would add Cats Claw Combination then Colostrum. Here is one excerpt recently received from a co-worker who is also very successful with cancer.. All diseased conditions are caused by inflammation. Quality Colostrum binds toxic lectins, which can be ...
The role of the two galactose binding sites of ricin B chain in ricin toxicity was evaluated by studying a series of ricin point mutants. Wild-type (WT) ricin and three ricin B chain point mutants having mutations in either 1) the first galactose binding domain (site 1 mutant, Met in place of Lys-40 and Gly in place of Asn-46), 2) the second galactose binding domain (site 2 mutant, Gly in place of Asn-255), or 3) both galactose binding domains (double site mutant containing all three amino acid replacements formerly stated) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and then reassociated with recombinant ricin A chain. The different ricin B chains were mannosylated to the same extent. Cytotoxicity of these toxins was evaluated when cell entry was mediated either by galactose-containing receptors or through an alternate receptor, the mannose receptor of macrophages. WT ricin and each of the single domain mutants was able to kill Vero cells following uptake by galactose containing receptors. Lactose ...
Zhang-Hong; Zhang-Liang; Meng-Yan-Fa; Yue-Bi-Song, 2004: Toxicity of Bt toxic protein expressed by cry1Aa cloned in Escherichia coli
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Pokemons em perspecitva 45 graus! Como minha ultima dedicada para o Fórum do Xtibia eu estarei dando meu Adeus ao mundo dos Spriting aqui no fórum e em outros que participo mais como esse foi o que mais me abraço com varias coisas que não só Spriting deixo uma pequena Doação que antes eu estira f...
Revisão: Exterminadores do Além Contra a Loira do Banheiro - Esse é o espírito de Exterminadores do Além Contra a Loira do Banheiro. O longa abraça o esdrúxulo, o pastelão e o bizarro, e é cento e trinta por cento tr... ...
Revisão: Exterminadores do Além Contra a Loira do Banheiro - Esse é o espírito de Exterminadores do Além Contra a Loira do Banheiro. O longa abraça o esdrúxulo, o pastelão e o bizarro, e é cento e trinta por cento tr... ...
Olá, Pretendo traduzir a interface de usuário dos binários do pacote shadow [1]. Caso haja alguma objeção, sugestão ou tomates, favor me informar/jogar. [1] http://pkg-shadow.alioth.debian.org Abraços, Rafael Ferreria ...
An analysis of trial results reveals the mechanism through which the cancer drug nilotinib increases brain dopamine in people with Parkinsons disease.
ISBN 978-0-8247-8374-7. Lin JY, Chen CC, Lin LT, Tung TC (June 1969). "Studies on the toxic action of abrin". Taiwan Yi Xue Hui ... Fodstad O, Johannessen JV, Schjerven L, Pihl A (November 1979). "Toxicity of abrin and ricin in mice and dogs". Journal of ... Wiley RG, Stirpe F (January 1988). "Modeccin and volkensin but not abrin are effective suicide transport agents in rat CNS". ... Olsnes S, Pihl A (May 1973). "Isolation and properties of abrin: a toxic protein inhibiting protein synthesis. Evidence for ...
Typical toxalbumins are abrin and ricin. Ingestion of seed containing toxalbumins is not necessarily fatal as the hard seed ...
He accustomed mice to the poisons ricin and abrin. After feeding them with small but increasing dosages of ricin he ascertained ... Ehrlich rejected inheritance in the genetic sense because the offspring of a male mouse immunized against abrin and an ... but mice immunized against ricin were just as sensitive to abrin as untreated animals. This was followed by investigations on ... untreated female mouse were not immune to abrin. He concluded that the fetus was supplied with antibodies via the pulmonary ...
"On the mechanism of protein-synthesis inhibition by abrin and ricin. Inhibition of the GTP-hydrolysis site on the 60-S ...
Shih SF, Wu YH, Hung CH, Yang HY, Lin JY (2001). "Abrin triggers cell death by inactivating a thiol-specific antioxidant ...
... is not known to have been weaponised. Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical ... Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. Abrin works by penetrating the cells of ... Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. Abrin in powdered form is yellowish-white. It is a stable substance and can withstand extreme ... Abrin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Abrin: Biotoxin". The Emergency Response Safety ...
The Latin botanical Abrus is the parent of the chemical name Abrin; see abrine @ CNRTL.fr. The Arabic لبلاب lablāb means any ...
The toxin abrin is a dimer consisting of two protein subunits, termed A and B. The B chain facilitates abrin's entry into a ... One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. Symptoms are identical to those of ricin, except abrin ... Abrin has an LD50 of only 0.56 μg/kg in mice, and Kingsbury lists a toxic dose in humans at 0.00015% body weight, or ... though the abrin in ingested seeds may be absorbed much more slowly than the ricin in Ricinus communis even if the seeds are ...
In terms of structure, ricin closely resembles abrin-a, an isotoxin of abrin. The quaternary structure of ricin is a globular, ... Kuntal Patel from London attempted to poison her mother with abrin after the latter interfered with her marriage plans. Daniel ...
The structure of this protein is very similar to other RIPs, showing the most resemblance to ricin and abrin. Some birds have ...
In 1897, Paul Ehrlich showed that antibodies form against the plant toxins ricin and abrin, and proposed that these antibodies ...
Chemical, biological (CB) - and sometimes radiological - warfare agents were assigned what is termed a military symbol by the U.S. military until the American chemical and biological weapons programs were terminated (in 1990 and 1969, respectively). Military symbols applied to the CB agent fill, and not to the entire weapon. A chemical or biological weapon designation would be, for example, "Aero-14/B", which could be filled with GB, VX, TGB, or with a biological modification kit - OU, NU, UL, etc. A CB weapon is an integrated device of (1) agent, (2) dissemination means, and (3) delivery system. Military symbols evolved out of the First World War from the British in part for secrecy, and to simplify reference to chemicals by something other than a chemical name. These symbols were sometimes applied as marking on weapons to indicate the agent contents. Military symbols constantly changed and had transitory definitions. For example, mustard gas was assigned the military symbol originally HS for ...
... is a potent and long lasting anticholinergic deliriant drug, related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). It was developed under contract to Edgewood Arsenal during the 1960s as part of the US military chemical weapons program, during research to improve upon the properties of earlier agents such as QNB. The main advantages of EA-3443 were not only increased potency over QNB, but also a significantly improved central to peripheral effects ratio. Anticholinergic drugs produce both incapacitating deliriant effects through action in the brain, and a variety of distinctive physical symptoms such as dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision and hot flushed skin, all of which together comprise the "anticholinergic syndrome" which is generally easy for doctors to diagnose. EA-3443 however is mainly selective for the brain, and when administered in a narrow dose range of around 0.3mg can produce the central effects of confusion, hallucinations and amnesia, but without ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. The use of botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy children is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles.[5][6] Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or with time spread from the injection site, causing temporary paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[41] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
Since characterization, the development of synthetic pathways to histrionicotoxin has been of interest to research groups due to its unusual functionality. The Kishi group proposed the first total synthesis of the parent 283A in 1985 using 89, a previously synthesized lactam used for the synthesis of other variants.[8] Treatment with acetic anhydride yielded 133 in quantitative yield. The cyclic enol ether 134 was formed through oxidative cleavage promoting intramolecular addition followed by a basic deprotection and dehydration. Bromination followed by dehydrobromination in methanol was then found to give an epimeric mixture of unsaturated 135. Hydrolysis, reduction and acetylation yielded 136. Formation of a thiolactam followed by condensation with ethyl bromoacetate gave 137. Selective deprotection of the allylic alcohol followed by oxidation gave 138. A Wittig reaction then generated a chloroalkene, which, upon base-promoted elimination of HCl, gave a terminal alkyne, which was subsequently ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of a new series of nerve agents with properties similar to both the "G-series" and "V-series". It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with properties similar to other nerve agents, being a highly poisonous vapour. Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6.[1][2] ...
Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus, the deadly effect on insects, the yellow-green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia.[8] He called it "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it is a gas (then called "airs") and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as "muriatic acid").[7] He failed to establish chlorine as an element.[7] Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen (remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen: sauerstoff or zuurstof, both translating into English as acid substance), so a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, muriaticum.[9][10] In 1809, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muriatic acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum (and ...
No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,[23] but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below.[4] High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis (acute aflatoxicosis), resulting later in cirrhosis or carcinoma of the liver. Acute liver failure is made manifest by bleeding, edema, alteration in digestion, changes to the absorption and/or metabolism of nutrients, and mental changes and/or coma.[23] Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. Chronic exposure increases the risk of developing liver and gallbladder cancer,[24] as aflatoxin metabolites may intercalate into DNA and alkylate the bases through epoxide moiety. This is thought to cause mutations in the p53 gene, an important gene in ...
Reproduction occurs generally between December and early May[citation needed]. Typically, the adult newts will return to the pool in which they hatched. After a mating dance, the male mounts the female and rubs his chin on her nose. He then attaches a spermatophore to the substrate, which she will retrieve into her cloaca.. The egg mass released by the female contains between seven and 30 eggs, and is roughly the consistency of a thick gelatin dessert[citation needed]. Typically, the egg masses are attached to stream plant roots or to rocky crevices in small pools of slow-moving water, but they have also been known to be attached to underwater rocks or leaf debris. While shallow in a wide sense, these pools are rather deep relative to the average depth of a Southern California stream, varying in depth from about 1-2 metres (3.3-6.6 ft).. Adult newts typically leave the pools shortly after breeding has concluded, however, some adults may remain in the pools for an additional few months to ...
... s are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word toxin does not specify method of delivery (compare with venom and the broader meaning of poison-all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms). It simply means it is a biologically produced poison. There was an ongoing terminological dispute between NATO and the Warsaw Pact over whether to call a toxin a biological or chemical agent, in which the NATO opted for biological agent, and the Warsaw Pact, like most other countries in the world, for chemical agent.[citation needed] According to an International Committee of the Red Cross review of the Biological Weapons Convention, "Toxins are poisonous products of organisms; unlike biological agents, they are inanimate and not capable of reproducing themselves", and "Since the signing of the Constitution, there have been no disputes among the parties regarding the definition of biological agents or toxins".[4] According to Title 18 of the ...
The heat-labile enterotoxin is inactivated at high temperatures.[1][2]. It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein leading to the constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase. Elevated cAMP levels stimulate the activation of the CFTR channel thus stimulating secretion of chloride ions and water from the enterocyte into the gut lumen. This ionic imbalance causes watery diarrhea.. In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin binds additional substrates: lipopolysaccharide on the surface of E. coli cells and A-type blood antigens.[3] The importance of these binding events is not yet known.. ...
... only affects mammals. No effect is found on reptiles, insects or fish. In experiments performed on mice, symptoms such as convulsions, continuous urination, tremors and tachypnea occurred 10 minutes after injection and increased during 30 minutes. An injection of 1 μg of birtoxin resulted in severe neurotoxic effects for 24 hours, but this dose is not lethal to mice. LD99 in mice is achieved at 2 μg.[1]. An antibody against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure has been shown to neutralize the venom of the South African spitting scorpion, and such antibodies may be useful clinically to treat envenomation.[9]. ...
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In general, when scientists determine the amount of a substance that may be hazardous for humans, animals and/or the environment they determine the amount of the substance likely to trigger effects and if possible establish a safe level. In Europe, the European Food Safety Authority produced risk assessments for more than 4,000 substances in over 1,600 scientific opinions and they provide open access summaries of human health, animal health and ecological hazard assessments in their: OpenFoodTox[22] database. [23][24] The OpenFoodTox database can be used to screen potential new foods for toxicity.[25] The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[26] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to toxins-related resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations.[27] This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other ...
Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process. ...
The first three steps outline the travel of tetanus from the peripheral nervous system to where it is taken up to the CNS and has its final effect. The last three steps document the changes necessary for the final mechanism of the neurotoxin. Transport to the CNS inhibitory interneurons begins with the B-chain mediating the neurospecific binding of TeNT to the nerve terminal membrane. It binds to GT1b polysialogangliosides, similarly to the botulinum neurotoxin. It also binds to another poorly characterized GPI anchored protein receptor more specific to TeNT.[10][11] Both the ganglioside and the GPI anchored protein are located in lipid microdomains and both are requisite for specific TeNT binding.[11] Once it is bound the neurotoxin is then endocytosed into the nerve and begins to travel through the axon to the spinal neurons. The next step, transcytosis from the axon into the CNS inhibitory interneuron, is one of the least understood parts of TeNT action. At least two pathways are involved, ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
... occludes the pore of calcium-activated voltage-gated shaker K+ channels by binding to one of four independent, overlapping binding sites.[6][7] It binds both to the open and the closed states. In addition, the block is enhanced as the ionic strength is lowered.[8] This block occurs as the Asn 30 on the CTX interacts with the Asp 381 on the K+ channel.[9] The blockade of K+ channels by the charybdotoxin peptide causes neuronal hyperexcitability. Mutations of the Lys31Gln and the Asn30Gln had the effect of lessening the CTX block of the pore on the shaker channel.[9] ...
LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex in many cell types, but especially in monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and eicosanoids.[16] As part of the cellular stress response, superoxide is one of the major reactive oxygen species induced by LPS in various cell types that express TLR (toll-like receptor). LPS is also an exogenous pyrogen (fever-inducing substance). Being of crucial importance to Gram-negative bacteria, these molecules make candidate targets for new antimicrobial agents. Some researchers doubt reports of generalized toxic effects attributed to all lipopolysaccharides, in particular, for cyanobacteria.[17] LPS function has been under experimental research for several years due to its role in activating many transcription factors. LPS also produces many types of mediators involved in septic shock. Humans are much more sensitive to LPS than ...
Abrin is not known to have been weaponised. Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical ... Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. Abrin works by penetrating the cells of ... Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. Abrin in powdered form is yellowish-white. It is a stable substance and can withstand extreme ... Abrin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Abrin: Biotoxin". The Emergency Response Safety ...
Abrin, like the similar plant toxin ricin, causes toxicity by inhibiting the formation (synthesis) of proteins in the cells of ... Abrin is an extremely toxic plant protein derived from the seeds of the plant Abrus precatorius. ... Food: Abrin can be used to contaminate food.. *Outdoor Air: Abrin can be released into outdoor air as fine particles (aerosol). ... DESCRIPTION: Abrin is an extremely toxic plant protein derived from the seeds of the plant Abrus precatorius. Abrin, like the ...
Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal... ... Abrin is a toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus ... Many of the features observed in abrin poisoning can be explained by abrin-induced endothelial cell damage, which causes an ... Experimental studies have shown that vaccination with abrin toxoid may offer some protection against a subsequent abrin ... Toxicity of abrin and ricin in mice and dogs. J Toxicol Environ Health 1979; 5: 1073-84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
How abrin poisoning is treated Because no antidote exists for abrin, the most important factor is avoiding abrin exposure in ... What abrin is *Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. These ... Where abrin is found and how it is used *Abrin is not known to have been used in any wars or terrorist attacks. ... Powdered abrin is yellowish-white in color. *Abrin is a stable substance, meaning that it can last for a long time in the ...
Information on abrin, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ... Overview of abrin, including signs & symptoms, protection, and treatment * Toxic Syndrome Description: Ricin or Abrin Poisoning ...
Abrin is not known to have been weaponised.[2] The rosary pea, which is the source of abrin, is common to many tropical areas ... Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. Abrin is similar to ... Abrin in the powder or mist form can cause redness and pain of the skin and the eyes. Death from abrin poisoning could take ... Powdered abrin is yellowish-white in colour. Abrin is a stable substance, meaning that it can last for a long time in the ...
Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far ... Abrin. Subscribe to New Research on Abrin A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. ... 07/01/1982 - "Studies on the mechanisms of the immunizing effect with the abrin-treated tumor cells demonstrated that abrin ... 05/18/1988 - "In the melanoma and Rael cells, the indirect method gave a higher cell kill than even native abrin. ". 12/01/1987 ...
Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the ... However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more ... The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix. ... probability of detection at 3 genomes per reaction for ricin DNA and 1.2 genomes per reaction for abrin DNA. ...
Keywords: Abrin; Chromatography; ELISA; Extraction; Purification Abstract. Abrin is a plant toxin obtained from Abrus ... One step Purification and Characterisation of Abrin Toxin from Abrus Precatorius Seeds * Swati Banger DRDO-Defence Research and ... Due to high toxicity of abrin, its exposure or consumption can lead to serious public health problems. In the present work, we ... The toxicity of purified abrin toxin was also confirmed by injecting the toxin in mice. The purified protein was further used ...
Abrin, a toxin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea) is considered a biological threat agent by the ... Abrin, a toxin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea) is considered a biological threat agent by the ... Mapping Immunodominant Antibody Epitopes of Abrin Ron Alcalay et al., Antibodies (2020) - PMID: 32349421 Product(s) used in ... To date, there is no effective postexposure treatment for abrin poisoning, and efforts are being made to develop an efficient ...
Since abrin is a protein, it cant be much of a contact poison, any more than you can eat a piece of meat by putting it on your ... Abrin is the new ricin. Posted in Bioterrorism, Culture of Lickspittle, Ricin Kooks at 1:06 pm by George Smith ... "As the abrin slowly kills your target, an interesting cycle will begin. The worse your target gets, the more he will pray with ... Another poison, abrin, was found in his Cruger Ave. apartment, cops said. Officers also recovered 9-mm. pistol and an AR-15 ...
Sallustio, S. ; Stanley, P. / Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary ribosomal mutants differentially resistant to ricin, abrin, ... Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary ribosomal mutants differentially resistant to ricin, abrin, and modeccin. / Sallustio, S.; ... Sallustio, S & Stanley, P 1990, Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary ribosomal mutants differentially resistant to ricin, abrin ... Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary ribosomal mutants differentially resistant to ricin, abrin, and modeccin. Journal of ...
N2 - A new crystal form of abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius has been obtained by vapor diffusion method. The abrin-a ... AB - A new crystal form of abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius has been obtained by vapor diffusion method. The abrin-a ... A new crystal form of abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius has been obtained by vapor diffusion method. The abrin-a ... Tahirov, T. H. O., Lu, T. H., Liaw, Y. C., Chu, S. C., & Lin, J. Y. (1994). A new crystal form of abrin-a from the seeds of ...
The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. / Lin, Jung Yaw; Ju, Shyr Te; Wu, Hua Lin; Tung, Ta Cheng. ... Lin, J. Y., Ju, S. T., Wu, H. L., & Tung, T. C. (1973). The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. Cancer ... Lin, JY, Ju, ST, Wu, HL & Tung, TC 1973, The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells, Cancer Research, vol ... The Binding of Abrin and Ricin by Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells. In: Cancer Research. 1973 ; Vol. 33, No. 11. pp. 2688-2691. ...
How to Get Rid of Back Fat. The back is one of the hardest places to tone and decrease body fat when youre trying to lose weight. Unfortunately, its not possible to spot treat any part of your body.http://www.medicaldaily.com/weight-...
Download Free Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl , Monsters Inside Me waploaded movies, Download Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young ... Download Free Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl , Monsters Inside Me waploaded movies, Download Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young ... Download Free Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl , Monsters Inside Me NaijaVibes,Download Free Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl ... Download Free Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl , Monsters Inside Me NaijaVibes,Download Free Mp4 Abrin Toxin Poisons Young Girl ...
The poison contained within the seed is abrin - a close relative of ricin and one of the most fatal toxins on Earth. ...
Background In the framework of Articles 23 and 33 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 EFSA has received from the European Commission a mandate (M-2010-0374) to
... a recombinant abrin A-chain), purified abrin fractions, Abrus agglutinin (a protein related to abrin but with lower toxicity), ... Abrin is a potent toxin similar to ricin in structure, sequence and mechanism of action. The selected sdAb were evaluated for ... The best binders were specific for the Abrus agglutinin, showing minimal binding to purified abrin fractions or unrelated ... Used in conjunction with anti-abrin monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, these reagents can fill a role to discriminate ...
Inter-gultial sex, that is, when a man places his penis between the bottox, but not into the anus, of his partner and stimulates himself to orgasm. Like a Hawian Muscle Rub only down under.
Step 1) Make sure nobody's around. Step 2) Quietly open the lid of the upper-section of the victim's toilet. Step 3) Quietly place the lid down on the floor. Step 4) Then take a nice shit in the upper-section of the toilet without letting anybody hear you. Step 5) Wipe your ass. Step 6) Place the soiled toilet paper in the upper-section of the toilet or in a drawer or magazine. Step 7) Slowly lift the lid off the floor with your fingers under it and carefully bring it over to the toilet. Step 8) Here's the hard part; with your fingers under the lid slowly place the lid on the toilet. No false moves or you're screwed. Step 9) Leave and don't let anybody see you. Just bail as quickly as possible. Step 10) Mission accomplished.
Billy Abrin. Method of fitting dentures. US2693182 *. 9 Sep 1953. 2 Nov 1954. Phillips John W. Oro-tracheal tube positioner and ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Abrin. Abrus precatorius. Jimson weed. Datura stramonium. Asparagus pea. Tetragonolobus purpureas. *Labumum, Scotch. Labumum ...
Abrin. Botulinum neurotoxins*. Botulinum neurotoxin producing species. of Clostridium*Conotoxins (Short, paralytic alpha ...
Isolation of antitumor proteins abrin-A and abrin-B from Abrus precatorius. J Y Lin, T C Lee, T C Tung International Journal of ... A chimeric protein of abrin and Abrus precatorius agglutinin that neutralizes abrin mediated lethality in mice. Vinita Tiwari, ... Crystal structure of abrin-a at 2.14 A. T H Tahirov, T H Lu, Y C Liaw, Y L Chen, J Y Lin Journal of Molecular Biology 1995 July ... A characterization of abrin A from the seeds of the Abrus precatorius plant. M S Herrmann, W D Behnke Biochimica et Biophysica ...
  • Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin, like the similar plant toxin ricin, causes toxicity by inhibiting the formation (synthesis) of proteins in the cells of the exposed individual. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin can also be transmitted through the skin via small pellets or projectiles designed to carry toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is similar to ricin, a toxin that also is found in the seeds of a plant (the castor bean plant). (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a ribosome inhibiting protein like ricin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of the castor oil plant, and pulchellin, a toxin which can be found in the seeds of Abrus pulchellus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is a plant toxin obtained from Abrus precatorius seeds. (drdo.gov.in)
  • In the present work, we have extracted and purified the abrin toxin from Abrus precatorius seeds. (drdo.gov.in)
  • The toxicity of purified abrin toxin was also confirmed by injecting the toxin in mice. (drdo.gov.in)
  • The results of present study established the use of single step ion exchange chromatography to purify abrin toxin for further development of its detection system. (drdo.gov.in)
  • Abrin, a toxin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea) is considered a biological threat agent by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (jpt.com)
  • In addition, polysomes isolated from mutant cells were resistant to cleavage of the adenine-ribose N-glycosidic bond by ricin A chain or abrin, as assayed by the release of an ~470-nucleotide fragment following analine treatment of ribosomal RNA extracted from toxin-treated polysomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Abrin is a potent toxin similar to ricin in structure, sequence and mechanism of action. (mdpi.com)
  • CCD based detector for detection of Abrin toxin activity. (usda.gov)
  • Two years ago, while you were enjoying a relaxing Thanksgiving surrounded by friends and family, eating way too much turkey and mashed potatoes, Jesse Korff was figuring out a new way to distill a biological toxin called abrin so he could sell it to terrorists. (bigthink.com)
  • The toxin present in Abrus precatorius is a close relative to ricin called abrin . (thefullwiki.org)
  • He's charged with smuggling and possessing a toxin - in this case, abrin - for use as a weapon. (gainesville.com)
  • Korff allegedly received $1,500 over the Internet from the agent and left the toxin hidden in two candles at a rest stop near Fort Myers, Fla. Korff was arrested after the candles were found to contain abrin. (gainesville.com)
  • Morphology of ricin and abrin exposed endothelial cells is consistent with apoptotic cell death. (springer.com)
  • The toxic plant proteins ricin and abrin induce apoptotic changes in mammalian lymphoid tissues and intestine. (springer.com)
  • Ricin and abrin are two of the most potent plant toxins known and may be easily obtained in high yield from the seeds using rather simple technology. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the OmniMix HS bead PCR reagent mixture. (mdpi.com)
  • The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix. (mdpi.com)
  • Felder E, Mossbrugger I, Lange M, Wölfel R. Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR). (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, four ricin- and abrin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants that possess ribosomes resistant to this N-glycosidase action are described. (elsevier.com)
  • The 95% limit-of detection (LOD) as a common technical specification indicating the concentration down to which an assay will detect the analyte with at least 95% probability, was determined by amplification of quantified ricin and abrin DNA fragments (Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • The seeds of these plants contain small amounts of two astoundingly toxic protiens - ricin and abrin, respectively. (naturemuseum.org)
  • Swallowing any amount of abrin can lead to severe symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to even a small amount of abrin may be fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Someone who swallows a significant amount of abrin would develop vomiting and diarrhea that may become bloody. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a water-soluble lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of structure, abrin-a is related to the lectin, ricin, produced in the seeds of Ricinus communis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is a lectin Proteopedia 1abr and can be made in the form of a powder, a mist, a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The overall protein folding of agglutinin-I is similar to that of abrin-a with a single disulfide bond holding the toxic A subunit and the lectin-like B-subunit together, constituting a heterodimer. (qxmd.com)
  • The selected sdAb were evaluated for their ability to bind to commercial abrin as well as abrax (a recombinant abrin A-chain), purified abrin fractions, Abrus agglutinin (a protein related to abrin but with lower toxicity), ricin, and unrelated proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The best binders were specific for the Abrus agglutinin, showing minimal binding to purified abrin fractions or unrelated proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Through gel analysis and the behavior of anti-abrin monoclonal antibodies, we determined that the commercial toxoid preparation used for the original immunizations contained a high percentage of Abrus agglutinin, explaining the selection of Abrus agglutinin binders. (mdpi.com)
  • Used in conjunction with anti-abrin monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, these reagents can fill a role to discriminate between the highly toxic abrin and the related, but much less toxic, Abrus agglutinin and distinguish between different crude preparations. (mdpi.com)
  • Abrin and agglutinin-I from the seeds of Abrus precatorius are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. (qxmd.com)
  • We compared the kinetics of protein synthesis inhibition by abrin and agglutinin-I in two different cell lines and found that approximately 200-2000-fold higher concentration of agglutinin-I is needed for the same degree of inhibition. (qxmd.com)
  • Like abrin, agglutinin-I also induced apoptosis in the cells by triggering the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, although at higher concentrations as compared with abrin. (qxmd.com)
  • The reason for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I became apparent on the analysis of the crystal structure of agglutinin-I obtained by us in comparison with that of the reported structure of abrin. (qxmd.com)
  • The substitution of Asn-200 in abrin-a with Pro-199 in agglutinin-I seems to be a major cause for the decreased toxicity of agglutinin-I. This perhaps is not a consequence of any kink formation by a proline residue in the helical segment, as reported by others earlier, but due to fewer interactions that proline can possibly have with the bound substrate. (qxmd.com)
  • A biophysical elucidation for less toxicity of agglutinin than abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius in consequence of crystal structure. (qxmd.com)
  • A chimeric protein of abrin and Abrus precatorius agglutinin that neutralizes abrin mediated lethality in mice. (qxmd.com)
  • This new agglutinin was called abrin. (dadamo.com)
  • Abrin, which consists of abrus agglutinin, and toxic lectins abrins [a] to [d] are the five toxic glycoproteins found in the seeds (Budavari, 1989). (intox.org)
  • Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A. Kinetics of binding of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin to surface receptors of human cells. (springer.com)
  • Olsnes S. Abrin and ricin: structure and mechanism of action of two toxic lectins. (springer.com)
  • Olsnes S, Refsnes K, Pihl A. Mechanism of action of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. (springer.com)
  • Rates of different steps involved in the inhibition of protein synthesis by the toxic lectins abrin and ricin. (qxmd.com)
  • Cytotoxic lectins include ricin, abrin, modeccin, volkensin (least toxic, 10 and 40 times less cytotoxic than ricin and modeccin respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, even a small dose of abrin is lethal to humans, and can cause death within 36 to 72 hours. (bigthink.com)
  • Within a few hours of breathing in significant amounts of abrin, the likely signs and symptoms would be difficulty breathing (respiratory distress), fever, cough, nausea, and tightness in the chest. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a highly toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea (or jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical regions that is occasionally employed as an herbal remedy for certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is a natural poison that is found in the seeds of a plant called the rosary pea or jequirity pea. (cdc.gov)
  • The rosary pea, which is the source of abrin, is common to many tropical areas throughout the world and is sometimes used as an herbal remedy. (cdc.gov)
  • The seeds of the rosary pea have been used to make beaded jewelry, which can lead to abrin poisoning if the seeds are swallowed. (cdc.gov)
  • It would take a deliberate act to obtain abrin from rosary pea seeds and use it to poison people. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is only formed in nature by the rosary pea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, the rosary pea yields small quantities of abrin, which reduces the risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hutchkinson continues with the advice to scarify the rosary peas so that the abrin might leak out and poison anyone who handles them. (dickdestiny.com)
  • The rosary pea contains a poison called abrin, which is nearly twice as toxic as ricin. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • One of the most deadly plant toxins, abrin, is produced by rosary pea. (ufl.edu)
  • The toxicity of abrin is also increased if it is inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to high toxicity of abrin, its exposure or consumption can lead to serious public health problems. (drdo.gov.in)
  • Following ingestion of abrin, initial symptoms usually occur rapidly, but can take up to 5 days to appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following ingestion of abrin, initial symptoms may occur in less than 6 hours but usually are delayed for 1 to 3 days. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Abrin causes illness by getting inside the cells of a person's body and preventing the cells from making the proteins they need. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolation of antitumor proteins abrin-A and abrin-B from Abrus precatorius. (qxmd.com)
  • Abrin (ABR), a proteins purified through the seed products of using Sepharose 6B affinity column chromatography and purified as described within a previous research [30]. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • Seeds contain abrin, one of the most toxic plant poisons known. (toptropicals.com)
  • Kuntal Patel,36, is alledged to have plotted to kill Meena Patel,54, using abrin-a rare poison extracted from the seeds of a Peruvian plant. (dickdestiny.com)
  • Since abrin is a protein, it can't be much of a contact poison, any more than you can eat a piece of meat by putting it on your skin, but Hutchkinson, of course, does not know this. (dickdestiny.com)
  • The poison contained within the seed is abrin - a close relative of ricin and one of the most fatal toxins on Earth. (treehugger.com)
  • The seed contains the toxic poison abrin . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Abrin is a natural poison found in the seeds of a plant and is similar to ricin. (gainesville.com)
  • The pea seeds contain the poison abrin. (list.ly)
  • About 2.5 milligrams of abrin is enough to kill a human, and each pea possesses more poison than the above mentioned amount. (list.ly)
  • Similar to ricin, death by abrin usually comes from a severe allergic reaction that causes difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. (bigthink.com)
  • According to other estimates, the LD50 value of abrin is between 10 and 1000 μg/kg and is comparable to that of ricin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental studies have shown that vaccination with abrin toxoid may offer some protection against a subsequent abrin challenge, although such an approach is unlikely to be of benefit in a civilian population that in all probability would be unprotected. (springer.com)
  • Llama derived single domain antibodies (sdAb), the recombinantly expressed variable heavy domains from the unique heavy-chain only antibodies of camelids, were isolated from a library derived from llamas immunized with a commercial abrin toxoid preparation. (mdpi.com)
  • abstract = "A new crystal form of abrin-a from the seeds of Abrus precatorius has been obtained by vapor diffusion method. (nebraska.edu)
  • Aiming to identify the immunodominant epitopes of abrin, several neutralizing antiabrin polyclonal antibodies were screened using a set of 15-mer peptides spanning the amino acid sequence of either the A or B subunits of abrin. (jpt.com)
  • Abrin works by penetrating the cells of the body and inhibiting cell protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • By attaching to a carbohydrate chain on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, is subsequently engulfed and enters the inner parts of the cell where it reacts with a ribosomal subunit and interferes with the normal protein synthesis process of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, abrin inhibits protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. (springer.com)
  • Abrin works by binding to and penetrating the cells of the body, inhibiting cell protein synthesis after being transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-mitochondrial supernatants from each of the four mutants were resistant to inhibition of cell-free protein synthesis by ricin, ricin A chain, and abrin. (elsevier.com)
  • Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal dose of 0.1-1 µg/kg, and has caused death after accidental and intentional poisoning. (springer.com)
  • The major symptoms of abrin poisoning depend on the route of exposure and the dose received, though many organs may be affected in severe cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a few hours of inhaling abrin, common symptoms include fever, cough, airway irritation, chest tightness, pulmonary edema (excess fluid accumulated in the lungs), and nausea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major signs and symptoms of abrin poisoning depend on how someone was exposed (route of exposure) how much they were exposed to (dose). (cdc.gov)
  • Initial signs and symptoms of abrin poisoning by breathing in or swallowing are likely to occur within 8 hours of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to abrin. (cdc.gov)
  • In clinical studies involving cancer patients, up to 0.3 μg/kg intravenous of abrin immunotoxin was tolerated without the development of serious symptoms of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial symptoms of abrin poisoning by inhalation may occur within 8 hours of exposure. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Care could include helping victims breathe, giving them intravenous fluids (fluids given through a needle inserted into a vein), giving them medications to treat conditions such as seizure and low blood pressure, administering activated charcoal (if the abrin was very recently swallowed), or washing out their eyes with water if their eyes are irritated. (cdc.gov)
  • Care could include such measures as helping victims breathe, giving them intravenous fluids, giving them medications to treat conditions such as seizure and low blood pressure, flushing their stomachs with activated charcoal (if the abrin has been very recently ingested), or washing out their eyes with water if their eyes are irritated. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Abrin is an extremely toxic plant protein derived from the seeds of the plant Abrus precatorius . (cdc.gov)
  • The brightly coloured seeds of this plant contain about 0.08% of abrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remaining plant-specific nucleic acids in these extracts allow the application of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and identification of abrin or ricin genomic material. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant-derived abrin-a induces apoptosis in cultured leukemic cell lines by different mechanisms. (qxmd.com)
  • A characterization of abrin A from the seeds of the Abrus precatorius plant. (qxmd.com)
  • Ribosome-inactivating protein and apoptosis: abrin causes cell death via mitochondrial pathway in Jurkat cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Open up in another window Physique 3 Downregulation of prohibitin (PHB) delays abrin (ABR)-brought on cell apoptosis. (rectalcancersite.com)
  • It has been reported that Abrus abrin, isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius , showed in vitro and in vivo antitumor properties by the induction of apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The severity of the effects of abrin poisoning vary on the means of exposure to the substance (whether inhaled, ingested, or injected). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the features observed in abrin poisoning can be explained by abrin-induced endothelial cell damage, which causes an increase in capillary permeability with consequent fluid and protein leakage and tissue oedema (the so-called vascular leak syndrome). (springer.com)
  • Abrin poisoning is not contagious. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of abrin poisoning depend on whether abrin was breathed in, swallowed, or injected. (cdc.gov)
  • Death from abrin poisoning could take place within 36 to 72 hours of exposure, depending on the route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or injection) and the dose received. (cdc.gov)
  • In the hospital, abrin poisoning is treated by giving victims supportive medical care to minimize the effects of the poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, there is no effective postexposure treatment for abrin poisoning, and efforts are being made to develop an efficient vaccine and measures for postexposure therapy. (jpt.com)
  • Detection of abrin holotoxin using novel monoclonal antibodies. (usda.gov)
  • Abrin in the powder or mist form can cause redness and pain in the eyes (i.e. conjunctivitis) in small doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin can be made in the form of a powder, a mist, or a pellet, or it can be dissolved in water. (cdc.gov)
  • You could breathe in (inhale) abrin if it is in the form of a mist or a powder. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin and eye exposure: Abrin in the powder or mist form can cause redness and pain of the skin and the eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • The abrin powder alone was powerful enough to kill hundreds of people but it would have required more extensive work to purify the substance. (ticklethewire.com)
  • Exposure to abrin on the skin can cause an allergic reaction, indicated by blisters, redness, irritation, and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an exposure to abrin by inhalation is not fatal, the airway can become sensitized or irritated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accidental exposure to abrin is not likely. (cdc.gov)
  • Because no antidote exists for abrin, the most important factor is avoiding abrin exposure in the first place. (cdc.gov)
  • If exposure cannot be avoided, the most important factor is getting the abrin off or out of the body as quickly as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to abrin on the skin can cause an allergic reaction, indicated by blisters, redness, irritation, and pain, however, there is no evidence of toxicity after skin contact has been made. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecule of abrin-a has a total of 528 amino acids and is about 65 kDa in mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • By attaching its non-specifically binding B chain, which acts as a haptomer, to the carbohydrate chain of a glycoprotein on the cell surface, the abrin molecule anchors itself to the cell, and is subsequently engulfed, however, both specific and nonspecific binding result in the uptake of abrin via endocytosis, as well as the activation of the A chain, caused by the cleavage of the B chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • One molecule of abrin will inactivate up to 1,500 ribosomes per second. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In its mode of action, abrin resembles ricin, furthermore, like ricin, abrin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP-II), however, its effect is more potent compared to ricin. (wikipedia.org)
  • the fatal dose of ricin is approximately 75 times greater than the fatal dose of abrin. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Abrin, which does its damage by inactivating ribosomes, is one of the most fatal toxins on earth. (curiousread.com)
  • For abrin 10 copies DNA per reaction could be detected in 5 of 5 qPCR runs, 1 copy DNA per reaction could be detected in 4 of 5 qPCR runs and 0.5 copies DNA per reaction could be detected in 3 of 5 qPCR runs. (nih.gov)
  • Abrin and ricin cause 50% agglutination of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (5*10 6 /ml) at a concentration of 8 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Abrin-a is formed after the cleavage of a signal peptide sequence and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation and disulfide bridge formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin is not known to have been weaponised, however, due to its high toxicity and the possibility of being processed into an aerosol, the use of abrin as a biological weapon is possible in principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 77: 1247-1253, 1986) that the sensitivities of different melanoma cell lines to a conjugate of abrin with the anti-melanoma antibody 9.2.27 was correlated with their sensitivities to native abrin. (curehunter.com)
  • Abrin can be absorbed into the body through ingestion, inhalation, or eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Pellets of abrin, or abrin dissolved in a liquid, could be injected into a person's body. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin-a is the most potent of the four isotoxins, encoded for by an intron-free gene, and consists of two subunits or chains, A and B. The primary product of protein biosynthesis, preproabrin, consists of a signal peptide sequence, the amino acid sequences for subunits A and B, and a linker. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, both toxins are potent and available toxins for criminal or terrorist acts.However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more likely that crude extracts would be used by non-governmental perpetrators.Novel primers and hybridization probes were designed for detection on a SmartCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology. (nih.gov)
  • Abrin (and ricin) may cause severe allergic reactions. (cdc.gov)
  • Abrin is a toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity bean), which is similar in structure and properties to ricin. (springer.com)
  • Abrin can be extracted from jequirity beans using a relatively simple and cheap procedure. (springer.com)
  • This satisfies one criterion of a potential chemical warfare agent, although the lack of large scale production of jequirity seeds means that quantity is unavailable for ready mass production of abrin for weapons. (springer.com)
  • Recognition intensities of submolecular structures, mammalian glyco-structural units, ligand cluster and polyvalency in abrin-a-carbohydrate interactions. (qxmd.com)
  • Abrin has been shown to act as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of cancer in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings provide useful information and suggest a possible strategy for the development and design of an improved abrin-based vaccine and therapeutic antibodies. (jpt.com)